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Sample records for perceptions shape implementation

  1. Haptic perception disambiguates visual perception of 3D shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Volcic, Robert; Pont, Sylvia C.; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    We studied the influence of haptics on visual perception of three-dimensional shape. Observers were shown pictures of an oblate spheroid in two different orientations. A gauge-figure task was used to measure their perception of the global shape. In the first two sessions only vision was used. The

  2. Human perception of shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, Astrid M L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope

  3. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-06

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seeing the tipping point: Balance perception and visual shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Chaz; Keil, Frank C

    2016-07-01

    In a brief glance at an object or shape, we can appreciate a rich suite of its functional properties, including the organization of the object's parts, its optimal contact points for grasping, and its center of mass, or balancing point. However, in the real world and the laboratory, balance perception shows systematic biases whereby observers may misjudge a shape's center of mass by a severe margin. Are such biases simply quirks of physical reasoning? Or might they instead reflect more fundamental principles of object representation? Here we demonstrate systematically biased center-of-mass estimation for two-dimensional (2D) shapes (Study 1) and advance a surprising explanation of such biases. We suggest that the mind implicitly represents ordinary 2D shapes as rich, volumetric, three-dimensional (3D) objects, and that these "inflated" shape representations intrude on and bias perception of the 2D shape's geometric properties. Such "inflation" is a computer-graphics technique for segmenting shapes into parts, and we show that a model derived from this technique best accounts for the biases in center-of-mass estimation in Study 1. Further supporting this account, we show that reducing the need for inflated shape representations diminishes such biases: Center-of-mass estimation improved when cues to shapehood were attenuated (Study 2) and when shapes' depths were explicitly depicted using real-life objects laser-cut from wood (Study 3). We suggest that the technique of shape inflation is actually implemented in the mind; thus, biases in our impressions of balance reflect a more general functional characteristic of object perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  6. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.; Knapen, T.; Scholte, H.S.; St. John-Saaltink, E.; Donner, T.H.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual

  7. Inhibitory Competition between Shape Properties in Figure-Ground Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A.; Skow, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Theories of figure-ground perception entail inhibitory competition between either low-level units (edge or feature units) or high-level shape properties. Extant computational models instantiate the 1st type of theory. The authors investigated a prediction of the 2nd type of theory: that shape properties suggested on the ground side of an edge are…

  8. Three-dimensional shape perception from chromatic orientation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Qasim; Li, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The role of chromatic information in 3-D shape perception is controversial. We resolve this controversy by showing that chromatic orientation flows are sufficient for accurate perception of 3-D shape. Chromatic flows required less cone contrast to convey shape than did achromatic flows, thus ruling out luminance artifacts as a problem. Luminance artifacts were also ruled out by a protanope’s inability to see 3-D shape from chromatic flows. Since chromatic orientation flows can only be extracted from retinal images by neurons that are responsive to color modulations and selective for orientation, the psychophysical results also resolve the controversy over the existence of such neurons. In addition, we show that identification of 3-D shapes from chromatic flows can be masked by luminance modulations, indicating that it is subserved by orientation-tuned neurons sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulations. PMID:16961963

  9. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes. PMID:23404158

  10. Analyzing Trust Perceptions in System Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    ' perceptions of trust relations influence future actions, and in this way have both negative and positive consequences. We also conclude that Giddens' theories of trust provide a promising insight into the dynamic aspects of trust relations in implementation projects, which go further than trust theories...... a framework based on Giddens´ theory of modernity. The framework theorizes dynamic elements of the evolution of trust, not previously investigated in this context. The data collection involves 4 actors interviewed twice in 2006 and 2007; and the data analysis strategy is content analysis using Nvivo software...

  11. Genetic Fuzzy Modelling of User Perception of 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Defining the aesthetic and emotional value of a product is an important consideration for its design. Furthermore, if several designers are faced with the task of creating an object that describe a certain emotion/perception (aggressive, soft, heavy, etc.), each is most likely to interpret...... the emotion/perception with different shapes composed of a set of different geometric features. In this paper, the authors propose an automatic approach to formalize the relationships between geometric information of 3D objects and the intended emotional content using fuzzy logic. In addition...

  12. Shape perception in human and computer vision an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci

  13. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Kim, Sung Soo; Thakur, Pramodsingh H; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception of the shape of objects critically guides our ability to interact with them. In this review, we describe how shape information is processed as it ascends the somatosensory neuraxis of primates. At the somatosensory periphery, spatial form is represented in the spatial patterns of activation evoked across populations of mechanoreceptive afferents. In the cerebral cortex, neurons respond selectively to particular spatial features, like orientation and curvature. While feature selectivity of neurons in the earlier processing stages can be understood in terms of linear receptive field models, higher order somatosensory neurons exhibit nonlinear response properties that result in tuning for more complex geometrical features. In fact, tactile shape processing bears remarkable analogies to its visual counterpart and the two may rely on shared neural circuitry. Furthermore, one of the unique aspects of primate somatosensation is that it contains a deformable sensory sheet. Because the relative positions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors depend on the conformation of the hand, the haptic perception of three-dimensional objects requires the integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive signals, an integration that is observed throughout somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  15. Northeast Tennessee Educators' Perception of STEM Education Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kristin Beard

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative nonexperimental survey study was developed to investigate Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators' perceptions of STEM education. This study was an examination of current perceptions of STEM education. Perceived need, current implementation practices, access to STEM resources, definition of STEM, and the current condition of STEM in…

  16. On the role of perception in shaping phonological assimilation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, S L; Lindblom, B; Diehl, R L

    1992-01-01

    Assimilation of nasals to the place of articulation of following consonants is a common and natural process among the world's languages. Recent phonological theory attributes this naturalness to the postulated geometry of articulatory features and the notion of spreading (McCarthy, 1988). Others view assimilation as a result of perception (Ohala, 1990), or as perceptually tolerated articulatory simplification (Kohler, 1990). Kohler notes that certain consonant classes (such as nasals and stops) are more likely than other classes (such as fricatives) to undergo place assimilation to a following consonant. To explain this pattern, he proposes that assimilation tends not to occur when the members of a consonant class are relatively distinctive perceptually, such that their articulatory reduction would be particularly salient. This explanation, of course, presupposes that the stops and nasals which undergo place assimilation are less distinctive than fricatives, which tend not to assimilate. We report experimental results that confirm Kohler's perceptual assumption: In the context of a following word initial stop, fricatives were less confusable than nasals or unreleased stops. We conclude, in agreement with Ohala and Kohler, that perceptual factors are likely to shape phonological assimilation rules.

  17. Brand visualization: Effects of "product shape- typeface design" congruence on brand perceptions and price expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This research addresses effects of congruence of symbolic meanings connoted through product shape and typeface design on brand perceptions and price expectations. Based on processing fluency accounts, it is predicted that shape-typeface congruence, as opposed to shape-typeface incongruence,

  18. Salient features in 3-D haptic shape perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Myrthe A; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-01-01

    Shape is an important cue for recognizing an object by touch. Several features, such as edges, curvature, surface area, and aspect ratio, are associated with 3-D shape. To investigate the saliency of 3-D shape features, we developed a haptic search task. The target and distractor items consisted of

  19. Perceptions of nurse educators regarding the implementation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD) in a selected nursing college in Limpopo province. A qualitative approach was used with a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who ...

  20. Shape perception simultaneously up- and downregulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2014-07-07

    An essential part of visual perception is the grouping of local elements (such as edges and lines) into coherent shapes. Previous studies have shown that this grouping process modulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) that is signaling the local elements [1-4]. However, the nature of this modulation is controversial. Some studies find that shape perception reduces neural activity in V1 [2, 5, 6], while others report increased V1 activity during shape perception [1, 3, 4, 7-10]. Neurocomputational theories that cast perception as a generative process [11-13] propose that feedback connections carry predictions (i.e., the generative model), while feedforward connections signal the mismatch between top-down predictions and bottom-up inputs. Within this framework, the effect of feedback on early visual cortex may be either enhancing or suppressive, depending on whether the feedback signal is met by congruent bottom-up input. Here, we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the spatial profile of neural activity in V1 during the perception of illusory shapes using population receptive field mapping. We find that shape perception concurrently increases neural activity in regions of V1 that have a receptive field on the shape but do not receive bottom-up input and suppresses activity in regions of V1 that receive bottom-up input that is predicted by the shape. These effects were not modulated by task requirements. Together, these findings suggest that shape perception changes lower-order sensory representations in a highly specific and automatic manner, in line with theories that cast perception in terms of hierarchical generative models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neck proprioception shapes body orientation and perception of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Enrico Pettorossi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article deals with some effects of neck muscle proprioception on human balance, gait trajectory, subjective straight-ahead, and self-motion perception. These effects are easily observed during neck muscle vibration, a strong stimulus for the spindle primary afferent fibers.We first remind the early findings on human balance, gait trajectory, subjective straight-ahead, induced by limb and neck muscle vibration. Then, more recent findings on self-motion perception of vestibular origin are described. The use of a vestibular asymmetric yaw-rotation stimulus for emphasizing the proprioceptive modulation of motion perception from the neck is mentioned. In addition, an attempt has been made to conjointly discuss the effects of unilateral neck proprioception on motion perception, subjective straight-ahead and walking trajectory.Neck vibration also induces persistent aftereffects on the subjective straight-ahead and on self-motion perception of vestibular origin. These perceptive effects depend on intensity, duration, side of the conditioning vibratory stimulation, and on muscle status. These effects can be maintained for hours when prolonged high-frequency vibration is superimposed on muscle contraction. Overall, this brief outline emphasizes the contribution of neck muscle inflow to the construction and fine-tuning of perception of body orientation and motion. Furthermore, it indicates that tonic neck proprioceptive input may induce persistent influences on the subject's mental representation of space. These plastic changes might adapt motion sensitiveness to lasting or permanent head positional or motor changes.

  2. Neck proprioception shapes body orientation and perception of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This review article deals with some effects of neck muscle proprioception on human balance, gait trajectory, subjective straight-ahead (SSA), and self-motion perception. These effects are easily observed during neck muscle vibration, a strong stimulus for the spindle primary afferent fibers. We first remind the early findings on human balance, gait trajectory, SSA, induced by limb, and neck muscle vibration. Then, more recent findings on self-motion perception of vestibular origin are described. The use of a vestibular asymmetric yaw-rotation stimulus for emphasizing the proprioceptive modulation of motion perception from the neck is mentioned. In addition, an attempt has been made to conjointly discuss the effects of unilateral neck proprioception on motion perception, SSA, and walking trajectory. Neck vibration also induces persistent aftereffects on the SSA and on self-motion perception of vestibular origin. These perceptive effects depend on intensity, duration, side of the conditioning vibratory stimulation, and on muscle status. These effects can be maintained for hours when prolonged high-frequency vibration is superimposed on muscle contraction. Overall, this brief outline emphasizes the contribution of neck muscle inflow to the construction and fine-tuning of perception of body orientation and motion. Furthermore, it indicates that tonic neck-proprioceptive input may induce persistent influences on the subject's mental representation of space. These plastic changes might adapt motion sensitiveness to lasting or permanent head positional or motor changes.

  3. Early perception and structural identity: neural implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    It is suggested that there exists a minimal set of rules for the perceptual composition of the unending variety of spatio-temporal patterns in our perceptual world. Driven by perceptual discernment of "sudden change" and "unexpectedness", these rules specify conditions (such as co-linearity and virtual continuation) for perceptual grouping and for recursive compositions of perceptual "modalities" and "signatures". Beginning with a smallset of primitive perceptual elements, selected contextually at some relevant level of abstraction, perceptual compositions can graduate to an unlimited variety of spatiotemporal signatures, scenes and activities. Local discernible elements, often perceptually ambiguous by themselves, may be integrated into spatiotemporal compositions, which generate unambiguous perceptual separations between "figure" and "ground". The definition of computational algorithms for the effective instantiation of the rules of perceptual grouping remains a principal problem. In this paper we present our approach for solving the problem of perceptual recognition within the confines of one-D variational profiles. More specifically, concerning "early" (pre-attentive) recognition, we define the "structural identity of a k-norm, k ∈ K,"--SkID--as a tool for discerning and locating the instantiation of spatiotemporal objects or events. The SkID profile also serves a s a reference coordinate framework for the "perceptual focusing of attention" and the eventual assessment of resemblance. Neural network implementations of pre-attentive and attentive recognition are also discussed briefly. Our principles are exemplified by application to one-D perceptual profiles, which allows simplicity of definitions and of the rules of perceptual composition.

  4. The Bicycle Illusion: Sidewalk Science Informs the Integration of Motion and Shape Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Dodd, Michael D.; Enns, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a new visual illusion first discovered in a natural setting. A cyclist riding beside a pair of sagging chains that connect fence posts appears to move up and down with the chains. In this illusion, a static shape (the chains) affects the perception of a moving shape (the bicycle), and this influence involves assimilation…

  5. Social perception of others shapes one's own multisensory peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellencin, Elisa; Paladino, Maria Paola; Herbelin, Bruno; Serino, Andrea

    2017-09-06

    The perception of our self is not restricted to our physical boundaries, but it extends beyond the body to incorporate the space where individual-environment interactions occur, i.e., the peripersonal space (PPS). PPS is generally conceived as a low-level multisensory-motor interface mediating hand-object interactions. Recent studies, however, showed that PPS representation is affected by higher-level cognitive factors. Here we asked whether the multisensory representation of PPS is influenced by high-level mechanisms implied in social interactions, such as the social perception of others. To this aim, in Experiment 1, we developed and validated a new multisensory interaction task in mixed reality (i.e., the Social PPS task). This task allows measuring the boundaries of PPS between one self and another person in a fully controlled, yet highly ecological, set-up. In the Experiment 2, we used this task to measure how participants' PPS varied when facing another person. The social perception of this person was manipulated via a classic social psychology procedure, so that, in two conditions, she was perceived either as a moral or an immoral character. We found that PPS representation is sensitive to the social perception of the other, being more extended when participants were facing a moral than when facing an immoral person. This effect was specific for social context, as no change in PPS was found if participants were facing an object, instead of the person. Interestingly, the social manipulation affected also attitude, identification, willingness to interact with the other, so as interpersonal distance. Together these findings show that social perception of others affects both the psychological representation of the others in relation to oneself and the multisensory representations of the space between oneself and the other, offering new insights about the role of social cognition in body representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual perception of complex shape-transforming processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Filipp; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-11-01

    Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations. Participants' responses were strikingly accurate and mutually consistent for a wide range of non-rigid transformations including complex growth-like processes. A zero-free-parameter model based on matching and interpolating/extrapolating the positions of high-salience contour features predicts the data surprisingly well, suggesting observers infer spatial correspondences relative to key landmarks. Together, our findings reveal the operation of specific perceptual organization processes that make us remarkably adept at identifying correspondences across complex shape-transforming processes by using salient object features. We suggest that these abilities, which allow us to parse and interpret the causally significant features of shapes, are invaluable for many tasks that involve 'making sense' of shape. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Terrain Perception in a Shape Shifting Rolling-Crawling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchida Masataka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrain perception greatly enhances the performance of robots, providing them with essential information on the nature of terrain being traversed. Several living beings in nature offer interesting inspirations which adopt different gait patterns according to nature of terrain. In this paper, we present a novel terrain perception system for our bioinspired robot, Scorpio, to classify the terrain based on visual features and autonomously choose appropriate locomotion mode. Our Scorpio robot is capable of crawling and rolling locomotion modes, mimicking Cebrenus Rechenburgi, a member of the huntsman spider family. Our terrain perception system uses Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF description method along with color information. Feature extraction is followed by Bag of Word method (BoW and Support Vector Machine (SVM for terrain classification. Experiments were conducted with our Scorpio robot to establish the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach. In our experiments, we achieved a recognition accuracy of over 90% across four terrain types namely grass, gravel, wooden deck, and concrete.

  8. A new look at emotion perception: Concepts speed and shape facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Lindquist, Kristen A; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-10-01

    Decades ago, the "New Look" movement challenged how scientists thought about vision by suggesting that conceptual processes shape visual perceptions. Currently, affective scientists are likewise debating the role of concepts in emotion perception. Here, we utilized a repetition-priming paradigm in conjunction with signal detection and individual difference analyses to examine how providing emotion labels-which correspond to discrete emotion concepts-affects emotion recognition. In Study 1, pairing emotional faces with emotion labels (e.g., "sad") increased individuals' speed and sensitivity in recognizing emotions. Additionally, individuals with alexithymia-who have difficulty labeling their own emotions-struggled to recognize emotions based on visual cues alone, but not when emotion labels were provided. Study 2 replicated these findings and further demonstrated that emotion concepts can shape perceptions of facial expressions. Together, these results suggest that emotion perception involves conceptual processing. We discuss the implications of these findings for affective, social, and clinical psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. ShapeTex : Implementing shape-changing structures in fabric for wearable actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Jiachun; Markopoulos, Panos; Wang, Qi; Toeters, Marina; Gong, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Research in smart textiles and garments has mostly focused on integrating sensing technology. In order to make garments that are truly interactive it is also essential to develop technologies for actuating smart garments and textiles. This paper introduces ShapeTex, a thermal shape changing fabric

  10. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  11. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  12. Highlight shapes and perception of gloss for real and photographed objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Assen, Jan Jaap R; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Pont, Sylvia C

    2016-01-01

    Gloss perception strongly depends on the three-dimensional shape and the illumination of the object under consideration. In this study we investigated the influence of the spatial structure of the illumination on gloss perception. A diffuse light box in combination with differently shaped masks was used to produce a set of six simple and complex highlight shapes. The geometry of the simple highlight shapes was inspired by conventional artistic practice (e.g., ring flash for photography, window shape for painting and disk or square for cartoons). In the box we placed spherical stimuli that were painted in six degrees of glossiness. This resulted in a stimulus set of six highlight shapes and six gloss levels, a total of 36 stimuli. We performed three experiments of which two took place using digital photographs on a computer monitor and one with the real spheres in the light box. The observers had to perform a comparison task in which they chose which of two stimuli was glossiest and a rating task in which they rated the glossiness. The results show that, perhaps surprisingly, more complex highlight shapes were perceived to produce a less glossy appearance than simple highlight shapes such as a disk or square. These findings were confirmed for both viewing conditions, on a computer display and in a real setting. The results show that variations in the spatial structure of "rather simple" illumination of the "extended source" type highlight influences perceived glossiness.

  13. Implement of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators in a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was conceived to present the ideology of utilizing advanced actuators to design and develop innovative, lightweight, powerful, compact, and as much as possible dexterous robotic hands. The key to satisfying these objectives is the use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs to power the joints of the robotic hand. The mechanical design of a dexterous robotic hand, which utilizes non-classical types of actuation and information obtained from the study of biological systems, is presented in this paper. The type of robotic hand described in this paper will be utilized for applications requiring low weight, power, compactness, and dexterity.

  14. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  15. How the intentions of the draftsman shape perception of a drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignocchi, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    The interaction between the recovery of the artist's intentions and the perception of an artwork is a classic topic for philosophy and history of art. It also frequently, albeit sometimes implicitly, comes up in everyday thought and conversation about art and artworks. Since recent work in cognitive science can help us understand how we perceive and understand the intentions of others, this discipline could fruitfully participate in a multidisciplinary investigation of the role of intention recovery in art perception. The method I propose is to look for cases where recovery of the artist's intentions interacts with perception of a work of art, and this cannot be explain by a simple top-down influence of conscious propositional knowledge on perception. I will focus on drawing and show that recovery of the draftsman's intentional actions is handled by a psychological process shaped by the motor system of the observer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D Shape Perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Visual Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebert, Céline R; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Bastin, Christine; Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Laere, Koen; Versijpt, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Salmon, Eric; Todd, James T; Orban, Guy A; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2015-09-16

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare focal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, most often due to atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied insights from basic visual neuroscience to analyze 3D shape perception in humans affected by PCA. Thirteen PCA patients and 30 matched healthy controls participated, together with two patient control groups with diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD) and an amnestic-dominant phenotype of AD, respectively. The hierarchical study design consisted of 3D shape processing for 4 cues (shading, motion, texture, and binocular disparity) with corresponding 2D and elementary feature extraction control conditions. PCA and DLBD exhibited severe 3D shape-processing deficits and AD to a lesser degree. In PCA, deficient 3D shape-from-shading was associated with volume loss in the right posterior inferior temporal cortex. This region coincided with a region of functional activation during 3D shape-from-shading in healthy controls. In PCA patients who performed the same fMRI paradigm, response amplitude during 3D shape-from-shading was reduced in this region. Gray matter volume in this region also correlated with 3D shape-from-shading in AD. 3D shape-from-disparity in PCA was associated with volume loss slightly more anteriorly in posterior inferior temporal cortex as well as in ventral premotor cortex. The findings in right posterior inferior temporal cortex and right premotor cortex are consistent with neurophysiologically based models of the functional anatomy of 3D shape processing. However, in DLBD, 3D shape deficits rely on mechanisms distinct from inferior temporal structural integrity. Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual dysfunction and most often an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affecting the ventral and dorsal visual streams rather than the medial temporal system. We applied

  17. 3D Shape Perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Visual Neuroscience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebert, Céline R.; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Bastin, Christine; Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Laere, Koen; Versijpt, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Salmon, Eric; Todd, James T.; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare focal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, most often due to atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied insights from basic visual neuroscience to analyze 3D shape perception in humans affected by PCA. Thirteen PCA patients and 30 matched healthy controls participated, together with two patient control groups with diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD) and an amnestic-dominant phenotype of AD, respectively. The hierarchical study design consisted of 3D shape processing for 4 cues (shading, motion, texture, and binocular disparity) with corresponding 2D and elementary feature extraction control conditions. PCA and DLBD exhibited severe 3D shape-processing deficits and AD to a lesser degree. In PCA, deficient 3D shape-from-shading was associated with volume loss in the right posterior inferior temporal cortex. This region coincided with a region of functional activation during 3D shape-from-shading in healthy controls. In PCA patients who performed the same fMRI paradigm, response amplitude during 3D shape-from-shading was reduced in this region. Gray matter volume in this region also correlated with 3D shape-from-shading in AD. 3D shape-from-disparity in PCA was associated with volume loss slightly more anteriorly in posterior inferior temporal cortex as well as in ventral premotor cortex. The findings in right posterior inferior temporal cortex and right premotor cortex are consistent with neurophysiologically based models of the functional anatomy of 3D shape processing. However, in DLBD, 3D shape deficits rely on mechanisms distinct from inferior temporal structural integrity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual dysfunction and most often an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affecting the ventral and dorsal visual streams rather than the medial

  18. How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Frijns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse schemes: an indirect potable reuse scheme at Torreele (Belgium, the urban reuse of treated municipal wastewater at the London Olympic Park (United Kingdom and at Sabadell (Spain, and the reuse of agro-industrial effluent for irrigation at Capitanata (Italy. The findings underscore the importance of clarity in policy arrangements around water reuse, as well as of the financial competitiveness of reuse projects compared to alternative water supply options. Operators of water reuse schemes expressed a preference for water quality standards, which focus on appropriateness for use rather than over-emphasise the waters’ origin so that unnecessary treatment and costs can be avoided. Positive public support was widely acknowledged as an important factor in the success or failure of water reuse schemes. We conclude that constructive institutional relationships underpin many of the challenges faced by reuse scheme operators and that greater emphasis should be given to building confidence and gaining trust in water service providers through early identification of how governance regimes shape the viability of new schemes.

  19. Making Mobile Learning Work: Student Perceptions and Implementation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon W. Tabor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are the constant companions of technology users of all ages. Studies show, however, that making calls is a minimal part of our engagement with today’s smart phones and that even texting has fallen off, leaving web browsing, gaming, and social media as top uses. A cross-disciplinary group of faculty at our university came together in the mLearning Scholars group to study the potential for using mobile devices for student learning. The group met bi-weekly throughout a semester and shared thoughts, ideas, resources, and examples, while experimenting with mobile learning activities in individual classes. This paper summarizes student perceptions and adoption intent for using mobile devices for learning, and discusses implementation issues for faculty in adding mobile learning to a college course. Outcomes reflect that mobile learning adoption is not a given, and students need help in using and understanding the value in using personal devices for learning activities.

  20. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  1. Dieting behaviors, body shape perceptions, and body satisfaction: cross-cultural differences in Argentinean and Swedish 13-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristina; Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann

    2007-06-01

    This exploratory study represents a cross-cultural effort to examine differences in dieting practices and weight loss attempts, perceived body shape, and body satisfaction between young Argentinean and Swedish adolescents. The study group consisted of 358 Argentinean (193 girls, 165 boys) and 874 Swedish (474 girls, 400 boys) 13-year-olds. A main finding was that Argentinean and Swedish adolescents did not differ on body satisfaction, although girls in both countries displayed greater body dissatisfaction than did boys. Dieting and weight loss attempts were more prevalent among the Argentinean adolescents, especially among girls, and did not appear to depend on overweight or perception of body shape. The samples also differed in their perceptions of body shape and the effect those perceptions had on their body satisfaction, with Swedish adolescents suffering more from negative body shape perceptions.

  2. R Implementation of a Polyhedral Approximation to a 3D Set of Points Using the ?-Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lafarge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the implementation in R of the ?-shape of a finite set of points in the three-dimensional space R3. This geometric structure generalizes the convex hull and allows to recover the shape of non-convex and even non-connected sets in 3D, given a ran- dom sample of points taken into it. Besides the computation of the ?-shape, the R package alphashape3d provides users with tools to facilitate the three-dimensional graphical visu- alization of the estimated set as well as the computation of important characteristics such as the connected components or the volume, among others.

  3. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  4. Implementation of intra-cavity beam shaping technique to enhance pump efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author proposes an implementation of a new intra-cavity beam shaping technique to vary the intensity distribution of the fundamental mode in a resonator cavity while maintaining a constant intensity distribution at the output...

  5. Attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R; Chapman, Dustin; Waguspack, Jace; Basso, Michael R; Penn, David L

    2011-04-01

    Deficits in emotion perception are common in people with schizophrenia and current research has focused on improving these deficits. In our previous research, we demonstrated that directing attention to salient facial features via attention shaping can improve these deficits among inpatients. In this study, we examined the efficacy of an enhanced attention shaping program that contains 192 emotional expressions from which 25 are randomly presented for training. We extended our previous work by using repeated administrations of the shaping intervention and testing its effect in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls. Fifteen participants with schizophrenia and fourteen college student controls with emotion perception deficits were randomly assigned to 1, 3 or 5 sessions of attention shaping. Participants completed 2 outcome measures of emotion perception, the FEIT and BLERT, not presented during the training, and underwent eye tracking at pre and post-tests. All conditions and groups improved, but the largest improvements on the BLERT and FEIT were found for persons assigned to the 5 session condition. Performance on the shaping program was positively correlated with the two outcome measures of emotion perception. There was less support for changes in visual scanning of faces as there was a relative reduction in total scanning time from pre-test to post-test. Results are interpreted in terms of the efficacy of attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppressive and enhancing effects in early visual cortex during illusory shape perception: A comment on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Kok and de Lange (2014) observed that BOLD activity for a Kanizsa illusory shape stimulus, in which pacmen-like inducers elicit an illusory shape percept, was either enhanced or suppressed relative to a nonillusory control configuration depending on whether the spatial profile of BOLD activity in early visual cortex was related to the illusory shape or the inducers, respectively. The authors argued that these findings fit well with the predictive coding framework, because top-down predictions related to the illusory shape are not met with bottom-up sensory input and hence the feedforward error signal is enhanced. Conversely, for the inducing elements, there is a match between top-down predictions and input, leading to a decrease in error. Rather than invoking predictive coding as the explanatory framework, the suppressive effect related to the inducers might be caused by neural adaptation to perceptually stable input due to the trial sequence used in the experiment.

  7. Fat, friendless and unhealthy: 9-year old children's perception of body shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Silver, E K

    1995-06-01

    Society has a very negative view of overweight, leading to prejudice and discrimination. In an examination of the scope of these views, 9-year old children's attributions of the social functioning and health of thin and overweight body shapes were investigated. One hundred and eighty eight girls and boys completed a series of ratings of four silhouette figures depicting a thin and heavy boy and girl. The children's own body shape preference, dietary restraint, height and weight were also measured. The ratings of the four silhouette variations were dominated by the size of the figure being judged. The overweight body shape was associated with poor social functioning, impaired academic success, and low perceived health, healthy eating and fitness. Gender and the raters own body weight had only limited impact on these stereotypical judgements. Children's judgements of themselves on the same attributes showed a greater perceived relevance of weight for girls and a confusion of healthy eating with dieting. Pre-adolescent children's perception of thinness and overweight echo the prejudices against overweight voiced by society. Health promotion at all ages will require a more considered presentation of the health implications of overweight.

  8. Functional dissociation between action and perception of object shape in developmental visual object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    According to the two visual systems model, the cortical visual system is segregated into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway mediating visuomotor control. In the present study we examined whether the visual control of action could develop normally even when visual perceptual abilities are compromised from early childhood onward. Using his fingers, LG, an individual with a rare developmental visual object agnosia, manually estimated (perceptual condition) the width of blocks that varied in width and length (but not in overall size), or simply picked them up across their width (grasping condition). LG's perceptual sensitivity to target width was profoundly impaired in the manual estimation task compared to matched controls. In contrast, the sensitivity to object shape during grasping, as measured by maximum grip aperture (MGA), the time to reach the MGA, the reaction time and the total movement time were all normal in LG. Further analysis, however, revealed that LG's sensitivity to object shape during grasping emerged at a later time stage during the movement compared to controls. Taken together, these results demonstrate a dissociation between action and perception of object shape, and also point to a distinction between different stages of the grasping movement, namely planning versus online control. Moreover, the present study implies that visuomotor abilities can develop normally even when perceptual abilities developed in a profoundly impaired fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementation of a real-time adaptive digital shaping for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: aregadio@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Electronic Technology Area, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain); Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián, E-mail: ssanchez@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Prieto, Manuel, E-mail: mprieto@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Tabero, Jesús, E-mail: taberogj@inta.es [Electronic Technology Area, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    This paper presents the structure, design and implementation of a new adaptive digital shaper for processing the pulses generated in nuclear particle detectors. The proposed adaptive algorithm has the capacity to automatically adjust the coefficients for shaping an input signal with a desired profile in real-time. Typical shapers such as triangular, trapezoidal or cusp-like ones can be generated, but more exotic unipolar shaping could also be performed. A practical prototype was designed, implemented and tested in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Particular attention was paid to the amount of internal FPGA resources required and to the sampling rate, making the design as simple as possible in order to minimize power consumption. Lastly, its performance and capabilities were measured using simulations and a real benchmark.

  10. Implementation of a real-time adaptive digital shaping for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regadío, Alberto; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián; Prieto, Manuel; Tabero, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the structure, design and implementation of a new adaptive digital shaper for processing the pulses generated in nuclear particle detectors. The proposed adaptive algorithm has the capacity to automatically adjust the coefficients for shaping an input signal with a desired profile in real-time. Typical shapers such as triangular, trapezoidal or cusp-like ones can be generated, but more exotic unipolar shaping could also be performed. A practical prototype was designed, implemented and tested in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Particular attention was paid to the amount of internal FPGA resources required and to the sampling rate, making the design as simple as possible in order to minimize power consumption. Lastly, its performance and capabilities were measured using simulations and a real benchmark

  11. Adapting to Change: Teacher Perceptions of Implementing the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Brooke A.; Beziat, Tara L. R.; Danley, Sheree; Davis, Kashara; Lowery, Holly; Lucas, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The current research study looked at secondary teachers' (grades 6-12) perceptions of their preparedness to implement the Common Core State Standards as well as their feelings about the training they have or have not received related to implementing the standards. The problem: Many conflicting views exist among teachers, parents, and others…

  12. Back to the USSR: How Colors Might Shape the Political Perception of East versus West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Fabian; Raab, Marius H; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2016-01-01

    People typically process information to confirm their prior held attitudes and stereotypes. As the political relations between NATO and Russia have distinctively drifted apart in recent years, we were interested in how far old-established color depictions referring to the Cold War's demarcations (USSR = red; NATO = blue) might reinforce people's political perception of an East versus West antagonism nowadays. Participants received a fabricated news article in which both world powers were either depicted on a map as Russia = red and NATO = blue or vice versa (Study 1). Testing a different sample in Study 2, we fully removed color assignments and used hachured distinctions or no distinctions at all. We revealed that perceived political distance between both sides increased particularly for participants with negative attitudes toward Russia, but only when Russia was depicted in red. Thus, colors referring to the old-established Cold War patterns can indeed shape the political perception and reinforce stereotypical East versus West thinking.

  13. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yiming; Gries, Peter H; Li, Yang; Stivers, Adam W; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Kuhlman, D M; Bai, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person "Preemptive Strike Game" (PSG) to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States ( N = 115), China ( N = 106), and Japan ( N = 99) made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a) made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b) greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans ( N = 127) watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States-China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese), while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China's rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  14. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person “Preemptive Strike Game” (PSG to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States (N = 115, China (N = 106, and Japan (N = 99 made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans (N = 127 watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States–China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese, while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China’s rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  15. Is the Perception of 3D Shape from Shading Based on Assumed Reflectance and Illumination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Todd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was designed to compare three types of image shading: one generated with a Lambertian BRDF and homogeneous illumination such that image intensity was determined entirely by local surface orientation irrespective of position; one that was textured with a linear intensity gradient, such that image intensity was determined entirely by local surface position irrespective of orientation; and another that was generated with a Lambertian BRDF and inhomogeneous illumination such that image intensity was influenced by both position and orientation. A gauge figure adjustment task was used to measure observers' perceptions of local surface orientation on the depicted surfaces, and the probe points included 60 pairs of regions that both had the same orientation. The results show clearly that observers' perceptions of these three types of stimuli were remarkably similar, and that probe regions with similar apparent orientations could have large differences in image intensity. This latter finding is incompatible with any process for computing shape from shading that assumes any plausible reflectance function combined with any possible homogeneous illumination.

  16. The Earth's Shape and Movements: Teachers' Perception of the Relations Between Daily Observation and Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flávia Polati; Leite, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The Earth’s shape and movements are some of the most common issues in official documents and research studies of astronomy education. Many didactic proposals suggest these issues within observational astronomy. Therefore, we present in this paper some of the main results of a research study of the teachers’ perception of the relations between the knowledge from daily observation and scientific models currently accepted about the “earth’s shape and movements”. Data were obtained in application of the didactic proposal during a teacher training course for teachers from São Paulo, have been constructed with the dynamics “Three Pedagogical Moments” and guided by some of the central ideas of the educator Paulo Freire. The results indicate that a small proportion of teachers seem to understand some of the relations of “apparent contradictions” and “limitations” with the concepts of spatiality, and many of them argued based only on vague phrases or "buzzwords", unconnected to the problem explored. The difficulties of teachers to relate elements of daily observation with scientific models seem to indicate a necessity to approach some these aspects with the astronomical knowledge in the teacher training courses.

  17. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Wen-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was cla...

  18. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparedness to Implement Wellness Strategies: Perceptions of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey school counselors to determine their knowledge and perceived preparedness to implement wellness strategies in school counseling programs. Wellness plans are a requirement for thousands of public school districts in the United States. There are no established standards for the training of school counselors in…

  20. Providers' perceptions of the implementation of a performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partly due to the lack of a system for reminding providers that patients were due to complete the ... system was feasible to implement as part of standard practice in ... Although the SAATSA is completed by the patients, in cases where they have ... platform is an important goal for this initiative; in the short term we are trying to ...

  1. Providers' perceptions of the implementation of a performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... system, known as the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative, to monitor the quality of treatment and assess efforts to improve quality ..... computers to implement an electronic version of the SQM system.

  2. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS’ PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF SUPERVISION IMPLEMENTATION TOWARD WORK ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriadi Lubis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between teachers’ interpersonal relationship and their perception about supervision implementation and their contribution toward their work achievement motivation. The data were obtained from 55 teachers as the sample by stratified proportional random sampling. The data were analyzed by means of correlation and multiple regression technique. The results of this study show that the contribution of interpersonal relationship variable was 28% to work achievement. Meanwhile, the teachers’ perception of supervision implementation variable contributes 17% to work achievement motivation variable. The contribution of the two dependent variables was 41% to work achievement motivation variable.

  3. Practitioner Perceptions of Adaptive Management Implementation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Harm. Benson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is a growing trend within environment and natural resource management efforts in the United States. While many proponents of adaptive management emphasize the need for collaborative, iterative governance processes to facilitate adaptive management, legal scholars note that current legal requirements and processes in the United States often make it difficult to provide the necessary institutional support and flexibility for successful adaptive management implementation. Our research explores this potential disconnect between adaptive management theory and practice by interviewing practitioners in the field. We conducted a survey of individuals associated with the Collaborative Adaptive Management Network (CAMNet, a nongovernmental organization that promotes adaptive management and facilitates in its implementation. The survey was sent via email to the 144 participants who attended CAMNet Rendezvous during 2007-2011 and yielded 48 responses. We found that practitioners do feel hampered by legal and institutional constraints: > 70% of respondents not only believed that constraints exist, they could specifically name one or more examples of a legal constraint on their work implementing adaptive management. At the same time, we found that practitioners are generally optimistic about the potential for institutional reform.

  4. Perception of Science Standards' Effectiveness and Their Implementation by Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Yakobovitch, Anat

    2011-06-01

    The introduction of standards into the education system poses numerous challenges and difficulties. As with any change, plans should be made for teachers to understand and implement the standards. This study examined science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the standards for teaching and learning, and the extent and ease/difficulty of implementing science standards in different grades. The research used a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research tools were questionnaires that were administered to elementary school science teachers. The majority of the teachers perceived the standards in science as effective for teaching and learning and only a small minority viewed them as restricting their pedagogical autonomy. Differences were found in the extent of implementation of the different standards and between different grades. The teachers perceived a different degree of difficulty in the implementation of the different standards. The standards experienced as easiest to implement were in the field of biology and materials, whereas the standards in earth sciences and the universe and technology were most difficult to implement, and are also those evaluated by the teachers as being implemented to the least extent. Exposure of teachers' perceptions on the effectiveness of standards and the implementation of the standards may aid policymakers in future planning of teachers' professional development for the implementation of standards.

  5. Perceptions of School Psychologists Regarding Barriers to Response to Intervention (RTI) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Heath; Little, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RTI) models continue to be implemented, an important research question is how school psychologists are experiencing the transition to RTI practice. In order to better understand the experiences of school psychologists, interviews with seven practicing school psychologists regarding their perceptions of barriers and…

  6. Jordanian Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions of Competency Needed for Implementing Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bataineh, Mohammad; Anderson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, ten-point Likert-type scale survey design, to examine the perception of Jordanian seventh to twelfth-grade social studies teachers of the competency needed for technology implementation in their classrooms. The instrument for this study was a modified version of a survey developed by Kelly (2003) called the…

  7. Academics' Perceptions of the Challenges and Barriers to Implementing Research-Based Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Mantai, Lilia

    2017-01-01

    How can universities ensure that strategic aims to integrate research and teaching through engaging students in research-based experiences be effectively realised within institutions? This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study exploring academics' perceptions of the challenges and barriers to implementing undergraduate research.…

  8. Implementing a 6-day physiotherapy service in rehabilitation: exploring staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Erin L; Kuys, Suzanne S; Clarke, Jane; Brauer, Sandra G

    2017-11-20

    Objective Australian weekend rehabilitation therapy provision is increasing. Staff engagement optimises service delivery. The present mixed-methods process evaluation explored staff perceptions regarding implementation of a 6-day physiotherapy service in a private rehabilitation unit. Methods All multidisciplinary staff working in the rehabilitation unit were surveyed regarding barriers, facilitators and perceptions of the effect of a 6-day physiotherapy service on length of stay (LOS) and patient goal attainment at three time points: before and after implementation, as well as after modification of a 6-day physiotherapy service. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-one staff (50%) responded. Before implementation, all staff identified barriers, the most common being staffing (62%) and patient selection (29%). After implementation, only 30% of staff identified barriers, which differed to those identified before implementation, and included staff rostering and experience (20%), timing of therapy (10%) and increasing the allocation of patients (5%). Over time, staff perceptions changed from being unsure to being positive about the effect of the 6-day service on LOS and patient goal attainment. Conclusion Staff perceived a large number of barriers before implementation of a 6-day rehabilitation service, but these did not eventuate following implementation. Staff perceived improved LOS and patient goal attainment after implementation of a 6-day rehabilitation service incorporating staff feedback. What is known about this topic? Rehabilitation weekend services improve patient quality of life and functional independence while reducing LOS. What does this study add? Staff feedback during implementation and modification of new services is important to address potential barriers and ensure staff satisfaction and support. What are the implications for practitioners? Staff engagement and open communication are important to

  9. Implementation of a finite element analysis procedure for structural analysis of shape memory behaviour of fibre reinforced shape memory polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, Wessam Al; Epaarachchi, J. A.; Islam, Mainul; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) offer a unique ability to undergo a substantial shape deformation and subsequently recover the original shape when exposed to a particular external stimulus. Comparatively low mechanical properties being the major drawback for extended use of SMPs in engineering applications. However the inclusion of reinforcing fibres in to SMPs improves mechanical properties significantly while retaining intrinsic shape memory effects. The implementation of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) in any engineering application is a unique task which requires profound materials and design optimization. However currently available analytical tools have critical limitations to undertake accurate analysis/simulations of SMPC structures and slower derestrict transformation of breakthrough research outcomes to real-life applications. Many finite element (FE) models have been presented. But majority of them require a complicated user-subroutines to integrate with standard FE software packages. Furthermore, those subroutines are problem specific and difficult to use for a wider range of SMPC materials and related structures. This paper presents a FE simulation technique to model the thermomechanical behaviour of the SMPCs using commercial FE software ABAQUS. Proposed technique incorporates material time-dependent viscoelastic behaviour. The ability of the proposed technique to predict the shape fixity and shape recovery was evaluated by experimental data acquired by a bending of a SMPC cantilever beam. The excellent correlation between the experimental and FE simulation results has confirmed the robustness of the proposed technique.

  10. A robust sound perception model suitable for neuromorphic implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coath, Martin; Sheik, Sadique; Chicca, Elisabetta; Indiveri, Giacomo; Denham, Susan L; Wennekers, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli in a real-time neuromorphic system implementing a hybrid analog/digital network of spiking neurons. This network, inspired by models of auditory processing in mammals, includes several mutually connected layers with distance-dependent transmission delays and learning in the form of spike timing dependent plasticity, which effects stimulus-driven changes in the network connectivity. Here we present results that demonstrate that the network is robust to a range of variations in the stimulus pattern, such as are found in naturalistic stimuli and neural responses. This robustness is a property critical to the development of realistic, electronic neuromorphic systems. We analyze the variability of the response of the network to "noisy" stimuli which allows us to characterize the acuity in information-theoretic terms. This provides an objective basis for the quantitative comparison of networks, their connectivity patterns, and learning strategies, which can inform future design decisions. We also show, using stimuli derived from speech samples, that the principles are robust to other challenges, such as variable presentation rate, that would have to be met by systems deployed in the real world. Finally we demonstrate the potential applicability of the approach to real sounds.

  11. A Robust Sound Perception Model Suitable for Neuromorphic Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eCoath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli in a real-time neuromorphic system implementing a hybrid analogue/digital network of spiking neurons. This network, inspired by models of auditory processing in mammals, includes several mutually connected layers with distance-dependent transmission delays and learning in the form of spike timing dependent plasticity, which effects stimulus-driven changes in the network connectivity.Here we present results that demonstrate that the network is robust to a range of variations in the stimulus pattern, such as are found in naturalistic stimuli and neural responses. This robustness is a property critical to the development of realistic, electronic neuromorphic systems.We analyse the variability of the response of the network to `noisy' stimuli which allows us to characterize the acuity in information-theoretic terms. This provides an objective basis for the quantitative comparison of networks, their connectivity patterns, and learning strategies, which can inform future design decisions. We also show, using stimuli derived from speech samples, that the principles are robust to other challenges, such as variable presentation rate, that would have to be met by systems deployed in the real world. Finally we demonstrate the potential applicability of the approach to real sounds.

  12. Teachers' Perceptions on Preparedness and Supports to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Clara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe elementary teachers' perceptions on their preparedness to implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards (ELA-CCSS); (2) determine how perceptions influenced changes in instructional practices; and (3) to explore ELA-CCSS implementation challenges and/or barriers in supporting teacher…

  13. Controllable V-Shape Multi-Scroll Butterfly Attractor: System and Circuit Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a new controllable V-shape multiscroll attractor is presented, where a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical attractors with a variable number of scrolls can be controlled using new staircase nonlinear function and the parameters of the system. This attractor can be used to generate random signals with a variety of symbol distribution. Digital implementation of the proposed generator is also presented using a Xilinx Virtex® 4 Field Programmable Gate Array and experimental results are provided. The digital realization easily fits into a small area (<1.5% of the total area) and expresses a high throughput (4.3 Gbit/sec per state variable). © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  14. Controllable V-Shape Multi-Scroll Butterfly Attractor: System and Circuit Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new controllable V-shape multiscroll attractor is presented, where a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical attractors with a variable number of scrolls can be controlled using new staircase nonlinear function and the parameters of the system. This attractor can be used to generate random signals with a variety of symbol distribution. Digital implementation of the proposed generator is also presented using a Xilinx Virtex® 4 Field Programmable Gate Array and experimental results are provided. The digital realization easily fits into a small area (<1.5% of the total area) and expresses a high throughput (4.3 Gbit/sec per state variable). © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  15. A Novel Implementation of a Flexible Robotic Fin Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yan; Lei Wang; Bo Liu; Jie Yang; Shiwu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,study of a novel flexible robotic-fin actuated by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is presented.The developed robotic fin is capable of implementing various 3-Dimensional (3D) motions,which plays an important role in robot propulsion and maneuverability.Firstly,the morphological and mechanics parameters of a real pectoral fin from a carp are investigated.Secondly,a detailed design of the flexible pectoral fin driven by SMA is presented according to the previous morphological and mechanics analyses.Thirdly,a simplified theoretical model on the SMA fin plate is derived.The thermodynamics of the SMA plate and the relationship between curvature and phase transformation are analyzed.Finally,several simulations and model experiments are conducted according to the previous analyses.The results of the experiments are useful for the control of the robotic fin.The experimental results reveal that the SMA actuated fin ray has a good actuating performance.

  16. Correction of body-mass index using body-shape perception and socioeconomic status in adolescent self-report surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas; Chau, Nearkasen

    2014-01-01

    To propose a simple correction of body-mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height (reported BMI) using gender, body shape perception and socioeconomic status in an adolescent population. 341 boys and girls aged 17-18 years were randomly selected from a representative sample of 2165 French adolescents living in Paris surveyed in 2010. After an anonymous self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire asking for height, weight, body shape perception (feeling too thin, about the right weight or too fat) and socioeconomic status, subjects were measured and weighed. BMI categories were computed according to Cole's cut-offs. Reported BMIs were corrected using linear regressions and ROC analyses and checked with cross-validation and multiple imputations to handle missing values. Agreement between actual and corrected BMI values was estimated with Kappa indexes and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). On average, BMIs were underreported, especially among girls. Kappa indexes between actual and reported BMI were low, especially for girls: 0.56 95%CI = [0.42-0.70] for boys and 0.45 95%CI = [0.30-0.60] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and body shape perception gave the most balanced results for both genders: the Kappa and ICC obtained were 0.63 95%CI = [0.50-0.76] and 0.67, 95%CI = [0.58-0.74] for boys; 0.65 95%CI = [0.52-0.78] and 0.74, 95%CI = [0.66-0.81] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and socioeconomic status led to similar corrections while the ROC analyses were inaccurate. Using body shape perception, or socioeconomic status and gender is a promising way of correcting BMI in self-administered questionnaires, especially for girls.

  17. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices.This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers.Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize

  18. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Maternity Nurses' Perceptions of Implementation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Emilie M; Doyle, Eva I; Bowden, Rodney G

    The purpose of this study was to determine maternity nurses' perceptions of implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. An online survey and a focus group were used to evaluate perceptions of maternity nurses of implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in an urban Texas hospital at the onset of the project initiation. Responses were transcribed and coded using Nvivo software. Thematic analysis was conducted and consensus was reached among the research team to validate themes. Twenty-eight maternity nurses participated. Nurses perceived a number of barriers to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding including nurse staffing shortages, variations in practice among nurses, different levels of nurse education and knowledge about breastfeeding, lack of parental awareness and knowledge about breastfeeding, culture, and postpartum issues such as maternal fatigue, visitors, and routine required procedures during recovery care that interfered with skin-to-skin positioning. Maternity nurses desired more education about breastfeeding; specifically, a hands-on approach, rather than formal classroom instruction, to be able to promote successful implementation of the Ten Steps. More education on breastfeeding for new mothers, their families, and healthcare providers was recommended. Nurse staffing should be adequate to support nurses in their efforts to promote breastfeeding. Skin-to-skin positioning should be integrated into the recovery period. Hospital leadership support for full implementation and policy adherence is essential. Challenges in implementing the Ten Steps were identified along with potential solutions.

  20. Shaping Perceptions of Delaware Technical & Community College through a Comprehensive Brand Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciple, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are an integral part of the American higher education system, providing open access to postsecondary education to all who have the ability to benefit. These institutions, however, often suffer from negative perceptions regarding their effectiveness and quality of instruction. Community colleges can address these perceptions by…

  1. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry.

  3. [Investigation of doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H B; Wang, X T; Tang, B; Zhu, Z N; Guo, H L; Li, Z Z; Sun, J H; Liu, D W

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To investigate doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit. Methods: A total of 197 doctors and nurses in 2 general ICUs and 3 special ICUs at Peking Union Medical College Hospital finished a self-designed questionnaire of delirium management. Results: There were 47 males and 150 females, 43 doctors and 154 nurses who participated in the survey.One hundred and twenty five participators were from general ICU and the others from special ICU. The ICU staff had a significant difference on the perceptions and implementation of delirium management( P delirium assessment" ( P delirium management,especially in special ICUs. Delirium management should be included as a routine care in ICU to improve patients' outcome.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF GUESTS’ PERCEPTION IN IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN HOTEL IN SUPPORTING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Oka - Suryawardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry faced by threats in implementing sustainable tourism development. UNEP (United Nation Environmental Programme designs the concept to gain sustainable development through the program called the greening of industry which includes minimization of energy used, reducing green house emission, water consumption efficiency, waste management, reducing loss of biological diversity, and preserving cultural heritage. Dependency of tourism industry in using energy will impact in global warming and climate change which will lead to sustainability of the future of tourism development. The research was designed to assess guests’ perception on implementation of green hotel in supporting sustainable tourism in Bali. Research was undertaken in DKP hotel which is located in Kuta, Bali in the periods of April-June 2011. The hotel was choosen because DKP hotel is one of the hotels in Bali that has implemented the concept of green hotel in the hotel operational and was awarded as Green Hotel Award in the year of 2010. Sample was designed based on the minimum criteria on using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. Respondents were guests who stay in the hotel and were willing to be interviewed and fill-in the questionnaires. The number of respondents were 121. Assessing guests’ perception was undertaken based on five-point Likert rating scale and relationship between variables which express level of concern of hotel management on the environment conservation, social-culture preservation and economic development were analyzed by using Software AMOS Version 23. The results show that assessment of guests’ perception in implementation of green hotel in the hotel operational through conservation of environment and preserving social and culture and its impact on economis development was positip and has resulted in supporting sustainable tourism. Environmental conservation awarenesss has been implemented through energy and water efficiency, waste

  5. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Vine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and

  6. PERCEPTIONS OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS ON THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING IAS/IFRS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA PAULA DUMITRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the perceptions of professional accountants on the costs, benefits and implications of applying IFRS in Romania. The main results show that the benefits of implementing IFRS is ensuring greater transparency and comparability of financial information. In terms of costs, most respondents felt that the main costs is related to staff training, this being one of the factors that have caused difficulties in implementing IFRS. Regarding the quality of financial information after the adoption of standards, we conclude that it will improve considerably.

  7. Educational Administrators’ Technological Leadership Efficacy and Perceptions towards Implementation Levels of Teaching and Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ULUKAYA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the educational administrators’ technological leadership efficacy (TLE and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities (ITLA, and then to present the contribution of the TLE as a predictor of the ITLA. We collected data from 112 educational administrators who are working in Tokat. According to the results of this study, educational administrators’ TLE level was “adequate” for only Digital age learning culture, for the other factors and the total of the TLE levels were “intermediate” level. According to ITLA results, all the sub-factors and total of the scale were “strongly agree” level. The technological leadership efficacy and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities differ according to educational administrators’ age, school type and working in town/city. There is a positive, medium level and significant correlation between educational administrators’ total scores of the TLE and ITLA. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict administrators’ perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities based on their technological leadership efficacy, and TLE explains only 29% of the variation in ITLA.

  8. The Impact of an Implementation Project on Primary Care Staff Perceptions of Delivering Brief Alcohol Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Reinholdz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how the perceptions and experiences of working with risky drinkers change over time among primary health care staff during a systematic implementation project. Methods. Qualitative focus group interviews took place before and after the implementation of the project. Results. The staff displayed a positive change during the implementation period with regard to awareness, knowledge, and confidence that led to a change in routine practice. Throughout the project, staff were committed to engaging with risky drinkers and appeared to have been learning-by-doing. Conclusions. The results indicated a positive attitude to alcohol prevention work but staff lack knowledge and confidence in the area. The more practical experience during the study is, the more confidence seems to have been gained. This adds new knowledge to the science of implementation studies concerning alcohol prevention measures, which have otherwise shown disappointing results, emphasizing the importance of learning in practice.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to implementing electronic prescription: a systematic review of user groups' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Nsangou, Édith-Romy; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Grenier, Sonya; Sicotte, Claude

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review identifying users groups' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementing electronic prescription (e-prescribing) in primary care. We included studies following these criteria: presence of an empirical design, focus on the users' experience of e-prescribing implementation, conducted in primary care, and providing data on barriers and facilitators to e-prescribing implementation. We used the Donabedian logical model of healthcare quality (adapted by Barber et al) to analyze our findings. We found 34 publications (related to 28 individual studies) eligible to be included in this review. These studies identified a total of 594 elements as barriers or facilitators to e-prescribing implementation. Most user groups perceived that e-prescribing was facilitated by design and technical concerns, interoperability, content appropriate for the users, attitude towards e-prescribing, productivity, and available resources. This review highlights the importance of technical and organizational support for the successful implementation of e-prescribing systems. It also shows that the same factor can be seen as a barrier or a facilitator depending on the project's own circumstances. Moreover, a factor can change in nature, from a barrier to a facilitator and vice versa, in the process of e-prescribing implementation. This review summarizes current knowledge on factors related to e-prescribing implementation in primary care that could support decision makers in their design of effective implementation strategies. Finally, future studies should emphasize on the perceptions of other user groups, such as pharmacists, managers, vendors, and patients, who remain neglected in the literature.

  10. The effects of pattern shape, subliminal stimulation, and voluntary control on multistable visual perception

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taddei-Ferretti, C.; Radilová, Jiřina; Musio, C.; Santillo, S.; Cibelli, E.; Cotugno, A.; Radil, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1225, - (2008), s. 163-170 ISSN 0006-8993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : visual perception * figure reversal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2008

  11. Just-in-Time Teaching in undergraduate physics courses: Implementation, learning, and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica Hewitt

    Regardless of discipline, a decades-long battle has ensued within nearly every classroom in higher education: instructors getting students to come to class prepared to learn. In response to this clash between teacher expectations and frequent student neglect, a group of four physics education researchers developed a reformed instructional strategy called Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT). This dissertation investigates the following three areas: 1) the fidelity with which undergraduate physics instructors implement JiTT, 2) whether student performance predicts student perception of their instructor's fidelity of JiTT implementation, and 3) whether student perception of their instructor's fidelity of JiTT implementation correlates with student views of their physics course. A blend of quantitative data (e.g., students grades, inventory scores, and questionnaire responses) are integrated with qualitative data (e.g., individual faculty interviews, student focus group discussions, and classroom observations). This study revealed no statistically significant relationship between instructors who spent time on a predefined JiTT critical component and their designation as a JiTT user or non-user. While JiTT users implemented the pedagogy in accordance with the creators' intended ideal vision, many also had trouble reconciling personal concerns about their role as a JiTT adopter and the anticipated demand of the innovation. I recommend that this population of faculty members can serve as a JiTT model for other courses, disciplines, and/or institutions. Student performance was not a predictor of student perception instructor fidelity of JiTT implementation. Additionally, the majority of students in this study reported they read their textbook prior to class and that JiTT assignments helped them prepare for in-class learning. I found evidence that exposure to the JiTT strategy may correlate with a more favorable student view of their physics course. Finally, according to students

  12. Students’ Perception toward the Implementation of Peer-Assessment in Writing; Before and After Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Mubarok

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at elaborating students’ perception toward the implementation of peer assessment in writing class either before or after revision. Writing becomes one of skills which should be mastered by students in order to get higher level of literacy. Writing is a productive skill which asks students to arrange words and organize them into good writing which could be understood by readers. The success of writing is determined by the writing process itself starting from planning, first draft writing, revising, and editing. One of the strategies used in teaching writing is by implementing peer assessment. Peer assessment strategy becomes one of important parts in the process of writing because there will be feedback or suggestion from peers in doing a review. The number of the subject of this research was students in second semester of the English Education Department of UNISNU Jepara. This research was conducted on even semester. The total number of the students, which became respondents, was 37 students of English Education Department. The research design used was qualitative research which measured students’ perceptions of the implementation of peer assessment in writing: before and after revision. The result showed that before revision, students had negative perception toward their own writing. After revision, they had positive perceptions toward peer assessment strategy. Those included usefulness and meaningfulness, nature of feedback, reality of feedback, precision, validity, fairness, and personal goal-setting. Besides that, the score after revision (7.9 was higher than the score before revision (6.62. It meant that the result showed the increasing of students’ score after revision.

  13. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

  14. Suppressive and Enhancing Effects in Early Visual Cortex during Illusory Shape Perception: A Comment on Kok and de Lange (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Moors

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Kok and de Lange (2014 observed that BOLD activity for a Kanizsa illusory shape stimulus, in which pacmen-like inducers elicit an illusory shape percept, was either enhanced or suppressed relative to a nonillusory control configuration depending on whether the spatial profile of BOLD activity in early visual cortex was related to the illusory shape or the inducers, respectively. The authors argued that these findings fit well with the predictive coding framework, because top-down predictions related to the illusory shape are not met with bottom-up sensory input and hence the feedforward error signal is enhanced. Conversely, for the inducing elements, there is a match between top-down predictions and input, leading to a decrease in error. Rather than invoking predictive coding as the explanatory framework, the suppressive effect related to the inducers might be caused by neural adaptation to perceptually stable input due to the trial sequence used in the experiment.

  15. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  16. Danish farmers' perception of water quality, nutrient reduction measures and their implementation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farms is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives on such technologies. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzed the level of uptake of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water...... and procedures of financial, technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives. Ultimately, tailor-made incentives could be designed based on farm structure and physical characteristics so as to improve the pace of adoption of the technologies thereby reducing water pollution from farms...

  17. The role of shape recognition in figure/ground perception in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah; Jubran, Rachel; Heck, Alison; Chroust, Alyson; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2018-04-30

    In this study we sought to determine whether infants, like adults, utilize previous experience to guide figure/ground processing. After familiarization to a shape, 5-month-olds preferentially attended to the side of an ambiguous figure/ground test stimulus corresponding to that shape, suggesting that they were viewing that portion as the figure. Infants' failure to exhibit this preference in a control condition in which both sides of the test stimulus were displayed as figures indicated that the results in the experimental condition were not due to a preference between two figure shapes. These findings demonstrate for the first time that figure/ground processing in infancy is sensitive to top-down influence. Thus, a critical aspect of figure/ground processing is functional early in life.

  18. Effects of a strategy to improve offender assessment practices: Staff perceptions of implementation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Wayne N; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Peters, Roger H; Stahler, Gerald J; Lehman, Wayne E K; Stein, Lynda A R; Monico, Laura; Eggers, Michele; Abdel-Salam, Sami; Pierce, Joshua C; Hunt, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Colleen; Frisman, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    This implementation study examined the impact of an organizational process improvement intervention (OPII) on a continuum of evidence based practices related to assessment and community reentry of drug-involved offenders: Measurement/Instrumentation, Case Plan Integration, Conveyance/Utility, and Service Activation/Delivery. To assess implementation outcomes (staff perceptions of evidence-based assessment practices), a survey was administered to correctional and treatment staff (n=1509) at 21 sites randomly assigned to an Early- or Delayed-Start condition. Hierarchical linear models with repeated measures were used to examine changes in evidence-based assessment practices over time, and organizational characteristics were examined as covariates to control for differences across the 21 research sites. Results demonstrated significant intervention and sustainability effects for three of the four assessment domains examined, although stronger effects were obtained for intra- than inter-agency outcomes. No significant effects were found for Conveyance/Utility. Implementation interventions such as the OPII represent an important tool to enhance the use of evidence-based assessment practices in large and diverse correctional systems. Intra-agency assessment activities that were more directly under the control of correctional agencies were implemented most effectively. Activities in domains that required cross-systems collaboration were not as successfully implemented, although longer follow-up periods might afford detection of stronger effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Staff perceptions of a Productive Community Services implementation: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dominique Kim Frances; Griffin, Murray

    2015-06-01

    The Productive Series is a collection of change programmes designed by the English National Health Service (NHS) Institute for Innovation and Improvement to help frontline healthcare staff improve quality and reduce wasted time, so that this time can be reinvested into time spent with patients. The programmes have been implemented in at least 14 countries around the world. This study examines an implementation of the Productive Community Services programme that took place in a Community healthcare organisation in England from July 2010 to March 2012. To explore staff members' perceptions of a Productive Community Services implementation. Cross-sectional interview. Community Healthcare Organisation in East Anglia, England. 45 participants were recruited using purposive, snowballing and opportunistic sampling methods to represent five main types of staff group in the organisation; clinical team members, administrative team members, service managers/team leaders, senior managers and software support staff. Team members were recruited on the basis that they had submitted data for at least one Productive Community Services module. Semi-structured individual and group interviews were carried out after the programme concluded and analysed using thematic analysis. This report focuses on six of the themes identified. The analysis found that communication was not always effective, and there was a lack of awareness, knowledge and understanding of the programme. Many staff did not find the Productive Community Services work relevant, and although certain improvements were sustained, suboptimal practices crept back. Although negative outcomes were reported, such as the programme taking time away from patients initially, many benefits were described including improved stock control and work environments, and better use of the Electronic Patient Record system. One of the themes identified highlighted the positive perceptions of the programme, however a focus on five other themes

  20. A. How the intentions of the draftsman shape perception of a drawing.

    OpenAIRE

    Pignocchi , Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the recovery of the artist's intentions and the perception of an artwork is a classic topic for philosophy and history of art. It also frequently, albeit sometimes implicitly, comes up in everyday thought and conversation about art and artworks. Since recent work in cognitive science can help us understand how we perceive and understand the intentions of others, this discipline could fruitfully participate in a multidisciplinary investigation of the role of intention r...

  1. Genetic Fuzzy Prediction of Mass Perception in Non-Functional 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane

    2010-01-01

    and it is argued that human attributes originate from three different levels of the brain: the visceral level; the behavioral level and the reflective level. This paper focuses upon the visceral level of reaction by automatically building a link between geometric properties of non-functional 3D shapes...

  2. The effects of phase on the perception of 3D shape from texture: psychophysics and modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, L.; Todd, J.T.; Dijkstra, T.M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which observers judged the apparent shapes of elliptical cylinders with eight different textures that were presented with scrambled and unscrambled phase spectra. The results revealed that the apparent depths of these surfaces varied linearly with the ground truth in

  3. Teacher and Leader Perceptions Concerning the Implementation of a Web-Based Data Warehouse for Instructional Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe, and examine the perceptions of teachers and leaders when implementing a Web-based data warehouse (DW) for instructional decision-making in a K-12 public school setting. It identified the challenges and benefits of DW implementation by measuring teacher and leader concerns, studied teacher and…

  4. Examining Elementary Literacy Teachers' Perceptions of Their Preparedness to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Budde, Melissa; Miller, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine elementary literacy teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to implement the ELA CCSS [English Language Arts Common Core State Standards]. We defined preparedness across three dimensions: teachers' perceived levels of knowledge of the standards and its components; efficacy to implement changes; and…

  5. Hide-Scrapers from Arukhlo I Settlement in Georgia (on correspondence of the shape and function of prehistoric implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esakia Ketevan M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the primary categories of the implement complex discovered at Arukhlo I Neolithic settlement (Georgia, Kvemo Kartli Region. The stone implements discovered at the site are characterized by their great variety. Comprehensive functional research conducted by the authors demonstrated that the typological and morphological characteristics of the various categories of stone implements do not always correspond to their functions. Thus, the shapes and functions of the hide-scrapers were fully identical for 18 of 39 implements only, whereas the other tools were used for different purposes and did not feature traces of utilization. A microanalysis of their working parts allowed to determine the types of processed raw material, means of processing, and in certain cases the type of obtained articles as well. The authors made a conclusion on the importance of the comprehensive research of production inventory for the reconstruction of the characteristic features of prehistoric economy.

  6. Implementation of a team-based learning course: Work required and perceptions of the teaching team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jenny

    2016-11-01

    Team-based learning was selected as a strategy to help engage pre-registration undergraduate nursing students in a second-year evidence-informed decision making course. To detail the preparatory work required to deliver a team-based learning course; and to explore the perceptions of the teaching team of their first experience using team-based learning. Descriptive evaluation. Information was extracted from a checklist and process document developed by the course leader to document the work required prior to and during implementation. Members of the teaching team were interviewed by a research assistant at the end of the course using a structured interview schedule to explore perceptions of first time implementation. There were nine months between the time the decision was made to use team-based learning and the first day of the course. Approximately 60days were needed to reconfigure the course for team-based learning delivery, develop the knowledge and expertise of the teaching team, and develop and review the resources required for the students and the teaching team. This reduced to around 12days for the subsequent delivery. Interview data indicated that the teaching team were positive about team-based learning, felt prepared for the course delivery and did not identify any major problems during this first implementation. Implementation of team-based learning required time and effort to prepare the course materials and the teaching team. The teaching team felt well prepared, were positive about using team-based learning and did not identify any major difficulties. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Key Performance Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, Laura V; Deal, Heidi; Harrison, Megan E; Toombs, Kent; Neville, Heather; Meade, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In hospitals around the world, there has been no consensus regarding which clinical activities a pharmacist should focus on until recently. In 2011, a Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicator (cpKPI) collaborative was formed. The goal of the collaborative was to advance pharmacy practice in order to improve patient outcomes and enhance the quality of care provided to patients by hospital pharmacists. Following a literature review, which indicated that pharmacists can improve patient outcomes by carrying out specific activities, and an evidence-informed consensus process, a final set of eight cpKPIs were established. Canadian hospitals leading the cpKPI initiative are currently in the early stages of implementing these indicators. To explore pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cpKPIs. Clinical pharmacists employed by the Nova Scotia Health Authority were invited to participate in focus groups. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Three focus groups, including 26 pharmacists, were conducted in February 2015. Three major themes were identified. Resisting the change was comprised of documentation challenges, increased workload, practice environment constraints, and competing priorities. Embracing cpKPIs was composed of seeing the benefit, demonstrating value, and existing supports. Navigating the unknown was made up of quality versus quantity battle, and insights into the future. Although pharmacists were challenged by documentation and other changes associated with the implementation of cpKPIs, they demonstrated significant support for cpKPIs and were able to see benefits of the implementation. Pharmacists came up with suggestions for overcoming resistance associated with the implementation of cpKPIs and provided insights into the future of pharmacy practice. The identification of barriers and facilitators to cpKPI implementation will be

  8. Dairy farmers' perceptions toward the implementation of on-farm Johne's disease prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Jansen, J; Roth, K; Kastelic, J P; Adams, C L; Barkema, H W

    2016-11-01

    Implementation of specific management strategies on dairy farms is currently the most effective way to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease (JD), an infectious chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). However, dairy farmers often fail to implement recommended strategies. The objective of this study was to assess perceptions of farmers participating in a JD prevention and control program toward recommended practices, and explore factors that influence whether or not a farmer adopts risk-reducing measures for MAP transmission. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 dairy farmers enrolled in a voluntary JD control program in Alberta, Canada. Principles of classical grounded theory were used for participant selection, interviewing, and data analysis. Additionally, demographic data and MAP infection status were collected and analyzed using quantitative questionnaires and the JD control program database. Farmers' perceptions were distinguished according to 2 main categories: first, their belief in the importance of JD, and second, their belief in recommended JD prevention and control strategies. Based on these categories, farmers were classified into 4 groups: proactivists, disillusionists, deniers, and unconcerned. The first 2 groups believed in the importance of JD, and proactivists and unconcerned believed in proposed JD prevention and control measures. Groups that regarded JD as important had better knowledge about best strategies to reduce MAP transmission and had more JD risk assessments conducted on their farm. Although not quantified, it also appeared that these groups had more JD prevention and control practices in place. However, often JD was not perceived as a problem in the herd and generally farmers did not regard JD control as a "hot topic" in communications with their herd veterinarian and other farmers. Recommendations regarding how to communicate with farmers and motivate various

  9. Design, implementation and test of the XSC extreme shape controller in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Cenedese, A.; Crisanti, F.; Tommasi, G. De; Mattei, M.; Piccolo, F.; Pironti, A.; Sartori, F.; Villone, F.

    2005-01-01

    A new model-based plasma current and shape controller has been set up and tested on the JET Tokamak with the existing active circuits and control. The installation has been carried out without causing any interference to the plasma operation and without requiring a long commissioning time. Eventually, the new controller was used on really extremely shaped internal transport barrier experiments at high poloidal beta and in the presence of quite large variations of the plasma current density profile (variation range Δβ pol up to 1.5 and Δl i up to 0.5). The extreme shape controller (XSC) controller architecture and philosophy also offer new interesting opportunities, e.g., the separatrix sweeping on the divertor plates without significantly affecting the overall plasma shape, and the possibility of improving the overall tokamak performance via combined control of plasma shape, current and profile. The adopted methodology constitutes also an important test bed for feedback control strategies of ITER relevance

  10. Shape Perception in 3-D Scatterplots Using Constant Visual Angle Glyphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2012-01-01

    When viewing 3-D scatterplots in immersive virtual environments, one commonly encountered problem is the presence of clutter, which obscures the view of any structures of interest in the visualization. In order to solve this problem, we propose to render the 3-D glyphs such that they always cover...... to regular perspective glyphs, especially when a large amount of clutter is present. Furthermore, our evaluation revealed that perception of structures in 3-D scatterplots is significantly affected by the volumetric density of the glyphs in the plot....

  11. Influences of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Tomoki; Ohara, Kumiko; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the influence of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on the perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students. Methods The study included 342 female, Japanese university students between the ages of 18 years and 22 years. They completed an anonymous questionnaire, which included questions related to anthropometry and body perception. Eating behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results Many students overestimated their body shape (81.2% of underweight students and 74.6% of normal students) and had a desire for thinness (41.0% of underweight students, 88.2% of normal students, and 100% of overweight students). One of the main reasons for the overestimation of their body shape was comparison with others. Participants who were interested in a friend’s body shape were almost three times more likely to have a desire for thinness than those who were not interested in a female friend’s body shape (odds ratio: 3.06, P=0.014). Conclusion The results indicate a possibility that a female Japanese student’s young female friends’ body shapes, influences her desire for thinness or her perception of her own body shape. PMID:26203283

  12. Body shape perception and dieting in preadolescent British Asian girls: links with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Bhatti, R

    1995-03-01

    Body shape dissatisfaction and dieting have previously been reported in 9-year-old Caucasian girls. As British adolescents of Asian origin appear at least as vulnerable to eating disorders, the present study investigated these issues in preadolescent British Asian girls. Fifty-five Asian and 42 Caucasian 9-year-olds completed assessments of dietary restraint, body esteem, body satisfaction, and body figure preferences. The study revealed a high priority for thinness in both the Asian and Caucasian girls. Their desire for thinness was present even though the Asian girls had a significantly lower body weight than their Caucasian peers. Both groups of high restraint girls expressed body shape discontent and lower body esteem. In addition, an association was found in the Asian sample between reported dieting and the cultural orientation of their family. These results demonstrate the wide appeal of thinness, which in combination with intercultural and intrafamilial conflict, may strongly influence eating and contribute to the development of eating disorders.

  13. Gender differences in global-local perception? Evidence from orientation and shape judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Amishav, Rama; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Direct examinations of gender differences in global-local processing are sparse, and the results are inconsistent. We examined this issue with a visuospatial judgment task and with a shape judgment task. Women and men were presented with hierarchical stimuli that varied in closure (open or closed shape) or in line orientation (oblique or horizontal/vertical) at the global or local level. The task was to classify the stimuli on the basis of the variation at the global level (global classification) or at the local level (local classification). Women's classification by closure (global or local) was more accurate than men's for stimuli that varied in closure on both levels, suggesting a female advantage in discriminating shape properties. No gender differences were observed in global-local processing bias. Women and men exhibited a global advantage, and they did not differ in their speed of global or local classification, with only one exception. Women were slower than men in local classification by orientation when the to-be-classified lines were embedded in a global line with a different orientation. This finding suggests that women are more distracted than men by misleading global oriented context when performing local orientation judgments, perhaps because women and men differ in their ability to use cognitive schemes to compensate for the distracting effects of the global context. Our findings further suggest that whether or not gender differences arise depends not only on the nature of the visual task but also on the visual context.

  14. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system shapes odor memory and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory. After outlining the properties of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system, and after describing their regulation by internal and environmental factors, we ask how the process of odorant perception can be influenced by constant neuronal turnover. We then explore the possible functional roles that newborn neurons might have for olfactory memory. Throughout this review, and as we concentrate almost exclusively on mammalian models, we stress the idea that adult neurogenesis is yet another form of plasticity used by the brain to copes with a constantly changing olfactory world. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How religiosity shapes health perceptions and behaviors of Latina immigrants: is it an enabling or prohibitive factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The study examines how religiosity shapes the health perceptions and health-related behaviors of 50 Latina immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Bolivia. Between May and August 2011, focus groups were conducted with participants representing each country of origin. Qualitative content analysis was the analytic strategy adopted in the study. The meta-theme, Religiosity Contributes to Positive Perceptions of Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors, is associated with six emerging themes: (1) Religiosity promotes a sense of personal responsibility for one's health; (2) Religiosity promotes a holistic view of health; (3) Religiosity promotes the view that health is a priority; (4) Religiosity promotes the view that health enables one to perform necessary tasks; (5) Religiosity promotes health-seeking behavior; and (6) Religiosity provides intrinsic health benefits. Findings do not follow the clear-cut dichotomy of the health locus of control model and challenge simplified notions that Latinas hold a purely external health locus of control toward their health and health care. Latinas rely on both God and themselves in managing their health and engaging in health-promoting actions, which are prompted in large part by their religiosity. Implications for culturally appropriate health communication and interventions are discussed.

  16. Spiderman and science: How students' perceptions of scientists are shaped by popular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aik-Ling; Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Zhai, Junqing

    2017-07-01

    This study addresses the influence of popular media on how young children perceive science and the work of scientists. Using an adapted version of the Draw-A-Scientist Test, 15 classes of fourth graders (9-10 years old) at three different schools in Singapore were sampled ( n =  266). The students' drawings as well as their identification of three sources from which they obtained inspiration for their drawings were analyzed. Our results showed a strong relationship between students' drawings of scientists and their reported sources of inspiration. The results suggest that popular media play a large role in shaping how young children view scientists.

  17. Influences of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mase T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Mase,1 Kumiko Ohara,2,3 Chiemi Miyawaki,4 Katsuyasu Kouda,5 Harunobu Nakamura2 1Department of Childhood Education, Kyoto Seibo College, Kyoto, Japan; 2Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan; 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Early Childhood Education, Heian Jogakuin (St Agnes’ College, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Public Health, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan Purpose: The present study investigated the influence of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on the perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students.Methods: The study included 342 female, Japanese university students between the ages of 18 years and 22 years. They completed an anonymous questionnaire, which included questions related to anthropometry and body perception. Eating behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Eating Attitude Test-26.Results: Many students overestimated their body shape (81.2% of underweight students and 74.6% of normal students and had a desire for thinness (41.0% of underweight students, 88.2% of normal students, and 100% of overweight students. One of the main reasons for the overestimation of their body shape was comparison with others. Participants who were interested in a friend’s body shape were almost three times more likely to have a desire for thinness than those who were not interested in a female friend’s body shape (odds ratio: 3.06, P=0.014.Conclusion: The results indicate a possibility that a female Japanese student’s young female friends’ body shapes, influences her desire for thinness or her perception of her own body shape. Keywords: body perception, body shape, desire for thinness, female students 

  18. Impact of corporate visual identity on consumer`s perception of a brand : the meaning of logo’s shape and colour in Finnish market.

    OpenAIRE

    Pham , Van

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study how shapes and colours used in logo influence consumer’s perceived characteristics of a brand, specifically in Finland. Key concepts addressed are visual identity - which includes logo, and brand personality – which refers to consumer’s perception of a brand’s characteristics. The theories of aesthetic stimuli’s referential meanings, colour associations, and meaning of shapes and symbol are used to explain how consumers relate to brand via initial ...

  19. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1. This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2. Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3. The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4. These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects. We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism, which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  20. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Letizia; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  2. Healthcare providers' perceptions of barriers in implementing of home telecare in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuei-Feng; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chien, I-Kuang; Liou, Jhao-Kun; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Huang, Chien-Min; Yang, Feng-Yueh

    2015-04-01

    Telecare has not only brought down medical expenses, but has also become an important tool to address healthcare needs. In recent years, the Taiwanese government has been concerned about this healthcare issue. However, only a few hospitals provide telecare. This study aims at investigating the barriers that healthcare providers face while implementing home telecare in Taiwan. A qualitative research design was employed in this study, with semi-structured in-depth interviews. The sample was obtained from five hospitals, including three medical centers and two regional hospitals. A total of 31 healthcare providers were interviewed, including case managers (n=11), administrators (n=7), physicians (n=7), and nurses (n=6). The results were summarized into five themes, including: (1) unsuitable laws and vague policies, (2) the policy implementation fails to meet public needs, (3) lack of organizational support, (4) lack of quality and convenience of the system, and (5) inadequate public perception and attitudes. Obstacles in policy and regulations are the most fundamental difficulties for telecare implementation, therefore the government should provide a clear direction by planning policies, legislate appropriate regulations, and incorporate telecare into the scope of medical insurance, in order to improve the environment and stimulate the telecare service market. In order to improve the success rate of telecare, administrators should be able to identify an appropriate cost-benefit model to build a humane system to satisfy public needs and to provide staff with resources and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing and Quantifying the Shape-Memory Effect of Single Polymeric Micro/Nanowires with an Atomic Force Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Gould, Oliver E C; Lysyakova, Liudmila; Jiang, Yi; Sauter, Tilman; Frank, Oliver; Becker, Tino; Schossig, Michael; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas

    2018-04-23

    The implementation of shape-memory effects (SME) in polymeric micro- or nano-objects currently relies on the application of indirect macroscopic manipulation techniques, for example, stretchable molds or phantoms, to ensembles of small objects. Here, we introduce a method capable of the controlled manipulation and SME quantification of individual micro- and nano-objects in analogy to macroscopic thermomechanical test procedures. An atomic force microscope was utilized to address individual electro-spun poly(ether urethane) (PEU) micro- or nanowires freely suspended between two micropillars on a micro-structured silicon substrate. In this way, programming strains of 10±1% or 21±1% were realized, which could be successfully fixed. An almost complete restoration of the original free-suspended shape during heating confirmed the excellent shape-memory performance of the PEU wires. Apparent recovery stresses of σ max,app =1.2±0.1 and 33.3±0.1 MPa were obtained for a single microwire and nanowire, respectively. The universal AFM test platform described here enables the implementation and quantification of a thermomechanically induced function for individual polymeric micro- and nanosystems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Diversity of Perceptions on REDD+ Implementation at the Agriculture Frontier in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonist farmers have been largely ignored to date in national consultations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+. Yet, good practices suggest that understanding all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives, goals, and issues is a precondition for the development of successful environmental policies. The present research documents perceptions of the civil society and the government on the possibility of successfully implementing REDD+ activities with colonist farmers. The focus is on Eastern Panama. The perceptions on REDD+ vary greatly depending on the stakeholders’ origins. The government perceives REDD+ as a possibility for improving laws, increasing control over the national territory, and investing more resources for conservation and public institutions, whereas respondents from colonist backgrounds mostly insist on the potential economic benefits and/or the negative implications that could encompass REDD+. Noncolonist participants from regional, national, and international organizations instead try to balance concerns of communities and conservation objectives. Because one of our results highlighted the difficulty of colonist farmers in speaking as a united voice, we carried out a case study of a successful colonists association in order to identify the characteristics and practices found to facilitate communal organization.

  5. Plain packaging implementation: perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Durkin, Sarah; Lovett, Ray

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings on perceptions of risk and prestige related to different cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian Capital Territory. We hypothesised that the changes would decrease perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others', and that 'some brands are more prestigious than others', and this would be stronger among participants aged ≤35 years, and among smokers compared with non-smokers. Participants completed the survey prior to packaging changes, and were followed up 12 months later (n=98). Repeated measures ANCOVAs assessed perception changes. Following plain packaging implementation, there was a significant reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others'. There was no overall change in perceptions of prestige. However, there was a significant interaction for age. Analyses indicated a reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more prestigious than others' among younger participants (p=0.05), but no change among older participants (p>0.20). There was no interaction for smoking status for perceptions of prestige, indicating smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions did not differ on this measure. These findings provide support for the packaging changes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Implementation of ICT in the Dominican Republic. Approach to Teachers Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiselis-Rosanna SENA-RIVAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate teachers’ perception of the EDPJA program in the Dominican Republic, as well as their opinion on ICT training. Likewise, it analyzes, the possibilities that represent the means of technology of the information and communication; in addition, it develops an analysis on the role of ICT in the work rooms, in the same way that influences the teaching-learning processes and the possible technical difficulties that can be generated. From a quantitative study with a non-experimental-transverse exploratory type design. With a probabilistic sample of 100 teachers to whom a survey was applied. The results reveal data that need special attention, given the nature of the context in which the study is developed. In this sense, a high index of teachers recognizes ICT as a fundamental instrument of educational innovation and facilitators of learning; however, they admit that they do not have basic training for their implementation.

  7. Shaping LGBTQ Identities: Western Media Representations and LGBTQ People's Perceptions in Rural Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz López, Josep Maria

    2017-10-09

    A growing academic discussion has focused on how, in a globalized world, LGBTQ identities are shaped and influenced by different and international actors, such as the media. This article analyzes how LGBTQ people from a rural region of a Western country-Spain-feel toward their representations on TV series from English-speaking countries. Employing a qualitative approach, this research aims to depict whether the academic conceptualizations to analyze these identity conformation processes are accurate. In addition, it explores how dominating media representations are being adapted in a region that, although within the West, can serve a context of a very different nature. The results found that a major rejection of the TV series representations among participants can suggest both an inaccuracy of the conceptualizations used by some scholars to understand LGBTQ flows and a problematic LGBTQ representation in media products that goes beyond regions and spaces.

  8. The edge complex: implicit memory for figure assignment in shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Enns, James T

    2005-05-01

    Viewing a stepped edge is likely to prompt the perceptual assignment of one side of the edge as figure. This study demonstrates that even a single brief glance at a novel edge gives rise to an implicit memory regarding which side was seen as figure; this edge complex enters into the figure assignment process the next time the edge is encountered, both speeding same-different judgments when the figural side is repeated and slowing these judgments when the new figural side is identical to the former ground side (Experiments 1A and 1B). These results were obtained even when the facing direction of the repeated edge was mirror reversed (Experiment 2). This study shows that implicit measures can reveal the effects of past experience on figure assignment, following a single prior exposure to a novel shape, and supports a competitive model of figure assignment in which past experience serves as one of many figural cues.

  9. Organisational justice, trust and perceptions of fairness in the implementation of agenda for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Keren, E-mail: williamsonk2@cardiff.ac.u [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Williams, Kristy J. [Radiotherapy Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Background: Agenda for Change (AfC) was introduced to ensure equity of rewards for work of equal value, irrespective of professional background. Radiographer grades were evaluated and matched against job profiles and placed within the relevant pay bands of AfC. Equity theory suggests that individuals will make comparisons between themselves and others with regard to their rewards resulting in justice perceptions which may affect morale and work behaviours. This case study explored the justice perceptions and effect on co-worker relationships of a group of therapeutic radiographers in the process and outcomes of the implementation of AfC within their organisation. Method: An existential phenomenological approach was used and self administered questionnaires utilised for data collection. A sample of band 5-8a therapeutic radiographers from one regional Cancer Centre was questioned. Content analysis was applied to systematically and objectively categorise information into recurring themes. Findings: Open coding identified two main themes which were termed Recognition and Resentment. Data was analysed in terms of organisational justice theory and issues were identified in relation to recognition of extra-role behaviour and trust in those tasked with job matching and decision making. Conclusion: There appeared to be a perceived lack of justice in relation to the implementation of AfC, resulting in a lowering of staff morale and organisational commitment. However, no effect on co-worker relations was reported. Professional values appear to supersede issues of organisational justice, with staff asserting that patient care must override any matter of personal dissatisfaction.

  10. Organisational justice, trust and perceptions of fairness in the implementation of agenda for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Keren; Williams, Kristy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Agenda for Change (AfC) was introduced to ensure equity of rewards for work of equal value, irrespective of professional background. Radiographer grades were evaluated and matched against job profiles and placed within the relevant pay bands of AfC. Equity theory suggests that individuals will make comparisons between themselves and others with regard to their rewards resulting in justice perceptions which may affect morale and work behaviours. This case study explored the justice perceptions and effect on co-worker relationships of a group of therapeutic radiographers in the process and outcomes of the implementation of AfC within their organisation. Method: An existential phenomenological approach was used and self administered questionnaires utilised for data collection. A sample of band 5-8a therapeutic radiographers from one regional Cancer Centre was questioned. Content analysis was applied to systematically and objectively categorise information into recurring themes. Findings: Open coding identified two main themes which were termed Recognition and Resentment. Data was analysed in terms of organisational justice theory and issues were identified in relation to recognition of extra-role behaviour and trust in those tasked with job matching and decision making. Conclusion: There appeared to be a perceived lack of justice in relation to the implementation of AfC, resulting in a lowering of staff morale and organisational commitment. However, no effect on co-worker relations was reported. Professional values appear to supersede issues of organisational justice, with staff asserting that patient care must override any matter of personal dissatisfaction.

  11. How musical expertise shapes speech perception: evidence from auditory classification images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnet, Léo; Wang, Tianyun; Peter, Chloe; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-09-24

    It is now well established that extensive musical training percolates to higher levels of cognition, such as speech processing. However, the lack of a precise technique to investigate the specific listening strategy involved in speech comprehension has made it difficult to determine how musicians' higher performance in non-speech tasks contributes to their enhanced speech comprehension. The recently developed Auditory Classification Image approach reveals the precise time-frequency regions used by participants when performing phonemic categorizations in noise. Here we used this technique on 19 non-musicians and 19 professional musicians. We found that both groups used very similar listening strategies, but the musicians relied more heavily on the two main acoustic cues, at the first formant onset and at the onsets of the second and third formants onsets. Additionally, they responded more consistently to stimuli. These observations provide a direct visualization of auditory plasticity resulting from extensive musical training and shed light on the level of functional transfer between auditory processing and speech perception.

  12. How Social Status Shapes Person Perception and Evaluation: A Social Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.

  13. Necessary conditions to implement innovation in remote networked schools: The stakeholders’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Turcotte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote Networked Schools (RNS is an initiative by the Quebec Ministry of Education, Leisure and Sports (MELS to investigate solutions that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT can offer for the preservation of small rural schools in Quebec, Canada. The implementation of RNS mobilized then – as it still does now – the local capacity for innovation of all the stakeholders involved in this networking effort to improve learning. Building on Donald P. Ely’s work (1990; 1999, this paper presents the results of an investigation of the RNS educational stakeholders’ perceptions of the importance of the conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational technology innovations for the success of RNS in their locations. Les conditions nécessaires à l’implantation de l’innovation de l'École éloignée en réseau: la perception des intervenants Résumé: L’École éloignée en réseau est une initiative du Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport du Québec (MELS, qui a comme objectif d’explorer ce que l’usage des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC peut offrir pour la sauvegarde des petites écoles rurales au Québec, Canada. L'implantation de l’École éloignée en réseau a mobilisé (et continue aujourd’hui la capacité locale, pour l’innovation, de tous les intervenants impliqués dans cet effort de mise en réseau pour améliorer l’apprentissage. Partant des recherches de Donald P. Ely (1990; 1999, ce texte présente les résultats d’une étude sur la perception des intervenants impliqués dans l’École éloignée en réseau, quant à l’importance des conditions facilitant l’implantation d’innovations technologiques afin que cela soit un succès dans leur communauté.

  14. School staff, parent and student perceptions of a Breakfast in the Classroom model during initial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Carmichael Djang, Holly; Halmo, Megan; Metayer, Nesly; Blondin, Stacy A; Smith, Kathleen S; Economos, Christina D

    2016-06-01

    To understand perspectives of stakeholders during initial district-wide implementation of a Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) model of the School Breakfast Program. Qualitative data were collected from twenty-nine focus groups and twenty interviews with stakeholders in a school district early in the process of implementing a BIC model of the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools within a large, urban school district in the USA that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students. Purposively selected stakeholders in elementary schools that had implemented BIC for 3-6 months: students (n 85), parents/guardians (n 86), classroom teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and principals (n 10). Four primary themes emerged, which were interpreted based on the Diffusion of Innovations model. School staff had changed their perceptions of both the relative disadvantages and costs related to time and effort of BIC over time; the majority of each stakeholder group expressed an appreciation for BIC; student breakfast consumption varied from day to day, related to compatibility of foods with child preferences; and stakeholders held mixed and various impressions of BIC's potential impacts. The study underscores the importance of engaging school staff and parents in discussions of BIC programming prior to its initiation to pre-emptively address concerns related to cost, relative disadvantages and compatibility with child preferences and school routines/workflow. Effectively communicating with stakeholders about positive impacts and nutritional value of the meals may improve support for BIC. These findings provide new information to policy makers, districts and practitioners that can be used to improve implementation efforts, model delivery and outcomes.

  15. Emotions in "Black and White" or Shades of Gray? How We Think About Emotion Shapes Our Perception and Neural Representation of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Nook, Erik C; Narayanan, Sandhya; Shu, Jocelyn; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2016-11-01

    The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i.e., the amygdala and ventral anterior insula); and (c) connectivity of these regions with the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with the magnitude of categorization-related shifts. These findings suggest that categorical thinking about emotions may actively shape the perception and neural representation of the emotions in question. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Physician perceptions of primary prevention: qualitative base for the conceptual shaping of a practice intervention tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Christina L

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practice intervention must have its basis in an understanding of the physician and practice to secure its benefit and relevancy. We used a formative process to characterize primary care physician attitudes, needs, and practice obstacles regarding primary prevention. The characterization will provide the conceptual framework for the development of a practice tool to facilitate routine delivery of primary preventive care. Methods A focus group of primary care physician Opinion Leaders was audio-taped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed to identify emergent themes that described physicians' perceptions of prevention in daily practice. Results The conceptual worth of primary prevention, including behavioral counseling, was high, but its practice was significantly countered by the predominant clinical emphasis on and rewards for secondary care. In addition, lack of health behavior training, perceived low self-efficacy, and patient resistance to change were key deterrents to primary prevention delivery. Also, the preventive focus in primary care is not on cancer, but on predominant chronic nonmalignant conditions. Conclusions The success of the future practice tool will be largely dependent on its ability to "fit" primary prevention into the clinical culture of diagnoses and treatment sustained by physicians, patients, and payers. The tool's message output must be formatted to facilitate physician delivery of patient-tailored behavioral counseling in an accurate, confident, and efficacious manner. Also, the tool's health behavior messages should be behavior-specific, not disease-specific, to draw on shared risk behaviors of numerous diseases and increase the likelihood of perceived salience and utility of the tool in primary care.

  17. Stakeholders' Perception on National Heatwave Plans and Their Local Implementation in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-11-10

    National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings as well as improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and The Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat-risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.

  18. Provider and Staff Perceptions and Experiences Implementing Behavioral Health Integration in Six Low-Income Health Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Heather; Sacca, Katie; Variano, Margaret; Gentry, Lisa; Relle, Meagan; Bertrand, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral health integration (BHI) is a proven, effective practice for addressing the joint behavioral health and medical health needs of vulnerable populations. As part of the New Orleans Charitable Health Fund (NOCHF) program, this study addressed a gap in literature to better understand factors that impact the implementation of BHI by analyzing perceptions and practices among staff at integrating organizations. Using a mixed-method design, quantitative results from the Levels of Integration Measure (LIM), a survey tool for assessing staff perceptions of BHI in primary care settings (n=86), were analyzed alongside qualitative results from in-depth interviews with staff (n=27). Findings highlighted the roles of strong leadership, training, and process changes on staff collaboration, relationships, and commitment to BHI. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the LIM in conjunction with in-depth interviews as an assessment tool for understanding perceptions and organizational readiness for BHI implementation.

  19. Perceptions of Science Teachers on Implementation of Seven Principles for Good Practice in Education by Chickering and Gamson in Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugras, Mustafa; Asiltürk, Erol

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the perceptions of science teachers on the implementation of the seven principles for good practice in education by Chickering and Gamson in their courses. Seven principles for good science education were used as a data collection tool in the survey. "The seven principles for good practice in science…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants, nine teachers and three administrators, volunteered for this six-week study at a private, K3-12 school in Broward County, Florida. The study's…

  1. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  2. Consumer perceptions on sustainable practices implemented in foodservice organizations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2016-02-01

    Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship among sustainable practices, social contribution and purchase intention. The study was conducted using content analyses by reviewing articles on sustainable food service practices published domestically and abroad. Thereafter, data were collected with a face-to-face survey using a questionnaire and analyzed with factor analyses and multiple regressions. Sustainable practices classified with factor analysis consisted of 6 dimensions of green food material procurement, sustainable food preparation, green packaging, preservation of energy, waste management, and public relations on green activity, with a total of 25 green activities in foodservice operations. Consumers were not very familiar with the green activities implemented in the foodservice unit, with the lowest awareness of "green food material procurement (2.46 out of 5 points)", and the highest awareness of "green packaging (3.74)" and "waste management (3.28). The factors influencing the perception of social contribution by foodservice organizations among 6 sustainable practice dimensions were found to be public relations on green activity (β = 0.154), waste management (β = 0.204) and sustainable food preparation (β = 0.183). Green packaging (β = 0.107) and the social contribution of the foodservice organization (β = 0.761) had strong relationships with the image of the organization. The purchase intentions of customers was affected only by the foodservice image (β = 0.775). The results of this study suggest that sustainable practices by

  3. Curvature and the visual perception of shape: theory on information along object boundaries and the minima rule revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E Charles

    2012-07-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately, Feldman and Singh (2005, Psychological Review, 112, 243-252) proposed a mathematical derivation to yield information content as a function of curvature along a contour. Here, we highlight several fundamental errors in their derivation and in its associated implementation, which are problematic in both mathematical and psychological senses. Instead, we propose an alternative mathematical formulation for information measure of contour curvature that addresses these issues. Additionally, unlike in previous work, we extend this approach to 3-dimensional (3D) shape by providing a formal measure of information content for surface curvature and outline a modified version of the minima rule relating to part segmentation using curvature in 3D shape. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. On the frontline of CCSS implementation: A national study of factors influencing teachers’ perceptions of teaching conditions and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Endacott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Common Core State Standards (CCSS represent an unprecedented change in American education. As an increasingly integral part of the school accountability movement under No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, responsibility for implementing CCSS rests largely with school leadership. One important factor in the success or failure of these efforts is the perceptions and experiences of the teachers who will ultimately employ CCSS in the classroom. This survey study examined teachers’ views of CCSS implementation, teaching conditions, collaboration, and job satisfaction. Factor analysis revealed that the openness and activeness of school leadership had a significant effect on teachers’ perceptions of implementation, suggesting that attention to these aspects of leadership is an important consideration during transition to CCSS.

  5. Implementing a Public Bicycle Share Program: Impact on Perceptions and Support for Public Policies for Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Gauvin, Lise; Fuller, Daniel; Drouin, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Favorable public opinion and support for policies are essential to favor the sustainability of environmental interventions. This study examined public perceptions and support for active living policies associated with implementing a public bicycle share program (PBSP). Two cross-sectional population-based telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 among 5011 adults in Montréal, Canada. Difference-in-differences analyses tested the impact of the PBSP on negative perceptions of the impact of the PBSP on the image of the city, road safety, ease of traveling, active transportation, health, and resistance to policies. People living closer to docking stations were less likely to have negative perceptions of the effect of the PBSP on the image of the city (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and to be resistant to policies (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0). The likelihood of perceiving negative effects on road safety increased across time (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8). Significant interactions were observed for perceptions of ease of traveling (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8), active transportation (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0), and health (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8): likelihood of negative perceptions decreased across time among people exposed. Findings indicate that negative perceptions were more likely to abate among those living closer to the PBSP.

  6. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-09-07

    The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding) were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  7. Implementation of a multi-layer perception for a non-linear control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.; Marmillod, P.

    1990-12-01

    We present the practical application of a 1-hidden-layer multilayer perception (MLP) to provide a non-linear continuous multi-variable mapping with 42 inputs and 13 outputs. The problem resolved is one of extracting information from experimental signals with a bandwidth of many kilohertz. We have an exact model of the inverse mapping of this problem, but we have no explicit form of the required forward mapping. This is the typical situation in data interpretation. The MLP was trained to provide this mapping by learning on 500 input-output examples. The success of the off-line solution to this problem using an MLP led us to examine the robustness of the MLP to different noise sources. We found that the MLP is more robust than an approximate linear mapping of the same problem. 12 bits of resolution in the weights are necessary to avoid a significant loss of precision. The practical implementation of large analog weight matrices using DAS-multipliers and a simple segmented sigmoid is also presented. A General Adaptive Recipe (GAR) for improving the performance of conventional back-propagation was developed. The GAR uses an adaptive step length and both the bias terms and the initial weight seeding are determined by the network size. The GAR was found to be robust and much faster than conventional back-propagation. (author) 20 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  8. [Barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision-making in oncology: Patient perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Moreno, M; Padilla-Garrido, N; Huelva-López, L; Aguado-Correa, F; Bayo-Calero, J; Bayo-Lozano, E

    To determine, from the point of view of the oncological patient, who made the decision about their treatment, as well as the major barriers and facilitators that enabled Shared Decision Making to be implemented. A cross-sectional, descriptive, sand association study using a self-report questionnaire to selected cancer patients, with casual sampling in different oncology clinics and random time periods. A total of 108 patients provided analysable data. The information was collected on sociodemographic and clinical variables, who made the decision about treatment, and level of agreement or disagreement with various barriers and facilitators. More than one-third (38.1%) of patients claimed to have participated in shared decision making with their doctor. Barriers such as, time, the difficulty of understanding, the paternalism, lack of fluid communication, and having preliminary and often erroneous information influenced the involvement in decision-making. However, to have or not have sufficient tools to aid decision making or the patient's interest to participate had no effect. As regards facilitators, physician motivation, their perception of improvement, and the interest of the patient had a positive influence. The exception was the possibility of financial incentives to doctors. The little, or no participation perceived by cancer patients in decisions about their health makes it necessary to introduce improvements in the health care model to overcome barriers and promote a more participatory attitude in the patient. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Employees’ perceptions of the implementation of affirmative action in the health sector in the Standerton District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rankhumse

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of a fully democratic government in South Africa in 1994, government and trade unions have been placing increasing pressure on government departments and public institutions to introduce steps to correct racial discrimination through the implementation of affirmative action (AA. This study, which was carried out in the Standerton Health District, assesses employees’ perceptions of and attitudes towards the implementation of AA. A quantitative design was used. Data was gathered from a total population of 360 employees by means of a questionnaire. The study revealed the following major themes: • Respondents feel that if AA were effectively implemented, there would be an increase in productivity. • There is strong support for the implementation of AA appointments. • The implementation of AA will fail if the goals of AA are not properly and effectively communicated to all employees.

  10. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  11. Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility implementation: an emphasis on values

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a broad study of factors affecting perceptions of CSR issues in multiple stakeholder realms, the main purpose being to determine the effects of the values of individuals on their perceptions regarding CSR. It examines perceptions of CSR both at the emic (observing individuals and stakeholders) and etic levels (conducting cross-cultural comparison) through a descriptive-empirical research strategy. The dissertation is based on quantitative interview data among Chinese, Fin...

  12. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN MONETARY POLICY AND RISK PERCEPTION IN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IMPLEMENTING INFLATION TARGETING REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Kansu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent financial crisis of August 2007 in US, economists and policy makers hold the view that monetary policy may have an effect on real economic activity through ‘risk taking channel’ which indicates the risk behavior of economic agents and the linkages between monetary policy and perception of risk. In this study, we examine whether changes in monetary policy stance influence the risk perceptions and generates any impact on the real side of the economy in Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federation and Turkey implementing inflation targeting. In the context of a SVAR model, we find that monetary policy does not affect risk perception reflected by stock price variability and any attempt by central banks to stimulate real economic activity through monetary policy also appears to be ineffective in these countries.

  13. Social workers' perceptions of barriers to interpersonal therapy implementation for treating postpartum depression in a primary care setting in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Barak, Adi; Posmontier, Barbara; Glasser, Saralee; Cinamon, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in social work often neglects to include evaluation of application barriers. This qualitative study examined social workers' perspectives of provider- and organisational-related barriers to implementing a brief eight-session interpersonal therapy (IPT) intervention, a time-limited EBP that addresses reducing depressive symptoms and improving interpersonal functioning. Implementation took place in a primary care setting in Israel and was aimed at treating women who have postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. Using purposeful sampling, 25 primary care licensed social workers were interviewed between IPT training and implementation regarding their perceived barriers to implementing IPT in practice. Data analysis was facilitated using a phenomenological approach, which entails identifying the shared themes and shared experiences of research participants regarding barriers to implementing IPT. Three themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: Perceived lack of flexibility of IPT intervention in comparison with more familiar methods social workers previously applied, specifically regarding the number of sessions and therapeutic topics included in the IPT protocol; insecurity and hesitance to gain experience with a new method of intervention; and organisational barriers, including difficulties with referrals, the perception of HMOs as health facilities not suitable for therapy, and time constraints. Addressing perceived barriers of social workers toward implementing EBPs, such as IPT for postpartum depression, during the training phase is crucial for enabling appropriate implementation. Future training should include examining practitioners' attitudes toward implementation of EBPs, as part of standardised training protocols. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Implementing Collaborative Learning in Prelicensure Nursing Curricula: Student Perceptions and Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Anne M; Selde, M Susan; Goodman, Joely T; Tow, Joyce C; Selig, Cindy L; Wichman, Chris; Cosimano, Amy; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated learning outcomes and student perceptions of collaborative learning in an undergraduate nursing program. Participants in this 3-phase action research study included students enrolled in a traditional and an accelerated nursing program. The number of students who passed the unit examination was not significantly different between the 3 phases. Students had positive and negative perceptions about the use of collaborative learning.

  15. The Perception of Malaysian Architects towards the Implementation of Green Roofs: A Review of Practices, Methodologies and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir M.H. Md.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of green roofs or vegetated roof as a sustainable tool to mitigate the Urban Heat Island effect is relatively new in Malaysia. Although it has not been tested on an urban scale, many research findings have indicated that green roofs can contribute towards enhancing the environmental and aesthetical quality of the built environment. It was hypothesized that the low application of green roofs in the Malaysian construction industry is due to the lack of awareness, understanding and experience in its benefits especially among building practitioners. As a result, this research was initiated to determine the perception and understanding of Malaysian architects in green roofs implementation issues, as well as to identify their level of acceptance and readiness. This paper reviews practices and different research approaches in understanding the factors that influence architect’s perception towards the implementation of green roofs in the Malaysian construction industry. Architects were chosen as the only respondents due to their intensive involvement in the conceptualisation, planning, design and construction stage of a built environment project. Extensive literature review was conducted to explore past experiences in green roof implementation and to develop the theoretical framework for this research.

  16. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Indonesian perceptions on the implementation of the chemical weapons convention in relation with biosecurity and biosafety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isroil, S.

    2009-01-01

    April 29, 2007 was marked the 10 year anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entry into force and the creation of the OPCW. Many nations throughout the last year were celebrated its commemoration. Compared to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) which is now entering the 33rd year of its entry into force, the progress of CWC is running far beyond that convention because CWC is considered the most complete convention which is equipped with a comprehensive verification system. In contrast, up till now there is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance of the BWC. So the national legislation as well as biosafety and biosecurity procedures will be the best regime to prohibit the misuse of biological agents. To some extent, the strategy and method on implementing the provision of CWC are coincident with biosecurity and biosafety procedure due to their dual use characteristics. Concerning CWC, Indonesia which was ratified it in 30 September 1998 has always active in any multilateral meeting and as well as national activities on prohibiting the misuse of chemical weapons. Several courses have also been done in cooperation with OPCW such as Development of Response System Against Chemical Weapons, Basic Training Course for Response Team, National Industry Awareness Workshop, Advance Training for Response Team, National Emergency Response Workshop, as well as setting up 20 sets of individual protective equipment. There have already 7 inspections done by OPCW in Indonesia during 2004-2007 which proved that there were no indications of misuse of chemical processes and its facilities for hostile purposes. However, it does not mean that there is no threat from the possible misuse of chemical and biological agents due to its dual use characteristics. Learnt from Indonesian experiences, there are several constraints on implementing the CWC as well as biosafety and biosecurity. First is the different perception on the biological and chemical threats. For

  18. Implementation of national palliative care guidelines in Swedish acute care hospitals: A qualitative content analysis of stakeholders' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, S; Wallin, L; Brytting, T; Fürst, C J; Sandberg, J

    2017-11-01

    In high-income countries a large proportion of all deaths occur in hospitals. A common way to translate knowledge into clinical practice is developing guidelines for different levels of health care organisations. During 2012, national clinical guidelines for palliative care were published in Sweden. Later, guidance for palliative care was issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare. The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate perceptions regarding these guidelines and identify obstacles and opportunities for implementation of them in acute care hospitals. Interviews were conducted with local politicians, chief medical officers and health professionals at acute care hospitals. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used in a directed content analysis approach. The results showed little knowledge of the two documents at all levels of the health care organisation. Palliative care was primarily described as end of life care and only few of the participants talked about the opportunity to integrate palliative care early in a disease trajectory. The environment and culture at hospitals, characterised by quick decisions and actions, were perceived as obstacles to implementation. Health professionals' expressed need for palliative care training is an opportunity for implementation of clinical guidelines. There is a need for further implementation of palliative care in hospitals. One option for further research is to evaluate implementation strategies tailored to acute care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of nurse educators regarding the implementation of the occupational specific dispensation at a selected nursing college in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Netshiswinzhe Mcur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD in a selected nursing college in Limpopo province. A qualitative approach was used with a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who had worked for more than five years and been subjected to the implementation of OSD. In-depth interviews were conducted and data analysed according to Tesch's method. The perceptions of nurse educators were shared through participants' responses to a central research question. Participants expressed different responses, both positive and negative. The findings of this study demonstrated: high expectations, unfair treatment in relation to the implementation, and reactions to introduction of OSD. Participants also identified envisaged ways of improving the situation through the identification of ways to correct the problems. This study recommended that management ensure that nurse educators' remuneration packages are competitive with those of similar professions in the clinical setting. Recognition of nurse educators' additional qualifications, long-service experiences and rural allowance reviews in nursing education should be taken into consideration urgently.

  20. Implementation of a neural network for digital pulse shape analysis on a FPGA for on-line identification of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, R., E-mail: naharro@uhu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sanchez-Raya, M.; Gomez-Galan, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Flores, J.L. [Departamento Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Duenas, J.A.; Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-05-11

    Pulse shape analysis techniques for the identification of heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions have been recently proposed as an alternative to energy loss and time of flight methods. However this technique requires a large amount of memory for storing the shapes of charge and current signals. We have implemented a hardware solution for fast on-line processing of the signals producing the relevant information needed for particle identification. Since the pulse shape analysis can be formulated in terms of a pattern recognition problem, a neural network has been implemented in a FPGA device. The design concept has been tested using {sup 12,13}C ions produced in heavy ion reactions. The actual latency of the system is about 20 {mu}s when using a clock frequency of 50 MHz.

  1. Perceptions of educators regarding the implementation of the health promotion programme manuals for children in schools in Makapanstad, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriccah Peu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health promoting schools focus on, amongst other things, preventing leading causes of death such as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s, Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a sedentary lifestyle and creating conditions that are conducive to health through health education. Aim: This study explored the perceptions of educators regarding implementation of the health promotion programme manuals in selected schools of the Makapanstad community. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was utilised in this study. Four schools were selected to participate in the study. Purposive sampling was used to select educators from these schools who were actively involved in the health promotion programme. Data collection was taken through focus group interviews. One focus group comprised of eight participants who were interviewed three times. The focus group interviews were conducted until data were saturated. Data were analysed using an adaptation of Tesch’s method. The eight steps of Tesch’s method enabled researchers to systematically analyse and organise data using colour coding to develop data into categories, sub-categories and themes. Results and conclusion: The themes that emerged during data analysis were: the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals before implementation of manuals, and the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals after the implementation of manuals. Introducing health promotion materials to the schools served as a point of departure for developing personal skills and creating a supportive environment for health in schools. The health promotion manual assisted the educators to attain appropriate health promotion information.

  2. Exploring perceptions of a learning organization by RNs and relationship to EBP beliefs and implementation in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to provide patient care based on best evidence. The context of the acute care setting presents a challenging environment for registered nurses (RNs) to utilize research and implement best evidence in practice. No organizational infrastructure has been identified that offers acute care RNs the support needed for evidence-based practice (EBP). The value of "learning organizations" has long been understood by corporate leaders. Potentially, the dimensions of a "learning organization" may offer a supportive EBP infrastructure for acute care RNs. (1) What is the relationship of the characteristics of the learning organization to registered nurses' beliefs regarding EBP? (2) Is there an impact of EBP beliefs on RNs' implementation of EBP? A descriptive, survey design study was conducted. Three established questionnaires were distributed to 1,750 RNs employed within six acute care hospitals. There were 594 questionnaires returned for a response rate of 34%. RNs rated their organizations in the mid-range on the dimensions of learning organization. Perceptions of the learning organization were found to be significant, although relatively small, predictors explaining 6% of knowledge beliefs, 11% of value beliefs, and 14% of resource beliefs. EBP beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation reported by RNs. The study results indicate relationships between RNs' reported perception of a learning organization and EBP beliefs, and between EBP beliefs and implementation. However, findings were mixed. Overall, nurses rated their organizations the lowest in the dimensions of "promote inquiry and dialogue" and "empower people toward a collective vision." Leaders have an opportunity to offer a more supportive infrastructure through improving their organization in these two areas. RN beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation in this study with a residual 77% yet to be identified. Acute care hospitals were perceived mid-range on learning

  3. Child Welfare Worker Perception of the Implementation of Family-Centered Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Lynn; Ahn, Haksoon; Shaw, Terry V.; O'Connor, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of Family-Centered Practice (FCP) among child welfare workers who are expected to use FCP principles in their work with children and families. Method: Nine focus groups were conducted among child welfare workers across seven different regions within one state to assess caseworker's…

  4. Instructors' Perceptions and Experiences Creating and Implementing Customized E-Texts in Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2018-01-01

    This article presents partial findings from a case study exploring the outcome of an open alternative electronic textbook initiative launched by the College of Education at a large Midwestern university. On the basis of interview data generated by the aforesaid study, this article details the perceptions and experiences of instructors…

  5. Measurement of pitch in speech : an implementation of Goldstein's theory of pitch perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.; Willems, L.F.; Sluyter, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in hearing theory have resulted in the rather general acceptance of the idea that the perception of pitch of complex sounds is the result of the psychological pattern recognition process. The pitch is supposedly mediated by the fundamental of the harmonic spectrum which fits the

  6. Implementing Research in Professional Higher Education: Factors That Influence Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje

    2015-01-01

    Higher professional education in Europe has changed from teaching-only institutes to hybrids of teaching and research. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the judgements of lecturers about new organisational goals and perceptions of their new research-related competencies. Lecturers' judgements of new organisational…

  7. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haidar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a 90° angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  8. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, A.; Sawan, M.; Boukadoum, M.; Haidar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP) core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  9. Changes in perceptions and motivators that influence the implementation of on-farm Salmonella control measures by pig farmers in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marier, Elizabeth; Piers Smith, Richard; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Watson, Eamon; Armstrong, Derek; Hogeveen, Henk; Cook, Alasdair J.C.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents British farmers’ perception of, and barriers to, implementing Salmonella control on pig farms. Four farms that had implemented interventions and their 33 close contacts (known to the intervention farmers) took part in interviews before (phase 1) and after (phase 2)

  10. Consumer perceptions on sustainable practices implemented in foodservice organizations in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship amo...

  11. Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of the Implementation and Effects of Full Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo-Brown, Deborah; Hinson, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey of 51 graduate students/full-time teachers at schools implementing full inclusion programs. Participants expressed their views concerning implementation methods, effects on instructional practices, community reactions, and advantages and disadvantages. Schools need to do a better job of explaining the rationale for full…

  12. Influence of social experiences in shaping perceptions of the Ebola virus among African residents of Hong Kong during the 2014 outbreak: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Judy Yuen-man

    2015-10-05

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Africa in 2014 attracted worldwide attention. Because of the high mortality rate, marginalised social groups are vulnerable to disease-associated stigmatisation and discrimination, according to the literature. In Hong Kong, ethnic minorities such as Africans are often disadvantaged groups because of their low position in the social hierarchy. In 2011, approximately 1700 Africans were residing in Hong Kong. Their overseas experiences during the EVD outbreak were not well documented. Therefore, this study investigated the EVD-associated stigmatisation experiences of African residents of Hong Kong with chronic illnesses, and how these experiences shaped their perceptions of EVD. A qualitative design with 30 in-depth semistructured interviews was conducted with chronically ill African residents of Hong Kong. The interview data showed that the sampled Africans often experienced stigmatisation in their workplaces and in the community during the EVD outbreak. Their experiences of EVD-associated stigma were correlated to the embedded social and cultural values regarding ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. These experiences of being stigmatised shaped the perceptions of the Africans of EVD, leading them to view EVD as shameful and horrifying. They also perceived EVD as retribution and was introduced by Westerners. The participants' perceptions of EVD influenced their responses to and behaviour towards EVD, which may have posed potential threats to Hong Kong's public health. The EVD outbreak was not the only cause of the participants' stigmatisation; rather, their EVD-associated experiences were a continuation and manifestation of the embedded social and cultural values regarding ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. The experiences of being stigmatised shaped the participants' perceptions of EVD. Because of their marginalised social position and isolation from the main community, the participants had extremely limited access to reliable

  13. Opportunities and barriers for implementing CO2 capture ready designs: A case study of stakeholder perceptions in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Xi Liang; Cockerill, Tim; Gibbins, Jon; Reiner, David

    2012-01-01

    China has been building at least 50 gigawatt (GW) of new coal-fired power plants every year since 2004. In the absence of CO 2 capture ready (CCR) designs, a large fraction of new coal power plants built in the next decade could face ‘carbon lock-in’. Building on the existing engineering and economic literature on CO 2 capture ready, the aim of this study is to understand the opportunities and challenges in implementing CCR in China. In early 2010, opinion-leaders perceptions towards implementing CCR in Guangdong with two empirical phases are presented: an online consultation of 31 respondents (out of a sample of 82), three face-to-face focus group discussions including 16 officials from five power plants and two oil companies in the Guangdong province. A majority of respondents in the online survey were engineers. The survey results are compared with an earlier study of stakeholders’ views on demonstrating CCS in China, conducted in April 2009 as part of the EU–UK–China Near Zero Emissions Coal initiative (NZEC) project. - Highlights: ► Without national support, interests from project management and local government help deploy CCR. ► Space on-site and access to storage sites are two essential criteria. ► It is also necessary to investigate the local plant design conventions and regulations. ► Five potential barriers to implementing CCR are identified. ► Four potential drivers may accelerate the implementation of CCR.

  14. U-shaped Relation between Prestimulus Alpha-band and Poststimulus Gamma-band Power in Temporal Tactile Perception in the Human Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Marc André; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec). The intermediate SOA was individually determined so that stimulation was bistable, and participants perceived one stimulus in half of the trials and two stimuli in the other half. We measured neuronal activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In trials with intermediate SOAs, behavioral performance correlated inversely with prestimulus alpha-band power but did not correlate with poststimulus gamma-band power. Poststimulus gamma-band power was high in trials with low and high prestimulus alpha-band power and low for intermediate prestimulus alpha-band power (i.e., U-shaped). We suggest that prestimulus alpha activity modulates poststimulus gamma activity and subsequent perception: (1) low prestimulus alpha-band power leads to high poststimulus gamma-band power, biasing perception such that two stimuli were perceived; (2) intermediate prestimulus alpha-band power leads to low gamma-band power (interpreted as inefficient stimulus processing), consequently, perception was not biased in either direction; and (3) high prestimulus alpha-band power leads to high poststimulus gamma-band power, biasing perception such that only one stimulus was perceived.

  15. National Science Foundation Grant Implementation: Perceptions of Teachers and Graduate Fellows in One School Regarding the Barriers and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Sharon Durham

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perceptions of partner teachers and graduate fellows in 1 school regarding the barriers and successes made during their participation in a National Science Foundation Grant. This study included 9 partner teachers and 7 graduate fellows who participated in the Science First! NSF GK-12 Grant. There were 16 participants in this study. This study was conducted at North Side Elementary and East Tennessee State University. Partner teachers and graduate fellows were interviewed to gain perceptions of the barriers and successes of their participation in the implementation of the Science First! grant at North Side and East Tennessee State University from 2008-2013. A list of possible participants in the study was provided from the grant leadership team. The 16 participants in the study were chosen through purposeful sampling. During data analysis, 4 themes arose as successes and 4 themes arose as barriers. The success themes were (a) relationships, (b) mutual appreciation, (c) increased academic depth, and (d) professional growth. The barriers were (a) communication, (b) time, (c) expectations, and (d) preparation. Based on the research, the following conclusions were presented. The coordination of a major NSF-GK12 grant can provide STEM support and academic rigor for a high poverty school with leadership. Positive relationships between the graduate fellows and partner teachers as well as the 2 participating institutions are critical in fostering successful grant implementation. Professional growth through the grant partnerships was obtained. The participants gained a mutual appreciation for the roles and responsibilities of each other. There are ups and downs in implementing a large grant at 1 elementary school with a university, but the rewards of the potential to influence teacher practices in STEM and student learning are great. Recommendations from the study findings may assist future grant award winners or

  16. Promoting Instructional Improvement or Resistance? A Comparative Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation Policy in Korea and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Youngs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on institutional theory to examine teachers' and principals' perceptions of new teacher evaluation policies, factors that influence such perceptions and how such perceptions shape the implementation of the policies in Seoul (Korea) and Michigan (USA). The study featured in-depth interviews of 11 elementary school teachers and 4…

  17. Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Peels

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006; relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020; complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001; compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001, organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002; perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001; capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001, and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001 were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%, these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy.

  18. Psychiatric service staff perceptions of implementing a shared decision-making tool: a process evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Ulla-Karin; Grim, Katarina; Wallin, Lars; Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra

    2018-12-01

    Shared decision making, SDM, in psychiatric services, supports users to experience a greater sense of involvement in treatment, self-efficacy, autonomy and reduced coercion. Decision tools adapted to the needs of users have the potential to support SDM and restructure how users and staff work together to arrive at shared decisions. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the implementation process of an SDM intervention for users of psychiatric services in Sweden. The implementation was studied through a process evaluation utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. In designing the process evaluation for the intervention, three evaluation components were emphasized: contextual factors, implementation issues and mechanisms of impact. The study addresses critical implementation issues related to decision-making authority, the perceived decision-making ability of users and the readiness of the service to increase influence and participation. It also emphasizes the importance of facilitation, as well as suggesting contextual adaptations that may be relevant for the local organizations. The results indicate that staff perceived the decision support tool as user-friendly and useful in supporting participation in decision-making, and suggest that such concrete supports to participation can be a factor in implementation if adequate attention is paid to organizational contexts and structures.

  19. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silumbwe, Adam; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Halwindi, Hikabasa; Jacobs, Choolwe; Zgambo, Jessy; Dambe, Rosalia; Chola, Mumbi; Chongwe, Gershom; Michelo, Charles

    2017-05-22

    Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs) through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation strategies differently based on specific contextual factors to

  20. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Silumbwe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. Results The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Conclusion Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation

  1. Advantages of the Implementation of IPSAS in Brazilian Public Accounting: Analysis of the perception of the members of GTCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josedilton Alves Diniz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess how the members of the Technical Group for the Standardization of Accounting Procedures (GTCON assess the advantages of the implementation of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards in Brazil. Therefore, a questionnaire was used, elaborated based on five theoretical approaches. The research universe corresponded to the participants in GTCON. The sample resulted in 108 respondents, totaling 27% of the population. The reliability of the tool was tested using the model defined by Cronbach (1951. As each theoretical dimension addressed consists of multiple variables, their dimensionality was reduced using Main Components Analysis (MCA. In addition, multiple linear regression was used, based on the main components of each theoretical construct. The perception of the standards, the interpretation of the standards, the cost-benefit of the implementation and the educational responsibility were submitted to analysis as independent variables, and the advantages of the implementation of the Ipsas were submitted as the dependent variable. The main results evidenced that the research participants agreed that the implementation of the Ipsas is a feasible target. As to the cost-benefit analysis of the implementation, according to the GTCON, the result of the application of the Ipsas exceeds the investments made. It was also observed that interviewees did not agree that the training and application of the Ipsas should be guaranteed through personal efforts, but through the government, i.e. the more the public sector takes responsibility for qualifying the standards, the greater the advantages that will result. Finally, regarding the interpretation of the standards, according to GTCON, it has not been well defined yet how and who will actually be responsible for the interpretation, the international entities or the local institutions involved in the process.

  2. Actual implementation of sick children's rights in Italian pediatric units: a descriptive study based on nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Sofia; Aringhieri, Corinna; McGreevy, Kathleen; Olivini, Nicole; Lopez, José Rafael Gonzalez; Ciofi, Daniele; Merlo, Alberta Marino; Mariotti, Paola; Festini, Filippo

    2015-05-13

    Several charters of rights have been issued in Europe to solemnly proclaim the rights of children during their hospital stay. However, notwithstanding such general declarations, the actual implementation of hospitalized children's rights is unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand to which extent such rights, as established by the two main existing charters of rights, are actually implemented and respected in Italian pediatric hospitals and the pediatric units of Italian general hospitals, as perceived by the nurses working in them. Cross-sectional study. A 12-item online questionnaire was set up and an invitation was sent by email to Italian pediatric nurses using professional mailing lists and social networks. Responders were asked to score to what extent each right is respected in their hospital using a numeric scale from 1 (never) to 5 (always). 536 questionnaires were returned. The best implemented right is the right of children to have their mothers with them (mean score 4.47). The least respected one is the right of children to express their opinion about care (mean 3.01). Other rights considered were the right to play (4.29), the right to be informed (3.95), the right to the respect of privacy (3.75), the right to be hospitalized with peers (3.39), the right not to experience pain ever (3.41), and the right to school (3.07). According to the majority of nurses, the most important is the right to pain relief. Significant differences in the implementation of rights were found between areas of Italy and between pediatric hospitals and pediatric units of general hospitals. According to the perception of pediatric nurses, the implementation of the rights of hospitalized children in Italian pediatrics units is still limited.

  3. Implementation of the surgical safety checklist in Switzerland and perceptions of its benefits: cross-sectional survey.

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    Stéphane Cullati

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the implementation of the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC among surgeons and anaesthetists working in Swiss hospitals and clinics and their perceptions of the SSC. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society of Surgery, Switzerland, 2010. Opinions of the SSC were assessed with a 6-item questionnaire. RESULTS: 152 respondents answered the questionnaire (participation rate 35.1%. 64.7% respondents acknowledged having a checklist in their hospital or their clinic. Median implementation year was 2009. More than 8 out of 10 respondents reported their team applied the Sign In and the Time Out very often or quasi systematically, whereas almost half of respondents acknowledged the Sign Out was applied never or rarely. The majority of respondents agreed that the checklist improves safety and team communication, and helps to develop a safety culture. However, they were less supportive about the opinion that the checklist facilitates teamwork and eliminates social hierarchy between caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates that the SSC has been largely implemented in many Swiss hospitals and clinics. Both surgeons and anaesthetists perceived the SSC as a valuable tool in improving intraoperative patient safety and communication among health care professionals, with lesser importance in facilitating teamwork (and eliminating hierarchical categories.

  4. The importance of religion in shaping volcanic risk perception in Italy, with special reference to Vesuvius and Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.

    2008-05-01

    With the exception of societies that are relatively untouched by modernism, the academic consensus holds that since the Eighteenth Century Enlightenment popular perception of divine responsibility for disasters has been progressively replaced by a perspective that views losses as resulting from the effects of extreme natural events upon vulnerable human populations. Nature is considered to be de-moralised. By means of examples of volcanic eruptions that have occurred over the past one hundred and fifty years and which transcend place, culture and faith tradition, the present authors have maintained a contrasting position, by arguing that religious perspectives are still important features of the ways in which people in many societies perceive volcanic eruptions. In the present paper it is argued that religious terms of reference have been and remain vital elements in the perceptions held by a significant proportion of the population in southern Italy when confronted by volcanic eruptions, particularly those that have occurred on Vesuvius and Etna. Within the context of what is termed popular Catholicism, the development of distinctive religious responses in pre-industrial times is first described. Next, through bibliographic research and social surveys, it is argued that the idiosyncratic religious character of disaster responses has been maintained following eruptions that have occurred during the past one hundred years, including the small number of eruptions of Etna that have taken place in the early years of the twenty-first century. The implications of these religious perceptions and behaviours are discussed within the context of emergency planning and the suggestion is made that they form part of a 'parallel practice' in response to volcanic threat, where actions to encourage the miraculous take place at the same time as more 'rationally' grounded protective measures such as evacuation.

  5. Medical Home Implementation Gaps for Seniors: Perceptions and Experiences of Primary Care Medical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy; DePuccio, Matthew

    2018-07-01

    The study objective was to better understand specific implementation gaps for various aspects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivered to seniors. The study illuminates the physician and staff experience by focusing on how individuals make sense of and respond behaviorally to aspects of PCMH implementation. Qualitative data from 51 in-depth, semi-structured interviews across six different National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)-accredited primary care practices were collected and analyzed. Physicians and staff identified PCMH implementation gaps for their seniors: (a) performing in-depth clinical assessments, (b) identifying seniors' life needs and linking them with community resources, and (c) care management and coordination, in particular self-management support for seniors. Prior experiences trying to perform these aspects of PCMH care for older adults produced collective understandings that led to inaction and avoidance by medical practices around the first two gaps, and proactive behavior that took strategic advantage of external incentives for addressing the third gap. Greater understanding of physician and staff's PCMH implementation experiences, and the learning that accumulates from these experiences, allows for a deeper understanding of how primary care practices choose to enact the medical home model for seniors on an everyday basis.

  6. Perceptions of Teacher Educators Regarding ICT Implementation in Israeli Colleges of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Orit Avidov; Baruch, Alona Forkosh

    2016-01-01

    ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in teacher education poses new challenges to faculty and students. This study was carried out to examine factors facilitating and hindering ICT implementation in teacher education institutes in Israel. Findings from our study, administered at two points in time, revealed that providing…

  7. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to

  8. The Implementation of Pay for Performance in Idaho Schools: A Case Study of Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniec, Shelly Ann

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative narrative case study set in an Idaho high school where twelve educators offered their viewpoints on the implementation of Idaho's pay-for-performance legislation. In the spring of 2011, Idaho legislators passed laws aimed at increasing student performance and college or career readiness. These laws, known as Idaho's Students…

  9. Staff perceptions of leadership during implementation of task-shifting in three surgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Paterson, Karyn; Burmeister, Liz; Thomson, Bernadette; Young, Louise

    2013-03-01

    Registered nurses are difficult to recruit and retain. Task shifting, which involves reallocation of delegation, can reduce demand for registered nurses. Effective leadership is needed for successful task shifting. This study explored leadership styles of three surgical nurse unit managers. Staff completed surveys before and after the implementation of task shifting. Task shifting involved the introduction of endorsed enrolled nurses (licensed nurses who must practise under registered nurse supervision) to better utilize registered nurses. Implementation of task shifting occurred over 4 months in a 700-bed tertiary hospital, in southeast Queensland, Australia. A facilitator assisted nurse unit managers during implementation. The impact was assessed by comparison of data before (n = 49) and after (n = 72) task shifting from registered nurses and endorsed enrolled nurses (n = 121) who completed the Ward Organization Features Survey. Significant differences in leadership and staff organization subscales across the settings suggest that how change involving task shifting is implemented influences nurses' opinions of leadership. Leadership behaviours of nurse unit managers is a key consideration in managing change such as task shifting. Consistent and clear messages from leaders about practice change are viewed positively by nursing staff. In the short term, incremental change possibly results in staff maintaining confidence in leadership. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. IMPLEMENTING AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION WITHIN HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START: HOME-VISITORS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. The influence of school leadership on teachers' perception of teacher evaluation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of teachers' perception of new educational policy is crucial since this perception shapes the policy's implementation. However, quantitative research in this area is scarce. This article draws on empirical data to investigate whether the school leader might influence his teachers' perception of the new teacher evaluation policy. The conceptualisation of teachers' perception consists of three policy characteristics: practicality, need and clarifying function. Our results indi...

  12. Preparatory planning framework for Created Out of Mind: Shaping perceptions of dementia through art and science [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Brotherhood

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Created Out of Mind is an interdisciplinary project, comprised of individuals from arts, social sciences, music, biomedical sciences, humanities and operational disciplines. Collaboratively we are working to shape perceptions of dementias through the arts and sciences, from a position within the Wellcome Collection. The Collection is a public building, above objects and archives, with a porous relationship between research, museum artefacts, and the public.  This pre-planning framework will act as an introduction to Created Out of Mind. The framework explains the rationale and aims of the project, outlines our focus for the project, and explores a number of challenges we have encountered by virtue of working in this way.

  13. Implementation Factors and Faculty Perceptions of Electronic Textbooks on the iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Estable, Michelle Dawn

    2018-01-01

    A federally managed university in the United Arab Emirates implemented a one-to-one iPad program. In an effort to increase access to interactive digital learning resources on the iPads, they next transitioned from paperbased textbooks (pTexts) to electronic textbooks (eTexts) on the iPad for all course delivery formats. The goal of this study was…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF GUESTS’ PERCEPTION IN IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN HOTEL IN SUPPORTING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ayu Oka - Suryawardani; Agung Suryawan - Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Tourism industry faced by threats in implementing sustainable tourism development. UNEP (United Nation Environmental Programme) designs the concept to gain sustainable development through the program called the greening of industry which includes minimization of energy used, reducing green house emission, water consumption efficiency, waste management, reducing loss of biological diversity, and preserving cultural heritage. Dependency of tourism industry in using energy will impact in gl...

  15. Enterprise risk management implementation : perceptions of risk practitioners in the South African mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Comm. (Financial Economics) Enterprise risk management (ERM) is emerging as a risk management methodology that is seemingly superior to that of traditional, silo-based risk management. Although ERM implementation is on the increase, research into ERM is still limited. There is, for instance, a lack of clarity within the literature regarding which factors lead to companies embracing ERM, as well as a lack of consensus on ERM’s benefits. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore t...

  16. Patient and Staff Perceptions of Intradialytic Exercise before and after Implementation: A Qualitative Study.

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    Hannah M L Young

    Full Text Available Despite guidance and evidence for the beneficial effects of intradialytic exercise (IDE, such programmes are rarely adopted within practice and little is known about how they may best be sustained. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was used to guide the understanding of the barriers and facilitators to initial and ongoing IDE participation and to understand how these are influential at each stage.Focus groups explored patient (n=24 and staff (n=9 perceptions of IDE prior to the introduction of a programme and, six months later, face to face semi-structured interviews captured exercising patients (n=11 and staffs' (n=8 actual experiences. Data were collected at private and NHS haemodialysis units within the UK. All data were audio-recorded, translated where necessary, transcribed verbatim and subject to framework analysis.IDE initiation can be facilitated by addressing the pre-existing beliefs about IDE through the influence of peers (for patients and training (for staff. Participation was sustained through the observation of positive outcomes and through social influences such as teamwork and collaboration. Despite this, environment and resource limitations remained the greatest barrier perceived by both groups.Novel methods of staff training and patient education should enhance engagement. Programmes that clearly highlight the benefits of IDE should be more successful in the longer term. The barrier of staff workload needs to be addressed through specific guidance that includes recommendations on staffing levels, roles, training and skill mix.

  17. Project-Based Learning Courses: The Relationship Between Faculty-Intended Course Implementation and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2012-02-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) has been shown to improve students' performance and satisfaction with their coursework, particularly in science and engineering courses. Specific aspects of PjBL that contribute to this improvement are student autonomy, course scaffolding, and instructor support. This study investigates two PjBL courses required for engineering majors at a small technical school, Introductory Mechanics Laboratory and Introductory Engineering Design. The three data sources used in this work are classroom observations (one laboratory and four design sessions) and semi-structured in-depth interviews with twelve students and six faculty. Grounded theory approach is used in a two-step fashion by (1) analyzing each data set individually and (2) performing full triangulation of all three data sets. In this talk, we demonstrate the relationship between faculty intentions and student perceptions regarding the three PjBL aspects -- student autonomy, course scaffolding, and instructor support -- within the context of these two courses. We further discuss implications for the course design and professional development of faculty.

  18. Alpha-Band Brain Oscillations Shape the Processing of Perceptible as well as Imperceptible Somatosensory Stimuli during Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschack, Norman; Nierhaus, Till; Müller, Matthias M; Villringer, Arno

    2017-07-19

    Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger. The task was to detect stimulation at the randomly alternated cued index finger. Under attention, amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potentials increased 50-60 ms after stimulation (P1) for both suprathreshold and subthreshold events. Prestimulus amplitude of peri-Rolandic alpha, that is mu, showed an inverse relationship to P1 amplitude during attention compared to when the finger was unattended. Interestingly, intermediate and high amplitudes of mu rhythm were associated with the highest P1 amplitudes during attention and smallest P1 during lack of attention, that is, these levels of alpha rhythm seemed to optimally support the behavioral goal ("detect" stimuli at the cued finger while ignoring the other finger). Our results show that attention enhances neural processing for both suprathreshold and subthreshold stimuli and they highlight a rather complex interaction between attention, Rolandic alpha activity, and their effects on stimulus processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention is crucial in prioritizing processing of relevant perceptible (suprathreshold) stimuli: it filters and weights sensory input. The present study investigates the controversially discussed question whether this attention effect extends to imperceptible (subthreshold) stimuli as well. We found noninvasive EEG signatures for attentional modulation of neural events following perceptible and imperceptible somatosensory stimulation in human participants. Specifically

  19. Implementation of National Science Education Standards in suburban elementary schools: Teachers' perceptions and classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubina Samer

    2005-07-01

    This was an interpretive qualitative study that focused on how three elementary school science teachers from three different public schools perceived and implemented the National Science Education Standards based on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol and individual interviews with the teachers. This study provided an understanding of the standards movement and teacher change in the process. Science teachers who were experienced with the National Science Education Standards were selected as the subjects of the study. Grounded in the theory of teacher change, this study's phenomenological premise was that the extent to which a new reform has an effect on students' learning and achievement on standardized tests depends on the content a teacher teaches as well as the style of teaching. It was therefore necessary to explore how teachers understand and implement the standards in the classrooms. The surveys, interviews and observations provided rich data from teachers' intentions, reflections and actions on the lessons that were observed while also providing the broader contextual framework for the understanding of the teachers' perspectives.

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of School Organizational Climate as Predictors of Dosage and Quality of Implementation of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Margaret; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R

    2015-11-01

    Organizational climate has been proposed as a factor that might influence a school's readiness to successfully implement school-wide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of teachers' perceptions of three dimensions of school organizational climate on the dosage and quality of teacher implementation of Positive Action, a social-emotional and character development (SECD) program. The dimensions measured were teachers' perceptions of (a) the school's openness to innovation, (b) the extent to which schools utilize participatory decision-making practices, and (c) the existence of supportive relationships among teachers (teacher-teacher affiliation). Data from 46 teachers in seven schools enrolled in the treatment arm of a longitudinal, cluster-randomized, controlled trial were analyzed. Teacher perceptions of a school's tendency to be innovative was associated with a greater number of lessons taught and self-reported quality of delivery, and teacher-teacher affiliation was associated with a higher use of supplementary activities. The findings suggest that perceptions of a school's organizational climate impact teachers' implementation of SECD programs and have implications for school administrators and technical assistance providers as they work to implement and sustain prevention programs in schools.

  1. Perceptions among general medical practitioners toward implementation of medication reconciliation program for patients discharged from hospitals in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Saleem, Fahad; Atif, Muhammad; Al-Qazaz, Harith

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) from the state of Penang toward the feasibility of implementing the medication reconciliation program in Malaysia. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a validated, self-completed anonymous 18-item questionnaire was undertaken over a period of 2 months in 2010. The study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A letter consisting of survey questionnaires and prepaid return envelope were mailed to 429 GPs identified from the Private Medical Practice Control Department Registry. A total of 86 responses were received with response rate of 20.1%. Majority (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that medication reconciliation can be a feasible strategy to improve medication safety, and 97.7% confirmed that having an accurate up-to-date list of the patient's previous medication will be useful in the rational prescribing process. However, about half (56.9%) of them felt that standardization of the medication reconciliation process in all clinics will be difficult to achieve. Three quarters (73.2%) of the respondents believed that the involvement of GPs alone is insufficient, and 74.5% agreed that this program should be expanded to community pharmacy setting. More than 90% of the respondents agreed upon the medication reconciliation card proposed by the researchers. General practitioners in Penang are generally in favor of the implementation of medication reconciliation program in their practice. Because medication reconciliation has been shown to reduce many medicine-related problems, it is thus worth considering the feasibility of nationwide implementation of such program.

  2. Evaluation of the process of recording patient education, consistency of record-keeping with perception, and patient satisfaction after implementing clinical supervision: An embedded evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorasani Parvaneh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Currently, patient education has been considered in medical centers. Clinical provision, which is one of the legal tools with training-support dimensions, can evaluate the consistency between the implemented procedures and the planned ones. This study aimed to evaluate the process of recording patient education, consistency of record-keeping with perception, and patient satisfaction after implementing clinical supervision. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal, embedded study was conducted during 2013-2015 in three stages of designing, implementation, and evaluation of the supervision program using randomized convenience sampling on 786 monitoring units (medical records of patients being discharged at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. In the designing stage, the checklists for supervision of recording patient education and consistency of patient perception with the recorded trainings and the patient satisfaction questionnaire were designed and their valididty and reliability were established. In the implementation stage, structure of the monitoring program was designed with the cooperation of eight supervisors. During 12 months, 2333 checklists and questionnaires were completed at the time of hospital discharge in the evaluation stage. Data analysis was performed in SPSS, version 18, using One-way ANOVA. Results: After 12 months of embedded evaluation, the mean score of recording patient education was 88.5±21.75, and the mean scores of patient satisfaction with the training process and consistency between patients’ perception and the recorded trainings were 47.17±21.48 and 73±25.13, respectively. The mean scores of recording patient training and consistency between patients’ perception and the recorded trainings had an increasing trend (P<0.001, while the mean score of patient satisfaction reduced (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results of clinical supervision during

  3. Institution and War Migrants: Perceptions of Activities and Implemented Contacts (the Brod-Posavina County

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    Dragutin Babić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the role and importance of institutions, associations and organisations in the life of war migrants (returnees and immigrants in the post-war period. The research involved was undertaken in a part of the western area of the Brod-Posavina County (the communes Gornji Bogićevci, Dragalić, Okučani, Stara Gradiška. The questionnaire method was applied and a total of 180 war migrants were surveyed. A group of 60 respondents was queried from each of three relevant and recognisable groupings: refugees-immigrants, retumee-Croats, returnee-Serbs. The statistical relevance of the results was tested by the χ2 test. Contacts with institutions pertained to the local level, whereas perceptions of the activities of institutions, apart from the local level, pertained also to the national and international levels. Analysis of respondents' answers showed that seeking aid from institutions was still practised by most of them. Although respondents indicated diverse reasons for visiting institutions, humanitarian aid was still their most frequent motivation. Among other reasons for visiting institutions active on the local level, seeking legal and other council, requests for various attestations and employment seeking should be noted. It is significant that very few respondents mentioned complaints (against their neighbours, the Croatian government, etc. as a reason for visiting institutions. The frequency with which responds went to institutions varied from once a week to once a month and only a very small number of respondents never visited institutions. Of the three groupings, institutions were least visited by returnee-Croats, who were in a better existential position than the other two groupings. In evaluating the activities of Croatian authorities in aiding war migrants most respondents answered that they were neither salisfied nor dissatisfied with them: Local authorities and the Croatian government were indicated as the main culprits

  4. Implementation of combined SVM-algorithm and computer-aided perception feedback for pulmonary nodule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Rannou, Didier; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    This pilot study examines the effect of a novel decision support system in medical image interpretation. This system is based on combining image spatial frequency properties and eye-tracking data in order to recognize over and under calling errors. Thus, before it can be implemented as a detection aided schema, training is required during which SVMbased algorithm learns to recognize FP from all reported outcomes, and, FN from all unreported prolonged dwelled regions. Eight radiologists inspected 50 PA chest radiographs with the specific task of identifying lung nodules. Twentyfive cases contained CT proven subtle malignant lesions (5-20mm), but prevalence was not known by the subjects, who took part in two sequential reading sessions, the second, without and with support system feedback. MCMR ROC DBM and JAFROC analyses were conducted and demonstrated significantly higher scores following feedback with p values of 0.04, and 0.03 respectively, highlighting significant improvements in radiology performance once feedback was used. This positive effect on radiologists' performance might have important implications for future CAD-system development.

  5. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  6. Implementing the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure: The Role and Perception of Fishers' Ecological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Nenadovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the quality of fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK and its value to fisheries management has long been present in the literature. This study sought to understand the role of FEK in a particular fisheries management decision in the U.S. and to evaluate the extent that different stakeholder groups recognized and used FEK in fisheries policy creation. The 1998 implementation of the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure (WGoMAC was a management response to the rapid decline in the Gulf of Maine cod (Gadus morhua stock. Using structured surveys and semistructured interviews, we collected information from major stakeholder groups that were active during the creation of the area closure: New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC members, Groundfish Advisory Panel members, Groundfish Plan Development Team members, and Maine groundfishers. Results indicated that 95% of respondents believed that fishers possess ecological knowledge that could be useful in the fishery management process. In the case of the WGoMAC creation, 62% of respondents indicated that FEK played a role in the decision, even though 85% recognized obstacles to the use of FEK in the management process. Interviews demonstrated that FEK was able to improve upon the spatial resolution of scientific data by identifying seasonal migration patterns of prespawning cod and behavioral differences between juvenile and adult cod. This information was a product of a peer-reviewed process among groundfishers and it was used to fine-tune the exact location of the closure. These findings suggest that there are ways to incorporate FEK into fishery management for the purposes of stock and habitat conservation. Additionally, the benefit of having ecological information that spans different spatial scales for fishery management was observed in this study. By combining the knowledge systems of fishers and fisheries scientists, managers were able to capture ecological information at a finer

  7. Actors’ Perceptions of Issues in the Implementation of the First Round of the Water Framework Directive: Examples from the Water Management and Forestry Sectors in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The EU Water Framework Directive exerts a major impact on water management structure and aims, and water use activities in the member states. This paper reviews the perceptions of the early WFD implementation in a case study area in southern Sweden. The focus is on the perceptions of both water management and forestry actors, the latter as a potential diffuse source impact on water quality. This study highlights the considerable complexity of reorienting or rescaling governance given the complex existing systems particular to the area, the multi-interpretable early policies on implementation and the complexity of interpreting the regionally-focused WFD approach in the largely locally-focused Swedish system. While the first phase of implementation is now long past, conclusions on the complexity of reorienting systems remain relevant, particularly with regard to non-point sources.

  8. Implementation of the FDTD method in cylindrical coordinates for dispersive materials: Modal study of C-shaped nano-waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    kebci, Zahia; Belkhir, Abderrahmane; Mezeghrane, Abdelaziz; Lamrous, Omar; Baida, Fadi Issam

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a code based on the finite difference time domain method in cylindrical coordinates (CC-FDTD) that integrates the Drude Critical Points model (DCP) and to apply it in the study of a metallic C-shaped waveguide (CSWG). The integrated dispersion model allows an accurate description of noble metals in the optical range and working in cylindrical coordinates is necessary to bypass the staircase effect induced by a Cartesian mesh especially in the case of curved geometrical forms. The CC-FDTD code developed as a part of this work is more general than the Body-Of-Revolution-FDTD algorithm that can only handle structures exhibiting a complete cylindrical symmetry. A N-order CC-FDTD code is then derived and used to perform a parametric study of an infinitly-long CSWG for nano-optic applications. Propagation losses and dispersion diagrams are given for different geometrical parameters.

  9. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; San Sebastián, Miguel; Byskov, Jens; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2010-12-01

    In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the contexts of resource-poor settings

  10. The influence of secondary science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, educational beliefs and perceptions of the curriculum on implementation and science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Portia Selene

    2001-07-01

    Science education reform is one of the focal points of restructuring the educational system in the United States. However, research indicates a slow change in progression towards science literacy among secondary students. One of the factors contributing to slow change is how teachers implement the curriculum in the classroom. Three constructs are believed to be influential in curriculum implementation: educational beliefs, pedagogical knowledge and perception of the curriculum. Earlier research suggests that there is a strong correlation between teachers' educational beliefs and instructional practices. These beliefs can be predictors of preferred strategies employed in the classroom. Secondly, teachers' pedagogical knowledge, that is the ability to apply theory and appropriate strategies associated with implementing and evaluating a curriculum, contributes to implementation. Thirdly, perception or how the curriculum itself is perceived also effects implementation. Each of these constructs has been examined independently, but never the interplay of the three. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the interplay of teachers' educational beliefs, pedagogical content knowledge and perceptions of a science curriculum with respect to how these influence curriculum implementation. This was accomplished by investigating the emerging themes that evolved from classroom observations, transcripts from interview and supplementary data. Five high school biology teachers in an urban school system were observed for ten months for correspondence of teaching strategies to the curriculum. Teachers were interviewed formally and informally about their perceptions of science teaching, learning and the curriculum. Supplementary material such as lesson plans, course syllabus and notes from classroom observations were collected and analyzed. Data were transcribed and analyzed for recurring themes using a thematic matrix. A theoretical model was developed from the emerging

  11. Analysis of the finite deformation response of shape memory polymers: II. 1D calibration and numerical implementation of a finite deformation, thermoelastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Chen, Yi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part II of this work presents the calibration of a previously developed thermoelastic constitutive model which is capable of handling finite deformations. The model is proposed in a general three-dimensional framework; however, this work focuses on reducing the model to one dimension and subsequently calibrating the model using experimental data obtained in part I. The one-dimensional numerical implementation of the model is presented, including the handling of the system of nonlinear equations and the integral term resulting from the constitutive model. The model is then used to predict the uniaxial shape memory effect. Results indicate good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results, but the predictions do not capture the irrecoverable deformation present at the end of recovery

  12. Providers' perceptions of the implementation of a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: A process evaluation of the Service Quality Measures initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Johnson, Kim; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2016-02-22

    In South Africa, concerns exist about the quality of substance abuse treatment. We developed a performance measurement system, known as the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative, to monitor the quality of treatment and assess efforts to improve quality of care. In 2014, the SQM system was implemented at six treatment sites to evaluate how implementation protocols could be improved in preparation for wider roll-out. To describe providers' perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of implementing the SQM system, including barriers to and facilitators of implementation. We conducted 15 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with treatment providers from six treatment sites (two sites in KwaZulu-Natal and four in the Western Cape). Providers were asked about their experiences in implementing the system, the perceived feasibility of the system, and barriers to implementation. All IDIs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Providers reported that the SQM system was feasible to implement and acceptable to patients and providers. Issues identified through the IDIs included a perceived lack of clarity about sequencing of key elements in the implementation of the SQM system, questions on integration of the system into clinical care pathways, difficulties in tracking patients through the system, and concerns about maximising patient participation in the process. Findings suggest that the SQM system is feasible to implement and acceptable to providers, but that some refinements to the implementation protocols are needed to maximise patient participation and the likelihood of sustained implementation.

  13. Jezebel at the welfare office: How racialized stereotypes of poor women's reproductive decisions and relationships shape policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N Tatiana; Lindhorst, Taryn P; Meyers, Marcia K

    2014-01-01

    Current welfare scholarship lacks an analysis of how caseworkers discuss sexuality-related issues with clients. Seventy-two of 232 transcribed welfare interviews in three states included discussion of reproductive decisions and relationships. Overall, caseworkers' language reflected negative myths regarding African American women's sexuality and motherhood. By virtue of their status as welfare recipients, regardless of their individual races, clients were placed into racialized myths through workers' talk. This analysis demonstrates that though not present in every welfare interview and often veiled in bureaucratic language, negative ideas about poor women's sexuality persist in welfare policy and are deeply embedded in its day-to-day implementation.

  14. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  15. A Novel Implementation Strategy in Residential Care Settings to Promote EBP: Direct Care Provider Perceptions and Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Bampton, Erin; Erin, Daniel F; Ickert, Carla; Jones, C Allyson; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    Innovative approaches are required to facilitate the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based care practices. We propose a novel implementation strategy, a peer reminder role, which involves offering a brief formal reminder to peers during structured unit meetings. This study aims to (a) identify healthcare aide (HCA) perceptions of a peer reminder role for HCAs, and (b) develop a conceptual framework for the role based on these perceptions. In 2013, a qualitative focus group study was conducted in five purposively sampled residential care facilities in western Canada. A convenience sample of 24 HCAs agreed to participate in five focus groups. Concurrent with data collection, two researchers coded the transcripts and identified themes by consensus. They jointly determined when saturation was achieved and took steps to optimize the trustworthiness of the findings. Five HCAs from the original focus groups commented on the resulting conceptual framework. HCAs were cautious about accepting a role that might alienate them from their co-workers. They emphasized feeling comfortable with the peer reminder role and identified circumstances that would optimize their comfort including: effective implementation strategies, perceptions of the role, role credibility and a supportive context. These intersecting themes formed a peer reminder conceptual framework. We identified HCAs' perspectives of a new peer reminder role designed specifically for them. Based on their perceptions, a conceptual framework was developed to guide the implementation of a peer reminder role for HCAs. This role may be a strategic implementation strategy to optimize the sustainability of new practices in residential care settings, and the related framework could offer guidance on how to implement this role. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. The feminization of HPV: How science, politics, economics and gender norms shaped U.S. HPV vaccine implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Daley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation. Given the focus on cervical cancer screening, women were identified as bearing the burden of HPV infection and its related illnesses, and the group responsible for prevention. We also describe the consequences of the feminization of HPV, which has resulted primarily in reduced protection from HPV-related illnesses for males. We propose a multilevel approach to normalizing HPV vaccines as an important aspect of overall health for both genders. This process must engage multiple stakeholders, including providers, parents, patients, professional organizations, public health agencies, policymakers, researchers, and community-based organizations. Keywords: HPV vaccination, Feminization, Critical review

  17. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey...

  18. How to implement quality indicators successfully in palliative care services: perceptions of team members about facilitators of and barriers to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Block, L.; van der Stichele, R.; Francke, A.L.; Deliens, L.; Cohen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increasing demand for the use of quality indicators in palliative care. With previous research about implementation in this field lacking, we aimed to evaluate the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. Methods: Three focus group interviews were organized with 21

  19. How to implement quality indicators successfully in palliative care services: perceptions of team members about facilitators of and barriers to implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Block, L. van den; Stichele, R. Vander; Francke, A.L.; Deliens, L.; Cohen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increasing demand for the use of quality indicators in palliative care.With previous research about implementation in this field lacking, we aimed to evaluate the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. Methods: Three focus group interviews were organized with 21

  20. Teens Implementing a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in the Community: Feasibility and Perceptions of a Partnership with HSTA and iCook 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Hagedorn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA, under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP program (iCook 4-H. The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9–10 years old and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported by youth. Almost all adults (93% reported that their youth had learned kitchen skills and that the program provided youth-adult quality time and developed culinary skills. Youth echoed adult perceptions with additional themes of food safety and physical activity. HSTA teen leaders perceived the program to be successful and reported the training they received to implement the program was adequate 98% of the time. HSTA teachers found the program to be beneficial for HSTA students in improving leadership, confidence and responsibility. iCook 4-H was feasible to be disseminated through teen leaders in the HSTA program. This teen-led approach could serve as a model for youth health-related programming.

  1. Evaluation of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Zuidema, Sytse U; Dees, Marianne K; Hermsen, Pieter G J M; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Graff, Maud J L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To gain insights into the process of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care, and into the factors that contributed to these changes in their perceptions. Design Qualitative study alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 17 long-term care homes spread across the Netherlands. Participants 34 licensed practical nurses supporting 54 dual sensory impaired older adults. Intervention A 5-month training programme designed to enable nurses to support the self-management of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Primary outcomes Nurses’ perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the self-management programme collected from nurses’ semistructured coaching diaries over the 5-month training and intervention period, as well as from trainers’ reports. Results Nurses’ initial negative perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the intervention changed to positive as nurses better understood the concept of autonomy. Through interactions with older adults and by self-evaluations of the effect of their behaviour, nurses discovered that their usual care conflicted with client autonomy. From that moment, nurses felt encouraged to adapt their behaviour to the older adults’ autonomy needs. However, nurses’ initial unfamiliarity with conversation techniques required a longer exploration period than planned. Once client autonomy was understood, nurses recommended expanding the intervention as a generic approach to all their clients, whether dual sensory impaired or not. Conclusions Longitudinal data collection enabled exploration of nurses’ changes in perceptions when moving towards self-management support. The training programme stimulated nurses to go beyond ‘protocol thinking’, discovering client autonomy and exploring the need for their own behavioural adaptations. Educational programmes for practical nurses should offer

  2. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Author's rights and copyright law have gone through quite a few changes in the 'post-print' culture of binary systems, digital formations and techno-practices. Technological development supports new concept of author's rights by promoting free internet and digital market, as well as new contemporary experience of culture that is being rooted in digital technology, mass communication and the world of multimedia and virtuality. Though computer and digital technology have served both authors and users in various ways, they have also served as a very fertile ground for sharing copyrighted content thus leading to numerous copyright infringements and conflicts with the copyright law. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the ways in which computer and digital technology have given rise to new trends in the production (e.g. remix culture and consumption (e.g. peer-to-peer file sharing technology of culture, but also to determine how new forms of distribution, use and sharing of digital content changed and shaped the perception of authorship in the 21st century. In order to analyze the dynamic, nature and structure by which new digital and networking technologies are affecting the concept of authorship and author's rights and to test the consistency of previously established hypotheses, we conducted a survey amongst general public. Altogether 535 questionnaires were completed. Data was analyzed using SPSS tool and quantitative method of analysis. In the analysis special attention was given to both, the concept of authorship in the digital environment and the concept of peer-to-peer file sharing technology as not so new, but still very popular networked architecture for distributing, using and sharing digital content. Results have shown that most of the respondents use peer-to-peer file sharing technology to access, consume and/or share different cultural content (e.g. movies, music, books, etc. while violating the rights of copyright holders

  3. How Does Science Learning Occur in the Classroom? Students' Perceptions of Science Instruction during the Implementation of REAPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arizaga, Maria P.; Bahar, A. Kadir; Maker, C. June; Zimmerman, Robert; Pease, Randal

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative study the researchers explored children's perceptions of their participation in a science class in which an elementary science curriculum, the Full Option Science System (FOSS), was combined with an innovative teaching model, Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS). The children were capable of articulating views…

  4. Implementing Self-Assessment in Singapore Primary Schools: Effects on Students' Perceptions of Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hwei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Student academic self-assessment engages the students in deliberate reflection about what they are learning and how they are learning it. This intervention study investigated the effects of self-assessment training on students' perceptions towards self-assessment in two Singaporean primary schools. The study, which used a pretest-posttest design,…

  5. How to Shape Climate Risk Policies After the Paris Agreement? The Importance of Perceptions as a Driver for Climate Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máñez Costa, María.; Shreve, Cheney; Carmona, María.

    2017-10-01

    ABSTRACTRisk perception research has played an influential role in supporting risk management and risk communication policy. Risk perception studies are popular across a range of disciplines in the social and natural sciences for a wide range of hazard types. Their results have helped to articulate the complex individual, relational, structural, and environmental factors influencing people's behavior. Connections between individual and collective behaviors and norms impacting global climate change, and consequently, local disaster risk, however, are infrequently included in disaster risk management. This paper presents results from two diverse and complementary European risk perception studies examining both natural and anthropogenic hazards. Research gaps and recommendations for developing more comprehensive risk management strategies are presented.

  6. What Are the Perceptions, Experiences, and Behaviors of Health Care Providers After Implementation of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Hospital Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kerrie E; Doucet, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of health care providers (HCPs) after the implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy. This qualitative descriptive study, using semi-structured interviews, was conducted with 28 HCPs working in a Canadian hospital. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis including (a) greater support for tobacco reduction, (b) enhanced patient care and interactions, (c) improved staff morale, and (d) some barriers still exist. The main findings suggest a comprehensive smoke-free hospital environment can strengthen the tobacco-free workplace culture within a hospital setting among HCPs where support for tobacco reduction is amplified, patient care and interactions regarding tobacco dependence are improved, and staff morale is enhanced. While there are still some challenging barriers as well as opportunities for improvements, the implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy heightened the call-to-action among HCPs to take a more active role in tobacco reduction.

  7. Association between organizational climate and perceptions and use of an innovation in Swedish primary health care: a prospective study of an implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlfjord, Siw; Festin, Karin

    2015-09-10

    There is a need for new knowledge regarding determinants of a successful implementation of new methods in health care. The role of a receptive context for change to support effective diffusion has been underlined, and could be studied by assessing the organizational climate. The aim of this study was to assess the association between organizational climate when a computer-based lifestyle intervention tool (CLT) was introduced in primary health care (PHC) and the implementation outcome in terms of how the tool was perceived and used after 2 years. The CLT was offered to 32 PHC units in Sweden, of which 22 units agreed to participate in the study. Before the introduction of the CLT, the creative climate at each participating unit was assessed. After 24 months, a follow-up questionnaire was distributed to the staff to assess how the CLT was perceived and how it was used. A question on the perceived need for the CLT was also included. The units were divided into three groups according to the creative climate: high, medium and low. The main finding was that the units identified as having a positive creative climate demonstrated more frequent use and more positive perceptions regarding the new tool than those with the least positive creative climate. More positive perceptions were seen at both individual and unit levels. According to the results from this study there is an association between organizational climate at baseline and implementation outcome after 2 years when a tool for lifestyle intervention is introduced in PHC in Sweden. Further studies are needed before measurement of organizational climate at baseline can be recommended in order to predict implementation outcome.

  8. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo : a contextual factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafuta, E.M.; Hogema, L.M.; Mambu, T.N.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Dieleman, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social

  9. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  10. Implementing Practical Based Courses under Open and Distance Learning System: A Study of the Perception of Learners and Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Implementing practical based courses under Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system is a very difficult and challenging task as the teaching of practical based courses involves intensive practical work. For removing the difficulties and challenges in implementing the practical based courses under ODL system, there is a need to study the existing…

  11. The Perceptions of Administrators in the Implementation of Professional Learning Communities: A Case Study in an Oklahoma School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2002, President George Bush implemented the No Child left behind act that required all students to be proficient on state standards by the year 2014. One way a school district in Oklahoma met these new requirements was through the implementation of the principles of a Professional Learning Community. This case study was designed…

  12. The transforming role of education in reducing the perception of risk and the implementation of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alex de A.; Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Farias, Luciana A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear technology has been very successful when related to energy, radioisotopes production and scientific research. However, it did not obtain the same success from socio-political point of view, going through periods of strong public rejection, especially after adverse events related to nuclear issues. In Brazil, the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) will be implemented in the municipality of Iperó - SP, for which it is important to have the support of the local population and knowledge about the project. Mainly because the RMB is intended to produce radioisotopes for application in health and industry, therefore, with strong social appeal. However, despite the achievement of three public hearings in the municipalities of Iperó, Sorocaba and São Paulo, there was little involvement of the region's schools in this debate, reflecting on the important role that education can have in reducing the perception of risk and the attitude of the population in relation to the issue. Through the application of semi-structured questionnaire answered by teachers, coordinators, deputy directors and directors of the public school network of the Municipality, it was observed that the participants have a high risk perception and a negative social representation, as well as there was no interaction of the people in charge of the RMB with the schools, who said they did not know the project. We believe that the school has a fundamental role to raise awareness and inform, and can change this reality, together with the implementation of some public policies

  13. Social barriers in wind power implementation in The Netherlands: Perceptions of wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants of institutional and social conditions in realizing wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, Susanne; Glasbergen, Pieter; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.

    2007-01-01

    The primary social factors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalized market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. This paper analyses the way in which wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants experience social and institutional conditions in the operational process of realizing wind power projects, and their perceptions of policy implications. A groups support system in an electronic board room was used to analyze the perceptions. From the analysis it was concluded that wind power entrepreneurs and civil servants share the opinion that the institutionally embedded power position of local politicians, and the sensitiveness of the local political debate for the popular opinion are most critical for project realization. With regard to the proposed solutions, both groups differ in their approach. Entrepreneurs stress procedural solutions, such as limiting the possibilities to appeal, reducing the complexity of the formal authorization trajectory and using a top down planning approach. Civil servants stress more strategic solutions, such as providing more public information on the necessity of wind power for local politicians and citizens, and community involvement in planning processes. Finally, the analysis explains that steering strategies that have been developed at the national level to solve the planning problems at the operational level do not address the right problems. (author)

  14. Creating a Learning Environment to Promote Food Sustainability Issues in Primary Schools? Staff Perceptions of Implementing the Food for Life Partnership Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Orme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD, and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition. With regard to such food sustainability issues, this paper analyses the role of the Food for Life Partnership national programme in supporting garden and farm-based learning activities in 55 primary schools in England, UK. Using a mixed methods approach, the study examined the programme’s implementation through staff perceptions and a range of school change indicators. The study found that the programme delivery was associated with widespread institutional reforms. According to staff, implementation of the programme provided a range of opportunities for pupils to learn about food production and sustainability, but addressing these issues was challenging for teachers and raised a number of questions concerned with effective, equitable and on-going implementation. At a pedagogical level, teachers also reflected on conceptually challenging aspects of food sustainability as a topic for primary school education. The study identified ways that ESD programmes could support schools to think about and implement learning opportunities as well as identifying significant barriers related to resourcing such programmes.

  15. Changes in perceptions and motivators that influence the implementation of on-farm Salmonella control measures by pig farmers in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marier, Elizabeth; Piers Smith, Richard; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Watson, Eamon; Armstrong, Derek; Hogeveen, Henk; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2016-10-01

    This study presents British farmers' perception of, and barriers to, implementing Salmonella control on pig farms. Four farms that had implemented interventions and their 33 close contacts (known to the intervention farmers) took part in interviews before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intervention trials to assess the difference in perception over time. Their results were compared against those from nine randomly selected control farms. The hypothesis was that farms implementing interventions whether or not successful, would influence their close contacts' opinion over time. Based on a 'pathway to disease control' model, three intrinsic factors known to influence motivation - attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy - were evaluated. Farmers mentioned that successful interventions on a farm would attract their attention. The use of an appropriate communication strategy is therefore recommended to stimulate farmers' intent to implement control measures. Both before and after the intervention trials, all farmers had a positive attitude towards Salmonella control and felt that their peers and authorities were supportive of controlling Salmonella on farms. In phase 2, however, farmers were more likely to want to share the burden of control with other stakeholders along the food chain and their belief in self-efficacy had weakened. Whilst social norms were not associated with an intention to take action on control, a positive attitude towards Salmonella control and a belief in self-efficacy were more likely to result in an intent to control. In phase 2, farmers with an intent to implement an intervention appeared to have a greater, but not significant positive belief in self-efficacy (p=0.108). This study confirmed that farmers recognised their responsibility for controlling Salmonella in pork - even though their confidence in their ability to control Salmonella decreased over time - and believed that responsibility should be shared with the rest of the production

  16. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey questionnaire. The analysis shows that tax agents devote their time to provide advice to their clients on meeting their GST requirements, and recording and reporting of GST transactions. Tax agents assert that clients pass on their GST responsibilities to tax agents to some extent. Tax agents also perceive that clients’ compliance level is low because clients occasionally submit GST03 after the deadline, compromise the accuracy of GST03 in order to get it done on time and intentionally make errors in their records. In terms of tax agents’ role in promoting compliance, the tax agents strongly agree that it is important for them to act as trusted advisors for their clients. After one year of GST implementation, this is the first study that explores tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance and tax agents’ roles in promoting compliance. The findings benefit the Royal Malaysian Customs Department (RMCD in assisting tax agents and the public for future compliance. Similar study should be adopted by countries that have recently implemented GST (for example, India and it should be conducted to other GST players (i.e. taxpayers and RMCD officers on annual basis to analyse the behavioural trends and identify weaknesses in GST administration.

  17. Varied Rates of Implementation of Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Residents' Perceptions of Their Importance Based on Practice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiff, M Patrice; Green, Larry A; Jones, Geoff; Devlaeminck, Alex Verdieck; Waller, Elaine; Dexter, Eve; Marino, Miguel; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about how the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is being implemented in residency practices. We describe both the trends in implementation of PCMH features and the influence that working with PCMH features has on resident attitudes toward their importance in 14 family medicine residencies associated with the P4 Project. We assessed 24 residency continuity clinics annually between 2007-2011 on presence or absence of PCMH features. Annual resident surveys (n=690) assessed perceptions of importance of PCMH features using a 4-point scale (not at all important to very important). We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to assess trends and ordinal-response proportional odds regression models to determine if resident ratings of importance were associated with working with those features during training. Implementation of electronic health record (EHR) features increased significantly from 2007-2011, such as email communication with patients (33% to 67%), preventive services registries (23% to 64%), chronic disease registries (63% to 82%), and population-based quality assurance (46% to 79%). Team-based care was the only process of care feature to change significantly (54% to 93%). Residents with any exposure to EHR-based features had higher odds of rating the features more important compared to those with no exposure. We observed consistently lower odds of the resident rating process of care features as more important with any exposure compared to no exposure. Residencies engaged in educational transformation were more successful in implementing EHR-based PCMH features, and exposure during training appears to positively influence resident ratings of importance, while exposure to process of care features are slower to implement with less influence on importance ratings.

  18. Employee perceptions of line management performance: applying the AMO theory to explain the effectiveness of line managers' HRM implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Looise, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Line managers are today seen as increasingly important in effectively implementing HRM practices. Based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) theory, we predict that line managers' performance in this regard will depend on their ability to apply HRM practices, and that their motivation and the

  19. Challenges to the Implementation of PLAP in Primary Schools: Perceptions of ZOU Bachelor of Educational Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Kurebwa; Mabhanda, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the challenges that impact on the implementation of PLAP in the Primary schools. The research was conducted with teachers who study towards the BEd Management degree with Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in the Midlands Region. The study used a qualitative research approach and collected data through open ended questionnaires and…

  20. Leaders' experiences and perceptions implementing activity-based funding and pay-for-performance hospital funding models: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Pamela E; Hewko, Sarah J; Pfaff, Kathryn A; Cleghorn, Laura; Cunningham, Barbara J; Elston, Dawn; Cummings, Greta G

    2015-08-01

    Providing cost-effective, accessible, high quality patient care is a challenge to governments and health care delivery systems across the globe. In response to this challenge, two types of hospital funding models have been widely implemented: (1) activity-based funding (ABF) and (2) pay-for-performance (P4P). Although health care leaders play a critical role in the implementation of these funding models, to date their perspectives have not been systematically examined. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of health care leaders implementing hospital funding reforms within Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. We searched literature from 1982 to 2013 using: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Academic Search Elite, and Business Source Complete. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full texts using predefined criteria. We included 2 mixed methods and 12 qualitative studies. Thematic analysis was used in synthesizing results. Five common themes and multiple subthemes emerged. Themes include: pre-requisites for success, perceived benefits, barriers/challenges, unintended consequences, and leader recommendations. Irrespective of which type of hospital funding reform was implemented, health care leaders described a complex process requiring the following: organizational commitment; adequate infrastructure; human, financial and information technology resources; change champions and a personal commitment to quality care. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Philosophical Enquiry as a Pedagogical Tool to Implement the CAPS Curriculum: Final-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lena; Condy, Janet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that philosophical enquiry, as practised using community of enquiry pedagogy, is an appropriate implementation strategy for Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) if the principles that underlie the curriculum are to be taken seriously. Matthew Lipman's Philosophy for Children Programme and its community of…

  2. On the Frontline of CCSS Implementation: A National Study of Factors Influencing Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Conditions and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.; Collet, Vicki; Goering, Christian Z.; Turner, Ronna; Denny, George S.; Wright, Ginney; Jennings-Davis, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent an unprecedented change in American education. As an increasingly integral part of the school accountability movement under No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, responsibility for implementing CCSS rests largely with school leadership. One important factor in the success or failure of these…

  3. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The role of health care experience and consumer information efficacy in shaping privacy and security perceptions of medical records: national consumer survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; Beckjord, Ellen; Moser, Richard P; Hughes, Penelope; Hesse, Bradford W

    2015-04-02

    Providers' adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is increasing and consumers have expressed concerns about the potential effects of EHRs on privacy and security. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding regarding factors that affect individuals' perceptions regarding the privacy and security of their medical information. The aim of this study was to describe national perceptions regarding the privacy and security of medical records and identify a comprehensive set of factors associated with these perceptions. Using a nationally representative 2011-2012 survey, we reported on adults' perceptions regarding privacy and security of medical records and sharing of health information between providers, and whether adults withheld information from a health care provider due to privacy or security concerns. We used multivariable models to examine the association between these outcomes and sociodemographic characteristics, health and health care experience, information efficacy, and technology-related variables. Approximately one-quarter of American adults (weighted n=235,217,323; unweighted n=3959) indicated they were very confident (n=989) and approximately half indicated they were somewhat confident (n=1597) in the privacy of their medical records; we found similar results regarding adults' confidence in the security of medical records (very confident: n=828; somewhat confident: n=1742). In all, 12.33% (520/3904) withheld information from a health care provider and 59.06% (2100/3459) expressed concerns about the security of both faxed and electronic health information. Adjusting for other characteristics, adults who reported higher quality of care had significantly greater confidence in the privacy and security of their medical records and were less likely to withhold information from their health care provider due to privacy or security concerns. Adults with higher information efficacy had significantly greater confidence in the privacy and security of medical

  5. Implementing the Namaste Care Program for residents with advanced dementia: exploring the perceptions of families and staff in UK care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacpoole, Min; Hockley, Jo; Thompsell, Amanda; Simard, Joyce; Volicer, Ladislav

    2017-10-01

    Increasing numbers of older people with advanced dementia are cared for in care homes. No cure is available, so research focused on improving quality of life and quality of care for people with dementia is needed to support them to live and die well. The Namaste Care programme is a multi-dimensional care program with sensory, psycho-social and spiritual components intended to enhance quality of life and quality of care for people with advanced dementia. The aim of the study was to establish whether the Namaste Care program can be implemented in UK care homes; and what effect Namaste Care has on the quality of life of residents with advanced dementia, their families and staff. This article explores the qualitative findings of the study, reporting the effect of the programme on the families of people with advanced dementia and care home staff, and presenting their perceptions of change in care. An organisational action research methodology was used. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken pre/post implementation of the Namaste Care program. The researcher kept a reflective diary recording data on the process of change. A comments book was available to staff and relatives in each care home. Data was analysed thematically within each care home and then across all care homes. Six care homes were recruited in south London: one withdrew before the study was underway. Of the five remaining care homes, four achieved a full Namaste Care program. One care home did not achieve the full program during the study, and another discontinued Namaste Care when the study ended. Every home experienced management disruption during the study. Namaste Care challenged normal routinised care for older people with advanced dementia. The characteristics of care uncovered before Namaste was implemented were: chaos and confusion, rushing around, lack of trust, and rewarding care. After the programme was implemented these perceptions were transformed, and themes of calmness, reaching out to

  6. Statistical models of shape optimisation and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rhodri; Taylor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Deformable shape models have wide application in computer vision and biomedical image analysis. This book addresses a key issue in shape modelling: establishment of a meaningful correspondence between a set of shapes. Full implementation details are provided.

  7. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kongmeng; Lindborg, PerMagnus; Rodrigues, Ruth; Styles, Suzy J

    2018-01-01

    Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio-visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  8. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongmeng Liew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama, a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio–visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  9. Design and implementation of low profile antenna for dual-band applications using rotated e-shaped conductor-backed plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mahdi; Sedghi, Tohid; Shafei, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    A novel configuration of a printed monopole antenna with a very compact size for satisfying WLAN operations at the 5.2/5.8 GHz and also for X-band operations at the 10 GHz has been proposed. The antenna includes a simple square-shaped patch as the radiator, the rotated U-shaped conductor back plane element with embedded strip on it, and the partial rectangular ground surface. By using the rotated U-shaped conductor-backed plane with proper values, good impedance matching and improvement in bandwidth can be achieved, at the lower and upper bands. The impedance bandwidth for S11 WLAN-band and 4.2 dBi at X-band. The experimental results represent that the realized antenna with good omnidirectional radiation characteristics, enough impedance bandwidth, and reasonable gains can be appropriate for various applications of the future developed technologies and handheld devices.

  10. Nurses' and doctors' perceptions regarding the implementation of a triage system in an emergency unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. Augustyn

    2009-09-01

    Opsomming Triage assessering van pasiënte met hulle aankoms by ‘n ongeluk/noodeenheid is ‘n noodsaaklike funksie van noodsorgvoorsiening, en is ‘n koste-effektiewe en tydbesparende onderneming. Hierdie studie het die persepsies van dokters en verpleegkundiges ondersoek betreffende die implementering van die Cape Triage Score in een noodeenheid. Die uitdagings wat ervaar is voor die implementering van die Cape Triage Score, die rolle en kernvaardighede van die triage verpleegkundige asook die swak en sterk punte van die Cape Triage Score is aangespreek. In hierdie beskrywende, kwantitatiewe en verkennende studie het 15 verpleegkundiges en dokters vraelyste voltooi. Uitdagings het verminder en die prioritisering van die pasiënte het verbeter na die implementering van die Cape Triage Score. Ander sterk punte van die stelsel het ingesluit dat die triage verpleegkundige die pasiënte geprioritiseer het, nie die ontvangsdame of die administratiewe personeel nie, en verpleegkundiges kon voorlopige ondersoeke doen sonder om op doktersbevele te wag. Die swakhede van die geïmplementeerde Cape Triage Score het ingesluit dat dit nog nie ten volle 100% van die tyd gefunksioneer het nie, en dat dit moeilik was om triage gedurende spitstye te handhaaf as gevolg van ‘n tekort aan verpleegkundiges. Die aanbevelings het ingesluit dat bestuur oortuig moet word van die voordele van die stelsel, verpleegkundiges triage funksies op ‘n rotasiebasis moet uitvoer, meer verpleegkundiges beskikbaar moet wees gedurende spitstye; en dat administratiewe en ontvangspersoneel ook georiënteer moet word ten opsigte van die triage stelsel.

  11. Implementing a bar-code assisted medication administration system: effects on the dispensing process and user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Cheng, K; Lai, K; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the effects of a bar-code assisted medication administration system used without the support of computerised prescribing (stand-alone BCMA), on the dispensing process and its users. The stand-alone BCMA system was implemented in one ward of a teaching hospital. The number of dispensing steps, dispensing time and potential dispensing errors (PDEs) were directly observed one month before and eight months after the intervention. Attitudes of pharmacy and nursing staff were assessed using a questionnaire (Likert scale) and interviews. Among 1291 and 471 drug items observed before and after the introduction of the technology respectively, the number of dispensing steps increased from five to eight and time (standard deviation) to dispense one drug item by one staff personnel increased from 0.8 (0.09) to 1.5 (0.12) min. Among 2828 and 471 drug items observed before and after the intervention respectively, the number of PDEs increased significantly (Psystem offered less benefit to the dispensing process (9/16). Nursing staff perceived the system as useful in improving the accuracy of drug administration (7/10). Implementing a stand-alone BCMA system may slow down and complicate the dispensing process. Nursing staff believe the stand-alone BCMA system could improve the drug administration process but pharmacy staff believes the technology would be more helpful if supported by computerised prescribing. However, periodical assessments are needed to identify weaknesses in the process after implementation, and all users should be educated on the benefits of using this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Important, misunderstood, and challenging: a qualitative study of nurses' and allied health professionals' perceptions of implementing self-management for patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah M L; Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki L; Hudson, Nicky; Singh, Sally J

    2015-01-01

    In light of the growing burden of COPD, there is increasing focus on the role of self-management for this population. Currently, self-management varies widely. Little is known either about nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs') understanding and provision of self-management in clinical practice. This study explores nurses' and AHPs' understanding and implementation of supported COPD self-management within routine clinical practice. Nurses and AHPs participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews to explore their understanding and provision of COPD self-management, as well as their perceptions of the challenges to providing such care. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from a range of professions working within primary, community, and secondary care settings. Three researchers independently analyzed each transcript using a thematic approach. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. Nurses and AHPs viewed self-management as an important aspect of COPD care, but often misunderstood what it involved, leading to variation in practice. A number of challenges to supporting self-management were identified, which related to lack of time, lack of insight regarding training needs, and assumptions regarding patients' perceived self-management abilities. Nurses and AHPs delivering self-management require clear guidance, training in the use of effective self-management skills, and education that challenges their preconceptions regarding patients. The design of health care services also needs to consider the practical barriers to COPD self-management support for the implementation of such interventions to be successful.

  13. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  14. Students and Teachers’ Perceptions into the Viability of Mobile Technology Implementation to Support Language Learning for First Year Business Students in a Middle Eastern University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal M. Tayan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in technology have enabled us to learn, adapt and exploit our skills and knowledge in new ways.  Appreciating the potential of technology may yet give growth and enrich the process of language education, particularly through a student-centred mobile learning environment. Consequently, a constructivist approach to learning can create tremendous possibilities for both language learners and teachers. By exploiting the affordances of mobile technologies and the Internet, a new platform of learning or Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL can be realised, through which learners truly learn to learn.  Yet, while many of today’s language institutions and places of learning have begun to understand the potential presented by mobile technology as a tool and resource to content and language development, apprehension may still exist among educational practitioners, learners and senior management.  Such apprehension may stem from a lack of understanding in fully appreciating the opportunities and affordances posed by MALL in creating a support structure to learning and teaching excellence. This may be particularly true within developing countries such as those found in the Middle East. Consequently, set in a Saudi university context, the purpose of this study is to investigate learners’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the proposed implementation of a MALL programme, while exploring whether the promotion of mobile technologies could assist learning and become a viable support structure in teaching English as a second language.  Interviews were conducted with three English instructors who teach on the first year Business English programme at the university. The study also analysed 191 student participants who completed a Likert scale questionnaire designed to explore their mobile learning experiences, attitudes and perceptions towards the proposed MALL programme in their educational context. The findings from the student

  15. Genetically Guided Statin Therapy on Statin Perceptions, Adherence, and Cholesterol Lowering: A Pilot Implementation Study in Primary Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine H. Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statin adherence is often limited by side effects. The SLCO1B1*5 variant is a risk factor for statin side effects and exhibits statin-specific effects: highest with simvastatin/atorvastatin and lowest with pravastatin/rosuvastatin. The effects of SLCO1B1*5 genotype guided statin therapy (GGST are unknown. Primary care patients (n = 58 who were nonadherent to statins and their providers received SLCO1B1*5 genotyping and guided recommendations via the electronic medical record (EMR. The primary outcome was the change in Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire, which measured patients’ perceived needs for statins and concerns about adverse effects, measured before and after SLCO1B1*5 results. Concurrent controls (n = 59 were identified through the EMR to compare secondary outcomes: new statin prescriptions, statin utilization, and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c. GGST patients had trends (p = 0.2 towards improved statin necessity and concerns. The largest changes were the “need for statin to prevent sickness” (p < 0.001 and “concern for statin to disrupt life” (p = 0.006. GGST patients had more statin prescriptions (p < 0.001, higher statin use (p < 0.001, and greater decrease in LDL-c (p = 0.059 during follow-up. EMR delivery of SLCO1B1*5 results and recommendations is feasible in the primary care setting. This novel intervention may improve patients’ perceptions of statins and physician behaviors that promote higher statin adherence and lower LDL-c.

  16. A food-manufacturing manager’s experiences and perceptions of the implementation of an incentive scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celita Begbie

    2011-06-01

    Research purpose: Identifying the contributors to negative feelings and demotivation, or conversely, excitement and motivation, will ultimately assist managers to implement an incentive scheme to motivate staff and improve performance. Motivation for the study: There is little research on how participants perceive incentive schemes and whether or not they motivate employees and improve overall performance. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a modernistic qualitative research approach and, more specifically, a case study. Main findings: The participants in the research were unaware of the performance goals they needed to achieve. They felt that there was no link between their performance and their earnings. They felt that some objectives were demeaning and insulting, as was the payment they received. They felt that achieving their goals was outside their control and influence. Practical/managerial implications: Participants felt excited and motivated to perform when their managers presented the department’s overall goals to them and asked the participants to set their own goals based on the department’s objectives. Contribution/value-add: Although this study is explorative and descriptive, it suggests that it is how departments implement an incentive scheme, rather than merely having one, that will motivate or demotivate employees to perform.

  17. Exploring Education Professionals' Perceptions of the Changes in School/Classroom Climate, Students' Experiences, and Educators' Experiences as a Result of Implementing the Secret Kindness Agents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ferial G.

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions of 23 educators as related to the implementation of the "Secret Kindness Agents Project." The methodology was comprised of a researcher-designed questionnaire to capture the essence of the participants' experiences with the project. A Conceptual Map developed by researchers at the…

  18. An Analysis of ELT Teachers’ Perceptions of Some Problems Concerning the Implementation of English Language Teaching Curricula in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that foreign language teaching/learning has been failure inTurkey for many years although nearly everyone believes that speaking at least oneforeign language is essential today. Considering Turkey as a developing country inmany aspects; such as industry, trade, technology, tourism, the importance of foreignlanguage teaching will increase.Children in elementary schools are open to ideas of global understanding.In other words elementary school education period can be said to be the right time toexpand the students’ intercultural views and enhancement of cognitive skills(Curtain, 1990. As it is mentioned above using a foreign language effectively hasnumerous benefits and it also helps a child to become a well-educated person whilehe/she is growing up. In order to make them successful, we should provide thechildren in our country with a well-organized language teaching. To do this, manyresearches should be done and many new ideas are required.So, this study aims to investigate the problems faced by teachers andstudents, concerning the implementation of English Language curricula in terms ofthe components of curricula such as objectives, selection and organization ofcontent, implementation of method and methodologies, the use of technology andevaluation.The research sampling of the study consists of 261 teachers of English whoare teaching 4th and 5th year students in elementary schools which were chosenrandomly. The teachers of English were administered a questionnaire, data wereanalysed, the results were discussed, and in the light of findings recommendationswere made to cause betterment in English language teaching in elementary schools.

  19. Overcoming barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice concepts in athletic training education: perceptions of select educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote critical thinking, inspire potential research interest, and further develop the available body of knowledge in our

  20. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: a study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Gribble, Karleen; Sheehan, Athena; Taylor, Christine; Dykes, Fiona C

    2011-08-31

    The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to disseminate and implement BFHI need to be

  1. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Athena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health Initiative (BFHI is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23% have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the

  2. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  3. [Implementation of meningococcal B vaccination (Bexsero®) in France: Physicians' perceptions and experiences of a few months after marketing approval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C; Bechet, S; Cohen, R

    2016-01-01

    In December 2013, the French public health authorities recommended the use of Bexsero® (meningococcus B vaccine) in areas with endemic risk and for patients at risk for invasive meningococcal B disease. In this context, InfoVac-France performed a national survey a few months after the implementation of the vaccine to evaluate physicians' perceptions and experiences with this new vaccine. This survey was proposed by email in April 2014 to the InfoVac network. An initial email explained the purpose of this study and proposed an online questionnaire. Between April 29 and May 16, 2014, 1502 physicians answered online: 502 GPs (33%), 939 pediatricians (63%), and 61 other specialists (4%). In response, 91% of physicians would like to use this vaccine and 87% of pediatricians versus 50% of GPs knew that the vaccine was marketed. Physicians had been informed of the vaccine mostly via the InfoVac network (61%). The immunization schedules for all ages were slightly known by physicians (9% for GPs and 43% of pediatricians). This vaccination was still rarely proposed (18%) more often because it was not reimbursed to patients (62%). Although 39% of physicians were planning to propose the vaccine to their patients, 54% remained undecided. A total of 9% of pediatricians and 2% of GPs had already used this vaccination. This InfoVac-France survey shows that physicians would support the implementation of this vaccine, but questions persist as to its effectiveness, impact on carriage, and duration of protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementing Montessori Methods for Dementia™ in Ontario long-term care homes: Recreation staff and multidisciplinary consultants' perceptions of policy and practice issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Denton, Margaret; Elliot, Gail

    2018-01-01

    Montessori-based activities use a person-centred approach to benefit persons living with dementia by increasing their participation in, and enjoyment of, daily life. This study investigated recreation staff and multidisciplinary consultants' perceptions of factors that affected implementing Montessori Methods for Dementia™ in long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada. Qualitative data were obtained during semi-structured telephone interviews with 17 participants who worked in these homes. A political economy of aging perspective guided thematic data analysis. Barriers such as insufficient funding and negative attitudes towards activities reinforced a task-oriented biomedical model of care. Various forms of support and understanding helped put Montessori Methods for Dementia™ into practice as a person-centred care program, thus reportedly improving the quality of life of residents living with dementia, staff and family members. These results demonstrate that when Montessori Methods for Dementia™ approaches are learned and understood by staff they can be used as practical interventions for long-term care residents living with dementia.

  5. Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations' implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Elizabeth; Edwards, Nancy; McDowell, Ian; Muga, Richard; Brown, Stephen

    2014-10-08

    Addressing inequities is a key role for international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) working in health and development. Yet, putting equity principles into practice can prove challenging. In-depth empirical research examining what influences INGOs' implementation of equity principles is limited. This study examined the influences on one INGO's implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS programs. This research employed a case study with nested components (an INGO operating in Kenya, with offices in North America). We used multiple data collection methods, including document reviews, interviews (with staff, partners and clients of the INGO in Kenya), and participant observation (with Kenyan INGO staff). Participant observation was conducted with 10 people over three months. Forty-one interviews were completed, and 127 documents analyzed. Data analysis followed Auerbach and Silverstein's analytic process (2003), with qualitative coding conducted in multiple stages, using descriptive matrices, visual displays and networks (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There was a gap between the INGO's intent to implement equity principles and actual practice due to multiple influences from various players, including donors and country governments. The INGO was reliant on donor funding and needed permission from the Kenyan government to work in-country. Major influences included donor agendas and funding, donor country policies, and Southern country government priorities and legislation. The INGO privileged particular vulnerable populations (based on its reputation, its history, and the priorities of the Kenyan government and the donors). To balance its equity commitment with the influences from other players, the INGO aligned with the system as well as pushed back incrementally on the donors and the Kenyan government to influence these organizations' equity agendas. By moving its equity agenda forward incrementally and using its reputational advantage, the INGO avoided

  6. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  7. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural ... we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences. ... to show that the importance of AIDS related knowledge and behavioural factors risks ...

  8. Current and Future Education Leaders' Perceptions of Race to the Top's Teacher Evaluation and Compensation Components, before and after Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Orin; Windish, Daniel; Taylor, Rosemarye

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the professional perceptions of educational leaders as to the fairness and impact of teacher evaluation and compensation reforms under Race to the Top. The study surveyed graduate students in education and educational leadership programs to assess changes in their perceptions from prior to RTTT implementation…

  9. Important, misunderstood, and challenging: a qualitative study of nurses’ and allied health professionals’ perceptions of implementing self-management for patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young HML

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah ML Young,1 Lindsay D Apps,1 Samantha L Harrison,1 Vicki L Johnson-Warrington,1 Nicky Hudson,2 Sally J Singh1,3 1National Institute of Health Research CLAHRC-LNR Pulmonary Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, 2School of Applied Social Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, 3Applied Research Centre in Health and Lifestyle Interventions, Coventry University, Coventry, UK Background: In light of the growing burden of COPD, there is increasing focus on the role of self-management for this population. Currently, self-management varies widely. Little is known either about nurses’ and allied health professionals’ (AHPs’ understanding and provision of self-management in clinical practice. This study explores nurses’ and AHPs’ understanding and implementation of supported COPD self-management within routine clinical practice. Materials and methods: Nurses and AHPs participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews to explore their understanding and provision of COPD self-management, as well as their perceptions of the challenges to providing such care. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from a range of professions working within primary, community, and secondary care settings. Three researchers independently analyzed each transcript using a thematic approach. Results: A total of 14 participants were interviewed. Nurses and AHPs viewed self-management as an important aspect of COPD care, but often misunderstood what it involved, leading to variation in practice. A number of challenges to supporting self-management were identified, which related to lack of time, lack of insight regarding training needs, and assumptions regarding patients’ perceived self-management abilities. Conclusion: Nurses and AHPs delivering self-management require clear guidance, training in the use of effective self-management skills, and education that challenges their preconceptions regarding

  10. Relationships between duration of practice, educational level, and perception of barriers to implement evidence-based practice among critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carswella

    2015-12-01

    Globally, a greater emphasis has been placed on the delivery of safe, patient-centered, evidence-based nursing care. As point-of-care providers, critical care nurses play a key role in ensuring that patients receive the safest, most effective treatment available. In order to deliver scientific-based care, critical care nurses must stay abreast of the current trends, as well as engage in the evidence-based practice process. This study aimed to describe research activities, to identify barriers to implement evidence-based practice and to explore professional factors related to the use of evidence-based practice among critical care nurses at three teaching hospitals in south-eastern United States. A survey design and convenience sampling method was used. A sample of 30 critical care staff nurses participated in the study. A 61-item online questionnaire composed of a demographic survey - BARRIERS scale - and Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire was used. Simple descriptive statistics, Pearson's product moment correlations, and independent-sample t test procedures were used to analyze the data. Critical care nurses' reported positive attitudes, but viewed knowledge and use of evidence-based practice less favorably. These results may indicate that having a positive attitude towards evidence-based practice does not necessarily translate to knowledge and use of the evidence-based practice process in clinical practice. An unwillingness to change and time constraints were identified as the top barriers to use evidence-based practice in this study. Perceptions of barriers to use evidence-based practice were higher in those critical care nurses who had less practical experience and educational preparation. The results suggest that critical care nurses possess the foundation to engage in the evidence-based practice process; however, their knowledge, practice, and attitudes just need to be cultivated and strengthened. Understanding the nurses' professional factors, current use

  11. “It’s a Battle… You Want to Do It, but How Will You Get It Done?”: Teachers’ and Principals’ Perceptions of Implementing Additional Physical activity in School for Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Salimi, Rosanne; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Singh, Amika S.

    2017-01-01

    School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity (PA) in children. However, implementation of school-based PA programmes seems difficult, in particular due to schools’ focus on academic performance and a lack of involvement of school staff in program development. The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was: (1) to explore the perceptions of teachers and principals with regard to implementation of additional PA aimed at improving cognitive and academic performance, and (2) to identify characteristics of PA programmes that according to them are feasible in daily school practice. Twenty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary school teachers (grades 5 and 6) and principals in The Netherlands, and analysed using inductive content analysis. Teachers and principals expressed their willingness to implement additional PA if it benefits learning. Time constraints appeared to be a major barrier, and strongly influenced participants’ perceptions of feasible PA programmes. Teachers and principals emphasised that additional PA needs to be short, executed in the classroom, and provided in “ready-to-use” materials, i.e., that require no or little preparation time (e.g., a movie clip). Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence on the effects of PA for academic purposes, and should examine the forms of PA that are both effective as well as feasible in the school setting. PMID:28973967

  12. “It’s a Battle… You Want to Do It, but How Will You Get It Done?”: Teachers’ and Principals’ Perceptions of Implementing Additional Physical activity in School for Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera van den Berg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity (PA in children. However, implementation of school-based PA programmes seems difficult, in particular due to schools’ focus on academic performance and a lack of involvement of school staff in program development. The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was: (1 to explore the perceptions of teachers and principals with regard to implementation of additional PA aimed at improving cognitive and academic performance, and (2 to identify characteristics of PA programmes that according to them are feasible in daily school practice. Twenty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary school teachers (grades 5 and 6 and principals in The Netherlands, and analysed using inductive content analysis. Teachers and principals expressed their willingness to implement additional PA if it benefits learning. Time constraints appeared to be a major barrier, and strongly influenced participants’ perceptions of feasible PA programmes. Teachers and principals emphasised that additional PA needs to be short, executed in the classroom, and provided in “ready-to-use” materials, i.e., that require no or little preparation time (e.g., a movie clip. Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence on the effects of PA for academic purposes, and should examine the forms of PA that are both effective as well as feasible in the school setting.

  13. "It's a Battle… You Want to Do It, but How Will You Get It Done?": Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Implementing Additional Physical activity in School for Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Salimi, Rosanne; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2017-09-30

    School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity (PA) in children. However, implementation of school-based PA programmes seems difficult, in particular due to schools' focus on academic performance and a lack of involvement of school staff in program development. The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was: (1) to explore the perceptions of teachers and principals with regard to implementation of additional PA aimed at improving cognitive and academic performance, and (2) to identify characteristics of PA programmes that according to them are feasible in daily school practice. Twenty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary school teachers (grades 5 and 6) and principals in The Netherlands, and analysed using inductive content analysis. Teachers and principals expressed their willingness to implement additional PA if it benefits learning. Time constraints appeared to be a major barrier, and strongly influenced participants' perceptions of feasible PA programmes. Teachers and principals emphasised that additional PA needs to be short, executed in the classroom, and provided in "ready-to-use" materials, i.e., that require no or little preparation time (e.g., a movie clip). Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence on the effects of PA for academic purposes, and should examine the forms of PA that are both effective as well as feasible in the school setting.

  14. Hand Shape Affects Access to Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dijkstra (Katinka); M.P. Kaschak; R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined the ways that body posture facilitated retrieval of autobiographical memories in more detail by focusing on two aspects of congruence in position of a specific body part: hand shape and hand orientation. Hand shape is important in the tactile perception and

  15. Vibrotactile feedback for conveying object shape information as perceived by artificial sensing of robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Sardar, Dwaipayan; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit

    2016-08-01

    This work is a preliminary study towards developing an alternative communication channel for conveying shape information to aid in recognition of items when tactile perception is hindered. Tactile data, acquired during object exploration by sensor fitted robot arm, are processed to recognize four basic geometric shapes. Patterns representing each shape, classified from tactile data, are generated using micro-controller-driven vibration motors which vibrotactually stimulate users to convey the particular shape information. These motors are attached on the subject's arm and their psychological (verbal) responses are recorded to assess the competence of the system to convey shape information to the user in form of vibrotactile stimulations. Object shapes are classified from tactile data with an average accuracy of 95.21 %. Three successive sessions of shape recognition from vibrotactile pattern depicted learning of the stimulus from subjects' psychological response which increased from 75 to 95 %. This observation substantiates the learning of vibrotactile stimulation in user over the sessions which in turn increase the system efficacy. The tactile sensing module and vibrotactile pattern generating module are integrated to complete the system whose operation is analysed in real-time. Thus, the work demonstrates a successful implementation of the complete schema of artificial tactile sensing system for object-shape recognition through vibrotactile stimulations.

  16. Implementing electronic health records (EHRs): health care provider perceptions before and after transition from a local basic EHR to a commercial comprehensive EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krousel-Wood, Marie; McCoy, Allison B; Ahia, Chad; Holt, Elizabeth W; Trapani, Donnalee N; Luo, Qingyang; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Thomas, Eric J; Sittig, Dean F; Milani, Richard V

    2018-06-01

    We assessed changes in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of electronic health record (EHR) benefit before and after transition from a local basic to a commercial comprehensive EHR. Changes in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of EHR benefit were captured via a survey of academic health care providers before (baseline) and at 6-12 months (short term) and 12-24 months (long term) after the transition. We analyzed 32 items for the overall group and by practice setting, provider age, and specialty using separate multivariable-adjusted random effects logistic regression models. A total of 223 providers completed all 3 surveys (30% response rate): 85.6% had outpatient practices, 56.5% were >45 years old, and 23.8% were primary care providers. The percentage of providers with positive perceptions significantly increased from baseline to long-term follow-up for patient communication, hospital transitions - access to clinical information, preventive care delivery, preventive care prompt, preventive lab prompt, satisfaction with system reliability, and sharing medical information (P commercial comprehensive EHR, items with significant increases and significant decreases in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of EHR benefit were identified, overall and by subgroup.

  17. A theory of shape identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Frédéric; Morel, Jean-Michel; Musé, Pablo; Sur, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic progress in shape recognition algorithms applied to ever-growing image databases. They have been applied to image stitching, stereo vision, image mosaics, solid object recognition and video or web image retrieval. More fundamentally, the ability of humans and animals to detect and recognize shapes is one of the enigmas of perception. The book describes a complete method that starts from a query image and an image database and yields a list of the images in the database containing shapes present in the query image. A false alarm number is associated to each detection. Many experiments will show that familiar simple shapes or images can reliably be identified with false alarm numbers ranging from 10-5 to less than 10-300. Technically speaking, there are two main issues. The first is extracting invariant shape descriptors from digital images. The second is deciding whether two shape descriptors are identifiable as the same shape or not. A perceptual principle, the Helmholtz princi...

  18. "I Know This Is Supposed to Be More Like the Real World, but . . .": Student Perceptions of a PBL Implementation in an Undergraduate Materials Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly R.; Tawfik, Andrew A.; Jonassen, David H.; Winholtz, Robert A.; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the initial implementation of a problem-based version of an undergraduate course in materials science for the purpose of identifying areas of improvement to the curriculum prior to a planned second implementation. The course was designed around problems that students work in small teams to solve under the…

  19. Functional and shape data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This textbook for courses on function data analysis and shape data analysis describes how to define, compare, and mathematically represent shapes, with a focus on statistical modeling and inference. It is aimed at graduate students in analysis in statistics, engineering, applied mathematics, neuroscience, biology, bioinformatics, and other related areas. The interdisciplinary nature of the broad range of ideas covered—from introductory theory to algorithmic implementations and some statistical case studies—is meant to familiarize graduate students with an array of tools that are relevant in developing computational solutions for shape and related analyses. These tools, gleaned from geometry, algebra, statistics, and computational science, are traditionally scattered across different courses, departments, and disciplines; Functional and Shape Data Analysis offers a unified, comprehensive solution by integrating the registration problem into shape analysis, better preparing graduate students for handling fu...

  20. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  1. Policy Implementation Of Poverty Reduction In The District Kutai Kartanegara In East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the implementation of poverty reduction policies of Kutai Kartanegara regency factual research communication in the form of co-ordination Unit SKPD with the Local Government and Regional Work Unit is not maximized so that the Governments poverty reduction of Kutai Kartanegara Regency gives not optimal result as a concept in policy implementation by Goggin 1990 the similarity perception in implementing the policy is an essential condition for the successful implementation of the policy along with the division of functions and roles in the bureaucratic structure that implements public policy should be run and the executor implementor implementation of government policies either parallel or multilevel should make shapes patterns of certain communications in order to facilitate in making the relationship of the parties involved in the implementation of government policy.

  2. Addiction treatment staff perceptions of training as a facilitator or barrier to implementing evidence-based practices: a national qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Melinda; Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Beltrame, Clelia; Lim, Lynn; Chassler, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative effort examines training-related facilitators and barriers to implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in 285 community-based addiction treatment organizations (CBOs) nationwide that were funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (SAMHSA/CSAT) to implement EBPs. Using qualitative interviews, the authors explored staff (N = 514) descriptions of training as a facilitator or barrier to implementation. Training-related factors were described 663 times as facilitators (by 440 staff) and 233 times as barriers (by 170 staff). Responses were coded using content analysis. Specific characteristics of the training received, such as access to expert knowledge and quality, as well as ongoing training were described as central facilitating factors to EBP implementation. Key reasons training was perceived as a barrier included the amount of training; the training did not fit current staff and/or organizational needs; the training for some EBPs was perceived to be too demanding; and the difficulty accessing training. Since government funders of addiction treatments require that CBOs implement EBPs and they provide training resources, the quality, flexibility, and accessibility of the available training needs to be promoted throughout the addiction treatment network. Only 17% of CBOs reported that they used the SAMHSA-funded ATTC (Addiction Technology Transfer Center) training centers and 42% used SAMHSA technical assistance. Hence, federally funded resources for training were not always used.

  3. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  4. Assessments of Stress of Conscience, Perceptions of Conscience, Burnout, and Social Support Before and After Implementation of a Participatory Action-Research-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Åhlin, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Interventions aiming to constructively address stress of conscience are rare. The aim of the study was to compare assessments of stress of conscience, perceptions of conscience, burnout, and social support among health care personnel (HCP) working in municipal residential care of older adults, before and after participation in a participatory action research (PAR) intervention aiming to learn to constructively deal with troubled conscience. Questionnaire data were collected at baseline and at follow-up (1-year interval; n = 29). Descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical tests were used to make comparisons between baseline and follow-up. HCP gave significantly higher scores to the question, "Are your work achievements appreciated by your immediate superior?" at follow-up compared with baseline. No significant differences in levels of stress of conscience and burnout at follow-up were found. The results suggested that a PAR intervention aiming to learn HCP to deal with their troubled conscience in difficult situations could be partially successful.

  5. Employees' Perceptions of Social Norms as a Result of Implementing the Participatory Approach at Supervisor Level : Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, S M; Schaafsma, F G; Geldof, M F; Boot, C R L; Kraaijeveld, R A; Shaw, W S; Bültmann, U; Twisk, J; Anema, J R

    Purpose A multifaceted implementation strategy was targeted at supervisors to encourage them to apply a participatory approach (PA) in dealing with employees' work functioning problems due to health concerns. This paper assesses the effect on employees' perceived social norms regarding the use of

  6. School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P

    2017-08-07

    Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and

  7. Bridging Expectations: Extension Agents’ Perception of a Gap between Expectations and Experience when Implementing the Indonesian Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Beef self-sufficiency programme (BSSP) was launched in Indonesia in 2004 in response to the massive import of beef from other countries. The objective of the present article is to explore and discuss how Indonesian extension agents perceived the practical implementation of the programme, including...... of the programme, the future of self-sufficiency regarding beef production in the country, and how this learning could be captured and used for the future....

  8. A statistical model for mapping morphological shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiahan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living things come in all shapes and sizes, from bacteria, plants, and animals to humans. Knowledge about the genetic mechanisms for biological shape has far-reaching implications for a range spectrum of scientific disciplines including anthropology, agriculture, developmental biology, evolution and biomedicine. Results We derived a statistical model for mapping specific genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs that control morphological shape. The model was formulated within the mixture framework, in which different types of shape are thought to result from genotypic discrepancies at a QTL. The EM algorithm was implemented to estimate QTL genotype-specific shapes based on a shape correspondence analysis. Computer simulation was used to investigate the statistical property of the model. Conclusion By identifying specific QTLs for morphological shape, the model developed will help to ask, disseminate and address many major integrative biological and genetic questions and challenges in the genetic control of biological shape and function.

  9. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  10. Management and non-supervisory perceptions surrounding the implementation and significance of high-performance work practices in a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbridge, Gayle Ann

    Change management has become an imperative for organizations as they move into the 21st century; up to 75 percent of change initiatives fail. Nuclear power plants face the same challenges as industrial firms with the added challenge of deregulation. Faced with this challenge, restructuring the electric utility has raised a number of complex issues. Under traditional cost-of-service regulation, electric utilities were able to pass on their costs to consumers who absorbed them. In the new competitive environment, customers will now choose their suppliers based on the most competitive price. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of congruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel regarding the perceived implementation of high performance workplace practices at a nuclear power plant. This study used as its foundation the practices identified in the Road to High Performance Workplaces: A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of the American Workplace (1994). The population for this study consisted of organizational members at one nuclear power plant. Over 300 individuals completed surveys on high performance workplace practices. Two surveys were administered, one to non-supervisory personnel and one to first line supervisors and above. The determination of implementation levels was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis. Results of the study revealed 32 areas of noncongruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel in regard to the perceived implementation level of the high performance workplace practices. Factor analysis further revealed that the order in which the respondents place emphasis on the variables varies between the two groups. This study provides recommendations that may improve the nuclear power plants alignment of activities. Recommendations are also provided for additional research on high-performance work practices.

  11. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  12. Cyprus mothers׳ breast feeding self-efficacy and their perceptions about the implementation of the '10 steps' in the first 48hours after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiona, Vasiliki; Middleton, Nicos; Kouta, Christiana; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Kolokotroni, Ourania

    2016-05-01

    more than two decades after the launch of the '10 steps' for successful breast feeding, there is still concern that implementation is suboptimal. Commonly, studies assess the level of implementation based on self-assessments from maternity staff and more rarely based on the mothers' own experience. To date, there has been only anecdotal evidence with regards to the implementation of the '10 steps' in Cyprus while there is general lack of research data on breast feeding in this country. this study assessed breast feeding self-efficacy among mothers during the first 48hours after birth and explored their views with regards to the implementation of the '10 steps' across public and private maternity units in Nicosia, Cyprus. this is a descriptive study with a consecutive sample of 216 mothers, aged at least 18, who gave birth to a full-term healthy infant between January and April 2014. Two data collection tools were used: Section 4 of the BFHI (Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative) questionnaire referring to mothers' self-assessment of maternity unit practices and the BSES-SF (Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form) which measures perceived self-efficacy in bryeast feeding. midwifery assistance for breast feeding skills development along with encouragement of breast feeding on demand (steps 5 and 8) were identified by mothers as the steps they were more likely to have experienced. In addition, there appeared to be relatively good adherence to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. In contrast, it seems that step 7(rooming-in), step 9 (no pacifiers) and step 10 (breast feeding support after discharge) were not systematically practiced. While a higher percentage of mothers in public maternity units reported being informed about the importance of skin-to-skin contact compared to the private sector (51.5% versus 25.7%), there does not appear to be much difference in terms of its actual practice which is generally low (29.0% versus 25

  13. Changes in Sugary Beverage Consumption and Public Perceptions in Upstate New York After Implementation of a Community Awareness Campaign and Healthier Vending Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Danielle J; Lowenfels, Ann; Ren, Jia; Brissette, Ian; Martin, Erika G

    2018-02-23

    We evaluated the impact of a community-based healthy beverage procurement and serving practices program, and educational media campaign, on residents' behaviors and beliefs regarding sugary beverages. Repeated cross-sectional population surveys in 2013 and 2014 were conducted, as well as semistructured interviews with key informants. We employed multivariate differences-in-differences regression analysis, adjusting for demographics and weight status, using the survey data. Key informant interviews were reviewed for common themes. Three rural counties in upstate New York with high prevalence of children living in poverty and childhood obesity. Residents of Broome, Cattaraugus, and Chautauqua, with Chemung as a control, reached through cross-sectional random-digit-dial landline and cellular telephones, and practitioners involved in intervention implementation. Community organizations were encouraged through presentations to leadership to adopt healthier vending policies, providing more low- and no-sugar options, and were provided assistance with implementation. In addition, a media campaign supported by presentations to the public aimed to educate residents regarding the health consequences of sugary beverage consumption. The survey measured population demographics and sugary beverage consumption frequency, availability, beliefs about harmfulness, and support for regulation, pre- and postintervention. Key informant interviews elicited perceived program challenges and successes. Compared with temporal trends in the control county, availability of regular soda in the intervention counties decreased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = -.341, P = .04) and support for regulation increased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = .162, P = .02). However, there were no differences regarding beliefs about harmfulness or consumption. Practitioners confirmed that the intervention increased awareness but was insufficient to spur action. Although public education on

  14. Shaping the Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. METHODS/DESIGN: The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were...... % and 81 % of eligible students, and 22 % of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via...... national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. DISCUSSION: Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing...

  15. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  16. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing ......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  17. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing i......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  18. Implementation of 5S management method for lean healthcare at a health center in Senegal: a qualitative study of staff perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Shogo; Sow, Seydou; Castro, Marcia C; Matsuno, Rui; Tsuru, Akiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    5S is a lean method for workplace organization; it is an abbreviation representing five Japanese words that can be translated as sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. The 5S management method has been recognized recently as a potential solution for improving the quality of government healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries. To assess how the 5S management method creates changes in the workplace and in the process and outcomes of healthcare services, and how it can be applicable in a resource-poor setting, based on data from a pilot intervention of the 5S program implemented in a health facility in Senegal. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 21 health center staff members 1 year after the pilot intervention. We asked them about their views on the changes brought on by the 5S program in their workplace, daily routines, and services provided. We then transcribed interview records and organized the narrative information by emerging themes using thematic analysis in the coding process. Study participants indicated that, despite resource constraints and other demotivating factors present at the health center, the 5S program created changes in the work environment, including fewer unwanted items, improved orderliness, and improved labeling and directional indicators of service units. These efforts engendered changes in the quality of services (e.g. making services more efficient, patient-centered, and safe), and in the attitude and behavior of staff and patients. The pilot intervention of the 5S management method was perceived to have improved the quality of healthcare services and staff motivation in a resource-poor healthcare facility with a disorderly work environment in Senegal. Quantitative and qualitative research based on a larger-scale intervention would be needed to elaborate and validate these findings and to identify the cost-effectiveness of such intervention in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Attention and competition in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    What are the roles of attention and competition in determining where objects lie in the visual field, a phenomenon known as figure-ground perception? In this chapter, we review evidence that attention and other high-level factors such as familiarity affect figure-ground perception, and we discuss models that implement these effects. Next, we consider the Biased Competition Model of Attention in which attention is used to resolve the competition for neural representation between two nearby stimuli; in this model the response to the stimulus that loses the competition is suppressed. In the remainder of the chapter we discuss recent behavioral evidence that figure-ground perception entails between-object competition in which the response to the shape of the losing competitor is suppressed. We also describe two experiments testing whether more attention is drawn to resolve greater figure-ground competition, as would be expected if the Biased Competition Model of Attention extends to figure-ground perception. In these experiments we find that responses to targets on the location of a losing strong competitor are slowed, consistent with the idea that the location of the losing competitor is suppressed, but responses to targets on the winning competitor are not speeded, which is inconsistent with the hypothesis that attention is used to resolve figure-ground competition. In closing, we discuss evidence that attention can operate by suppression as well as by facilitation.

  20. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  1. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  2. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  3. Relating particles and texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Bilt, van der A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bosman, F.

    2005-01-01

    Practically all foods contain particles. It has been suggested that the presence of particles in food may affect the perception of sensory attributes. In the present study we investigated the effect of size and type (hardness and shape) of particles added to a CMC based vanilla custard dessert. The

  4. Haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by novel applications, interest in haptic perception is growing. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of a number of important aspects of haptic perception. By means of touch we can not only perceive quite different material properties, such as roughness, compliance,

  5. Perceptions of Socio-Ecological Changes and Their Implications on Changes in Farming Practises and Agricultural Land Uses in the Savannahs of Northeast Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kojo Boateng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the perceptions of local farming households in the savannahs of northeast Ghana about the patterns of ecological and social changes happening around them over the years. It then unpacks how those perceptions are influencing farming practices and agricultural land use changes. Theoretical and empirical understandings of the value of local resource users’ perceptual judgements about changes in their socio-ecological environment and how they respond to those changes have far-reaching implications for design of agricultural development and sustainable land management policies. Consideration of local perceptions offers more informed basis to design and implement agricultural development policies in ways that encourage active local participation, sustainable livelihoods development, and responsiveness to changing conditions. This departs from current conventional implementation systems, which are usually top-down and based on technical and political aspects of agricultural land management, but do not necessarily comprehend processes influencing the agency of local communities in shaping various agricultural land use outcomes.

  6. The challenge of change in acute mental health services: measuring staff perceptions of barriers to change and their relationship to job status and satisfaction using a new measure (VOCALISE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Caroline; Callard, Felicity; Flach, Clare; Williams, Paul; Sayer, Jane; Wykes, Til

    2014-02-20

    Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: 'confidence,' 'de-motivation' and 'powerlessness.' Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to those occupying more junior roles, indicating a

  7. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  8. Self-erecting shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Matthew W.

    2017-07-04

    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  9. The Hue of Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  10. Memory for shape reactivates the lateral occipital complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2015-04-07

    Memory is thought to be a constructive process in which the cortical regions associated with processing event features are reactivated during retrieval. Although there is evidence for non-detailed cortical reactivation during retrieval (e.g., memory for visual or auditory information reactivates the visual or auditory processing regions, respectively), there is limited evidence that memory can reactivate cortical regions associated with processing detailed, feature-specific information. Such evidence is critical to our understanding of the mechanisms of episodic retrieval. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a region that preferentially processes shape, is associated with retrieval of shape information. During encoding, participants were presented with colored abstract shapes that were either intact or scrambled. During retrieval, colored disks were presented and participants indicated whether the corresponding shape was previously "intact" or "scrambled". To assess whether conscious retrieval of intact shapes reactivated LOC, we conducted a conjunction of shape perception/encoding and accurate versus inaccurate retrieval of intact shapes, which produced many activations in LOC. To determine whether activity in LOC was specific to intact shapes, we conducted a conjunction of shape perception/encoding and intact versus scrambled shapes, which also produced many activations in LOC. Furthermore, memory for intact shapes in each hemifield produced contralateral activity in LOC (e.g., memory for left visual field intact shapes activated right LOC), which reflects the specific reinstatement of perception/encoding activity. The present results extend previous feature-specific memory reactivation evidence and support the view that memory is a constructive process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Stochastic Grammar for Natural Shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    We consider object detection using a generic model for natural shapes. A common approach for object recognition involves matching object models directly to images. Another approach involves building intermediate representations via a generic grouping processes. We argue that these two processes (model-based recognition and grouping) may use similar computational mechanisms. By defining a generic model for shapes we can use model-based techniques to implement a mid-level vision grouping process.

  12. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....

  13. The Government's perception of the role of energy and its implications towards conservation: the Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino Jannuzzi, G. de

    1990-01-01

    We characterize the government's traditional perception of energy and show that this create important contradictions for the implementation of successful conservation programs in the country. We distinguish three dominant views that have shaped energy policies in Brazil and also show the influence of external pressures in order to bring changes into these policies. A revision in energy-decision-making process is required in order to accommodate a new view of energy which recognize the strategic role of conservation and the necessary introduction of efficient technologies in Developing Countries. (author)

  14. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  15. Facile and sustainable synthesis of shaped iron oxide nanoparticles: effect of iron precursor salts on the shapes of iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Farheen N; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2015-05-05

    A facile and sustainable protocol for synthesis of six different shaped iron oxides is developed. Notably, all the six shapes of iron oxides can be synthesised using exactly same synthetic protocol, by simply changing the precursor iron salts. Several of the synthesised shapes are not reported before. This novel protocol is relatively easy to implement and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining various shaped iron oxides in economical and sustainable manner.

  16. Active Light Shaping using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    security, parallel laser marking and labelling and recently in contemporary biophotonics applications such as for adaptive and parallel two-photon optogenetics and neurophotonics. We will present our most recent GPC developments geared towards these applications. First, a compact GPC Light Shaper...... implementation based on our latest theoretical derivations is used to demonstrate the benefits for typical applications where lasers have to be actively shaped into particular light patterns. We then show the potential of GPC for biomedical and multispectral applications where we experimentally demonstrate...

  17. The shape of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    For the class of nuclei which are 'strongly deformed' it is possible to introduce the idea of an empirically measurable static nuclear shape. The limitations of this concept as applied to nuclei (fundamentally quantum-mechanical objects) are discussed. These are basically the limitations of the rotational model which must be introduced in order to define and measure nuclear shape. A unified discussion of the ways in which the shape has been parametrized is given with emphasis on the fact that different parametrizations correspond to different nuclear structures. Accounts of the various theoretical procedures for calculating nuclear shapes and of the interaction between nuclear shapes and nuclear spectroscopy are given. A coherent account of a large subset of nuclei (strongly deformed nuclei) can be given by means of a model in which the concept of nuclear shape plays a central role. (author)

  18. Research in Shape Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Kathryn; Tari, Sibel; Hubert, Evelyne; Morin, Geraldine; El-Zehiry, Noha; Chambers, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Based on the second Women in Shape (WiSH) workshop held in Sirince, Turkey in June 2016, these proceedings offer the latest research on shape modeling and analysis and their applications. The 10 peer-reviewed articles in this volume cover a broad range of topics, including shape representation, shape complexity, and characterization in solving image-processing problems. While the first six chapters establish understanding in the theoretical topics, the remaining chapters discuss important applications such as image segmentation, registration, image deblurring, and shape patterns in digital fabrication. The authors in this volume are members of the WiSH network and their colleagues, and most were involved in the research groups formed at the workshop. This volume sheds light on a variety of shape analysis methods and their applications, and researchers and graduate students will find it to be an invaluable resource for further research in the area.

  19. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  20. Perceptions of the Pure Pallet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dye, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    .... This research utilized a web-based survey to measure the perceptions of the air transportation specialists and logistics readiness officers who are implementing the program on behalf of the Air Force...

  1. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  2. Implementing a WIC-Based Intervention to Promote Exclusive Breastfeeding: Challenges, Facilitators, and Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Hartnett, Josette O; Lee, Furrina F; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Edmunds, Lynn S

    Understand factors that contributed to the implementation of a successful multicomponent intervention to promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) within Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Woman, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Qualitative study of staff implementers' experiences using implementation status reports, facilitated group discussion immediately after implementation, and WIC administrative data. WIC staff from 12 clinics participated in an EBF Learning Community composed of 8 intervention trainings and ongoing support from trainers and peers. A total of 47 WIC staff including 11 directors, 20 other administrators, 8 nutritionists, and 6 peer counselors. A WIC-integrated EBF promotion initiative, supported through a Learning Community, composed of prenatal screening, tailored trimester-specific counseling, and timely postpartum follow-up. Challenges and facilitators to implementation within clinics. Iterative qualitative analysis using directed, emergent, and thematic coding. Implementation experiences were characterized by (1) perceived benefits of implementation, including improved EBF knowledge and counseling confidence among staff; and (2) managing implementation, including responding to challenges posed by clinic settings (resources, routine practices, values, and perceptions of mothers) through strategies such as adapting clinic practices and intervention components. Implementation was shaped by clinic setting and adaptive strategies. Future WIC interventions may benefit from formal consideration of intervention fit with local clinic setting and allowable adaptations. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Object Representations in Human Visual Cortex Formed Through Temporal Integration of Dynamic Partial Shape Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud

    2018-01-17

    We typically recognize visual objects using the spatial layout of their parts, which are present simultaneously on the retina. Therefore, shape extraction is based on integration of the relevant retinal information over space. The lateral occipital complex (LOC) can represent shape faithfully in such conditions. However, integration over time is sometimes required to determine object shape. To study shape extraction through temporal integration of successive partial shape views, we presented human participants (both men and women) with artificial shapes that moved behind a narrow vertical or horizontal slit. Only a tiny fraction of the shape was visible at any instant at the same retinal location. However, observers perceived a coherent whole shape instead of a jumbled pattern. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, we searched for brain regions that encode temporally integrated shape identity. We further required that the representation of shape should be invariant to changes in the slit orientation. We show that slit-invariant shape information is most accurate in the LOC. Importantly, the slit-invariant shape representations matched the conventional whole-shape representations assessed during full-image runs. Moreover, when the same slit-dependent shape slivers were shuffled, thereby preventing their spatiotemporal integration, slit-invariant shape information was reduced dramatically. The slit-invariant representation of the various shapes also mirrored the structure of shape perceptual space as assessed by perceptual similarity judgment tests. Therefore, the LOC is likely to mediate temporal integration of slit-dependent shape views, generating a slit-invariant whole-shape percept. These findings provide strong evidence for a global encoding of shape in the LOC regardless of integration processes required to generate the shape percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual objects are recognized through spatial integration of features available simultaneously on

  4. PERSEPSI DAN SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP PENERAPAN TRAFFIC LIGHT CARD PADA PRODUK PANGAN KEMASAN (CONSUMER’S PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC LIGHT CARD FOR PACKAGED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Puspita Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been an increase in number of deaths caused by noncommunicable diseases. It is related to the intensification of packaged products consumption that contain high sugar, fat, and sodium compositions. Thus, a clear and transparent product label is needed to prevent unnecessary mistake in choosing the right food. Traffic Light (TL is a format of colour-coded nutrition label that has been implemented on packaged foods in various countries. Previous research conducted in the United Kingdom and Australia indicate that the TL system allowed consumers to more easily and accurately select healthier food products compared with other labelling systems. Research about TL has never been conducted in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify perception and attitude of consumers towards Traffic Light Card (TLC for packaged food products. An exploratory survey on 95 consumers were done at a supermarket in Yogyakarta, supported by data from in-depth interview. Eighty-six percent of consumers perceive TLC as having clear nutrition information, was easy to use, and helpful for choosing packaged foods. Seventy percent of consumers also support the implementation of TLC for selecting healthy products with “green colour” as well as applying TLC as a label format in Indonesia. Future study should be done in different population and measuring practice of TLC use. This study may serve as basis for policy evaluation of nutrition labelling.ABSTRAK Peningkatan prevalensi penyakit degeneratif berkaitan dengan meningkatnya konsumsi pangan kemasan yang tinggi kandungan gula, lemak, dan natrium. Label gizi yang jelas dan informatif diperlukan untuk membantu konsumen dalam pemilihan produk makanan. Traffic Light (TL merupakan format label dengan kode warna yang dikembangkan oleh The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA dan telah diterapkan pada produk pangan kemasan. Beberapa studi di Inggris dan Australia menunjukkan bahwa TL lebih berhasil membantu konsumen

  5. Shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,

  6. Odd Shape Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  7. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  8. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G.

    2016-01-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception. PMID:27499843

  9. Pharmaceutical Care Implementation: A Survey of Attitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research ... Purpose: To assess the attitude, perception and practice of pharmacists in Ogun State towards pharmaceutical care implementation. Methods: Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire was ...

  10. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  11. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  12. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  13. Shape optimization in biomimetics by homogenization modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Ronald H.W.; Petrova, Svetozara I.

    2003-08-01

    Optimal shape design of microstructured materials has recently attracted a great deal of attention in material science. The shape and the topology of the microstructure have a significant impact on the macroscopic properties. The present work is devoted to the shape optimization of new biomorphic microcellular ceramics produced from natural wood by biotemplating. We are interested in finding the best material-and-shape combination in order to achieve the optimal prespecified performance of the composite material. The computation of the effective material properties is carried out using the homogenization method. Adaptive mesh-refinement technique based on the computation of recovered stresses is applied in the microstructure to find the homogenized elasticity coefficients. Numerical results show the reliability of the implemented a posteriori error estimator. (author)

  14. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  16. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: A retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nianogo, RA; Kuo, T; Smith, LV; Arah, OA

    2016-01-01

    Background Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and...

  17. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  18. Magnetic shape memory behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.J.; Gandy, A.P.; Ishida, K.; Kainuma, R.; Kanomata, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Morito, H.; Neumann, K.-U.; Oikawa, K.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Ziebeck, K.R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Materials that can be transformed at one temperature T F , then cooled to a lower temperature T M and plastically deformed and on heating to T F regain their original shape are currently receiving considerable attention. In recovering their shape the alloys can produce a displacement or a force, or a combination of the two. Such behaviour is known as the shape memory effect and usually takes place by change of temperature or applied stress. For many applications the transformation is not sufficiently rapid or a change in temperature/pressure not appropriate. As a result, considerable effort is being made to find a ferromagnetic system in which the effect can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. The results of recent experiments on ferromagnetic shape memory compounds aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism will be reviewed

  19. Shaping the ROTC Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rittenhouse, Wiley P; Kwinn, Jr, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    ...) - to meet the future needs of the Army for commissioned officers. It is designed to shape each cohort to meet the Army's specific needs in terms of component, academic disciplines, race/ethnic makeup goals, gender, and targeted missions...

  20. Email shape analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, Paul; Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Dantu, Ram; Cangussu, João

    2010-01-01

    Email has become an integral part of everyday life. Without a second thought we receive bills, bank statements, and sales promotions all to our inbox. Each email has hidden features that can be extracted. In this paper, we present a new mechanism to characterize an email without using content or context called Email Shape Analysis. We explore the applications of the email shape by carrying out a case study; botnet detection and two possible applications: spam filtering, and social-context bas...

  1. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Hobolth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of making stereological inference about the shape variability in a population of spatial particles. Under rotational invariance the shape variability can be estimated from central planar sections through the particles. A simple, but flexible, parametric model for rotation invariant spatial particles is suggested. It is shown how the parameters of the model can be estimated from observations on central sections. The corresponding model for planar particles is also discussed in some detail.

  2. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, B.; Pearce, M.T.; Honing, H.

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  4. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  5. Visual elements of packaging shaping healthiness evaluations of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, Carla; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Visual elements of food products can play an important role in determining food choice through shaping the attributes perception of consumers. Symbols and logos have the role of conveying information, but they can be interpreted in different ways. The product used as a case study is Extra-Virgin

  6. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  7. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  8. Heat waves and cold spells: an analysis of policy response and perceptions of vulnerable populations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Wolf; W Neil Adger; Irene Lorenzoni

    2010-01-01

    Heat waves and cold spells pose ongoing seasonal risks to the health and well-being of vulnerable individuals. Current attempts to address these risks in the UK are implemented through fuel-poverty strategies and heat-wave planning. This paper examines evidence from the UK on whether heat waves and cold spells are addressed differently by public policy in the UK given that risks are mediated by similar perceptions that shape behavioural responses by vulnerable individuals. It is based on a re...

  9. The organization of shape and color in vision and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of "microgenesis" is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i) by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse's Woman, (ii) by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii) by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color). Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  10. The organization of shape and color in Vision and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baingio ePinna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of ‘microgenesis’ is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse’s Woman, (ii by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color. Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  11. Perceptions of Childhood Obesity among Rural Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…

  12. I Don't Do School: Correlations of School Culture, Power, Fairness, and Behaviour Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Derrick; Watson, Marcia; Adams, Tempestt

    2015-01-01

    Student perceptions of fairness shape behavioural responses that impact the climate of a school. However, prevailing literature on student perceptions fails to critically explore culture, power, and self-concept. This study bridges these gaps through connecting student perception and self-concept as a collective and individual experience of…

  13. PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC PERCEPTION OF SHAPING IN CLOTHING DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEREŞCENCO MARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the costume is seen in the context of active influence of fashion trends that reflect the culture (not only material, but also spiritual in a particular historical moment. The content of the suit is in a dialectical relationship with fashion, and the contradictory nature of this relationship is the main source of contrast development of costume forms which, in turn, reflects the continuous development of the substantial component of costume.

  14. A fast charge integrating and shaping circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.; Szoncso, F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a low cost fast charge integrating and shaping circuit (FCISC) was motivated by the need for an interface between the photomultipliers of an existing hadronic calorimeter and recently developed new readout electronics designed to match the output of small ionization chambers for the upgraded UA1 detector at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. This paper describes the design principles of gated and ungated charge integrating and shaping circuits. An FCISC prototype using discrete components was made and its properties were determined with a computerized test setup. Finally an SMD implementation of the FCISC is presented and the performance is reported. (orig.)

  15. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R

    2015-01-01

    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  16. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  17. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  18. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  20. Social Shaping of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Mack, Alexandra

    - in particular in a large corporation? This workshop explores how innovation is socially shaped in organizations. Based on our experiences with practices around innovation and collaboration, we start from three proposition about the social shaping of innovation: • Ideas don't thrive as text (i.e. we need...... to consider other media) • Ideas need socialization (ideas are linked to people, we need to be careful about how we support the social innovation context) • Ideas are local (ideas spring out of a local contingency, we need to take care in how we like them to travel)....

  1. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  2. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  3. The transforming role of education in reducing the perception of risk and the implementation of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor: a case study; O papel transformador da educação na diminuição da percepção de risco e a implementação do Reator Multipropósito Brasileiro: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alex de A.; Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: adac_vpdc_mfgac@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo (USP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear technology has been very successful when related to energy, radioisotopes production and scientific research. However, it did not obtain the same success from socio-political point of view, going through periods of strong public rejection, especially after adverse events related to nuclear issues. In Brazil, the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) will be implemented in the municipality of Iperó - SP, for which it is important to have the support of the local population and knowledge about the project. Mainly because the RMB is intended to produce radioisotopes for application in health and industry, therefore, with strong social appeal. However, despite the achievement of three public hearings in the municipalities of Iperó, Sorocaba and São Paulo, there was little involvement of the region's schools in this debate, reflecting on the important role that education can have in reducing the perception of risk and the attitude of the population in relation to the issue. Through the application of semi-structured questionnaire answered by teachers, coordinators, deputy directors and directors of the public school network of the Municipality, it was observed that the participants have a high risk perception and a negative social representation, as well as there was no interaction of the people in charge of the RMB with the schools, who said they did not know the project. We believe that the school has a fundamental role to raise awareness and inform, and can change this reality, together with the implementation of some public policies.

  4. Action-based effects on music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-03

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  5. Action-based effects on music perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  6. Action-based effects on music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter-Jan eMaes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral phenomena. In contrast, embodied accounts to music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework capturing the ways that the human motor system, and the actions it produces, can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modelling, and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modelling. Embodied accounts typically adhere to inverse modelling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007. We extent this account by pinpointing forward modelling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system, and the action it produces, suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamic process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial

  7. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  8. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  9. How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Frijns, Jos; Smith, Heather M.; Brouwer, Stijn; Garnett, Kenisha; Elelman, Richard; Jeffrey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse sc...

  10. Holocaust Education: Global Forces Shaping Curricula Integration and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan L.; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    The article provides a critical review of the global scholarship on Holocaust education (HE). Despite the growing body of work on this topic, a search through major academic databases by the authors revealed that no such review of the research literature has been published as of yet. The review focuses on three main themes across the research…

  11. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  12. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  13. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  14. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  16. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  17. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  18. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  19. Working memory can enhance unconscious visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Cheng, Qiu-Ping; Luo, Qian-Ying

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that unconscious processing of a stimulus property can be enhanced when there is a match between the contents of working memory and the stimulus presented in the visual field. Participants first held a cue (a colored circle) in working memory and then searched for a brief masked target shape presented simultaneously with a distractor shape. When participants reported having no awareness of the target shape at all, search performance was more accurate in the valid condition, where the target matched the cue in color, than in the neutral condition, where the target mismatched the cue. This effect cannot be attributed to bottom-up perceptual priming from the presentation of a memory cue, because unconscious perception was not enhanced when the cue was merely perceptually identified but not actively held in working memory. These findings suggest that reentrant feedback from the contents of working memory modulates unconscious visual perception.

  20. Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Anzures

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in socialization can lead to characteristic differences in how we perceive the world. Consistent with this influence of differential experience, our perception of faces (e.g., preference, recognition ability is shaped by our previous experience with different groups of individuals.Here, we examined whether cultural differences in social practices influence our perception of faces. Japanese, Chinese, and Asian-Canadian young adults made relative age judgments (i.e., which of these two faces is older? for East Asian faces. Cross-cultural differences in the emphasis on respect for older individuals was reflected in participants' latency in facial age judgments for middle-age adult faces--with the Japanese young adults performing the fastest, followed by the Chinese, then the Asian-Canadians. In addition, consistent with the differential behavioural and linguistic markers used in the Japanese culture when interacting with individuals younger than oneself, only the Japanese young adults showed an advantage in judging the relative age of children's faces.Our results show that different sociocultural practices shape our efficiency in processing facial age information. The impact of culture may potentially calibrate other aspects of face processing.

  1. Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

    1994-01-01

    The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.

  2. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel Cervantes-Salguero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  3. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  4. readShape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

  5. Shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  6. Bulbous Bow Shape Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Louis; Berrini , Elisa; Duvigneau , Régis; Roux , Yann; Mourrain , Bernard; Jean , Eric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study is to prove the usefulness of a bulbous bow for a fishing vessel, in terms of drag reduction, using an automated shape optimization procedure including hydrodynamic simulations. A bulbous bow is an appendage that is known to reduce the drag, thanks to its influence on the bow wave system. However, the definition of the geometrical parameters of the bulb, such as its length and thickness, is not intuitive, as both parameters are coupled with regard...

  7. Audiometric shape and presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Fransen, Erik; van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of specific audiogram configurations in a healthy, otologically screened population between 55 and 65 years old. The audiograms of 1147 subjects (549 males and 598 females between 55 and 65 years old) were collected through population registries and classified according to the configuration of hearing loss. Gender and noise/solvent-exposure effects on the prevalence of the different audiogram shapes were determined statistically. In our population 'Flat' audiograms were most dominantly represented (37%) followed by 'High frequency Gently sloping' audiograms (35%) and 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms (27%). 'Low frequency Ascending' audiograms, 'Mid frequency U-shape' audiograms and 'Mid frequency Reverse U-shape' audiograms were very rare (together less than 1%). The 'Flat'-configuration was significantly more common in females, whereas the 'High frequency Steeply sloping'-configuration was more common in males. Exposure to noise and/or solvents did not change this finding. In addition, females with a 'Flat' audiogram had a significantly larger amount of overall hearing loss compared to males. Furthermore, our data reveal a significant association between the prevalence of 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms and the degree of noise/solvent exposure, despite a relatively high proportion of non-exposed subjects showing a 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiogram as well.

  8. Treaty implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper touches on three aspects of the relationship between intelligence and treaty implementation, a two-way association. First the author discusses the role of intelligence as a basis for compliance monitoring and treaty verification. Second the authors discusses payoffs of intelligence gathering and the intelligence process of treaty implementation, in particular on-site inspection. Third, the author goes in another direction and discusses some of the tensions between the intelligence gathering and treaty-implementation processes, especially with regard to extensive use of on-site inspection, such as we are likely to see in monitoring compliance of future arms control treaties

  9. Experimental Comparison of Probabilistic Shaping Methods for Unrepeated Fiber Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renner, Julian; Fehenberger, Tobias; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of probabilistic shaping on effective signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and achievable information rates (AIRs) in a back-to-back configuration and in unrepeated nonlinear fiber transmissions. For back-to-back, various shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM......) distributions are found to have the same implementation penalty as uniform input. By demonstrating in transmission experiments that shaped QAM input leads to lower effective SNR than uniform input at a fixed average launch power, we experimentally confirm that shaping enhances the fiber nonlinearities. However......, shaping is ultimately found to increase the AIR, which is the most relevant figure of merit as it is directly related to spectral efficiency. In a detailed study of these shaping gains for the nonlinear fiber channel, four strategies for optimizing QAM input distributions are evaluated and experimentally...

  10. Shape descriptors for mode-shape recognition and model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Mottershead, J E; Mares, C

    2009-01-01

    The most widely used method for comparing mode shapes from finite elements and experimental measurements is the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC), which returns a single numerical value and carries no explicit information on shape features. New techniques, based on image processing (IP) and pattern recognition (PR) are described in this paper. The Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD), Fourier descriptor (FD), and wavelet descriptor (WD), presented in this article, are the most popular shape descriptors having properties that include efficiency of expression, robustness to noise, invariance to geometric transformation and rotation, separation of local and global shape features and computational efficiency. The comparison of mode shapes is readily achieved by assembling the shape features of each mode shape into multi-dimensional shape feature vectors (SFVs) and determining the distances separating them.

  11. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  12. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  13. State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later. Online Appendix--State Responses to Open-Ended Questions about the ARRA SIG Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    To learn more about states' experiences with implementing school improvement grants (SIGs) funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the Center on Education Policy (CEP) administered a survey to state Title I directors. (Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provides federal funds to schools in low-income…

  14. 'V' shaped predens space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, S.P.; Klein, A.; Martin, W.

    1985-01-01

    ''V'' shaped widening of the predens space (PDS) in flexion can be a worrisome finding in traume patients, possibly representing injury to the transverse ligament. These patients may also show widening of the C-1/C-2 interspinous distance. We think this appearance is usually due to increased flexion mobility at the atlantoaxial level with developmental elongation or laxity of the cranial end of the transverse ligament and/or the posterior ligamentous complex. Tearing of only the cranial end of the transverse ligament must be extremely rare, if it occurs at all; there is no reported proven case. Tearing of only posterior ligaments seems possible and should be evaluated clinically. (orig.)

  15. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  16. Vulnerability and risk perception in the management of HIV/AIDS: Public priorities in a global pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis1,2, N. Nirupama21School of Health Policy and Management, 2School of Administrative Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Understanding the way perception of risk is shaped and constructed is crucial in understanding why it has been so difficult to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS. This paper uses the Pressure and Release (PAR model, used to predict the onset of natural disasters as the conceptual framework. It substitutes vulnerability and risk perception as the trigger factors in the model, in making the case that HIV/AIDS can be characterized as a slow onset disaster. The implications are that vulnerability must be managed and reduced by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions that contribute to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS programs must be culturally appropriate and work toward influencing risk perception, while addressing social norms and values that negatively impact vulnerable populations. By impacting cultural and social expectations, individuals will be able to more readily adopt safer sex behaviors. The development of policies and programs addressing the issues in context, as opposed to individual behaviors alone, allows for effective public health intervention. This may have implications for public health measures implemented for combating the spread of HIV/AIDS.Keywords: vulnerability, risk perception, HIV/AIDS, public health intervention

  17. Social Position Influencing the Water Perception Gap Between Local Leaders and Constituents in a Socio-Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Melissa; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Flint, Courtney G.

    2018-02-01

    How well city leaders represent their constituents and meet their needs are key concerns in transitioning to local sustainable water governance. To date, however, there is little research documenting the influence of social position between elected leaders who make policy, career staff water managers who design and operate systems and implement policies, and the members of the public whose individual water use behaviors are important drivers of water sustainability outcomes. In this study, we ask: "How does social position explain variation in water perceptions and concerns between different actors in a socio-hydrological system?" Using a mixed method approach with survey and interview data, we explore the ways that positioning within the governance system, geographic context, and citizen engagement in local government mediate perceptions of the urban water system. Regardless of local biophysical water supply conditions, residents showed most concern about future water shortages and high water costs, while their leaders were consistently most concerned about deteriorating local water infrastructure. Further, constituents who received water-related information directly from public utility mailings or served on community committees and boards had perceptions that were more aligned with leaders' concerns. The importance of social structure over natural and built environments in shaping water issue perceptions underscores the value of social analysis in socio-hydrology studies. Further, practitioners looking to increase consensus for a transition to sustainable water governance might work to develop institutional mechanisms to increase opportunities for water user involvement in local water system governance.

  18. Shaping strategy through research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, D.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) undertook telephone surveys to determine attitudes towards nuclear technology and OHN, and to identify public issues and concerns. The surveys covered the general public, business, representatives of the financial industry, and people living near the stations. Support for nuclear energy was high, about 70-80%, with a 20% hard core of opposition. There was a perception that the industry was aloof. In general, nuclear energy was more popular than the stations. Bruce was the most popular site, and Pickering the least. The general public was more concerned about safety, while business executives were more concerned about capital costs. The challenge to OHN is to improve communications without ''making waves'', or creating opportunities for anti-nuclear groups. Communications must be focussed on building relationships and providing appropriate information from credible sources. OHN needs to present a more human face

  19. Use of performance shaping factors and quantified expert judgment in the evaluation of human reliability: an initial appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1983-05-01

    The first part of the report considers the nature of human reliability assessment, and the techniques currently employed. It is concluded that most approaches are limited by the availability of data. Approaches to the subjective assessment of error are surveyed. A particular technique which has been developed, the Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM), is described in detail, together with the practical steps for its implementation. The results from a trial application of a questionnaire designed to elicit judges' perceptions of the relative importance of performance shaping factors in determining human reliability are analyzed. A revised form of the questionnaire is presented for future use. A pilot experiment to investigate the relationship between subjectively derived indices of success for six tasks and their objective probability of success is described. The results indicate that the SLIM has potential value as a predictive technique. Some requirements for a program of research to produce a generally applicable methodology are set out

  20. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  1. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Spatial shape of avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoxuan; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2017-12-01

    In disordered elastic systems, driven by displacing a parabolic confining potential adiabatically slowly, all advance of the system is in bursts, termed avalanches. Avalanches have a finite extension in time, which is much smaller than the waiting time between them. Avalanches also have a finite extension ℓ in space, i.e., only a part of the interface of size ℓ moves during an avalanche. Here we study their spatial shape 〈S(x ) 〉 ℓ given ℓ , as well as its fluctuations encoded in the second cumulant 〈S2(x ) 〉 ℓ c. We establish scaling relations governing the behavior close to the boundary. We then give analytic results for the Brownian force model, in which the microscopic disorder for each degree of freedom is a random walk. Finally, we confirm these results with numerical simulations. To do this properly we elucidate the influence of discretization effects, which also confirms the assumptions entering into the scaling ansatz. This allows us to reach the scaling limit already for avalanches of moderate size. We find excellent agreement for the universal shape and its fluctuations, including all amplitudes.

  3. Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Kočović, Slobodan; Marković, Marko; Popović, Dejan B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES.

  4. Shifty: A Weight-Shifting Dynamic Passive Haptic Proxy to Enhance Object Perception in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Andre; Kruger, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We define the concept of Dynamic Passive Haptic Feedback (DPHF) for virtual reality by introducing the weight-shifting physical DPHF proxy object Shifty. This concept combines actuators known from active haptics and physical proxies known from passive haptics to construct proxies that automatically adapt their passive haptic feedback. We describe the concept behind our ungrounded weight-shifting DPHF proxy Shifty and the implementation of our prototype. We then investigate how Shifty can, by automatically changing its internal weight distribution, enhance the user's perception of virtual objects interacted with in two experiments. In a first experiment, we show that Shifty can enhance the perception of virtual objects changing in shape, especially in length and thickness. Here, Shifty was shown to increase the user's fun and perceived realism significantly, compared to an equivalent passive haptic proxy. In a second experiment, Shifty is used to pick up virtual objects of different virtual weights. The results show that Shifty enhances the perception of weight and thus the perceived realism by adapting its kinesthetic feedback to the picked-up virtual object. In the same experiment, we additionally show that specific combinations of haptic, visual and auditory feedback during the pick-up interaction help to compensate for visual-haptic mismatch perceived during the shifting process.

  5. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  6. The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2013-09-01

    To use tobacco industry documents on cigarette pack shape, size and openings to identify industry findings on associations with brand imagery, product attributes, consumer perceptions and behaviour. Internal tobacco industry research and marketing documents obtained through court disclosure contained in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library were searched using keywords related to pack shapes, sizes and opening methods. The search identified 66 documents related to consumer research and marketing plans on pack shape, size and openings, drawn from 1973 to 2002. Industry research consistently found that packs that deviated from the traditional flip-top box projected impressions of 'modern', 'elegant' and 'unique' brand imagery. Alternative pack shape and openings were identified as an effective means to communicate product attributes, particularly with regard to premium quality and smooth taste. Consumer studies consistently found that pack shape, size and opening style influenced perceptions of reduced product harm, and were often used to communicate a 'lighter' product. Slim, rounded, oval and booklet packs were found to be particularly appealing among young adults, and several studies demonstrated increased purchase interest for tobacco products presented in novel packaging shape or opening. Evidence from consumer tracking reports and company presentations indicate that pack innovations in shape or opening method increased market share of brands. Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and increase cigarette sales. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Canonical Skeletons for Shape Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eede, M. van; Macrini, D.; Telea, A.; Sminchisescu, C.; Dickinson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal representations of 2-D shape, including shock graphs, have become increasingly popular for shape matching and object recognition. However, it is well known that skeletal structure can be unstable under minor boundary deformation, part articulation, and minor shape deformation (due to, for

  8. Elusive Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2018-01-01

    in health. However, despite growing support for intersectoral policymaking, implementation remains a challenge. Critics argue that public health has remained naïve about the policy process and a better understanding is needed. Based on ethnographic data, this paper conducts an in-depth analysis of a local......: On the basis of an explorative study among ten Danish municipalities, we conducted an ethnographic study of the development of a municipal-wide implementation strategy for the intersectoral health policy of a medium-sized municipality. The main data sources consist of ethnographic field notes from participant...

  9. Educators\\' perceptions of school climate and health in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant relationship was found between primary schools' perceptions of ... for the implementation of change in schools, educators' job satisfaction, motivation, ... organisational climate; organisational health; productivity; school climate; ...

  10. The perceptions of teachers and school principals of each other's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of teachers and school principals of each other's disposition ... implementing educational reform that has been designed without their participation. ... school-based management has recently emerged as the instrument to ...

  11. Perceptions of climate change and barriers to adaptation amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of climate change and barriers to adaptation amongst commonage and commercial livestock farmers in the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo. ... of farmers, compelling them to implement more resilient adaptive measures to decrease ...

  12. Ferromagnetic shape memory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Robert Jay

    Ferromagnetic shape memory materials are a new class of active materials which combine the properties of ferromagnetism with those of a diffusionless, reversible martensitic transformation. These materials have been the subject of recent study due to the unusually large magnetostriction exhibited in the martensitic phase. In this thesis we report the results of experiments which characterize the magnetic and magnetomechanical properties of both austenitic and martensitic phases of ferromagnetic shape memory material Ni2MnGa. In the high temperature cubic phase, anisotropy and magnetostriction constants are determined for a range of temperatures from 50°C down to the transformation temperature, with room temperature values of K1 = 2.7 +/- 104 ergs/cm3 and lambda100 = -145 muepsilon. In the low temperature tetragonal phase, the phenomenon of field-induced variant rearrangement is shown to produce anomalous results when traditional techniques for determining anisotropy and magnetostriction properties are employed. The requirement of single variant specimen microstructure is explained, and experiments performed on such a specimen confirm a uniaxial anisotropy within each martensitic variant with anisotropy constant Ku = 2.45 x 106 ergs/cm3 and a magnetostriction constant of lambdasv = -288 +/- 73 muepsilon. A series of magnetomechanical experiments investigate the effects of microstructure bias, repeated field cycling, varying field ramp rate, applied load, and specimen geometry on the variant rearrangement phenomenon in the martensitic phase. In general, the field-induced strain is found to be a function of the variant microstructure. Experiments in which the initial microstructure is biased towards a single variant state with an applied load generate one-time strains of 4.3%, while those performed with a constant bias stress of 5 MPa generate reversible strains of 0.5% over a period of 50 cycles. An increase in the applied field ramp rate is shown to reduce the

  13. 3D shape representation with spatial probabilistic distribution of intrinsic shape keypoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Vijaya K.; Checchin, Paul; Malaterre, Laurent; Trassoudaine, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated advancement in modeling, digitizing, and visualizing techniques for 3D shapes has led to an increasing amount of 3D models creation and usage, thanks to the 3D sensors which are readily available and easy to utilize. As a result, determining the similarity between 3D shapes has become consequential and is a fundamental task in shape-based recognition, retrieval, clustering, and classification. Several decades of research in Content-Based Information Retrieval (CBIR) has resulted in diverse techniques for 2D and 3D shape or object classification/retrieval and many benchmark data sets. In this article, a novel technique for 3D shape representation and object classification has been proposed based on analyses of spatial, geometric distributions of 3D keypoints. These distributions capture the intrinsic geometric structure of 3D objects. The result of the approach is a probability distribution function (PDF) produced from spatial disposition of 3D keypoints, keypoints which are stable on object surface and invariant to pose changes. Each class/instance of an object can be uniquely represented by a PDF. This shape representation is robust yet with a simple idea, easy to implement but fast enough to compute. Both Euclidean and topological space on object's surface are considered to build the PDFs. Topology-based geodesic distances between keypoints exploit the non-planar surface properties of the object. The performance of the novel shape signature is tested with object classification accuracy. The classification efficacy of the new shape analysis method is evaluated on a new dataset acquired with a Time-of-Flight camera, and also, a comparative evaluation on a standard benchmark dataset with state-of-the-art methods is performed. Experimental results demonstrate superior classification performance of the new approach on RGB-D dataset and depth data.

  14. Implementation of Mindfulness Training for Mental Health Staff: Organizational Context and Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Gerard; Ziedonis, Douglas M; McGrath, Caroline; Frazier, Jean A; deTorrijos, Fernando; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-08-01

    Occupational stress and burnout adversely impacts mental health care staff well-being and patient outcomes. Mindfulness training reduces staff stress and may improve patient care. However, few studies explore mental health setting implementation. This qualitative study used focus groups to evaluate stakeholders' perceptions of organizational factors affecting implementation of an adapted version of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for staff on adolescent mental health units. Common facilitators included leadership securing buy-in with staff, allocating staff time to participate, and quiet space for training and practice. Other facilitators were past staff knowledge of mindfulness, local champions, and acculturating staff with mindfulness through a non-mandatory training attendance policy. Common barriers were limited staff time to attend training sessions and insufficient training coverage for some staff. Staff also reported improved focus when interacting with adolescents and improved social cohesion on the units. We conclude that a mindfulness-based program for reducing occupational stress can be successfully implemented on adolescent mental health units. Implementation appeared to change the social context of the units, including staff and patient interactions. More broadly, our findings highlight the importance of environmental factors in shaping attitudes, diffusion of innovation, and acculturation of wellness program implementations.

  15. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  16. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  17. Shape memory heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  18. Boosted Higgs shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaffer, Matthias; Spannowsky, Michael; Wymant, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The inclusive Higgs production rate through gluon fusion has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM). We show that even if the inclusive Higgs production rate is very SM-like, a precise determination of the boosted Higgs transverse momentum shape offers the opportunity to see effects of natural new physics. These measurements are generically motivated by effective field theory arguments and specifically in extensions of the SM with a natural weak scale, like composite Higgs models and natural supersymmetry. We show in detail how a measurement at high transverse momentum of H→2l+p T via H→ττ and H→WW * could be performed and demonstrate that it offers a compelling alternative to the t anti tH channel. We discuss the sensitivity to new physics in the most challenging scenario of an exactly SM-like inclusive Higgs cross-section.

  19. Geometric Topology and Shape Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Jack

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this international conference the third of its type was to survey recent developments in Geometric Topology and Shape Theory with an emphasis on their interaction. The volume contains original research papers and carefully selected survey of currently active areas. The main topics and themes represented by the papers of this volume include decomposition theory, cell-like mappings and CE-equivalent compacta, covering dimension versus cohomological dimension, ANR's and LCn-compacta, homology manifolds, embeddings of continua into manifolds, complement theorems in shape theory, approximate fibrations and shape fibrations, fibered shape, exact homologies and strong shape theory.

  20. Shape Grammars for Innovative Hybrid Typological Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kazzaz, Dhuha; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology of deriving innovative hybrid designs using shape grammars of heterogeneous designs. The method is detailed within three phases of shape grammars: analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In the analysis phase, the research suggests that original rules of each...... design component are grouped in subclass rule sets to facilitate rule choices. Additionally, adding new hybrid rules to original rules expands the options available to the grammar user. In the synthesis phase, the research adopts state labels and markers to drive the design generation. The former...... is implemented with a user guide grammar to ensure hybridity in the generated design, while the latter aims to ensure feasible designs. Lastly evaluation criteria are added to measure the degree of innovation of the hybrid designs. This paper describes the derivation of hybrid minaret designs from a corpus...

  1. The meaning and measurement of implementation climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Climate has a long history in organizational studies, but few theoretical models integrate the complex effects of climate during innovation implementation. In 1996, a theoretical model was proposed that organizations could develop a positive climate for implementation by making use of various policies and practices that promote organizational members' means, motives, and opportunities for innovation use. The model proposes that implementation climate--or the extent to which organizational members perceive that innovation use is expected, supported, and rewarded--is positively associated with implementation effectiveness. The implementation climate construct holds significant promise for advancing scientific knowledge about the organizational determinants of innovation implementation. However, the construct has not received sufficient scholarly attention, despite numerous citations in the scientific literature. In this article, we clarify the meaning of implementation climate, discuss several measurement issues, and propose guidelines for empirical study. Discussion Implementation climate differs from constructs such as organizational climate, culture, or context in two important respects: first, it has a strategic focus (implementation), and second, it is innovation-specific. Measuring implementation climate is challenging because the construct operates at the organizational level, but requires the collection of multi-dimensional perceptual data from many expected innovation users within an organization. In order to avoid problems with construct validity, assessments of within-group agreement of implementation climate measures must be carefully considered. Implementation climate implies a high degree of within-group agreement in climate perceptions. However, researchers might find it useful to distinguish implementation climate level (the average of implementation climate perceptions) from implementation climate strength (the variability of

  2. The meaning and measurement of implementation climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmire Dawn M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate has a long history in organizational studies, but few theoretical models integrate the complex effects of climate during innovation implementation. In 1996, a theoretical model was proposed that organizations could develop a positive climate for implementation by making use of various policies and practices that promote organizational members' means, motives, and opportunities for innovation use. The model proposes that implementation climate--or the extent to which organizational members perceive that innovation use is expected, supported, and rewarded--is positively associated with implementation effectiveness. The implementation climate construct holds significant promise for advancing scientific knowledge about the organizational determinants of innovation implementation. However, the construct has not received sufficient scholarly attention, despite numerous citations in the scientific literature. In this article, we clarify the meaning of implementation climate, discuss several measurement issues, and propose guidelines for empirical study. Discussion Implementation climate differs from constructs such as organizational climate, culture, or context in two important respects: first, it has a strategic focus (implementation, and second, it is innovation-specific. Measuring implementation climate is challenging because the construct operates at the organizational level, but requires the collection of multi-dimensional perceptual data from many expected innovation users within an organization. In order to avoid problems with construct validity, assessments of within-group agreement of implementation climate measures must be carefully considered. Implementation climate implies a high degree of within-group agreement in climate perceptions. However, researchers might find it useful to distinguish implementation climate level (the average of implementation climate perceptions from implementation climate strength (the

  3. Digital synthesis of pulse shapes in real time for high resolution radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Valentin T.; Knoll, Glenn F.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the synthesis of pulse shapes using fast digital schemes in place of the traditional analog methods of pulse shaping. Efficient recursive algorithms have been developed that allow real time implementation of a shaper that can produce either trapezoidal or triangular pulse shapes. Other recursive techniques are presented which allow a synthesis of finite cusp-like shapes. Preliminary experimental tests show potential advantages of using these techniques in high resolution, high count rate pulse spectroscopy. ((orig.))

  4. Awareness and Perceptions of Published Osteoporosis Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and Perceptions of Published Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines-a Survey of Primary Care Practitioners in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area. ... Further attention needs to be focused on developing implementation and dissemination strategies of evidence-based guidelines in South Africa. South African Journal of ...

  5. Shape-based assessment of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women using discriminative shape alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, Alessandro; Loog, Marco; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Risk assessment of future osteoporotic vertebral fractures is currently based mainly on risk factors, such as bone mineral density, age, prior fragility fractures, and smoking. It can be argued that an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is not exclusively an abrupt event...... independently performed manual annotations of the vertebrae, and fracture prediction using shape features extracted from the baseline annotations was performed. This was implemented using posterior probabilities from a standard linear classifier. RESULTS: The classifier tested on the study population quantified...

  6. Nuclear energy - perception, policy and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The arguments in favour of nuclear power are presented. It is argued that the impact of nuclear energy on the world is already substantial and that the risks have been overstated. The public perception of nuclear technology in general is often shaped by poor education, a hostile, sensation-seeking media and confusion between the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons. Nuclear policy in Australia is reviewed

  7. SOCIAL MEDIA AND CLASSROOM ENGAGEMENT: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Malissa Maria Mahmud; Chandra Reka Ramachandiran; Othman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the last 15 years or so, social media have shown many facets—from connecting people on a global-scale, to penetrating aspects of lives which otherwise might have remained private or limited to a small audience. In the realm of education, social media have also begun to infiltrate the academic world by influencing and shaping students’ perceptions and influencing learning engagement. With millions of students and teachers simultaneously active on social networks, it is signi...

  8. Social Media Communication and Consumer Brand Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ali Khadim; Bilal Zafar; Muhammad Younis

    2014-01-01

    Social media has changed the shape of communication strategies in the corporate world. Corporations are using social media to reach their maximum stakeholders in minimum time at different social media forums. Consumers being an important corporate stakeholder hold significant importance in corporate communication strategy. The current study examines the role of social media communication on consumer brand perceptions and their buying behavior. A comprehensive survey is conducted through vario...

  9. Public Perception and Acceptance of Hydrogen Technologies. An Exploratory Study; Percepcin y Aceptacion Publica de las Tecnologias del Hidrogeno. Un Estudio Exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S; Navajas, J

    2011-11-10

    This report presents the results of a research study with lay peoples perception regarding hydrogen technologies. This study aims to explore how to shape public perception and acceptance of hydrogen technologies in Spain and permits the identification of issues that may facilitate or interfere with its development and implementation. The results showed the existence of a large and widespread lack of knowledge towards hydrogen technologies. Hydrogen is perceived as a clean energy technology and nearby to renewable energies. However, it is still not seen as an energetic option. The main drawbacks perceived by lay people have been the lack of profitability, the slow evolution of the technology and the absence of technological developments. Furthermore, hydrogen cost and safety issues appear to play an important role in public acceptance of these technologies. (Author) 35 refs.

  10. Performing Perception - Staging Aesthetics of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2008-01-01

    In interaction design for experience-oriented uses of technology, a central facet of aesthetics of interaction is rooted in the user's experience of herself “performing her perception.” By drawing on performance (theater) theory, phenomenology and sociology and with references to recent HCI...... experience. We argue that this 3-in-1 is always already shaping the user's understanding and perception of her interaction as it is staged through her experience of the object's form and expression. Through examples ranging from everyday technologies utilizing performances of interaction to spatial...... contemporary artworks, digital as well as analogue, we address the notion of the performative spectator and the spectating performer. We demonstrate how perception is also performative and how focus on this aspect seems to be crucial when designing experience-oriented products, systems and services....

  11. Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Meeting the identified needs of Earth science requires approaching EOS as an information system and not simply as one or more satellites with instruments. Six elements of strategy are outlined as follows: implementation of the individual discipline missions as currently planned; use of sustained observational capabilities offered by operational satellites without waiting for the launch of new mission; put first priority on the data system; deploy an Advanced Data Collection and Location System; put a substantial new observing capability in a low Earth orbit in such a way as to provide for sustained measurements; and group instruments to exploit their capabilities for synergism; maximize the scientific utility of the mission; and minimize the costs of implementation where possible.

  12. Implementing Pseudonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Mowbray

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I will give an overview of some technologies that enable pseudonymity - allowing individuals to reveal or prove information about themselves to others without revealing their full identity. I will describe some functionalities relating to pseudonymity that can be implemented, and some that cannot. My intention is to present enough of the mathematics that underlies technology for pseudonymity to show that it is indeed possible to implement some functionalities that at first glance may appear impossible. In particular, I will show that several of the intended functions of the UK national ID could be provided in a pseudonymous fashion, allowing greater privacy. I will also outline some technology developed at HP Labs which ensures that users’ personal data is released only to software that has been checked to conform to their preferred privacy policies.

  13. Modelling the wedge shape for the virtual wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Liyun; Ho Shengyow; Chen, Helen H W

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to model the virtual wedge shape in a 3D treatment planning system as a physical wedge. The virtual wedge shape was determined using the measured dose profile of the virtual wedge at a chosen reference depth. The differences between the calculated and the measured dose profiles for the virtual wedge were within 0.5% at the reference depth, and within 2.5% at other depths. This method provides a fast and accurate way to implement the virtual wedge into our planning system for any wedge angles. This method is also applicable to model the physical wedge shapes with comparable good results

  14. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-05-31

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object`s geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object`s orientation

  15. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E.; Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object's geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object's orientation

  16. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  17. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  18. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  19. The shape of eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæbø, Øystein; Rose, Jeremy; Flak, Leif Skiftenes

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of eParticipation is receiving increasing attention, demonstrated by recent technology implementations, experiments, government reports and research programs. Understanding such an emerging field is a complex endeavour because there is no generally agreed upon definition of the field...... point for a grounded analysis leading to the development of an overview model: the field of eParticipation seen from a researcher's perspective. The model provides structure for understanding the emerging shape of the field as well as an initial indication of its content. It also provides the basis...

  20. Shaping the manufacturing industry performance: MIDAS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Ibrahim M.; Sensoy, Ahmet; Hacihasanoglu, Erk

    2015-01-01

    We aim to find out whether the exchange rate (against US dollar) or the interest rate (in local currency) is a better variable in predicting the capacity utilization rate of manufacturing industry (CUR) of Turkey after the 2008 global financial crisis. In that manner, we implement dynamic mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model to forecast monthly changes in CUR by using daily changes in the exchange rate and the interest rate separately. The results show that exchange rate has a better forecast performance suggesting that it is a stronger determinant in shaping the manufacturing industry

  1. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2009-01-01

    of the rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...

  2. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  3. Determining the predictors of innovation implementation in healthcare: a quantitative analysis of implementation effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sara R; Weiner, Bryan J; Reeve, Bryce B; Hofmann, David A; Christian, Michael; Weinberger, Morris

    2015-01-22

    The failure rates for implementing complex innovations in healthcare organizations are high. Estimates range from 30% to 90% depending on the scope of the organizational change involved, the definition of failure, and the criteria to judge it. The innovation implementation framework offers a promising approach to examine the organizational factors that determine effective implementation. To date, the utility of this framework in a healthcare setting has been limited to qualitative studies and/or group level analyses. Therefore, the goal of this study was to quantitatively examine this framework among individual participants in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program using structural equation modeling. We examined the innovation implementation framework using structural equation modeling (SEM) among 481 physician participants in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP). The data sources included the CCOP Annual Progress Reports, surveys of CCOP physician participants and administrators, and the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Overall the final model fit well. Our results demonstrated that not only did perceptions of implementation climate have a statistically significant direct effect on implementation effectiveness, but physicians' perceptions of implementation climate also mediated the relationship between organizational implementation policies and practices (IPP) and enrollment (p innovation implementation framework between IPP, implementation climate, and implementation effectiveness among individual physicians. This finding is important, as although the model has been discussed within healthcare organizations before, the studies have been predominately qualitative in nature and/or at the organizational level. In addition, our findings have practical applications. Managers looking to increase implementation effectiveness of an innovation should focus on creating an environment that

  4. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead...

  5. Shape Synthesis in Mechanical Design

    OpenAIRE

    C. P. Teng; S. Bai; J. Angeles

    2007-01-01

    The shaping of structural elements in the area of mechanical design is a recurrent problem. The mechanical designer, as a rule, chooses what is believed to be the “simplest” shapes, such as the geometric primitives: lines, circles and, occasionally, conics. The use of higher-order curves is usually not even considered, not to speak of other curves than polynomials. However, the simplest geometric shapes are not necessarily the most suitable when the designed element must withstand loads that ...

  6. Virtual Technologies and Social Shaping

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps , David

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Virtual Technologies have enabled us all to become publishers and broadcasters. The world of information has become saturated with a multitude of opinions, and opportunities to express them. Track 2 "Virtual Technologies and Social Shaping" of the 9th Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC9) explores some of the issues that have arisen in this new information society, how we are shaped by it, and how we shape it, through i) two papers addressing issues of identi...

  7. Shape resonances in molecular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field

  8. Women in Shape Modeling Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the latest research from the growing field of mathematical shape analysis, this volume is comprised of the collaborations of participants of the Women in Shape Modeling (WiSh) workshop, held at UCLA's Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics in July 2013. Topics include: Simultaneous spectral and spatial analysis of shape Dimensionality reduction and visualization of data in tree-spaces, such as classes of anatomical trees like airways and blood vessels Geometric shape segmentation, exploring shape segmentation from a Gestalt perspective, using information from the Blum medial axis of edge fragments in an image Representing and editing self-similar details on 3D shapes, studying shape deformation and editing techniques Several chapters in the book directly address the problem of continuous measures of context-dependent nearness and right shape models. Medical and biological applications have been a major source of motivation in shape research, and key topics are examined here in detail. All...

  9. Semantic impairment disrupts perception, memory, and naming of secondary but not primary colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Graham, Kim S.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how basic aspects of perception are shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, we assessed colour perception and cognition in patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that progressively erodes conceptual knowledge. We observed a previously undocumented pattern of impairment to colour perception and cognition characterized by: (i) a normal ability to discriminate between only subtly different colours but an impaired ability to group different colours into categories, (ii) normal perception and memory for the colours red, green, and blue but impaired perception and memory for colours lying between these regions of a fully-saturated and luminant spectrum, and (iii) normal naming of polar colours in the opponent-process colour system (red, green, blue, yellow, white, and black) but impaired naming of other basic colours (brown, gray, pink, and orange). The results suggest that fundamental aspects of perception can be shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, but only within limits. PMID:25637227

  10. Implementing performance appraisal : Exploring the employee experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Kelliher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Line managers play an important role as implementers of performance appraisal, enacting procedures designed by the HR function. However, the actual employee experience of these procedures (which may differ from how they were intended or enacted) in terms of perceptions of justice in the process is

  11. The perceptions of the meaning and value of analytics in New Zealand higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mahroeian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the current perceptions on the value of analytics and their possible contribution to the higher education sector in New Zealand. Seven out of eight research-intensive public universities in New Zealand took part in the study. Participants included senior management and those who have some role associated with decision-making within higher education (N = 82. The study found inconsistent understanding of the meaning of analytics across participants. In particular, three forms of perceptions of analytics were identified: structural; functional and structural-functional. It was evident that some participants viewed analytics in its structural elements such as statistics, metrics, trends, numbers, graph, and any relevant information/data to enhance better decision-making, whereas other participants perceived the notion of analytics in terms of functional aspect; as means to an end, a process to use the data to gain insights and taking action on complex problems, yet a third group viewed analytics from both structural-functional perspectives. These kinds of perceptions have to a larger extent influenced participants’ views on the value of analytics in shaping policy and practice. Also, literature has addressed a number of possible challenges associated with the large-scale institutional implementation of analytics. These challenges were: difficulties in extracting data from multiple databases, maintaining data quality, ethical and privacy issues, and lack of professional development opportunities. This article aims to broadly contribute to a better understanding of current perception and value of analytics in higher education, and in particular within the New Zealand context.

  12. Implementing telephone triage in general practice: a process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jamie; Varley, Anna; Fletcher, Emily; Britten, Nicky; Price, Linnie; Calitri, Raff; Green, Colin; Lattimer, Valerie; Richards, Suzanne H; Richards, David A; Salisbury, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L

    2015-04-10

    Telephone triage represents one strategy to manage demand for face-to-face GP appointments in primary care. However, limited evidence exists of the challenges GP practices face in implementing telephone triage. We conducted a qualitative process evaluation alongside a UK-based cluster randomised trial (ESTEEM) which compared the impact of GP-led and nurse-led telephone triage with usual care on primary care workload, cost, patient experience, and safety for patients requesting a same-day GP consultation. The aim of the process study was to provide insights into the observed effects of the ESTEEM trial from the perspectives of staff and patients, and to specify the circumstances under which triage is likely to be successfully implemented. Here we report perspectives of staff. The intervention comprised implementation of either GP-led or nurse-led telephone triage for a period of 2-3 months. A qualitative evaluation was conducted using staff interviews recruited from eight general practices (4 GP triage, 4 Nurse triage) in the UK, implementing triage as part of the ESTEEM trial. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 44 staff members in GP triage and nurse triage practices (16 GPs, 8 nurses, 7 practice managers, 13 administrative staff). Staff reported diverse experiences and perceptions regarding the implementation of telephone triage, its effects on workload, and on the benefits of triage. Such diversity were explained by the different ways triage was organised, the staffing models used to support triage, how the introduction of triage was communicated across practice staff, and by how staff roles were reconfigured as a result of implementing triage. The findings from the process evaluation offer insight into the range of ways GP practices participating in ESTEEM implemented telephone triage, and the circumstances under which telephone triage can be successfully implemented beyond the context of a clinical trial. Staff experiences and perceptions of telephone

  13. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  14. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  15. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, O.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction.

  16. Locus of Control, Perceptions and Attributions of Student Teachers in Educational Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya; Kurtz, Chaya

    Student teachers' perceptions of locus of control was investigated. Locus of control is defined as representing the extent of dependence upon inner or outer forces, the extent one is willing to invest in shaping the environment, and the perception of reinforcement as dependent upon those efforts, or upon random events. The specific questions were:…

  17. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  18. Semantic impairment disrupts perception, memory, and naming of secondary but not primary colours.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Graham, Kim S.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how basic aspects of perception are shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, we assessed colour perception and cognition in patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that progressively erodes conceptual knowledge. We observed a previously undocumented pattern of impairment to colour perception and cognition characterized by: (i) a normal ability to discriminate between only subtly different colours but an impaired ability to group different colours into categories, ...

  19. Reconstruing U-Shaped Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werker, Janet F.; Hall, D. Geoffrey; Fais, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    U-shaped developmental functions, and their N-shaped cousins, have intrigued developmental psychologists for decades because they provide a compelling demonstration that development does not always entail a monotonic increase across age in a single underlying ability. Instead, the causes of development are much more complex. Indeed,…

  20. Nanoscale magnetic ratchets based on shape anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jizhai; Keller, Scott M.; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-02-01

    Controlling magnetization using piezoelectric strain through the magnetoelectric effect offers several orders of magnitude reduction in energy consumption for spintronic applications. However strain is a uniaxial effect and, unlike directional magnetic field or spin-polarized current, cannot induce a full 180° reorientation of the magnetization vector when acting alone. We have engineered novel ‘peanut’ and ‘cat-eye’ shaped nanomagnets on piezoelectric substrates that undergo repeated deterministic 180° magnetization rotations in response to individual electric-field-induced strain pulses by breaking the uniaxial symmetry using shape anisotropy. This behavior can be likened to a magnetic ratchet, advancing magnetization clockwise with each piezostrain trigger. The results were validated using micromagnetics implemented in a multiphysics finite elements code to simulate the engineered spatial and temporal magnetic behavior. The engineering principles start from a target device function and proceed to the identification of shapes that produce the desired function. This approach opens a broad design space for next generation magnetoelectric spintronic devices.

  1. Inverted U-shaped model: How frequent repetition affects perceived risk

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Lu; Xiaofei Xie; Lu Liu

    2015-01-01

    We asked how repeated media reports on technological hazards influence an individual's risk perception. We looked for two contradictory effects, an increasing effect of repetition on perceived risk with the first few repetitions and a decreasing effect with later repetitions, leading to the inverted U-shaped pattern. In an experiment, we demonstrated the inverted U-shaped relationship between the repetition and perceived risk in the context of food risk. The finding broaden...

  2. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves. (paper)

  3. Shape coexistence in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Cao Zhongbin; Xu Furong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear shape change and shape coexistence in the Selenium isotopes have been investigated by Total-Routhian-Surface (TRS) calculations. It is found that nuclear shapes vary significantly with increasing neutron number. The TRS calculations for the ground states of 66,72,92,94 Se isotopes show that both neutron-deficient and neutron-dripline Selenium isotopes have oblate and prolate shape coexistence. The cranking shell-model calculations for 72,94 Se give that prolate and oblate shape coexistence in low rotational frequency. However, oblate rotational bands disappear and prolate rotational bands become yrast bands with increasing rotational frequency, which is due to the intrusion of the g 9/2 orbitals. (authors)

  4. Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex-from localized features to figural shape segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschechne, Stephan; Neumann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Visual structures in the environment are segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. Such a distributed network of processing must be capable to make accessible highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes that contribute to the perception of an object. We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes hierarchical distributed representations of shape features to encode surface and object boundary over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1-V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback signals driven by representations generated at higher stages. Based on this, global configurational as well as local information is made available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. The model, thus, proposes how separate mechanisms contribute to distributed hierarchical cortical shape representation and combine with processes of figure-ground segregation. Our model is probed with a selection of stimuli to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy.

  5. Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex - from localized features to figural shape segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eTschechne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual structures in the environment are effortlessly segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. At this stage, highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes contribute to the perception of an object.We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes a hierarchical distributed representation of shape features to encode boundary features over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1-V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback from representations generated at higher stages. In so doing, global configurational as well as local information is available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. This combines separate findings about the generation of cortical shape representation using hierarchical representations with figure-ground segregation mechanisms.Our model is probed with a selection of artificial and real world images to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy.

  6. School Psychologists' Perceptions of Stakeholder Engagement in Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RTI) continues to be implemented in schools, it is important to consider how this initiative is perceived by the educational professionals involved in the implementation and effectiveness of the process. This study utilized a survey intended to investigate the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their…

  7. Architectural design with simple shape grammars and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal for the automatic generation of architectural design. This scheme is based on the training of simple shape grammars through reinforcement learning technics. Finally, the results of the implemented system by this technic for the generation of dwelling design with certain restrictions are presented and analyzed.

  8. Estimating the location and shape of hybrid zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedj, Benjamin; Guillot, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new model to make use of georeferenced genetic data for inferring the location and shape of a hybrid zone. The model output includes the posterior distribution of a parameter that quantifies the width of the hybrid zone. The model proposed is implemented in the GUI and command‐line v...

  9. Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2003-01-01

    The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc

  10. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  11. Perceptions of Greek Female Adolescents with ADHD Regarding Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liontou, Magdalini

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the ADHD literature is shaped by male experiences, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of female adolescents with ADHD and the impact of the label in their family relationships. Four Greek adolescents aged 13-18 with a diagnosis of combined-type ADHD were interviewed through a purposive criterion…

  12. How grayscale influences consumers’ perception of product personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, W.-K.; Chen, Y.; Chen, L.

    Two studies are conducted to reveal the effect of grayscale on consumers' perception of product personality. Combining with two critical design elements - shape and surface finishing, we examined the net impact of grayscale on a particular one - business-like personality. In Study 1, eighteen cases

  13. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  14. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  15. Shape-Memory Hydrogels: Evolution of Structural Principles To Enable Shape Switching of Hydrophilic Polymer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg, Candy; Balk, Maria; Wischke, Christian; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    The ability of hydrophilic chain segments in polymer networks to strongly interact with water allows the volumetric expansion of the material and formation of a hydrogel. When polymer chain segments undergo reversible hydration depending on environmental conditions, smart hydrogels can be realized, which are able to shrink/swell and thus alter their volume on demand. In contrast, implementing the capacity of hydrogels to switch their shape rather than volume demands more sophisticated chemical approaches and structural concepts. In this Account, the principles of hydrogel network design, incorporation of molecular switches, and hydrogel microstructures are summarized that enable a spatially directed actuation of hydrogels by a shape-memory effect (SME) without major volume alteration. The SME involves an elastic deformation (programming) of samples, which are temporarily fixed by reversible covalent or physical cross-links resulting in a temporary shape. The material can reverse to the original shape when these molecular switches are affected by application of a suitable stimulus. Hydrophobic shape-memory polymers (SMPs), which are established with complex functions including multiple or reversible shape-switching, may provide inspiration for the molecular architecture of shape-memory hydrogels (SMHs), but cannot be identically copied in the world of hydrophilic soft materials. For instance, fixation of the temporary shape requires cross-links to be formed also in an aqueous environment, which may not be realized, for example, by crystalline domains from the hydrophilic main chains as these may dissolve in presence of water. Accordingly, dual-shape hydrogels have evolved, where, for example, hydrophobic crystallizable side chains have been linked into hydrophilic polymer networks to act as temperature-sensitive temporary cross-links. By incorporating a second type of such side chains, triple-shape hydrogels can be realized. Considering the typically given light

  16. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  17. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Perceptions Matter: Administrators' Vision of Instruction for Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carly A.; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Olson, Amy J.

    2018-01-01

    School administrators play an important role in shaping teaching and learning. However, very little is known regarding how school administrators perceive instruction for students with severe disabilities and how those perceptions shape expectations and visions for instruction. Semistructured interviews were used to interview 12 administrators…

  19. The Perception, Management and Performance of Risk Amongst Forest School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark; Haughton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how risk perception amongst teachers within an outdoor educational initiative, Forest School, both shape and are shaped by their understandings of childhood, pedagogy and their own professional identity. Drawing on a social constructionist perspective in theorising risk and childhood, the article argues that contemporary,…

  20. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D23 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Nabe, C.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S.; Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J.; Boots, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Ortner, A.; Busch, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems and Electric Drives, Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna (Austria); Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Junginger, M.; Hoefnagels, R. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cusumano, N.; Lorenzoni, A. [Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-02-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. This report marks the end of the research project RE-Shaping and summarizes its research activities, results, and recommendations.

  1. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Gautam; Sarkar, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, I.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M.K.; Raut, R.; Goswami, A.; Banerjee, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, S.; Ray Basu, M.; Ganguly, G.; Ray, M.; Basu, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The motivation for the present work are to firmly assign spins and parities of the excited levels and to investigate shape evolution in 153 Ho as expected phenomenologically from the level spectra and feeding patterns

  2. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi; Tai, Chiewlan; Zhang, Eugene; Xu, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Shape analysis with subspace symmetries

    KAUST Repository

    Berner, Alexander; Wand, Michael D.; Mitra, Niloy J.; Mewes, Daniel; Seidel, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more

  4. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Robin M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto

    2016-08-05

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson's ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures.

  5. Shape-morphing nanocomposite origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christine M; Zhu, Jian; Shyu, Terry; Flynn, Connor; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2014-05-20

    Nature provides a vast array of solid materials that repeatedly and reversibly transform in shape in response to environmental variations. This property is essential, for example, for new energy-saving technologies, efficient collection of solar radiation, and thermal management. Here we report a similar shape-morphing mechanism using differential swelling of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayer inkjets deposited on an LBL carbon nanotube (CNT) composite. The out-of-plane deflection can be precisely controlled, as predicted by theoretical analysis. We also demonstrate a controlled and stimuli-responsive twisting motion on a spiral-shaped LBL nanocomposite. By mimicking the motions achieved in nature, this method offers new opportunities for the design and fabrication of functional stimuli-responsive shape-morphing nanoscale and microscale structures for a variety of applications.

  6. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  7. Implementation Strategies of Inclusive Education in Cypriot Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Panayiotis; Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the implementation strategies used by the participant teachers in order to practice inclusion in their classrooms. To this end, we investigated the participant teachers' perceptions of their roles and the barriers faced in the implementation of inclusion. Interviews and observations were carried out with four teachers in…

  8. Teachers' Reflections on Cooperative Learning: Issues of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Boyle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a well documented pedagogical practice that promotes academic achievement and socialization, yet many teachers struggle with implementing it in their classes. This study reports on the perceptions of 10, middle-year teachers who implemented cooperative learning in a unit of work across two school terms. Data from the…

  9. Shape Representation by Zippable Ribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Schüller, Christian; Poranne, Roi; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Shape fabrication from developable parts is the basis for arts such as papercraft and needlework, as well as modern architecture and CAD in general, and it has inspired much research. We observe that the assembly of complex 3D shapes created by existing methods often requires first fabricating many small flat parts and then carefully following instructions to assemble them together. Despite its significance, this error prone and tedious process is generally neglected in the discussion. We pro...

  10. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Challenges for precision shape measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, M

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a number of physical effects about deeply depleted CCDs that have a significant impact on shape estimation. In particular, the focus is on issues related to measuring accurate shear values of galaxies for weak lensing science. There are three types of effects we discuss: effects related to the world coordinate system (WCS), the so-called brighter-fatter relation, and variable pixel size. In each case, we describe the effect, explain the impact on shape measurements, and propose possible solutions

  12. Shape changes in 101Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinesh, S.; Carmel Vigila Bai, G.M.; Santhosh Kumar, S.; Anusha, B.

    2001-01-01

    In heavy ion collision compound nuclei can be formed with high excitation energies and with very high angular momenta. Most of these emphasize and discuss the structure effects, yrast traps etc. The spin degree of freedom inherently involves deformation and structural or shape changes. The shape of a nucleus should be very sensitive to the increase of its temperature. The increasing temperature affects the occupations of the single particle levels near the Fermi energy are investigated

  13. Une analyse des représentations des enseignants réfléchissant sur une expérience d’implantation d’un portfolio électronique / An Analysis of the Perceptions of Teachers Reflecting on an Experience of e-Portfolio Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Davidson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte d’une analyse des représentations avec des enseignants, qui a eu lieu à la fin d’une expérience d’implantation d’un portfolio électronique favorisant l’autorégulation des apprentissages des élèves et la professionnalisation des enseignants. Le texte s’appuie sur le contexte éducatif québécois actuel. Ensuite, il présente une revue de littérature entourant les compétences technologiques, les portfolios électroniques et l’autorégulation des apprentissages. La méthodologie présente le design de la recherche, les instruments utilisés pour les entretiens et pour animer le groupe de discussion. Les résultats montrent que pour une enseignante qui avait déjà adopté la pédagogie sous-jacente au renouveau pédagogique Québécois, le portfolio électronique était une expérience fort utile. Toutefois, pour les deux autres enseignants, l’implantation du portfolio électronique était beaucoup trop exigeante. Finalement, nous discutons des implications des résultats, autant au point de vue de l’expérience d’implantation des portfolios électroniques que du point de vue de la contribution méthodologique. This article presents an analysis of the perceptions of teachers, which took place in 2010 at the end of an experiment implementing an e-portfolio that facilitates student self-regulation of learning. The article is based on the current Quebec educational context. It presents a review of literature on technology skills, e-portfolios and the self-regulation of learning. The methodology describes the research design, the tools used in the individual interviews and in the group discussion. The results indicate that the e-portfolio was a valuable experience for a teacher who had already adopted the pedagogy underlying the education reform in Quebec. However the implementation of the e-portfolio was difficult for the other two teachers due to challenges in terms of technology and managing

  14. Context before implementation: a qualitative study of decision makers' views of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness in supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana

    2018-04-04

    People with serious mental illness die at an earlier age than people in the general population largely due to cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle interventions can help reduce this health inequity. In this qualitative study, we examined the perceptions that decision makers in supportive housing agencies had toward a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention and their views of contextual factors that could shape implementation at these agencies. A purposive sample of 12 decision makers from three supportive housing agencies was recruited. We presented participants a vignette describing our peer-led intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using directed content analysis. Participants reported positive views toward the intervention with the most valued intervention attributes being relative advantage over existing services, compatibility to clients' needs, ability to pilot the intervention, and cost. A model emerged from our data depicting multilevel contextual factors believed to shape the implementation of our intervention at these agencies, including system- (funding, marketability, and external regulations), organization- (leadership support, fit with organization, staff buy-in and burden), and client-level (adaptability to clients' needs, and clients' buy-in) factors. Study findings illustrate the importance of understanding the context of practice before implementation. This examination can help identify critical views from decision makers that could undermine or advance the integration of peer-led interventions in supportive housing agencies and help identify structures, policies, and organizational practices that can inform the implementation process.

  15. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  16. A pulse-shape discrimination method for improving Gamma-ray spectrometry based on a new digital shaping filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan; Wu, Qi-fan

    2018-04-01

    It is a usual practice for improving spectrum quality by the mean of designing a good shaping filter to improve signal-noise ratio in development of nuclear spectroscopy. Another method is proposed in the paper based on discriminating pulse-shape and discarding the bad pulse whose shape is distorted as a result of abnormal noise, unusual ballistic deficit or bad pulse pile-up. An Exponentially Decaying Pulse (EDP) generated in nuclear particle detectors can be transformed into a Mexican Hat Wavelet Pulse (MHWP) and the derivation process of the transform is given. After the transform is performed, the baseline drift is removed in the new MHWP. Moreover, the MHWP-shape can be discriminated with the three parameters: the time difference between the two minima of the MHWP, and the two ratios which are from the amplitude of the two minima respectively divided by the amplitude of the maximum in the MHWP. A new type of nuclear spectroscopy was implemented based on the new digital shaping filter and the Gamma-ray spectra were acquired with a variety of pulse-shape discrimination levels. It had manifested that the energy resolution and the peak-Compton ratio were both improved after the pulse-shape discrimination method was used.

  17. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João

    2014-01-01

    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  18. Thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior for epoxy-shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    There are various applications for shape memory polymer (SMP) in the smart materials and structures field due to its large recoverable strain and controllable driving method. The mechanical shape memory deformation mechanism is so obscure that many samples and test schemes have to be tried in order to verify a final design proposal for a smart structure system. This paper proposes a simple and very useful method to unambiguously analyze the thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior of SMP smart structures. First, experiments under different temperature and loading conditions are performed to characterize the large deformation and thermoviscoelastic behavior of epoxy-SMP. Then, a rheological constitutive model, which is composed of a revised standard linear solid (SLS) element and a thermal expansion element, is proposed for epoxy-SMP. The thermomechanical coupling effect and nonlinear viscous flowing rules are considered in the model. Then, the model is used to predict the measured rubbery and time-dependent response of the material, and different thermomechanical loading histories are adopted to verify the shape memory behavior of the model. The results of the calculation agree with experiments satisfactorily. The proposed shape memory model is practical for the design of SMP smart structures. (paper)

  19. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    the international experiences with large-scale fiscal consolidations, including evidence on the expansionary fiscal contraction hypothesis with particular focus on the Danish experience in the early 1980s. Second, given the widespread perception that supranational fiscal rules have failed in Europe, we study...

  20. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-03-21

    A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment comprises a shape memory material body wherein the shape memory material body fits within the physical anomaly occluding the physical anomaly. The shape memory material body has a primary shape for occluding the physical anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly.