WorldWideScience

Sample records for perceptible current-induced effects

  1. Magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Kawabe, U.; Yamada, E.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in heavily-boron-doped Si is studied experimentally. It is found that the critical current flowing through the p-type-Si-coupled junction decreases with increasing applied magnetic field. The critical current can be expressed as the product of three factors: the current induced by de Gennes's proximity effect, the exponential decrease due to pair breaking by the magnetic field, and the usual diffraction-pattern-like dependence on the magnetic field due to the Josephson effect. The second factor depends on the carrier concentration in the semiconductor. The local critical current shows a rapid decrease at the edge of the electrodes

  2. Rashba spin–orbit coupling effects on a current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jisu; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with a strong structural inversion asymmetry [I.M. Miron, T. Moore, H. Szambolics, L.D. Buda-Prejbeanu, S. Auffret, B. Rodmacq, S. Pizzini, J. Vogel, M. Bonfim, A. Schuhl, G. Gaudin, Nat. Mat. 10 (2011) 419] seems to have novel features such as the domain wall motion along the current direction or the delay of the onset of the Walker breakdown. In such a highly asymmetric system, the Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) may affect a domain wall motion. We studied theoretically the RSOC effects on a domain wall motion and found that the RSOC, indeed, can induce the domain wall motion along the current direction in certain situations. It also delays the Walker breakdown and for a strong RSOC, the Walker breakdown does not occur at all. The RSOC effects are sensitive to the magnetic anisotropy of nanowires and also to the ratio between the Gilbert damping parameter α and the non-adiabaticity parameter β. - Highlights: ► Effects of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on a domain wall motion is calculated. ► The effects depend highly on the anisotropy of a magnetic system. ► It modifies the wall velocity for the system with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. ► The modified velocity can be along the current direction in certain situations. ► Rashba spin–orbit coupling also hinders the onset of the Walker breakdown.

  3. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  4. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Eduardo; Alejos, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  5. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  6. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom’s or SMM’s spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonant peaks in the average values of the molecule’s spin and in the charge current. These features appear at some resonant fields and are observable when at least one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic.

  7. Theory of Topological Spin Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Impact on Current-induced Motion

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2017-09-09

    We demonstrate that the nontrivial magnetic texture of antiferromagnetic skyrmions (AFM-Sks) promotes a non-vanishing topological spin Hall effect (TSHE) on the flowing electrons. This results in a substantial enhancement of the non-adiabatic torque and hence improves the skyrmion mobility. This non-adiabatic torque increases when decreasing the skyrmion size, and therefore scaling down results in a much higher torque efficiency. In clean AFM-Sks, we find a significant boost of the TSHE close to van Hove singularity. Interestingly, this effect is enhanced away from the band gap in the presence of non-magnetic interstitial defects. Furthermore, unlike their ferromagnetic counterpart, TSHE in AFM-Sks increases with increase in disorder strength thus opening promising avenues for materials engineering of this effect.

  8. Effect of screening current induced pair breaking on magnetization of superconducting lead nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashwant, G.; Prajapat, C.L. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Jayakumar, O.D. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Singh, M.R.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Ravikumar, G. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India)], E-mail: gurazada@barc.gov.in

    2008-06-15

    Magnetization measurements on lead nanoparticles in the size range 35-45 nm are presented. It is shown that the critical fields in these nanoparticles are enhanced significantly above their bulk values with temperature dependence also distinct from that of bulk. The observed 'type II' like shape of the magnetization curves is explained on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology by invoking the pair breaking effect of the London screening currents, which makes the effective penetration depth an increasing function of the field. The temperature dependence of critical field is found to be consistent with our explanation.

  9. Current-induced forces: a new mechanism to induce negative differential resistance and current-switching effect in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Current-induced forces can excite molecules, polymers and other low-dimensional materials, which in turn leads to an effective gate voltage through Holstein interaction. Here, by taking a short asymmetric DNA junction as an example, and using the Langevin approach, we find that when suppression of charge transport by the effective gate voltage surpasses the current increase from an elevated voltage bias, the current-voltage (I-V) curves display strong negative differential resistance (NDR) and perfect current-switching characteristics. The asymmetric DNA chain differs in mechanical stability under inverse voltages and the I-V curve is asymmetric about inverse biases, which can be used to understand recent transport experiments on DNA chains, and meanwhile provides a new strategy to realize NDR in molecular junctions and other low-dimensional quantum systems.

  10. Current-induced forces: a new mechanism to induce negative differential resistance and current-switching effect in molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Current-induced forces can excite molecules, polymers and other low-dimensional materials, which in turn leads to an effective gate voltage through Holstein interaction. Here, by taking a short asymmetric DNA junction as an example, and using the Langevin approach, we find that when suppression of charge transport by the effective gate voltage surpasses the current increase from an elevated voltage bias, the current-voltage (I–V) curves display strong negative differential resistance (NDR) and perfect current-switching characteristics. The asymmetric DNA chain differs in mechanical stability under inverse voltages and the I–V curve is asymmetric about inverse biases, which can be used to understand recent transport experiments on DNA chains, and meanwhile provides a new strategy to realize NDR in molecular junctions and other low-dimensional quantum systems. (paper)

  11. Detection of vortex-core dynamics using current-induced self-bistable rectifying effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M; Hata, H; Yamaguchi, A; Miyajima, H; Nozaki, Y; Nakatani, Y; Yamaoka, T

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic vortex core confined in a micron-scale magnetic disk is resonantly excited by spin-polarized radio-frequency (rf) current and rf field. We show that rectifying voltage spectra caused by the vortex core resonance is dependent on the core polarity. Rectifying voltage spectra are given by the superposition of the polarity-dependent term and the polarity-independent term. The sign of the polarity-dependent rectifying voltage reverses when the sign of polarity P or external field H is reversed. This experimental result can be explained by the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect caused by the vortex core motion.

  12. Spin-flip scattering effect on the current-induced spin torque in ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhengang; Su Gang; Jin Biao; Zheng Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the current-induced spin transfer torque of a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction by taking the spin-flip scatterings into account. It is found that the spin-flip scattering can induce an additional spin torque, enhancing the maximum of the spin torque and giving rise to an angular shift compared to the case when the spin-flip scatterings are neglected. The effects of the molecular fields of the left and right ferromagnets on the spin torque are also studied. It is found that τ Rx /I e (τ Rx is the spin-transfer torque acting on the right ferromagnet and I e is the tunneling electrical current) does vary with the molecular fields. At two certain angles, τ Rx /I e is independent of the molecular field of the right ferromagnet, resulting in two crossing points in the curve of τ Rx /I e versus the relevant orientation for different molecular fields

  13. Current-induced domain wall motion: Separating spin torque and Oersted-field effects in Co/Pt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, Jan; Boulle, Olivier; Rousseau, Kevin; Malinowski, Gregory; Klaeui, Mathias [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Swagton, Henk J.; Koopmans, Bert [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, MB 5600 (Netherlands); Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo [CNRS, Phynano team, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2010-07-01

    We report on magnetotransport studies on perpendicularly magnetized nanowires with narrow domain wall (DW) structures. Using Co/Pt multilayer nanowires, we have previously shown that Joule heating is concealing most of the current induced domain wall effects, but using a constant sample temperature a large non-adiabacity factor {beta} has been deduced. Here, we carry out experiments for both applied field directions and current polarities, starting from different DW configurations within a Hall cross. We clearly show, using the different symmetries of spin torque and Oersted-field, that the much debated Oersted-field does not contribute to the DW depinning significantly. This allows us to extract the spin torque contribution and the non-adiabacity factor {beta}, which turns out to be in line with previous measurements.

  14. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  15. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  16. Evidence of a New Current-Induced Magnetoelectric Effect in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric current were performed in a toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi4B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local-inversion symmetry. We found that electric current parallel to [2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0] and [0001] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces a uniform magnetization along the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essentially consistent with the theoretical prediction; however, it also shows an inconsistency suggesting that the antiferromagnetic state of UNi4B could not be simply regarded as a uniform toroidal order in the ideal honeycomb layered structure.

  17. Evidence for a New Magnetoelectric Effect of Current-Induced Magnetization in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi$_4$B

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric currents were performed for toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi$_4$B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local inversion symmetry.We found that each of the electric currents parallel to [$2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0$] and [$0001$] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces uniform magnetization in the direction of [$01\\bar{1}0$].The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essent...

  18. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bjerregaard Christensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces.

  19. Magnetic field effects on the vestibular system: calculation of the pressure on the cupula due to ionic current-induced Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A; Glover, P M; Li, Y; Mian, O S; Day, B L

    2012-01-01

    Large static magnetic fields may be employed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At high magnetic field strengths (usually from about 3 T and above) it is possible for humans to perceive a number of effects. One such effect is mild vertigo. Recently, Roberts et al (2011 Current Biology 21 1635–40) proposed a Lorentz-force mechanism resulting from the ionic currents occurring naturally in the endolymph of the vestibular system. In the present work a more detailed calculation of the forces and resulting pressures in the vestibular system is carried out using a numerical model. Firstly, realistic 3D finite element conductivity and fluid maps of the utricle and a single semi-circular canal containing the current sources (dark cells) and sinks (hair cells) of the utricle and ampulla were constructed. Secondly, the electrical current densities in the fluid are calculated. Thirdly, the developed Lorentz force is used directly in the Navier–Stokes equation and the trans-cupular pressure is computed. Since the driving force field is relatively large in comparison with the advective acceleration, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform an approximation in the Navier–Stokes equations that reduces the problem to solving a simpler Poisson equation. This simplification allows rapid and easy calculation for many different directions of applied magnetic field. At 7 T a maximum cupula pressure difference of 1.6 mPa was calculated for the combined ampullar (0.7 µA) and utricular (3.31 µA) distributed current sources, assuming a hair-cell resting current of 100 pA per unit. These pressure values are up to an order of magnitude lower than those proposed by Roberts et al using a simplistic model and calculation, and are in good agreement with the estimated pressure values for nystagmus velocities in caloric experiments. This modeling work supports the hypothesis that the Lorentz force mechanism is a significant contributor to the perception of magnetic field induced

  20. Current-induced atomic dynamics, instabilities, and Raman signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegard, Per

    2012-01-01

    We derive and employ a semiclassical Langevin equation obtained from path integrals to describe the ionic dynamics of a molecular junction in the presence of electrical current. The electronic environment serves as an effective nonequilibrium bath. The bath results in random forces describing Joule...... heating, current-induced forces including the nonconservative wind force, dissipative frictional forces, and an effective Lorentz-type force due to the Berry phase of the nonequilibrium electrons. Using a generic two-level molecular model, we highlight the importance of both current-induced forces...... and Joule heating for the stability of the system. We compare the impact of the different forces, and the wide-band approximation for the electronic structure on our result. We examine the current-induced instabilities (excitation of runaway "waterwheel" modes) and investigate the signature...

  1. Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads

    2011-01-01

    voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed...... be used to explore current-induced dynamics and instabilities. We find instabilities at experimentally relevant bias and gate voltages for the carbon-chain system. © 2011 Lü et al....... carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias...

  2. Current-Induced Spin Polarization at a Single Heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silov, A.; Blajnov, P.; Wolter, J.H.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.; Averkiev, N.S.; Menendez, J.; Walle, van der C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have experimentally achieved spin-polarization by a lateral current in a single non-magnetic semiconductor heterojunction. The effect does not require an applied magnetic field or ferromagnetic contacts. The current-induced spin orientation can be seen as the inverse of the circular

  3. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples fro...

  4. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from...

  5. Effects of tetrodotoxin and ion replacements on the short-circuit current induced by Escherichiacoli heat stable enterotoxin across small intestine of the gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Yaqoub Al-Balool

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mucosally added Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa 30 ng ml-1 on the basal short-circuit current (Isc in µA cm-2 across stripped and unstripped sheets of jejuna and ilea taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and the effects of replacing chloride by gluconate or the effects of removing bicarbonate from bathing buffers on the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa were also investigated. The maximum increase in Isc which resulted from the addition of STa were significantly higher in jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils when compared with the fed control both using stripped and unstripped sheets. In the two regions of the small intestine taken from fed and starved animals TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across unstripped sheets only. Moreover in jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils TTX reduced significantly the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across stripped and unstripped sheets. Replacing chloride by gluconate decreased the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils only. Removing bicarbonates from bathing buffer decreased the maximum increase in Isc across the jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils.

  6. Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-03-01

    The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.

  7. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  8. Current-Induced Forces and Hot Spots in Biased Nanojunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant...... asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect....

  9. Action-based effects on music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-03

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  10. Action-based effects on music perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  11. Action-based effects on music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter-Jan eMaes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral phenomena. In contrast, embodied accounts to music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework capturing the ways that the human motor system, and the actions it produces, can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modelling, and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modelling. Embodied accounts typically adhere to inverse modelling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007. We extent this account by pinpointing forward modelling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system, and the action it produces, suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamic process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial

  12. Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.

  13. Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.

    2013-12-19

    In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.

  14. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  15. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijms, Joost P.; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Mulder, F.A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight

  16. Dynamics of current induced nano-skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Rajamani, Amuda, E-mail: amuacademics@gmail.com; Arumugam, Brinda

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • We have revised and organised section II. • The expression for H{sub eff} is now expressed clearly. • We have added Appendix which explains the derivation of the solution and the occurrence of the oscillatory factor. - Abstract: The dynamics of magnetic skyrmions is investigated in a composite free layer spin valve nano pillar for different coupling mechanisms in the absence of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya Interaction (DMI). Nano meter sized skyrmions and anti skyrmions are trapped with different helices in the free layer. The spin polarised current under specific choice of system parameters changes the droplet solitons into skyrmions and anti skyrmions. The current driven dynamics is studied and the condition at which an isolated skyrmion exists, is reported. We have optimised the current density (J) and spin wave vector (k) for which Skyrmion Hall Effect (SHE) completely vanishes and as a result the velocity, size and shape of skyrmions are preserved. When the coupling between the composite free layers is changed, skyrmion-anti skyrmion pair and radial skyrmion-chiral skyrmion pair emerge. For the specific values of ‘J’ and ‘k’ these pairs show coupled motion along the layer and hence these pairs could also be used as a bit in the data processing and storage devices. Our investigation ascertains that a single material can host all the localised magnetic structures if the current density, spin wave vector and coupling constant are suitably chosen and tuned. This study would really be of fundamental importance owing to the possible applications in information processing and data storage in skyrmion based logic circuits and magnetic sensors.

  17. Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Effective EFL Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Thooptong Kwangsawad

    2017-01-01

    Teacher preparation is important as the component of teachers’ ongoing learning and development. Well-designed teacher preparation can also be a powerful vehicle for preparing the next generation of teachers to implement new curriculum and innovative teaching methods. The rationale for this quantitative study was to explore stakeholders’ perceptions of effective EFL teachers in the EFL pre-service education program at Mahasarakham University, Thailand. The questionnair...

  18. Current-Induced Transistor Sensorics with Electrogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fromherz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of transistor recording of electroactive cells are considered, when the response is determined by a current-induced voltage in the electrolyte due to cellular activity. The relationship to traditional transistor recording, with an interface-induced response due to interactions with the open gate oxide, is addressed. For the geometry of a cell-substrate junction, the theory of a planar core-coat conductor is described with a one-compartment approximation. The fast electrical relaxation of the junction and the slow change of ion concentrations are pointed out. On that basis, various recording situations are considered and documented by experiments. For voltage-gated ion channels under voltage clamp, the effects of a changing extracellular ion concentration and the enhancement/depletion of ion conductances in the adherent membrane are addressed. Inhomogeneous ion conductances are crucial for transistor recording of neuronal action potentials. For a propagating action potential, the effects of an axon-substrate junction and the surrounding volume conductor are distinguished. Finally, a receptor-transistor-sensor is described, where the inhomogeneity of a ligand–activated ion conductance is achieved by diffusion of the agonist and inactivation of the conductance. Problems with regard to a development of reliable biosensors are mentioned.

  19. EFFECT OF DIRECTORS’ BURNOUT PERCEPTION ON TEAMWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih Metin Ozmutaf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is determining the perceptions towards the effect of burnout of principals in educational institutions in Izmir province on team works. The survey form prepared intended for the research, a face to face survey method is applied between the dates October 2016 - May 2017 within the frame of 148 principals in 87 schools of Izmir province. Following the research, the propositions towards emotional breaking, relational breaking and performance have been collected under sole factor. It has been concluded that exhaustion affects the team works negatively in terms of the factor and the propositions within the scope of it. Moreover, it has been defined that the results in point do not show difference in terms of gender, educational status, employment period, employment period as a director, vocational stress perception and personality structure.

  20. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching.

  1. Country of origin effect on brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been a substantial amount of empirical evidence on the country of origin phenomenon. However, marketing scholars have different perspectives and views on how the country of origin effect has impacted the brand perceptions of consumers. This paper presents...... an extensive review of the literature on the COO effect and traces the conceptual development of the country-of-origin construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with a critical appraisal of the existing research on this topic. By following the grounds of the systematic literature, this study...... seeks to establish a solid base for country-of-origin research review....

  2. Interface tuning of current-induced cooling in molecular circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 2 (2017), s. 1082-1088 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : current-induced heating and cooling * molecular junction * Carbene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  3. Neutral current induced neutrino oscillations in a supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1997-01-01

    Neutral currents induced matter oscillations of electroweak-active (anti-)neutrinos to sterile neutrinos can explain the observed motion of pulsars. In contrast to a recently proposed explanation of the pulsar birth velocities based on the electron to tau (muon) neutrino oscillations [hep-ph/9606428], the heaviest neutrino (either active or sterile) would have to have mass of order several keV.

  4. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti-Watel, P.; Hammer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  5. Effects of aging on perception of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Wilder, Joseph; Hung, George; Julesz, Bela

    1997-09-01

    Driving requires two basic visual components: 'visual sensory function' and 'higher order skills.' Among the elderly, it has been observed that when attention must be divided in the presence of multiple objects, their attentional skills and relational processes, along with impairment of basic visual sensory function, are markedly impaired. A high frame rate imaging system was developed to assess the elderly driver's ability to locate and distinguish computer generated images of vehicles and to determine their direction of motion in a simulated intersection. Preliminary experiments were performed at varying target speeds and angular displacements to study the effect of these parameters on motion perception. Results for subjects in four different age groups, ranging from mid- twenties to mid-sixties, show significantly better performance for the younger subjects as compared to the older ones.

  6. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  7. Current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with spatial variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sugishita, Hiroki; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2010-01-01

    We model current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with the variable width. Employing the collective coordinate method we trace the wall dynamics. The effect of the width modulation is implemented by spatial dependence of an effective magnetic field. The wall destination in the potential energy landscape due to the magnetic anisotropy and the spatial nonuniformity is obtained as a function of the current density. For a nanowire of a periodically modulated width, we identify three (pinned, nonlinear, and linear) current density regimes for current-induced wall motion. The threshold current densities depend on the pulse duration as well as the magnitude of wire modulation. In the nonlinear regime, application of ns order current pulses results in wall displacement which opposes or exceeds the prediction of the spin transfer mechanism. The finding explains stochastic nature of the domain wall displacement observed in recent experiments.

  8. Mental Health Service Providers: College Student Perceptions of Helper Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ashley M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael W; Poindexter, Dawn C.; Pujara, Amita L.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate perceptions of the overall effectiveness of six types of mental health service providers (MHSPs) were obtained with a survey. Although many mental health services are available to consumers in the United States, research has indicated that these services are underutilized. Perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may…

  9. Farmers' perception on the effects of climate change on groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed farmer's perception on the effect of climate change on groundnut production in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Despite the fact that efforts have been made towards combating climate change, research and policies directed towards understanding of local perception are useful in ...

  10. Action potential influences spatial perception: Evidence for genuine top-down effects on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K

    2017-08-01

    The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence. Four case studies of action-specific effects are offered as evidence that meets the framework's high bar, and thus that demonstrates genuine perceptual effects. That action influences spatial perception is evidence that perceptual and action-related processes are intricately and bidirectionally linked.

  11. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  12. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  13. Nonconservative current-induced forces: A physical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchavdar N. Todorov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We give a physical interpretation of the recently demonstrated nonconservative nature of interatomic forces in current-carrying nanostructures. We start from the analytical expression for the curl of these forces, and evaluate it for a point defect in a current-carrying system. We obtain a general definition of the capacity of electrical current flow to exert a nonconservative force, and thus do net work around closed paths, by a formal noninvasive test procedure. Second, we show that the gain in atomic kinetic energy over time, generated by nonconservative current-induced forces, is equivalent to the uncompensated stimulated emission of directional phonons. This connection with electron–phonon interactions quantifies explicitly the intuitive notion that nonconservative forces work by angular momentum transfer.

  14. The effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perception of tuberculosis treatment ... psychological distress, alcohol use, tobacco smoking and six HBM domains. ... with health promotion intervention to enhance TB treatment adherence.

  15. teachers' perception of their head teachers' role effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    This paper is a survey study focused on teacher's perception of their head teachers' role effectiveness. Two research ... children at this level must be of high quality. Ngada (2009) states .... The statistical analysis techniques used in testing this ...

  16. Effect of Tempo on Pitch Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated the perception of music majors and nonmusic majors concerning their ability to discriminate the way in which altered musical excerpts differed in pitch or tempo (or both) from preceding presentations. Concludes that both groups responded similarly across conditions and replications, and that tempo changes were…

  17. Perception: A Determinant for Effective Communication | Amodu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Perceptual Communication Model is proposed in the study to explain the relationship between communication and perception. The study concludes by suggesting that communicators should design messages in terms of their receivers' perceptual inclination rather than focusing entirely on the elements of the ...

  18. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  19. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  20. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association—the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders—remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means ‘teacher’ and ‘to try’ when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture-to-perception

  1. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture-to-perception

  2. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  3. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiei, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Troinar, E; Zacharko, W [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This 'autoparamagnetic effect' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is.

  4. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiej, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Trojnar, E; Zacharko, W

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This ''autoparamagnetic effect'' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is presented. 4 refs.

  5. Characteristics of Effective EFL Instructors: Language Teachers’ Perceptions Versus Learners’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Hajizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the field of foreign language teaching without improving the qualities of the teachers seems impossible. This attempt, at first hand, requires recognizing the qualities of effective EFL teachers. The aim of this study was to find what foreign language instructors perceive to be the most important characteristics of a successful EFL teacher. In addition, the teachers’ perception was compared to that of learners’ to see whether there were discrepancies between the two groups’ perceptions regarding the preferable characteristics of an effective English language instructors or not. A 58-item questionnaire was administered to teachers at a prominent language institute in Iran. This questionnaire was divided into eight sections and addressed issues relating to teachers’ personal qualities, command in English, teaching methods and evaluation methods they used within the class, mastery over teaching, teacher-student relation, class management and finally language skills management. Teachers were asked to specify the importance of each item in the questionnaire using terms like not important at all, somehow important, important and finally very important. Basic statistics were used to convert the qualitative results into quantitative ones for easier comparison. Interestingly however, the study revealed that the students’ perceptions and teachers’ perceptions do not differ in major ways although there are slight discrepancies.

  6. Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtel, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

  7. Perception, action, and Roelofs effect: a mere illusion of dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dassonville

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A prominent and influential hypothesis of vision suggests the existence of two separate visual systems within the brain, one creating our perception of the world and another guiding our actions within it. The induced Roelofs effect has been described as providing strong evidence for this perception/action dissociation: When a small visual target is surrounded by a large frame positioned so that the frame's center is offset from the observer's midline, the perceived location of the target is shifted in the direction opposite the frame's offset. In spite of this perceptual mislocalization, however, the observer can accurately guide movements to the target location. Thus, perception is prone to the illusion while actions seem immune. Here we demonstrate that the Roelofs illusion is caused by a frame-induced transient distortion of the observer's apparent midline. We further demonstrate that actions guided to targets within this same distorted egocentric reference frame are fully expected to be accurate, since the errors of target localization will exactly cancel the errors of motor guidance. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the various perceptual and motor effects of the induced Roelofs illusion without requiring the existence of separate neural systems for perception and action. Given this, the behavioral dissociation that accompanies the Roelofs effect cannot be considered evidence of a dissociation of perception and action. This indicates a general need to re-evaluate the broad class of evidence purported to support this hypothesized dissociation.

  8. Effective Instructor Feedback: Perceptions of Online Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Getzlaf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explored online graduate students' perceptions of effective instructor feedback. The objectives of the study were to determine the students’ perceptions of the content of effective instructor feedback (“what should be included in effective feedback?” and the process of effective instructor feedback (“how should effective feedback be provided?”. The participants were students completing health-related graduate courses offered exclusively online. Data were collected via a survey that included open ended questions inviting participants to share their perspectives regarding effective online instructor feedback. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: student involvement/individualization, gentle guidance, being positively constructive, timeliness and future orientation. We conclude that effective instructor feedback has positive outcomes for the students. Future studies are warranted to investigate strategies to make feedback a mutual process between instructor and student that supports an effective feedback cycle.

  9. Current-induced damping of nanosized quantum moments in the presence of spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the need to understand current-induced magnetization dynamics at the nanoscale, we have developed a formalism, within the framework of Keldysh Green function approach, to study the current-induced dynamics of a ferromagnetic (FM) nanoisland overlayer on a spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) Rashba plane. In contrast to the commonly employed classical micromagnetic LLG simulations the magnetic moments of the FM are treated quantum mechanically. We obtain the density matrix of the whole system consisting of conduction electrons entangled with the local magnetic moments and calculate the effective damping rate of the FM. We investigate two opposite limiting regimes of FM dynamics: (1) The precessional regime where the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and precessional frequency are smaller than the exchange interactions and (2) the local spin-flip regime where the MAE and precessional frequency are comparable to the exchange interactions. In the former case, we show that due to the finite size of the FM domain, the "Gilbert damping" does not diverge in the ballistic electron transport regime, in sharp contrast to Kambersky's breathing Fermi surface theory for damping in metallic FMs. In the latter case, we show that above a critical bias the excited conduction electrons can switch the local spin moments resulting in demagnetization and reversal of the magnetization. Furthermore, our calculations show that the bias-induced antidamping efficiency in the local spin-flip regime is much higher than that in the rotational excitation regime.

  10. Contextual effects on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-08-15

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are continuous, slow rotations of the eyes that allow us to follow the motion of a visual object of interest. These movements are closely related to sensory inputs from the visual motion processing system. To track a moving object in the natural environment, its motion first has to be segregated from the motion signals provided by surrounding stimuli. Here, we review experiments on the effect of the visual context on motion processing with a focus on the relationship between motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements. While perception and pursuit are closely linked, we show that they can behave quite distinctly when required by the visual context.

  11. The effect of perspective on presence and space perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Brinkman, W.P.; Qu, C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report two experiments in which the effect of perspective projection on presence and space perception was investigated. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to score a presence questionnaire when looking at a virtual classroom. We manipulated the vantage point, the viewing mode

  12. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  13. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  14. The Effect of Articulation Style on Perception of Modulated Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…

  15. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    /no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects...

  16. Farmers' Perception of the Effects of Climate Change and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers were fully aware of the effect of climate change and possible coping strategies such as the need for agricultural insurance, planting of drought and flood tolerant varieties and reduction of water loss through practices such as mulching and rearing of heat tolerant livestock. General perception was that climate change ...

  17. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  18. Perceptions of Women's Communication Skills Related to Managerial Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…

  19. Cocoa Farmers' Perception of the Effect of World Trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of cocoa farmers of the effect of the standards of the World Trade Organisation on cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select farmers in the area covered by the project and primary data were collected through the use of a structured ...

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness Based on Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagbada-Ekekhomen, Gloria O.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined teachers' perceptions of effective leadership skills and any significant differences of teachers' views of an administrator's success based on the leader's gender. A review of studies examining differences in the leadership behaviors of men and women did not provide conclusive results. The three hypotheses based on the…

  1. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  2. Analysis of experts' perception of the effectiveness of teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindra, Gurprit S.

    1984-03-01

    The present study attempts to shed light on the perceptions of business educators regarding the effectiveness of six methodologies in achieving Gagné's five learning outcomes. Results of this study empirically confirm the oft-stated contention that no one method is globally effective for the attainment of all objectives. Specifically, business games, traditional lecture, and case study methods are perceived to be most effective for the learning of application, knowledge acquisition, and analysis and application, respectively.

  3. Effects of coloured lighting on the perception of interior spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşioğlu, Seden; Olguntürk, Nіlgün

    2015-02-01

    Use of coloured lighting in interior spaces has become prevalent in recent years. Considerable importance is ascribed to coloured lighting in interior and lighting design. The effects of colour on the perception of interior spaces have been studied as surface colour; but here, the effects of three different types of chromatic light were investigated. The lighting differed in colour (red, green and white) and perceptions of interior space were assessed. 97 participants (59 women, 38 men; M age = 21.4 yr.) evaluated the experiment room on a questionnaire assessing eight evaluative factors: Pleasantness, Arousal, Aesthetics, Usefulness, Comfort, Spaciousness, Colour, and Lighting quality. Perceptions of the room differed by colour of lighting for some of the evaluative factors, but there was no sex difference in perceptions. Interior spaces may be perceived as equally pleasant under white, green and red lighting. Under white lighting a space is perceived as more useful, spacious, clear, and luminous. Green lighting would make the same effect. Green and white lighting were perceived equally comfortable in an interior space. Chromatic coloured lighting was perceived to be more aesthetic than white lighting. The results support previous findings for some evaluative factors, but differed for others.

  4. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  5. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  6. The Joint Effect of Relationship Perceptions, Loyalty Program and Direct Mailing on Customer Share Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine the effect of relationship perceptions and relationship marketing instruments on customer share development. We also study the interaction effect of these instruments with behavioral loyalty and relationship perceptions. This study is

  7. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus; Vangkilde, Signe; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Phasic alertness refers to a short-lived change in the preparatory state of the cognitive system following an alerting signal. In the present study, we examined the effect of phasic auditory alerting on distinct perceptual processes, unconfounded by motor components. We combined an alerting/no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects visual perception by increasing the visual processing speed and lowering the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 1). By manipulating the intensity of the alerting cue, we further observed a positive relationship between alerting intensity and processing speed, which was not seen for the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 2). This was replicated in a third experiment, in which pupil size was measured as a physiological marker of alertness. Results revealed that the increase in processing speed was accompanied by an increase in pupil size, substantiating the link between alertness and processing speed (Experiment 3). The implications of these results are discussed in relation to a newly developed mathematical model of the relationship between levels of alertness and the speed with which humans process visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  9. Leadership effectiveness in Higher Education: Managerial self-perceptions versus perceptions of others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H.H. Herbst

    2011-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of selfperception accuracy amongst the managers and to explore the patterns of interaction between self-perception accuracy (regarding their leadership behaviour and perceived transformational leadership behaviour (as measured by composite ‘other’-ratings. Motivation of the study: Research has shown that managers in various work environments typically overestimate their own level of competence and that this could impact on the effectiveness of their leadership behaviour. This phenomenon has however not yet been researched in the context of South African higher education institutions. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional study of the relationship between self-perception accuracy and leadership effectiveness was conducted amongst the total population (N = 204 of staff members in management positions. The response rate was 67% and the realised sample consisted of 137 managers. Leadership behaviour was measured by means of behavioural ratings on the following five dimensions of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI: ‘Challenging the process’, ‘Inspiring a shared vision’, ‘Enabling others to act’, ‘Modelling the way’ and ‘Encouraging the heart’. Main findings: Statistically significant discrepancies were found between self- and observer ratings on all five leadership dimensions, indicating a probable overestimation of their own capabilities. Results further provide evidence that perceived leadership effectiveness on three of the five transformational leadership practices varied as a function of the self-perceptions of managers. Practical/managerial implications: Managerial development practices should sensitise managers to what is essentially introspective and provide opportunities for them to reflect upon and question their leadership practices. Contribution/value-add: A challenge for higher education is to embark on feedback intensive

  10. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  11. Theory of current-induced spin polarization in an electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Cosimo; Maleki Sheikhabadi, Amin; Shen, Ka; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Vignale, Giovanni; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    We derive the Bloch equations for the spin dynamics of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. For the latter we consider both the intrinsic mechanisms of structure inversion asymmetry (Rashba) and bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus), and the extrinsic ones arising from the scattering from impurities. The derivation is based on the SU(2) gauge-field formulation of the Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Our main result is the identification of a spin-generation torque arising from Elliot-Yafet scattering, which opposes a similar term arising from Dyakonov-Perel relaxation. Such a torque, which to the best of our knowledge has gone unnoticed so far, is of basic nature, i.e., should be effective whenever Elliott-Yafet processes are present in a system with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, irrespective of further specific details. The spin-generation torque contributes to the current-induced spin polarization (CISP), also known as inverse spin-galvanic or Edelstein effect. As a result, the behavior of the CISP turns out to be more complex than one would surmise from consideration of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus fields alone. In particular, the symmetry of the current-induced spin polarization does not necessarily coincide with that of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus field, and an out-of-plane component of the CISP is generally predicted, as observed in recent experiments. We also discuss the extension to the three-dimensional electron gas, which may be relevant for the interpretation of experiments in thin films.

  12. Assessing verticalization effects on urban safety perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ricardo Barros

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment with the modeling of urban verticalization effects on perceived safety scores as obtained with computer vision on Google Streetview data for New York City. Preliminary results suggests that for smaller buildings (between one and seven floors), perceived safety increases with building height, but that for high-rise buildings, perceived safety decreases with increased height. We also determined that while height contributing for this relation, other zonal aspects also ...

  13. Flexible benefits plans. Perceptions of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, A O

    1995-01-01

    Flexible benefits plans have been used in businesses since the 1970s to control healthcare costs and meet the needs of an increasingly diverse work force. More recently, healthcare organizations have begun to implement the flexible benefits concept. This study collected data from human resources executives at hospitals with and without flex plans to investigate how they perceive the effectiveness of and the problems associated with such plans.

  14. Perceptions of hospital CEOs about the effects of CEO turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Amir A; Thompson, David M; Walston, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence is scarce on chief executive officer (CEO) turnover in U.S. hospitals, with potentially serious implications for many of these organizations. This study, based on a nationwide survey of CEOs at non-federal general surgical and medical community hospitals conducted in the spring of 2004, reports the perceptions of hospital CEOs regarding the circumstances and impact of CEO turnover on U.S. hospitals. In the opinion of the respondents, the impact includes competitors taking advantage of turnover by luring employees and physicians away from the target hospital, significantly increasing the likelihood of other senior executives leaving the hospital, and many of the important strategic activities being delayed or cancelled altogether. Interestingly, the perceptions of CEOs regarding the effects of turnover do not seem to differ regardless of voluntary or involuntary circumstances of turnover. However, there is a notable bias in emphasizing the perceived negative implications of respondents' own departures and allegedly positive effects of their predecessors' departures.

  15. Effects of a Pedagogical Agent's Emotional Expressiveness on Learner Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Enilda J.; Watson, Ginger S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of animated pedagogical agents or avatars in instruction has lagged behind their use in entertainment. This is due in part to the cost and complexity of development and implementation of agents in educational settings, but also results from a lack of research to understand how emotions from animated agents influence instructional effectiveness. The phenomenological study presented here assesses the perceptions of eight learners interacting with low and high intensity emotionally expressive pedagogical agents in a computer-mediated environment. Research methods include maximum variation and snowball sampling with random assignment to treatment. The resulting themes incorporate perceptions of importance, agent humanness, enjoyment, implementation barriers, and suggested improvements. Design recommendations and implications for future research are presented.

  16. Current-induced Rashba spin orbit torque in silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ji, E-mail: muze7777@hdu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Peng, Yingzi [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhou, Jie [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The spin dynamics of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene is investigated. • The Rashba spin orbit torque is obtained and the well-known LLG equation is modified. • The explicit forms of spin orbit torques in Domain Wall and vortex is also obtained. - Abstract: We study theoretically the spin torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene in the presence of the intrinsic Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) effect. By using gauge field method, we find that under the applied current, the RSOC can induce an effective field which will result in the spin precession of conduction electron without applying any magnetic field. We also derive the spin torques due to the RSOC, which generalize the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The spin torques are related to the applied current, the carrier density and Rashba strength of the system.

  17. Electric currents induced by twisted light in Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G F; Berakdar, J

    2009-10-26

    We theoretically investigate the generation of electric currents in quantum rings resulting from the optical excitation with twisted light. Our model describes the kinetics of electrons in a two-band model of a semiconductor-based mesoscopic quantum ring coupled to light having orbital angular momentum (twisted light). We find the analytical solution, which exhibits a "circular" photon-drag effect and an induced magnetization, suggesting that this system is the circular analog of that of a bulk semiconductor excited by plane waves. For realistic values of the electric field and material parameters, the computed electric current can be as large as microA; from an applied perspective, this opens new possibilities to the optical control of the magnetization in semiconductors.

  18. Current-induced domain wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, G [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS, Universite Paris-sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Boulle, O [SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Klaeui, M, E-mail: Klaeui@uni-mainz.de [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory of Nanomagnetism and Spin Dynamics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-28

    We review the details of domain wall (DW) propagation due to spin-polarized currents that could potentially be used in magnetic data storage devices based on domains and DWs. We discuss briefly the basics of the underlying spin torque effect and show how the two torques arising from the interaction between the spin-polarized charge carriers and the magnetization lead to complex dynamics of a spin texture such as a DW. By direct imaging we show how confined DWs in nanowires can be displaced using currents in in-plane soft-magnetic materials, and that when using short pulses, fast velocities can be attained. For high-anisotropy out-of-plane magnetized wires with narrow DWs we present approaches to deducing the torque terms and show that in these materials potentially more efficient domain wall motion could be achieved.

  19. Media advertising effects on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daenya T; Shroff, Bhavna; Lindauer, Steven J; Fowler, Chad E; Tufekci, Eser

    2008-09-01

    To determine the effect of media advertising on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. A survey instrument was designed to evaluate factors influencing consumer selection of an orthodontist and consumer perception of different forms of media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboard) by orthodontic practices. The surveys were distributed by eight orthodontic offices in and around the Richmond, Virginia area. The survey return rate was 97%. Respondents most often cited dentist and patient referrals as how they learned of the orthodontic practices they visited (50% to 57%). A caring attitude and good practitioner reputation were the top reasons influencing actual selection of an orthodontist (53% and 49%, respectively). Of respondents, 14% to 24% felt that advertising orthodontists would offer a lower quality of care than nonadvertising orthodontists. Newspaper, magazine, and direct mail advertisements were viewed more favorably than radio, television, and billboard advertisements. Chi-square analyses revealed few statistically significant differences in perception between different income and education groups. The majority of patients do not perceive advertising to reflect poorly on the quality of orthodontic care. However, patients with different income and education levels perceive media advertising differently.

  20. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform

  1. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  2. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  3. A signal detection theory analysis of an unconscious perception effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S J; Theios, J; Jenison, R

    1999-07-01

    The independent observation model (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) is fitted to detection-identification data collected under conditions of heavy masking. The model accurately predicts a quantitative relationship between stimulus detection and stimulus identification over a wide range of detection performance. This model can also be used to offer a signal detection interpretation of the common finding of above-chance identification following a missed signal. While our finding is not a new one, the stimuli used in this experiment (redundant three-letter strings) differ slightly from those used in traditional signal detection work. Also, the stimuli were presented very briefly and heavily masked, conditions typical in the study of unconscious perception effects.

  4. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  5. Reversing the attention effect in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2009-10-01

    Human visual perception is sometimes ambiguous, switching between different perceptual structures, and shifts of attention sometimes favor one perceptual structure over another. It has been proposed that, in figure-ground segmentation, attention to certain regions tends to cause those regions to be perceived as closer to the observer. Here, we show that this attention effect can be reversed under certain conditions. To account for these phenomena, we propose an alternative principle: The visual system chooses the interpretation that maximizes simplicity of the attended regions.

  6. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  7. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  8. THE EFFECT OF 'ORGANIC' LABELS ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Kiss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of

  9. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  10. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  11. Effect of ambient temperature on human pain and temperature perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, I A; Carli, F; Bushnell, M C

    2000-03-01

    Animal studies show reduced nociceptive responses to noxious heat stimuli and increases in endogenous beta-endorphin levels in cold environments, suggesting that human pain perception may be dependent on ambient temperature. However, studies of changes in local skin temperature on human pain perception have yielded variable results. This study examines the effect of both warm and cool ambient temperature on the perception of noxious and innocuous mechanical and thermal stimuli. Ten subjects (7 men and 3 women, aged 20-23 yr) used visual analog scales to rate the stimulus intensity, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of thermal (0-50 degrees C) and mechanical (1.2-28.9 g) stimuli applied on the volar forearm with a 1-cm2 contact thermode and von Frey filaments, respectively. Mean skin temperatures were measured throughout the experiment by infrared pyrometer. Each subject was tested in ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C (cool), 25 degrees C (neutral), and 35 degrees C (warm) on separate days, after a 30-min acclimation to the environment. Studies began in the morning after an 8-h fast. Mean skin temperature was altered by ambient temperature (cool room: 30.1 degrees C; neutral room: 33.4 degrees C; warm room: 34.5 degrees C; P cool than in the neutral environment (P cool room and that noxious heat stimuli were more unpleasant in a warm environment. Environmental temperature did not alter ratings of warm (37 and 40 degrees C) or mechanical stimuli. These results indicate that, in humans, a decrease in skin temperature following exposure to cool environments reduces thermal pain. Suppression of Adelta primary afferent cold fiber activity has been shown to increase cold pain produced by skin cooling. Our current findings may represent the reverse phenomenon, i.e., a reduction in thermal nociceptive transmission by the activation of Adelta cutaneous cold fibers.

  12. Audio effects on haptics perception during drilling simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Valbuena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality has provided immersion and interactions through computer generated environments attempting to reproduce real life experiences through sensorial stimuli. Realism can be achieved through multimodal interactions which can enhance the user’s presence within the computer generated world. The most notorious advances in virtual reality can be seen in computer graphics visuals, where photorealism is the norm thriving to overcome the uncanny valley. Other advances have followed related to sound, haptics, and in a lesser manner smell and taste feedback. Currently, virtual reality systems (multimodal immersion and interactions through visual-haptic-sound are being massively used in entertainment (e.g., cinema, video games, art, and in non-entertainment scenarios (e.g., social inclusion, educational, training, therapy, and tourism. Moreover, the cost reduction of virtual reality technologies has resulted in the availability at a consumer-level of various haptic, headsets, and motion tracking devices. Current consumer-level devices offer low-fidelity experiences due to the properties of the sensors, displays, and other electro-mechanical devices, that may not be suitable for high-precision or realistic experiences requiring dexterity. However, research has been conducted on how toovercome or compensate the lack of high fidelity to provide an engaging user experience using storytelling, multimodal interactions and gaming elements. Our work focuses on analyzing the possible effects of auditory perception on haptic feedback within a drilling scenario. Drilling involves multimodal interactions and it is a task with multiple applications in medicine, crafting, and construction. We compare two drilling scenarios were two groups of participants had to drill through wood while listening to contextual and non-contextual audios. We gathered their perception using a survey after the task completion. From the results, we believe that sound does

  13. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Concern and Risk Perception: Effects on Osteoprotective Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla-Wong, A. L.; Chen, J. S.; March, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect that level of concern for osteoporosis, as well as self-perceived risk of osteoporosis and fracture, has on supplementation use, seeking medical advice, bone mineral density (BMD) testing, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) use. Study subjects were 1,095 female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) untreated for osteoporosis at baseline. Study outcomes from self-administered questionnaires included calcium and vitamin D supplementation, self-reported seeking of medical advice regarding osteoporosis, BMD testing, and AOM use in the last 12 months at the late assessment. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Concern significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and, however, had no significant impact on screening or treatment. Heightened self-perceived risks of osteoporosis and fracture both significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and BMD testing while elevated self-perceived risk of fracture increased AOM use. Supplementation use was not significantly associated with concern levels and risk perception. Concern and risk perceptions to osteoporosis and fracture were significantly associated with certain bone-protective behaviours. However, the disconnect between perceived osteoporosis risk and AOM use illustrates the need to emphasize the connection between osteoporosis and fracture in future education programs. PMID:25276471

  15. Training Stiffness perception: Knowledge of results and modality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of compliant objects demands integration of haptic and visual position information with force information. Multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. In this study we explored humans' improvement on uni-sensory stiffness discrimination as a function of different sensory conditions and immediate knowledge of results (KR during training. Two by two design was used: subjects were trained over two days on stiffness discrimination task with either matched visual-tactile, or tactile only stimuli and either with or without immediate feedback on their performance during training trials. Training resulted in both immediate but also latent, overnight learning in the proportion of correctly discriminated pairs of targets (PC, in all groups. Discrimination decision time (DT gains were obtained only during practice, while between sessions partial deterioration was evident. Affordance of visual information during training blocks resulted in higher PC during training blocks, but lower PC in the haptic-only retests. This finding challenges the notion that long-term unisensory learning mechanisms operate optimally under multisensory training conditions, at least for the combination of the visual and haptic modalities. We didn’t find evidence that information feedback during training enhances discrimination ability in terms of PC. However, we found transient within-session effects of KR and visual-haptic trainings on DT: while visualhaptic training resulted in slower responses, KR training induced faster responses.

  16. Effect of Size Change and Brightness Change of Visual Stimuli on Loudness Perception and Pitch Perception of Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syouya Tanabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.

  17. Effects of Production Training and Perception Training on Lexical Tone Perception--Are the Effects Domain General or Domain Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between speech perception and production has been debated for a long time. The Motor Theory of speech perception (Liberman et al., 1989) claims that perceiving speech is identifying the intended articulatory gestures rather than perceiving the sound patterns. It seems to suggest that speech production precedes speech perception,…

  18. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    OpenAIRE

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high volta...

  19. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  20. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  1. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  2. The Relationship among EFL Teachers’ Critical Thinking, Self-efficacy, and their Perception of Effective Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Shangarffam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt, in the first place, to observe whether there was any significant relationship among teachers’ critical thinking, self-efficacy, and perception of effective teaching. Moreover, the researchers tried to examine which variable was a better predictor of perception of effective teaching. To this end, the measures of the critical thinking ability of 143 EFL teachers were obtained using Honey’s (2000 Critical Thinking Questionnaire(adopted from Naieni, 2005. Also, their sense of efficacy was estimated utilizing Tschannen-Moran and Hoy’s (2001 Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale. Moreover, their perception of effective teaching was determined employing Bell’s (2005 Effective Teaching Questionnaire. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between both critical thinking and self efficacy of teachers and their perception of effective teaching. However, only two of the components of critical thinking, namely analysis and evaluation, were correlated with perception of effective teaching. Also, critical thinking components had a significant relationship with perception of effective teaching components. Additionally, it was found that there was a positive relationship between all components of self efficacy and perception of effective teaching and its components. Finally, the regression analysis showed that self efficacy was a better predictor of teachers’ perception of effective teaching in comparison with critical thinking though the margin of difference was not that large. This study has implications for the EFL teacher preparation and education programs.

  3. Country-of-origin effect and consumer brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    This dissertation investigates the impact of country of origin on the brand perception of consumers from developed and emerging countries. Particularly, the aim is to explore the impact of the country of origin on the Western consumers’ brand perception of high involvement products with multiple...... countries of origin and the Central Eastern European consumers’ brand perception of low involvement products from developed countries. It comprises a summary report, consisting of an introduction, a methodology chapter, a conclusions chapter and four research papers....

  4. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  5. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  6. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Frazer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants (n=11 included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role.

  7. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  8. A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic corrosion can cause substantial damage at various levels and in almost all types of infrastructure. For metallic corrosion to occur, a certain external environment and the presence of corrodents are the prerequisites. Stray current-induced corrosion, however, is a rather underestimated

  9. Investigating The Effects Of Customer Perceptions Resulted From Online Shopping Sites On Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. vildan ateş

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction has an important role providing continuity, profitability of online shopping sites and in the development of customer loyalty. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of customer perceptions arising from online shopping sites’ on customers’ satisfaction and to reveal a customer satisfaction model related to customer perceptions. Firstly, the indicators of customer satisfaction about online shopping sites and the customer perceptions thought...

  10. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a 'Berry force'. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  11. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sabater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  12. Comparative Research of Residents’ Effect Perception and Participation Capacity and Willingness on Pro-poor Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Hong; SHU

    2014-01-01

    In this article,comparative research on residents’ effect perception,participation capacity and willingness on Pro-poor Tourism( PPT) is given based on the questionnaire carried out in Wulong County and Fengjie County in Three Gorges Area,Chongqing,China. Some technologies,such as SPSS 13. 0,ANOVA and T-test are applied to analyze the data and results show Wulong residents’ perception behavior is better than that of Fengjie residents. Moreover,the residents with different demographic characteristics have different participation behavior.Finally,multiple regression analysis is applied to identify the key factors influencing residents’ perception behavior,that is participation willingness and positive economic effect perception,positive social and cultural effect perception and participation capacity.

  13. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  14. Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Perception, and Their Effects on Black Urban Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    This study examined the effects of specific motivational dimensions and self-perceptions of a group of 47 urban black fourth and fifth grade students on attendance and academic achievement. Each student's responses to a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and a self-perception inventory were compared to each other and to his or her…

  15. Audience Perception of Effective Communication in Nigerian Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Adelani Abodunrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artists in Nigeria perceived effective communication differently irrespective of the socio-economic status.Communication effectiveness depends largely on the understanding of the message being passed between a sender and a receiver. Painting has been used over time to express emotion and feeling to the perceiving audience. The study is audience’s perception of communication in Nigeria painting and how it varies with the socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, gender, and being professional artist or art lovers. Questionnaires were distributed and administered to examine how the status of the art audience makes or mars effective communication in painting. The inferential statistics that were employed include “chi-square test” to test the relationship between different variables. The data were taken in ordinal form using Likert’s scale, and transformed into interval data. This was done by attaching statistical weights to the responses in the order of importance which were summed up for the parametric testing. Findings show that gender factor has nothing to do with the understanding of paintings. Also, the level of education obtained by the audience does not have much to do with understanding of contemporary Nigerian painting but a better exposure to the issue concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting. Art practitioners must adequately be guided on stylistic trend in painting, art education should be more intensified in educational curriculum in Nigeria. The paper concludes that audience requires a better exposure to the issues concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting for effective communication to take place.

  16. Relationship between leadership styles of hospital pharmacists and perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C R; Grussing, P G; Hutchinson, R A; Stewart, J E

    1988-08-01

    Relationships between hospital pharmacists' perceptions of their own and their immediate supervisors' leadership styles and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units were examined. Pharmacists practicing in 12 large Chicago-area hospitals were asked to complete a four-part questionnaire that consisted of demographic questions, the LEADSelf instrument, the LEADOther instrument, and a measure of perceived work unit effectiveness. Respondents' primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and their degree of style adaptability were determined and compared with the primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and style adaptability of their immediate supervisors and with their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units. Pharmacists involved in providing clinical or drug information services and pharmacists responsible for purchasing activities perceived their work units to be most and least effective, respectively. Most respondents perceived their primary leadership style to be high task-high relationship, but only 32% perceived their immediate supervisors to exhibit this style. Pharmacists who perceived their immediate supervisors to have high relationship leadership styles (based on primary and combination style classifications) had significantly more favorable perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units than did pharmacists who perceived their supervisors to exhibit low relationship styles. Respondents' perceptions of their supervisors' style adaptability were positively and significantly correlated with their perceptions of work-unit effectiveness. Respondents who thought their supervisors' leadership styles were more adaptable than their own had the most favorable perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. teachers' perception of their head teachers' role effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    This paper is a survey study focused on teacher's perception of their head ... constructed and distributed to 100 teachers selected from primary schools in the ... Ability to motivate the student to learn ... policies, a counsellor and decision maker.

  18. Effects of Visual Food Texture on Taste Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Okajima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Food color affects taste perception. However, the possible effects of the visual texture of a foodstuff on taste and flavor, without associated changes to color, are currently unknown. We conducted a series of experiments designed to investigate how the visual texture and appearance of food influences its perceived taste and flavor by developing an Augmented Reality system. Participants observed a video of tomato ketchup as a food stimulus on a white dish placed behind a flat LC-display on which was mounted a video camera. The luminance distribution of the ketchup in the dynamic video was continuously and quantitatively modified by tracking specified colors in real-time. We changed the skewness of the luminance histogram of each frame in the video keeping the xy-chromaticity values intact. Participants watched themselves dip a spoon into the ketchup from the video feed (which could be altered, but then ate it with their eyes closed. They reported before and after tasting the ketchup on the perceived consistency (a liquid to solid continuum the food looked and felt and how tasty it looked or felt. The experimental results suggest that visual texture, independent of color, affects the taste and flavor as well as the appearance of foods.

  19. Board Effectiveness and Employee Engagement: Nigeria Stakeholder Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine whether employee participation yields effective board performance. To stimulatedebates inthe stakeholder theoretical perspective in an attempt to offer more inclusive approach to strengthen the existing governance structure in Nigeria.This research intends to investigate the suitability of employees participating in board’s decision-making hierarchy because of their contractual importance as wealth creators of the firm. A conceptual model is proposed and tested on public listed companies in Nigeria based on survey perception of sampled 154 respondents. The study employs in-depth confirmatory factory analysis in a structural equation modeling approach. Building upon constructs such as union relations, productivity, and skilled-labor turnover, the study found the indicator variables measure employee participation, which focused more on the board’s control, operational decisions, and strategy in monitoring, service, and networking roles. Hence, we conclude that employees as important contractual company stakeholders affect board performance. Builds on the limited research agenda for boards and corporate governance that focus on coordinating, exploring and distribution of stakes using adventurous research designs and statistical tools, especially in Nigerian emerging economy. This paper exposes the firm’s potentials as provider of sustainable and longer-term benefits not only limited to equityholders, but also to employees as wealth creators, which will improve mutual trust, harmony and confidence for more stable and productive outputs that could give visibility to income inequality. The paper provides valid measures that link corporate governance debates to broader stakeholder perspective.

  20. Nursing Students’ Perceptions on Characteristics of an Effective Clinical Instructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Niederriter PhD, MSN, CMSRN, RN-BC

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To identify characteristics and teaching techniques of effective clinical instructors that can be utilized or implemented to improve the student nurse clinical experience. Background The clinical instructor is an integral part of a quality clinical experience. They help students transfer didactic information to the practice setting. The clinical nursing experience is a vital component in the developmental process of the nursing student. Research has been done on this subject, but gaps remain. The need for a more in-depth understanding of students’ perceptions of the characteristics and teaching techniques that best aid their comprehension and learning will help instructors to maximize student learning experiences in the practice setting. Method This qualitative research study utilized the phenomenological research method. Three open-ended questions were posed to 14 nursing students to identify the characteristics and teaching techniques they believed comprised an effective clinical instructor. Individual interviews were conducted and transcribed interviews were reviewed to identify common themes. Three faculty members provided member checking to prevent bias by reviewing the transcribed interviews for common themes. Findings Participants identified four main themes which include a trusting relationship, experience or knowledge, coach, and role model. The students found that they gained more knowledge, developed more critical thinking, and felt more confident with instructors who utilized characteristics and techniques from these four areas. Conclusion Clinical instructors play an important role in preparing the student nurse in becoming a competent nurse in the practice setting. This information can be used to provide a foundation in creating an educational opportunity to inform nurse educators in the ways to become a more effective clinical instructor.

  1. Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanna K; Emmel, Nick D; Manaseki, Semira; Chambers, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users. A translator moderated all discussions with a questioning route. All discussions were fully transcribed and translated. The transcripts were analysed by identifying common themes in responses to form an emerging theory. The findings in the paper are that all stove users recognised respiratory symptoms caused by stove smoke and other health effects such as warmth, dirt and workload, which they perceived to be important. Stove users had a lack of knowledge about the diseases caused by the smoke. Public health was a key driver for the improved stove project, yet has been neglected in improved stove marketing. The study used in this paper was limited by the language barrier. Some of the meanings of participants' responses may have been lost in translation. This paper has highlighted the importance of the health effects of stove smoke to stove users. Uptake of the improved stoves has been low. Public health should be included in marketing strategies for improved stoves to increase their uptake. The paper shows that acute respiratory infections are a major cause of mortality world-wide. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuels in household stoves causes a significant proportion of respiratory infections. No qualitative research has been published exploring stove users' views on the health effects of stoves. This paper provides an insight into stove users' perceptions for those interested in people-centred approaches to tackling international health issues.

  2. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J T; Rungger, I; Sanvito, S; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-05-21

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.

  3. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Probing wavenumbers of current-induced excitations in point-contact experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Z Wei, M TsoiDepartment of Physics, Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, and Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: We demonstrate how a mechanical point-contact technique can provide information on the wavenumber of spin waves excited by high-density electrical current in magnetic multilayers. By varying the size of point-contacts, we have been able to control the size of the excitation volume and therefore the wavelength of current-induced spin waves. This leads to a technique with in situ sensitivity to wavenumbers of current-induced excitations. Our detailed size-dependent measurements support the prediction that the excited wavelength is determined by the contact size.Keywords: spin transfer torque, giant magnetoresistance, spin waves, point contact

  5. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J. T.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00534A

  6. Averaged currents induced by alpha particles in an InSb compound semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Hishiki, Shigeomi; Kogetsu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Very fast pulses due to alpha particle incidence were observed by an undoped-type InSb Schottky detector. This InSb detector was operated without applying bias voltage and its depletion layer thickness was less than the range of alpha particles. The averaged current induced by alpha particles was analyzed as a function of operating temperature and was shown to be proportional to the Hall mobility of InSb. (author)

  7. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  8. Trickle-down effects of supervisor perceptions of interactional justice: a moderated mediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall; Mayer, David M

    2013-07-01

    Supervisors' perceptions of how fairly they are treated by their own supervisors can influence their subordinates' perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. We present a moderated mediation model that demonstrates how work group structure can enhance or constrain these effects. Results show supervisors' perceptions of the fairness of the interactional treatment they receive relate to their subordinates' perceptions of interactional justice climate, and this relationship is stronger in work groups with more organic structures. Furthermore, consistent with the moderated mediation prediction, interactional justice climate mediates the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and outcomes when work group structures are more organic. We discuss the implications of the findings for research on justice and trickle-down effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Facilitating Effects of Emotion on the Perception of Biological Motion: Evidence for a Happiness Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah; Kim, Jejoong

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect. Point-light walkers with three emotion types (anger, happiness, and neutral) were used, and the threshold to detect BM within noise was measured in Experiment 1. Participants showed higher performance in detecting happy walkers compared with the angry and neutral walkers. Follow-up motion velocity analysis revealed that physical difference among the stimuli was not the main factor causing the effect. The results of the emotion recognition task in Experiment 2 also showed a happiness superiority effect, as in Experiment 1. These results show that emotional valence (happiness) of the stimuli can facilitate the processing of BM.

  10. The Effect of Employees’ Perceptions of CSR Activities on Employee Deviance: The Mediating Role of Anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hyeok Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study hypothesizes that employees’ positive perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities at the individual level have a negative effect on employee deviance—a negative job-related behavior—and that anomie plays a mediating role in this relationship. In order to verify the relationship, this study conducts an empirical analysis with a questionnaire survey on employees of firms that implement CSR activities at the company level. Based on Social identity theory, this study examines the causal relationship between the employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and their deviance, and mechanisms by which anomie decreases in the process. The findings are as follows. First, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on employee deviance. Second, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on anomie. Third, anomie had a positive effect on employee deviance. Fourth, anomie fully mediated the relationship between employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and employee deviance. This study is the first to document this relationship, which has great practical and academic significance, as it indicates the importance for companies to consider employees’ perceptions of CSR activities. In addition, the study identifies the mediating role of anomie as mentioned above. The results suggest that methodological considerations of CSR awareness enhancement at the company level be discussed more in depth, helping top management and middle managers understand that enhancing employees’ positive perceptions of CSR activities should be the first priority for reducing collective normlessness under the pressure of goal attainment and resolving ethical conflicts among employees.

  11. The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Parker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief. Responses were analyzed via correlations and moderation analyses. Results revealed that mental toughness correlated negatively with perception of risk and paranormal belief, whereas paranormal belief correlated positively with perception of risk. For the moderation effects, simple slopes analyses indicated that high levels of MT and subfactors of commitment and confidence reduced the strength of association between paranormal belief and perceived risk. Therefore, MT potentially acts as a protective factor among individuals who believe in the paranormal, reducing the tendency to perceive elevated levels of risk.

  12. Effects of a refugee elective on medical student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussán Kathleen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing numbers of refugees throughout the world. Refugee health is a relatively unstudied and rarely taught component of medical education. In response to this need, a Refugee Health Elective was begun. Medical student perceptions toward cultural aspects of medicine and refugee health before and after participation in the elective were measured. Methods Preliminary questionnaires were given to all preclinical students at the academic year commencement with follow-up questionnaires at the refugee elective's conclusion. Both questionnaires examined students' comfort in interacting with patients and familiarity with refugee medical issues, alternative medical practices, and social hindrances to medical care. The preliminary answers served as a control and follow-up questionnaire data were separated into participant/non-participant categories. All preclinical medical students at two Midwestern medical schools were provided the opportunity to participate in the Refugee Health Elective and surveys. The 3 data groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted analysis techniques with the Kruskall-Wallis, Bonferroni and ANCOVA adjustment. P-values Results 408 and 403 students filled out the preliminary and follow-up questionnaires, respectfully, 42 of whom participated in the elective. Students considering themselves minorities or multilingual were more likely to participate. Elective participants were more likely to be able to recognize the medical/mental health issues common to refugees, to feel comfortable interacting with foreign-born patients, and to identify cultural differences in understanding medical/mental health conditions, after adjusting for minority or multilingual status. Conclusion As medical schools integrate a more multicultural curriculum, a Refugee Health Elective for preclinical students can enhance awareness and promote change in attitude toward medical/mental health issues common to refugees. This

  13. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  14. Effects of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of Turkish students on smoking perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Hilal Parlak; Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of 7.12±2.18 regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and 29.0±2.47 regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of 8.61±3.76 (p=0.000) and 28.1±3.49 (p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (pself-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.

  15. PROCESSORS’ PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME CASSAVA PROCESSING INNOVATIONS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, K.; Sangosina, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current drive towards higher levels of commercialisation of cassava processing under the Presidential Initiative on Cassava requires that the scale of cassava processing be increased in Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 112 respondents selected from the 4 extension zones of Ogun State was used to examine the perception of effectiveness of innovations by cassava processors and the factors responsible for adoption of these innovations. The processors’ perception of effectiveness of cassav...

  16. Informing patients: the influence of numeracy, framing, and format of side effect information on risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hart, P Sol; Fraenkel, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of effective patient communication, findings about influences on risk perception in nonmedical domains need replication in medical domains. To examine whether numeracy influences risk perceptions when different information frames and number formats are used to present medication risks. The authors manipulated the frame and number format of risk information in a 3 (frame: positive, negative, combined) × 2 (number format: frequency, percentage) design. Participants from an Internet sample (N = 298), randomly assigned to condition, responded to a single, hypothetical scenario. The main effects and interactions of numeracy, framing, and number format on risk perception were measured. Participants given the positive frame perceived the medication as less risky than those given the negative frame. Mean risk perceptions for the combined frame fell between the positive and negative frames. Numeracy did not moderate these framing effects. Risk perceptions also varied by number format and numeracy, with less-numerate participants given risk information in a percentage format perceiving the medication as less risky than when given risk information in a frequency format; highly numerate participants perceived similar risks in both formats. The generalizability of the findings is limited due to the use of non-patients, presented a hypothetical scenario. Given the design, one cannot know whether observed differences would translate into clinically significant differences in patient behaviors. Frequency formats appear to increase risk perceptions over percentage formats for less-numerate respondents. Health communicators need to be aware that different formats generate different risk perceptions among patients varying in numeracy.

  17. Experimental investigation between attentional-resource effectiveness and perception and diagnosis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effectiveness in information searching is measured by two eye-tracking measures. • The relationship between the effectiveness and perception and diagnosis is addressed. • An experimental study is conducted to investigate the relationship. • The experimental results show close correlation. • The eye-tracking measures as inferential measures for perception and diagnosis. - Abstract: Eye-tracking-based measures of attentional-resource effectiveness in information searching such as FIR (fixation to importance ratio) and SAE (selective attention effectiveness) have been developed based on cost-benefit principles. The relationship between the eye-tracking-based measures and perception and diagnosis of operators during operating tasks in main control rooms (MCRs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated with experimental studies. The FIR and the SAE, which represent how effectively an operator attends to important information sources, are used as measures of the effectiveness in information searching. Perception failure rate (PFR) and diagnosis score (DS) are used as measures of perception and diagnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the FIR and the SAE correlate closely with the PFR and the DS, respectively. It is concluded that the FIR and the SAE can be used as inferential measures of perception and diagnosis for human factors in NPP MCRs

  18. Experimental investigation between attentional-resource effectiveness and perception and diagnosis in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su, E-mail: junsu.ha@kustar.ac.ae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effectiveness in information searching is measured by two eye-tracking measures. • The relationship between the effectiveness and perception and diagnosis is addressed. • An experimental study is conducted to investigate the relationship. • The experimental results show close correlation. • The eye-tracking measures as inferential measures for perception and diagnosis. - Abstract: Eye-tracking-based measures of attentional-resource effectiveness in information searching such as FIR (fixation to importance ratio) and SAE (selective attention effectiveness) have been developed based on cost-benefit principles. The relationship between the eye-tracking-based measures and perception and diagnosis of operators during operating tasks in main control rooms (MCRs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated with experimental studies. The FIR and the SAE, which represent how effectively an operator attends to important information sources, are used as measures of the effectiveness in information searching. Perception failure rate (PFR) and diagnosis score (DS) are used as measures of perception and diagnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the FIR and the SAE correlate closely with the PFR and the DS, respectively. It is concluded that the FIR and the SAE can be used as inferential measures of perception and diagnosis for human factors in NPP MCRs.

  19. Swazi men's perception of the protective effect of male circumcision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relatively low uptake of circumcision does not necessarily imply failure of the strategy but rather a natural selection of the most relevant and at-risk portion of the population. It is recommended that more effort be put towards correcting misconceptions and convincing those who still hold a negative perception about the ...

  20. Hemispheric Differences in the Effects of Context on Vowel Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjerps, Matthias J.; Mitterer, Holger; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Listeners perceive speech sounds relative to context. Contextual influences might differ over hemispheres if different types of auditory processing are lateralized. Hemispheric differences in contextual influences on vowel perception were investigated by presenting speech targets and both speech and non-speech contexts to listeners' right or left…

  1. Farmers' perception of the effect of climate change on yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority (63.0%) reported that unpredictable nature of the sun intensity, temperature, rainfall and relative humility negatively affect yam production. Sixty three percent of the respondents had favourable perception of climate change towards their yam production while thirty seven percent of the respondents did not have ...

  2. The Effect of Adaptive Nonlinear Frequency Compression on Phoneme Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glista, Danielle; Hawkins, Marianne; Bohnert, Andrea; Rehmann, Julia; Wolfe, Jace; Scollie, Susan

    2017-12-12

    This study implemented a fitting method, developed for use with frequency lowering hearing aids, across multiple testing sites, participants, and hearing aid conditions to evaluate speech perception with a novel type of frequency lowering. A total of 8 participants, including children and young adults, participated in real-world hearing aid trials. A blinded crossover design, including posttrial withdrawal testing, was used to assess aided phoneme perception. The hearing aid conditions included adaptive nonlinear frequency compression (NFC), static NFC, and conventional processing. Enabling either adaptive NFC or static NFC improved group-level detection and recognition results for some high-frequency phonemes, when compared with conventional processing. Mean results for the distinction component of the Phoneme Perception Test (Schmitt, Winkler, Boretzki, & Holube, 2016) were similar to those obtained with conventional processing. Findings suggest that both types of NFC tested in this study provided a similar amount of speech perception benefit, when compared with group-level performance with conventional hearing aid technology. Individual-level results are presented with discussion around patterns of results that differ from the group average.

  3. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  4. Teachers' Perception Regarding Facial Expressions as an Effective Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to explore teachers' perceptions about the importance of facial expression in the teaching-learning process. All the teachers of government secondary schools constituted the population of the study. A sample of 40 teachers, both male and female, in rural and urban areas of district Peshawar, were selected…

  5. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  6. Passive measurement of flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Chimenti, D.E.; Huebener, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Flux-tube nucleation rates have been measured in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconducting In films between 1.5 and 2.0 K by a completely passive technique. Indication of periodic nucleation is observed only in narrow regions of sample voltage drop, whose position is a sensitive function of temperature. Frequency bandwidth measurements of the nucleation rate yield a spectral purity of one part in 10 4 within the narrow regions where an experimental signal can be detected. (orig.) [de

  7. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing

    2011-08-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform dynamic atomic relaxation in the presence of an electric current while evaluating the current-voltage characteristics. The central idea consists of expressing the system energy density matrix in terms of Green\\'s functions. To validate our implementation, we perform a series of benchmark calculations, both at zero and at finite bias. First we evaluate the current-induced forces acting over an Al nanowire and compare them with previously published results for fixed geometries. Then we perform structural relaxation of the same wires under bias and determine the critical voltage at which they break. We find that although a perfectly straight wire does not break at any of the voltages considered, a zigzag wire is more fragile and snaps at 1.4 V, with the Al atoms moving against the electron flow. The critical current density for the rupture is estimated to be 9.6 × 1010 A/cm2, in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 5 × 1010 A/cm2. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of our scheme to tackle the electromigration problem by studying the current-induced motion of a single Si atom covalently attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube. Our calculations indicate that if Si is attached along the current path, then current-induced forces can induce migration. In contrast, if the bonding site is away from the current path, then the adatom remains stable regardless of the voltage. An analysis based on decomposing the total force into a wind and an electrostatic component, as well as on a detailed evaluation of the bond currents, shows that this remarkable electromigration phenomenon is due solely to the position-dependent wind force. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  8. Distribution of ionospheric currents induced by the solar wind interaction with Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, R.E. Jr.; Cloutier, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The electric currents induced in the atmosphere of a non-magnetic planet such as Venus by the interaction of the solar wind satisfy a generalized Ohm's Law relationship with tensor conductivity. The distribution of these currents within the planetary ionosphere may be calculated by a variational technique which minimizes the Joule heating over the ionospheric volume. In this paper, we present the development of the variational technique, and apply it to a model of the solar wind interaction with Venus. Potential and current distributions are shown, and the use of these distributions in determining convective transport patterns of planetary ions is discussed. (author)

  9. Effects of induced sad mood on facial emotion perception in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Louisa; Jackson, Margaret C; Phillips, Louise H

    2018-02-15

    Older adults perceive less intense negative emotion in facial expressions compared to younger counterparts. Prior research has also demonstrated that mood alters facial emotion perception. Nevertheless, there is little evidence which evaluates the interactive effects of age and mood on emotion perception. This study investigated the effects of sad mood on younger and older adults' perception of emotional and neutral faces. Participants rated the intensity of stimuli while listening to sad music and in silence. Measures of mood were administered. Younger and older participants' rated sad faces as displaying stronger sadness when they experienced sad mood. While younger participants showed no influence of sad mood on happiness ratings of happy faces, older adults rated happy faces as conveying less happiness when they experienced sad mood. This study demonstrates how emotion perception can change when a controlled mood induction procedure is applied to alter mood in young and older participants.

  10. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs

  11. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zheng-Chuan, E-mail: wangzc@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Qing-Rong [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zheng-Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Electronics, Electric and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Su, Gang, E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-04-17

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs.

  12. Influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Simone, E-mail: simone.moretti@usal.es; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-06-07

    The domain wall depinning from a notch in a Permalloy nanostrip on top of a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is studied theoretically under application of static magnetic fields and the injection of short current pulses. The influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning is explored self-consistently by coupling the magnetization dynamics in the ferromagnetic strip to the heat transport throughout the system. Our results indicate that Joule heating plays a remarkable role in these processes, resulting in a reduction in the critical depinning field and/or in a temporary destruction of the ferromagnetic order for typically injected current pulses. In agreement with experimental observations, similar pinning-depinning phase diagrams can be deduced for both current polarities when the Joule heating is taken into account. These observations, which are incompatible with the sole contribution of spin transfer torques, provide a deeper understanding of the physics underlying these processes and establish the real scope of the spin transfer torque. They are also relevant for technological applications based on current-induced domain-wall motion along soft strips.

  13. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  14. MAS Integration and Controllership Effectiveness: Evidence of a Preparer-User Perception Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Weißenberger, Barbara E.; Angelkort, Hendrik; Holthoff, Gero

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that managers establish a positive link between management accounting system (MAS) integration and controllership effectiveness, which is fully mediated by the perceived consistency of financial language. Our paper extends this research by analyzing whether controllers have similar perceptions on MAS design. Testing a series of multi-group structural equation models, we find evidence for a preparer-user perception gap with respect to the mediating impact of a consiste...

  15. Auditors’ Perceptions of Reasonable Assurance the Effectiveness of the Audit Risk Model. Case from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Valipour; Javad Moradi; Hajar Moazaminezhad

    2012-01-01

    Despite the definition of the concept of logical confidence in auditing standards, the results from some studies conducted indicate a meaningful difference between perceptions this basic concept, by different auditors (Law, 2008, 180). The results from some researches also indicate that auditors’ perceptions about the effectiveness of the audit risk model vary (which is based on auditing general principles on the basis of risk) (Arense, 2006, 148). In so doing, aiming at studying the proof fo...

  16. The Effect of Incorrect Reliability Information on Expectations, Perceptions, and Use of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg-Walkow, Laura H; Rogers, Wendy A

    2016-03-01

    We examined how providing artificially high or low statements about automation reliability affected expectations, perceptions, and use of automation over time. One common method of introducing automation is providing explicit statements about the automation's capabilities. Research is needed to understand how expectations from such introductions affect perceptions and use of automation. Explicit-statement introductions were manipulated to set higher-than (90%), same-as (75%), or lower-than (60%) levels of expectations in a dual-task scenario with 75% reliable automation. Two experiments were conducted to assess expectations, perceptions, compliance, reliance, and task performance over (a) 2 days and (b) 4 days. The baseline assessments showed initial expectations of automation reliability matched introduced levels of expectation. For the duration of each experiment, the lower-than groups' perceptions were lower than the actual automation reliability. However, the higher-than groups' perceptions were no different from actual automation reliability after Day 1 in either study. There were few differences between groups for automation use, which generally stayed the same or increased with experience using the system. Introductory statements describing artificially low automation reliability have a long-lasting impact on perceptions about automation performance. Statements including incorrect automation reliability do not appear to affect use of automation. Introductions should be designed according to desired outcomes for expectations, perceptions, and use of the automation. Low expectations have long-lasting effects. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of performance feedback on drivers' hazard perception ability and self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Garth, Megan; Hill, Andrew; Watson, Marcus O

    2017-04-01

    Drivers' hazard perception ability has been found to predict crash risk, and novice drivers appear to be particularly poor at this skill. This competency appears to develop only slowly with experience, and this could partially be a result of poor quality performance feedback. We report an experiment in which we provided high-quality artificial feedback on individual drivers' performance in a validated video-based hazard perception test via either: (1) a graph-based comparison of hazard perception response times between the test-taker, the average driver, and an expert driver; (2) a video-based comparison between the same groups; or (3) both. All three types of feedback resulted in both an improvement in hazard perception performance and a reduction in self-rated hazard perception skill, compared with a no-feedback control group. Video-based and graph-based feedback combined resulted in a greater improvement in hazard perception performance than either of the individual components, which did not differ from one another. All three types of feedback eliminated participants' self-enhancement bias for hazard perception skill. Participants judged both interventions involving video feedback to be significantly more likely to improve their real-world driving than the no feedback control group. While all three forms of feedback had some value, the combined video and graph feedback intervention appeared to be the most effective across all outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Lifestyle, Perception, Satisfaction, and Preference on The Online Re-purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Victoria Pebriani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of lifestyle, perception, satisfaction, and preference on the online re-purchase intention. The data are collected from 218 women consumers who have bought Muslim clothing through e-commerce (Hijup and social network (Instagram at least two times in the last three months. The data are analyzed using t-test and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The result of this research indicates that lifestyle has a significant effect on perception, perception has an effect on satisfaction, satisfaction has an effect on preference, and preference has an effect on re-purchase intention. Meanwhile, satisfaction has no significant effect on re-purchase intention in both models.

  20. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  1. Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. Cabral

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS and peak expiratory flow (PEF rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05 correlation between each symptom and PEF; 60% of the children were accurate perceivers (defined by a statistically significant correlation between symptoms and PEF across time for diurnal symptoms and 37% for nocturnal symptoms. The accuracy of perception was independent of asthma severity, age, gender or the use of preventive medication. Symptom perception is inaccurate in a substantial number of asthmatic children, independently of clinical severity, age, gender or use of preventive medication. It is not clear why some asthmatic patients are capable of accurately perceiving the severity of airway obstruction while others are not.

  2. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani, E-mail: rajani.pillai@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business (United States); Bezbaruah, Achintya N., E-mail: a.bezbaruah@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  3. [Effects of noise competition on monosyllabic and disyllabic word perception in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; Liu, S; Li, Y; Zheng, Z P; Jin, X; Li, J; Ren, C C; Zheng, J; Zhang, J; Chen, M; Hao, J S; Yang, Y; Liu, W; Ni, X

    2017-05-07

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of noise competition on word perception in normal hearing (NH) children and children with cochlear implantation (CI). Methods: To estimate the contribution of noise competition on speech perception, word perception in speech-shaped noise(SSN)and 4-talker babble noise(BN) with Mandarin Lexical Neighborhood Test were performed in 80 NH children and 89 children with CI. Corrected perception percentages were acquired in each group. Results: Both signal to noise ratio (SNR) and noise type influenced the word perception. In NH group, corrected percentages of disyllabic word perception in SSN were 24.2%, 55.9%, 77.1%, 85.1% and 88.9% at -8, -4, 0, 4 and 8 dB SNR, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 13.9%, 39.5%, 60.1%, 68.8% and 80.1%, respectively. In BN noise, corrected percentages of disyllabic word were 2.4%, 24.3%, 55.6%, 74.3% and 86.2%, corresponding monosyllabic word were 2.3%, 20.8%, 47.2%, 61.1% and 74.8%, respectively. In CI group, corrected percentages of dissyllabic word in SSN and BN at 10 dB SNR were 65.5% and 58.1%, respectively. Corresponding monosyllabic word were 49.0% and 41.0%. For SNR=5 dB, corrected percentages of disyllabic word in SSN and BN were 50.0% and 38.1%, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 40.8% and 25.1%, respectively. Analysis indicated that the masking effect were significantly higher in BN compared with SSN. Conclusions: Noise competition influence word perception performance significantly. In specific, the influence of noise on word perception is bigger in children with CI than in NH children. The masking effect is higher in BN noise when compared with SSN.

  4. Effects of stimulus-driven synchronization on sensory perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Jameson K

    2007-12-01

    synchronous – had on TOJ measures was due to the synchronization of adjacent cortical ensembles in somatosensory cortex, and that the synchronization of these cortical ensembles could have been responsible for the degradation in temporal order judgment. In order to more directly test this hypothesis, the synchronized 25 Hz conditioning stimuli that were delivered during the initial TOJ test were replaced with asynchronous non-periodic 25 Hz conditioning stimuli, and these asynchronous conditioning stimuli did not impact the TOJ measures. Conclusion The results give support to the theory that synchronization of cortical ensembles in SI could significantly impact the topography of temporal perception, and these findings are speculated to be linked mechanistically to previously reported co-activation plasticity studies. Additionally, the impact that such synchronizing conditioning stimuli have on TOJ – which can be measured relatively quickly – could provide an effective means to assess the functional connectivity of neurologically compromised subject populations.

  5. Rhinoplasty and its effects on the perception of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinski, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experts on nasal cosmetics and nasal surgery agree that aesthetic rhinoplasty leads to overall facial beautification and the perception of youth in patients. This "assumed truth" has never been proven in the international literature. Aim: To examine increases in facial attractiveness ratings after rhinoplasty surgery. Methods: We conducted a study series by choosing 30 female patients on whom we had operated and 25 evaluators in a single blind trial. The evaluators graded the patients' attractiveness before and after surgery. Results: Beauty indices were significantly improved after the operation. Conclusion: According to the third-party evaluation, the patients appeared prettier after undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty.

  6. Effect of epinephrine on inhibition of sodium current induced by bupivacaine in ventricular myocytes of rats%肾上腺素对布比卡因抑制大鼠心室肌细胞钠电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿飞; 刘付丽; 吴一泉; 徐旭仲

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究肾上腺素对较低浓度布比卡因所抑制的大鼠心室肌细胞钠电流(INa)的影响。方法:采用急性酶解分离法获得Sprague-Dawley雄性大鼠心室肌细胞,随机分为2组(n=5),以全细胞膜片钳技术记录INa,观察0.15μg/mL肾上腺素对40μmol/L布比卡因和50μmol/L布比卡因所抑制的INa的影响。结果:40μmol/L和50μmol/L布比卡因对大鼠心室肌细胞INa抑制率分别为(50.2%±5.8%)和(62.7%±7.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。当加入0.15μg/mL肾上腺素后,40μmol/L布比卡因组抑制率变到(33.7%±10.2%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);50μmol/L布比卡因组抑制率变为(62.1%±7.3%),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),肾上腺素对I-V曲线无明显影响。结论:肾上腺素可以部分恢复较低浓度布比卡因所抑制的心室肌细胞INa,但其作用在较高浓度布比卡因中受到限制。%Objective: To determine the effect of epinephrine on inhibition of sodium current (INa) induced by bupivacaine inventricular myocytes of rats.Methods: The ventricular myocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats by acute enzymatic dissociation were randomly divided into two groups (n=5). The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record INa in single ventricular myocytes and the effect of 0.15 ug/mL epinephrine inhibi-tion of INa on induced by 40 or 50 μmol/L bupivacaine were observed.Results:The inhibition rates of 40 μmol/L bupivacaine or 50 μmol/L bupivacaine on INa was 50.2%±5.8 % or 62.7%±7.7 % (P0.05) in the 50 μmol/L bupivacaine group. Epinephrine did not shift the I-V curve.Conclusion: Epinephrine can reverse inhibition of INa induced by low-concentration bupivacaine. This effect of epinephrine will be limited to a higher level concentration of bupivacaine.

  7. Current-induced spin transfer torque in ferromagnet-marginal Fermi liquid double tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Haifeng; Zheng Qingrong; Jin Biao; Su Gang

    2005-01-01

    Current-induced spin transfer torque through a marginal Fermi liquid (MFL) which is connected to two noncollinearly aligned ferromagnets via tunnel junctions is discussed in terms of the nonequilibrium Green function method. It is found that in the absence of the spin-flip scattering, the magnitude of the torque increases with the polarization and the coupling constant λ of the MFL, whose maximum increases with λ linearly, showing that the interactions between electrons tend to enhance the spin torque. When the spin-flip scattering is included, an additional spin torque is induced. It is found that the spin-flip scattering enhances the spin torque and gives rise to a nonlinear angular shift

  8. Odd-parity currents induced by dynamic deformations in graphene-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Reduced (3  +  1)-dimensional Dirac systems with inter-pseudo-spin and inter-valley scattering are employed to investigate current responses to (chiral) gauge fields in graphene-like systems. From (chiral) current—(chiral) current correlation functions, we derive the current responses. Except for electric currents induced by external gauge fields, we find the inter-valley scattering can break the topological nature of odd-parity currents. Given the proper conditions, this property can help us realize valley-polarized electric currents. Through the dynamic deformations generating the chiral gauge fields, we find the vortex-like currents while their profiles can be tuned by superposition of some deformations. In particular, we find a more manageable approach to realize the topological electric current by choosing a linear dynamic deformation. (paper)

  9. Faculty and student perceptions of effective study strategies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Katie J; Bell, Gillian C; Franks, Andrea S

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate faculty members' and students' perceptions of study strategies and materials. Focus groups were conducted with course directors and first- and second-year students to generate ideas relating to use of course materials, technology, class attendance, and study strategies for mastering class concepts. Students and faculty members differed in their opinions about the utility of textbooks and supplemental resources. The main learning method recommended by students and faculty members was repeated review of course material. Students recommended viewing classroom lectures again online, if possible. Course directors reported believing that class attendance is important, but students based their opinions regarding the importance of attendance on their perceptions of lecture and handout quality. Results did not differ by campus or by student group (first-year vs. second-year students). Students and faculty members have differing opinions on the process that could influence learning and course design. Faculty members should understand the strategies students are using to learn course material and consider additional or alternative course design and delivery techniques based on student feedback.

  10. Electron Drift Speed And Current-Induced Drive Torques On A Domain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Luc

    2009-03-01

    It has become fashionable to describe [1] current-induced torques on a DW in terms of an electron drift speed u = - P*j*muB/e*M where muB is the Bohr magneton and M the saturation magnetization. While appropriate for adiabatic torques, this quantity u is misleading and not the best choice in the case of non-adiabatic torques. For example, it leads [2] to beta not equal to alpha, where beta represents the intensity of the non-adiabatic torque, and alpha is the damping parameter. By writing equations of motion for conduction- electron spins in a moving frame where the electron gas is at rest, we find [3] a direct relation between damping and non- adiabatic torques. The correct electron drift speed turns out to be the speed of the frame, and is v = P*j/(n*q) where n and q are the carrier density and charge. It is related to the ordinary Hall constant R0 by v P*R0*j. After substituting v for u in the expression of the non-adiabatic torque, we find that beta = alpha holds now. Because v is larger than u in Permalloy, it can explain better the large current-induced DW speeds found [4] experimentally. In materials where R0> 0 and the carriers are dominantly hole-like, v and u have opposite signs, leading to different predictions for the sense of DW motion. We discuss examples of such materials. 1. G. Tatara and H. Kohno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 086601 (2004). 2. H. Kohno et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 75, 113706 (2006). 3. L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 75, 174401 (2007). 4. M. Hayashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 037204 (2007).

  11. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  12. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  13. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  14. Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of diet on perceptions of masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret A

    2016-02-01

    Food and food consumption matters in interpersonal interactions. Foods consumed can affect how a person is perceived by others in terms of morality, likeability, and gender. Food consumption can be used as a strategy for gendered presentation, either in terms of what foods are consumed or in the amount of food consumed. Finally, foods themselves are associated with gender. Previous research (Browarnik, 2012; Ruby & Heine, 2011) shows inconsistent patterns in the association between vegetarianism and masculinity. The current research conceptually replicates and extends this research by including the explicit label of vegetarian. The four studies in this article provide increased information about the effects of diet on gendered perceptions. Study 1 shows that vegetarian and omnivorous targets are rated equally in terms of masculinity. Study 2 shows that perceptions of vegetarians and vegans are similar, though comparing this research with past research indicates that perceptions of vegetarians are more variable. Study 3 shows that veganism leads perceptions of decreased masculinity relative to omnivores. Finally, Study 4 tests one possible mechanism for the results of Study 3, that it is the choice to be vegan that impacts perceptions of gender. Implications include increased knowledge about how meatless diets can affect the perceptions of gender in others. Multiple directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Fairness perceptions of work-life balance initiatives: effects on counterproductive work behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of employees’ fairness perceptions regarding organizational work-life balance initiatives on their performance of counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). Moderating effects of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism were also explored. Quantitative data collected from 224 public sector employees demonstrated significant main and moderating effects of informational justice, adaptive perfectionism and maladaptive perfectionism on CWB. Adaptive perfectionism weakene...

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Using Arabic Language Teaching Software in Omani Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Fatma; Al Hashmi, Abdullah; Al Musawi, Ali; Kazem, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a strategic research project that aimed to assess the effectiveness of the design and use of new software for Arabic language learning (ALL). However, the focus of this paper is to understand Arabic teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the software that was designed purposely by the project's team to facilitate ALL…

  18. Veiled emotions: the effect of covered faces on emotion perception and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.H.; Gillebaart, M.; Rotteveel, M.; Becker, D.; Vliek, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relative absence of expressive cues and the effect of contextual cues on the perception of emotions and its effect on attitudes. The visibility of expressive cues was manipulated by showing films displaying female targets whose faces were either fully visible, covered

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Esri Story Maps as Effective Teaching Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Caitlin; Mitchell, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores teachers' perceptions of Esri Story Maps as effective teaching tools. Story Maps are a relatively new web application created using Esri's cloud-based GIS platform, ArcGIS Online. They combine digitized, dynamic web maps with other story elements to help the creator effectively convey a message. The relative ease…

  20. Formation Dynamics of Oral Oil Coatings and Their Effect on Subsequent Sweetness Perception of Liquid Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Eck, van Arianne; De Velde, Van Fred; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation of oral coatings and their influence on subsequent taste perception is necessary to understand possible taste-masking effects by oil coatings. This study investigated (a) the dynamics of the formation of oral oil coatings formed by o/w emulsions and (b) the effect of oral

  1. Enhanced visual awareness for morality and pajamas? Perception vs. memory in 'top-down' effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Chaz; Scholl, Brian J

    2015-03-01

    A raft of prominent findings has revived the notion that higher-level cognitive factors such as desire, meaning, and moral relevance can directly affect what we see. For example, under conditions of brief presentation, morally relevant words reportedly "pop out" and are easier to identify than morally irrelevant words. Though such results purport to show that perception itself is sensitive to such factors, much of this research instead demonstrates effects on visual recognition--which necessarily involves not only visual processing per se, but also memory retrieval. Here we report three experiments which suggest that many alleged top-down effects of this sort are actually effects on 'back-end' memory rather than 'front-end' perception. In particular, the same methods used to demonstrate popout effects for supposedly privileged stimuli (such as morality-related words, e.g. "punishment" and "victim") also yield popout effects for unmotivated, superficial categories (such as fashion-related words, e.g. "pajamas" and "stiletto"). We conclude that such effects reduce to well-known memory processes (in this case, semantic priming) that do not involve morality, and have no implications for debates about whether higher-level factors influence perception. These case studies illustrate how it is critical to distinguish perception from memory in alleged 'top-down' effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation

  3. Effects of illness and hip fracture perceptions on coping strategies of elderly rehabilitation clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Brejc

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate, using Leventhal's self-regulatory model of illness perceptions, the effects of subjective representations of health and hip fracture on coping strategies in a sample of 52 clients more than 65 years old at the beginning of intensive hospital rehabilitation programme. The results revealed that rehabilitation clients suffering from hip fracture preserved their sense of good general and mental health. Negative representation of hip fracture was related only to perception of temporary decline in physical activity and not to perception of other personal, social and economic consequences neither to perception of their controllability. Perception of poor physical competence influenced the use of less preferred coping strategies of behavioural, mental and alcohol/drug based disengagement, and denial. Rehabilitation clients preferred those cognitive-behavioural and emotional strategies which confirmed their perception of self-efficiency and confidence in therapeutic assistance.Strategies were thus selected according to active and planned endeavour to cope, and were based on acceptance, turning to religion, focusing and venting emotions, and seeking instrumental and social support. The study confirmed the hypothesis that negative representation of hip fracture and poor sense of physical competence had a restraining effect on the use of coping strategies. There was no evidence that coping strategies of hip fracture in elderly rehabilitation clients created a specific pattern, depending on the perception of its consequences and the appraisal of possibility to regain health control. The validity of the findings is limited by a relatively small and selected sample of cognitive intact and motivated older rehabilitation clients, use of specific, non-standardised instruments, and a cross-sectional approach.

  4. The effect of emotions on risk perception: Experimental evaluation of the affective tendencies framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drače Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of specific emotions on risk perception providing a more stringent experimental test of the Appraisal Tendencies Framework (ATF. Consistent with expectations, angry and happy participants made more optimistic risk estimates than participants who were made sad. As hypothesized by ATF, happiness and anger also led people to somewhat higher certainty appraisals than sadness. However, this change in perception did not mediate the impact of emotions on risk estimates. Taken together, our results provide the evidence for causal role of specific emotions in risk perception and contribute to literature showing that the effects of emotion on judgment are not solely due to the valence of the experienced emotion. However, they also suggest that the processes underlying emotion effects remain in need for further specifications.

  5. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy....... Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... worry) outcomes were assessed by means of questionnaires at referral, baseline, end of treatment, and 10 and 16 months after randomisation. Multiple mediation analysis determined whether (1) changes in specific illness perceptions during treatment mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy...

  6. Regulatory focus and burnout in nurses: The mediating effect of perception of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Zhang, Shilei; Xu, Hang; Liu, Xufeng; Miao, Danmin

    2015-12-01

    This correlation study investigated the relationship between nurses' regulatory focus and burnout, as mediated by their perceptions of transformational leadership, using a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires. In July-August 2012, data were collected from 378 nurses from three hospitals in Shaanxi Province, China, using self-report questionnaires for measuring the nurses' regulatory focus, their level of burnout and their perception of whether the leadership of their supervisor was transformational. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping procedures were used to identify the mediating effect of their perceptions of transformational leadership. The results supported our hypothesized model. The type of regulatory focus emerged as a significant predictor of burnout. Having a perception of transformational leadership partially mediated the relationship between regulatory focus and burnout. Having a promotion focus reduced burnout when the participants perceived transformational leadership, whereas having a prevention focus exhibited the opposite pattern. The mediating effect of the perception of transformational leadership suggests that a promotion focus may help diminish burnout, directly and indirectly. Nurse managers must be aware of the role of a regulatory focus and cultivate promotion focus in their followers. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Negative Effects of Makeup Use on Perceptions of Leadership Ability Across Two Ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Esther A; Jenkins, Shauny; Watkins, Christopher D

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetics alter social perceptions, and prior work suggests that cosmetic use may aid female intrasexual competition, making women appear more dominant to other women but more prestigious to other men. It is unclear whether these findings reflect general improvements in perceptions of traits related to women's dominance or if they are specific to mating contexts only. Here, across two ethnicities, we examined effects of cosmetics used for a social night out on perceptions of women's leadership ability, a trait that denotes competence/high status outside of mating contexts. Participants of African and Caucasian ethnicity judged faces for leadership ability where half of the trials differed in ethnicity (own- vs. other-ethnicity face pairs) and the subtlety of the color manipulation (50% vs. 100%). Regardless of the participant's sex or ethnicity, makeup used for a social night out had a negative effect on perceptions of women's leadership ability. Our findings suggest that, in prior work, women are afforded traits related to dominance, as makeup enhances perceptions of traits that are important for successful female mating competition but not other components of social dominance such as leadership.

  8. Perceptions of health status, medication side effects and depression after successful renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, F.; Masood, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perceptions of health status and depression among Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs). Stydy Design: A longitudinal research design was used. Methods: Recipients’ perceived health status (PHS) was measured by a self-developed questionnaire that reflected the symptom severity and frequency of common immunosuppressant side effects. Depression levels were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory B.D.I II) .The sample population comprised of RTRs with a successful and healthy renal transplant recruited from private and government sector renal units in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Recipients with poorer perceptions of health status tend to be more depressed as indicated by significant negative correlations between PHS and depression. However, further regression analysis found both constructs as significant predictors of each other, raising a question of causal direction. A cross lagged correlation analysis indicated that PHS appears to be a stronger predictor of depression comparatively. Most recipients tend to have positive perceptions of their health status (M = 30.84, S.D = 3.64) with minimum to moderate level of depression (M = 9.50, S.D = 4.00), It is found that a positive perception of health status is associated with lowered depression. Conclusion: Most recipients’ with a healthy kidney transplant tend to report a positive perception of their health status despite adverse medication side effects. However, the perceived health status is significantly associated with consequent feeling of depression. The study confirms the efficacy and positive health outcomes of renal transplantation in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  10. Investigation of Current Induced Spin Polarization in III-V Semiconductor Epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta

    In the development of a semiconductor spintronics device, a thorough understanding of spin dynamics in semiconductors is necessary. In particular, electrical control of electron spins is advantageous for its compatibility with present day electronics. In this thesis, we will discuss the electrical modification of the electron g-factor, which characterizes the strength of the interaction between a spin and a magnetic field, as well as investigate electrically generated spin polarizations as a function of various material parameters. We report on the modification of the electron g-factor by an in-plane electric field in an InGaAs epilayer. We performed external magnetic field scans of the Kerr rotation of the InGaAs film in order to measure the g-factor independently of the spin-orbit fields. The g-factor increases from -0.4473(0.0001) at 0 V/cm to -0.4419( 0.0001) at 50 V/cm applied along the [110] crystal axis. A comparison of temperature and voltage dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that minimal channel heating occurs at these voltages. Possible explanations for this g-factor modification are discussed, including an increase in the electron temperature that is independent of the lattice temperature and the modification of the donor-bound electron wave function by the electric field. The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InGaAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the spin polarization mechanism is extrinsic. Temperature-dependent measurements of the spin dephasing rates and mobilities were used to characterize the relative strengths of the intrinsic D

  11. Studies of Current Induced Magnetization reversal and generation of GHz radiation in magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajdarwish, Mustafa Yousef

    This thesis describes studies of two phenomena: Current-Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS), and Current-Induced Generation of GHz Radiation. The CIMS part contains results of measurements of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) and CIMS behavior on Ferromagnetic/Nonmetal/Ferromagnetic (F1/N/F2) nanopillars. Judicious combinations of F1 and F2 metals with different bulk scattering asymmetries, and with F1/N and N/F2 interfaces having different interfacial scattering asymmetries, are shown to be able to controllably, and independently, 'invert' both the CPP-MR and the CIMS. In 'normal' CPP-MR, R(AP) > R(P), where R(AP) and R(P) are the nanopillar resistances for the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the Fi and F2 magnetic moments. In 'inverse' CPP-MR, R(P) > R(AP). In 'normal' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from the P to the AP state. In 'inverse' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from AP to P. All four possible combinations of CPP-MR and CIMS---(a) 'normal'-'normal', (b) 'normal'- 'inverse', 'inverse'-'normal', and (d) 'inverse'-'inverse' are shown and explained. These results rule out the self-Oersted field as the switching source, since the direction of that field is independent of the bulk or interfacial scattering asymmetries. Successful use of impurities to reverse the bulk scattering asymmetry shows the importance of scattering off of impurities within the bulk F1 and F2 metals---i.e. that the transport must be treated as 'diffusive' rather than 'ballistic'. The GHz studies consist of five parts: (1) designing a sample geometry that allows reliable measurements; (2) making nanopillar samples with this geometry; (3) constructing a system for measuring frequencies up to 12 GHz and measuring current-driven GHz radiation data with it; (4) showing 'scaling' behavior of GHz data with the critical fields and currents for nominally identical (but actually slightly different) samples, and

  12. Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd /Co /AlOx Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  13. The white (male) effect and risk perception: can equality make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anna; Rashid, Saman

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that white males have a relatively low perception of risks, known as the "white male effect" (WME). Many of the explanations of this effect refer to the privileged position of this particular demographic group in society, adducing white males' socio-economic resources, sense of control, worldviews, etc. It can thus be argued that inequality leads women and ethnic minorities to have higher risk perception than men and the ethnic majority. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the WME in a gender-equal country, Sweden, to see if the pattern is similar to previous studies from the comparably less gender-equal United States. The empirical analyses are based on a national survey (n= 1,472) on the perception of risk conducted in Sweden in the winter of 2005. The results show that in Sweden there is no significant difference between men and women in risk perception, while people with foreign backgrounds perceive risks higher than native people. The chief finding is that there is no WME in Sweden, which we concluded results from the relative equality between the sexes in the country. On the other hand, ethnicity serves as a marker of inequality and discrimination in Sweden. Consequently, ethnicity, in terms of foreign background, mediates inequality, resulting in high risk perception. Equality therefore seems to be a fruitful concept with which to examine differences in risk perception between groups in society, and we propose that the "societal inequality effect" is a more proper description than the "WME." © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. C.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated.

  15. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J C; Jalil, M B A

    2016-01-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated. (paper)

  16. Flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of a constricted type I superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Huebener, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The current-induced resistive state in a constricted type I superconductor is characterized by a train of flux tubes traversing the sample perpendicular to the direction of the applied current following its nucleation at the sample edge. The temporal structure of the nucleation process can be investigated by attempting to synchronize this process with small periodic current pulses superimposed on the direct bias current. The resistive dc voltage is then to be measured as a function of the pulse parameters such as frequency and width. We have performed such experiments at 4.2 K on constricted Pb films of 6--8 μm thickness and 100 μm width. Simultaneously with the electrical measurements the dynamic behavior of the flux tubes was directly observed using a stroboscopic magnetooptical method for magnetic flux detection. Our electrical measurements clearly show how the size of the nucleated flux tubes varies with the direct bias current and the nucleation frequency. The positive wall energy in the Pb films results in a lower limit for this size as expected. The influence of the preceding flux tubes still existing within the constriction upon the flux nucleation process is revealed in detail. All observations can be understood from a consideration of the energy balance during the flux nucleation process

  17. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024 (India); Sabareesan, P. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 401 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  18. Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2018-01-29

    Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

  19. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu; Kim, Won-Seok; Bisig, André ; Klä ui, Mathias; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  20. Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, I. M.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Zelezný , J.; Thiaville, A.; Garello, K.; Gambardella, P.

    2018-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

  1. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  2. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10 12 Am −2 . Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10 12 Am −2 to 1.39 × 10 12 Am −2

  3. Effects of illumination on store atmosphere, price and quality perception, and shopping intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Schielke, Thomas

    This paper analyzes how store lighting influences store atmosphere, price and quality perception, and the intention to shop in a retail store. A first experiment shows how the number and brightness of light beams influence these dependent variables. Results demonstrate that especially extreme...... combinations of both variables result in higher pleasure and shopping intention, while for price and quality perception different effects cancel each other out. A second experiment shows that orange light results in greater pleasure and shopping intention compared to blue light, when colors are saturated...

  4. The Effects of Optical Illusions in Perception and Action in Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaeho; van der Kamp, John

    2017-09-01

    While the two visual system hypothesis tells a fairly compelling story about perception and action in peripersonal space (i.e., within arm's reach), its validity for extrapersonal space is very limited and highly controversial. Hence, the present purpose was to assess whether perception and action differences in peripersonal space hold in extrapersonal space and are modulated by the same factors. To this end, the effects of an optic illusion in perception and action in both peripersonal and extrapersonal space were compared in three groups that threw balls toward a target at a distance under different target eccentricity (i.e., with the target fixated and in peripheral field), viewing (i.e., binocular and monocular viewing), and delay conditions (i.e., immediate and delayed action). The illusory bias was smaller in action than in perception in peripersonal space, but this difference was significantly reduced in extrapersonal space, primarily because of a weakening bias in perception. No systematic modulation of target eccentricity, viewing, and delay arose. The findings suggest that the two visual system hypothesis is also valid for extra personal space.

  5. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  6. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  7. Middle School Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Motivation and Effectiveness of Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Donald; Burris, Kathleen G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand middle school teachers' perspectives on the role of homework. Approximately 118 middle school teachers volunteered to complete open-ended surveys describing their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of homework. Qualitative analysis revealed teachers identified several instructional and…

  8. Stakeholders' Perception on Teachers' Assessment Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogidi, Reuben C.; Udechukwu, Jonathan O.

    2017-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the perception of stakeholders on teachers' assessment effectiveness in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. The sample of the study consisted of 20 principles, 30 vice…

  9. The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: Students' Perceptions in Comparison with Mainstream Schooling in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…

  10. Peer Mediation and Its Effects on Elementary Student Perceptions of Self-Esteem and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Deanna Janine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effectiveness of training students in peer mediation (Mediator Mentors Curriculum), and how peer mediation-training influences third- through fifth-grade student perceptions of self-esteem, resiliency, and social competence. The research was a mixed-methods design with both quantitative and…

  11. Perceptions of Effectiveness, Fairness and Feedback of Assessment Methods: A Study in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Barros, Alexandra; Pereira, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws upon a broader piece of research aimed at investigating assessment in higher education. It focuses upon the perceptions of undergraduates about issues of effectiveness, fairness and feedback, particularly in regard to the so-called learner-centred methods. In total, 378 undergraduate students participated in the study at the…

  12. Turkish students' perceptions of their biology learning environments: the effects of gender and grade level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telli, S.; Brok, den P.J.; Tekkaya, C.; Cakiroglu, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of gender and grade level on Turkish secondary school students’ perceptions of their biology learning environment. A total of 1474 high school students completed the What is Happening in This Classroom (WIHIC) questionnaire. The WIHIC maps several important

  13. The Effect of Body Movement on Listeners' Perceptions of Musicality in Trombone Quartet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect body movement would have on listeners' (N = 90) perceptions of a professional chamber ensemble performance. Specifically, an audio/video recording of a trombone quartet performance was used for the music stimulus. Listeners were asked to rate each performance on the basis of perceived…

  14. Effects of co-creation claim on consumer brand perceptions and behavioural intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Antonides, G.; Schillewaert, N.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly often, companies co-create' with consumers in open innovation practices to develop new products more effectively. Little is known about how co-creation affects consumer brand perceptions in the mass market. We hypothesize that co-creative brands - as opposed to non-co-creative brands -

  15. Investigating Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Elementary Students' Spatial Skills and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sedanur; Isiksal, Mine; Koc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to investigate the effect of origami-based instruction on elementary students' spatial ability. The students' self-reported perceptions related to the origami-based instruction were also examined. Data was collected via purposive sampling techniques from students enrolled in a private elementary school. A spatial ability…

  16. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students' Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Burpo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of sexualized portrayals of female artists in music videos on college students' perceptions of date rape. 132 college students were randomly assigned to view a music video that contained either high or low levels of sexuality and sexual objectification and were then asked to rate the guilt of the male in a scenario…

  17. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Classroom Management within an Inner-City Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Catana L.

    This study was undertaken to obtain descriptive information about teachers' perceptions of effective classroom management within an inner-city middle school. Thirteen teachers in one such school in Tennessee were interviewed about their classroom management behaviors. Teachers appeared to have an elaborate system of beliefs related to the themes…

  19. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  20. The effect of target's physical attractiveness and dominance on STD-risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Blanton, H

    Utilizing a 2 x 2 design, the present study examined the effect of a female's physical attractiveness and dominance on men's sexual motivation and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk perceptions in a sample of 72 heterosexual male college students. As predicted, participants a ere more motivated

  1. The Effect of Training with TQM on the Perceptions of Teachers about the Quality of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Esen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of training with total quality management (TQM) on the perceptions of teachers. In this research was used experimental model. The study group of the research consisted of teachers working in the schools of Education Ministry. The questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Finally, it was…

  2. The Effects of Hearing Protectors on Speech Communication and the Perception of Warning Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    situations, and cite Talamo (1982) as showing this problem with tractor drivers. Coleman Pt al. raise questions as to the practical significance of this...conditions: Toward a new theory of localization. J. Aud. Res., 16, 143-150, 1976. Talamo , J.D.C. Hearing in tractor cabs: Perception and directional effects

  3. Relationship between Attitudes of Multicultural Education and Perceptions Regarding Cultural Effect of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagceli Kahraman, Pinar; Onur Sezer, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to determine the relationship between the perceptions of teacher candidates towards the cultural effect of globalization and their attitudes towards multicultural education. Research Methods: The sample group consisted of 213 teacher candidates. In the study's personal information form, the scale of attitude towards…

  4. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer schedu...

  5. Effects of Affordance Perception on the Initiation and Actualization of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Joanne; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown information specifying some affordances may be faster or easier to perceive than others. This article investigates the effect of affordance perception on the time taken to initiate and perform an action. In particular it focuses on how action timing varies as a function of a

  6. Effect of gel texture and sucrose spatial distribution on sweetness perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Layered gels differing in mechanical and breakdown properties (soft, medium and hard gels) and in the distribution of sucrose in the matrix (homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions) were used to investigate the effects of texture and spatial distribution of sucrose on sweetness perception.

  7. Farmer's perception of the effects of eartworms on soil fertility and crop performance in southern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madong à Birang,; Hauser, S.; Amougou, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge and perception of the effects of earthworms on soil fertility and crop growth was surveyed in a humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. A total of 215 farmers were interviewed in seven villages: two villages were near the capital Yaounde, severely deforested with a high land-use

  8. Perceptions about Residence Hall Wingmates and Alcohol-Related Secondhand Effects among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Bush, Elizabeth N.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the secondhand effects among college freshmen of others' alcohol use and related student characteristics, and perceptions about residence hallmates. Participants: The authors surveyed 509 incoming freshmen residing in predominantly freshman residence halls. Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey 2…

  9. The Effects of Prematurity and Illness on Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Maribeth; And Others

    Part of a larger study investigating the longitudinal effects of prematurity, illness, and hospitalization, this study focuses on parent perceptions of their infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, with age being corrected for conceptional age at birth. It was hypothesized that neonatal condition and age of infant at the time of measurement would…

  10. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  11. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate as an Indicator of Their Beliefs of Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Tuuli; Eisenschmidt, Eve

    2018-01-01

    The ability to express oneself clearly in both a mother tongue and a foreign language is a foundation principle of the new national curriculum in Estonia. Therefore, research was conducted to determine whether there was a possible relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' perceptions of effective teaching and the…

  13. Brand visualization: Effects of "product shape- typeface design" congruence on brand perceptions and price expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This research addresses effects of congruence of symbolic meanings connoted through product shape and typeface design on brand perceptions and price expectations. Based on processing fluency accounts, it is predicted that shape-typeface congruence, as opposed to shape-typeface incongruence,

  14. The Effects of Students' Perceptions of Campus Safety and Security on Student Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Brian Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether student enrollment is affected by the student perception of campus safety and security when choosing a college. As the competition for students increases among higher education institutions, it is important for higher education administrators to know how to effectively present their respective…

  15. What Effect Does Flipping the Classroom Have on Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Kathleen K.

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of consensus of the effects on student perceptions and performance in flipping the classroom and its possible value over the traditional face-to-face (FTF) classroom approach. This research examines the expectation that flipping an undergraduate, introductory level, information concepts and skills class would benefit student…

  16. Assistant Principals' Perceptions Regarding the Role and the Effectiveness of an Educational Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gary B.; Gurley, D. Keith; Fifolt, Matthew; Collins, Loucrecia; McNeese, Rose

    2016-01-01

    In this study, faculty members of an educational leadership program, situated in a large urban university in the southeastern region of the United States, utilized focus group research to determine the perceptions of K-12 assistant principals regarding the effectiveness of an educational leadership program, and to provide recommendations for…

  17. The Effects of Age, Authority, and Gender on Perceptions of Statutory Rape Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…

  18. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  19. Twitter Use and Its Effects on Student Perception of Instructor Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M.; Young, Valerie J.; VanSlette, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates college student perceptions of instructor credibility based on the content of an instructor's Twitterfeed and student beliefs about Twitter as a communication tool. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to explore the effects of three manipulated Twitter feeds (e.g., tweeting social topics, professional topics,…

  20. The Effect of Diversity Climate Perception on Alienation of Students to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diversity climate perception on alienation of students to university. The research was carried out with relational survey model. 333 undergraduate students in Faculty of Education, Medical, and Faculty of Theology of Dicle University constituted the participant group. Research data were…

  1. Effects of Self-Perceptions on Self-Learning among Teacher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the multivariate hypothesized model that predicts the significance of, and relationships among, various self-perception factors for being a qualified teacher and their direct and mediated effects on self-learning activities among teacher education students. A total of 248 teacher education students enrolled at an education…

  2. The effects of social media on political party perception and voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Peter; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; de Zeeuw, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine to what extent social media influences political party perception (PPP) and political voting behavior. Based on literature a conceptual model was developed which measures political interest, political trust, religion and the use of social media and their effects on PPP

  3. Comparison of Instructors' and Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Tung, Chan K.

    2010-01-01

    This study used an extensive online course evaluation inventory to analyze the subjects' perceptions of course effectiveness in the following subscales: flexibility, user interface, navigation, getting started, technical assistance, course management, universal design, communications, instructional design, and content. Survey results compared…

  4. Effects of Baton Usage on College Musicians' Perceptions of Ensemble Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Wacker, Aaron T.; Felder, Logan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of baton usage on college musicians' perceptions of ensemble performance. Two conductors were videotaped while conducting a 1-minute excerpt from either a technical ("Pathfinder of Panama," John Philip Sousa) or lyrical ("Seal Lullaby," Eric Whitacre) piece of concert…

  5. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  6. Predicting effects of hearing-instrument signal processing on consonant perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Johannes; Schmitt, Nicola; Derleth, Ralph-Peter

    2017-01-01

    –1064] that combines an auditory processing front end with a correlation-based template-matching back end. In terms of HA processing, effects of strong nonlinear frequency compression and impulse-noise suppression were measured in 10 NH listeners using consonant-vowel stimuli. Regarding CI processing, the consonant......This study investigated the influence of hearing-aid (HA) and cochlear-implant (CI) processing on consonant perception in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Measured data were compared to predictions obtained with a speech perception model [Zaar and Dau (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141, 1051...... perception data from DiNino et al. [(2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 4404-4418] were considered, which were obtained with noise-vocoded vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli in 12 NH listeners. The inputs to the model were the same stimuli as were used in the corresponding experiments. The model predictions obtained...

  7. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  8. Effects of fitness and self-confidence on time perception during exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Human physical and psychological features influence perceptions of the environment during activity. If during exercise an individual over-estimates time, they may interpret this as spending longer than necessary under a potentially aversive state of exertion. This may in turn decrease one’s sense of exercise success and tendency to persevere with exercise. We tested if experimentally manipulating sense of exercise self-efficacy would affect time perception during standardised physical exertion. Method: Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE of 18 -73 year olds (N=51 was measured before and after an exercise challenge of moderate intensity. Height, weight and body fat composition were measured before participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. After a 4-minute treadmill fitness test, participants were presented with either bogus feedback about their performance (positive or negative or no feedback (control. Before and during exercise, participants estimated a prescribed 2-minute time interval. Ratings of perceived exertion were also measured periodically. Results: Feedback on performance had no significant effect on time perception, even when controlling for individual exertion level. Reported ESE was also unaffected by whether someone received positive, negative or no feedback. Age was again found to be significantly correlated with VO2max, r(51 = .62, p < .001, but in contrast to prior findings, estimates of general fitness such as VO2max, BMI and waist circumference were unrelated to changes in time perception due to exertion. Conclusions: These findings failed to support prior findings and anecdotal evidence suggesting that exertion might alter one’s perception of time. We also failed to find any support for effects on ESE when participants were given explicit performance feedback. Finally, participants’ physical characteristics appear to be unrelated to time perception whilst exercising at moderate intensity.

  9. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the head part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Atsuo [Yongo National Collage of Technology (Japan); Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has rarely been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distribution of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the asymmetrical human model have been made clear. (author)

  10. Influence of Customer Quality Perception on the Effectiveness of Commercial Stimuli for Electronic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Morgado, Álvaro; González-Benito, Óscar; Martos-Partal, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality, and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers' quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality—linked to the brand—and intrinsic quality—related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i) cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name) is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii) different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe's largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due to the use of a brand

  11. Influence of Customer Quality Perception on the Effectiveness of Commercial Stimuli for Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Morgado, Álvaro; González-Benito, Óscar; Martos-Partal, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality, and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers' quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality-linked to the brand-and intrinsic quality-related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i) cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name) is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii) different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe's largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due to the use of a brand name

  12. Influence of customer quality perception on the effectiveness of commercial stimuli for electronic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro eGarrido-Morgado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers’ quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality –linked to the brand– and intrinsic quality –related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe’s largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due

  13. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effective Physics Teacher Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: What do teachers and students in Turkey perceive as the common characteristics of effective physics teachers? Purpose of Study: The first aim was to investigate the common characteristics of effective physics teachers by asking students and teachers about the effects of teacher characteristics on student physics achievement and…

  14. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings ( M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD ) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD ) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  15. Siblings’ Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295

  16. Micromagnetic analysis of current-induced domain wall motion in a bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Takashi, E-mail: komine@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Aono, Tomosuke [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate current-induced domain wall motion in bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) coupling by modeling two body problems for motion equations of domain wall. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic interactions on current-induced domain wall motion in SAF nanowires was also investigated. By assuming the rigid wall model for translational motion, the interlayer exchange coupling and the magnetostatic interaction between walls and domains in SAF nanowires enhances domain wall speed without any spin-orbit-torque. The enhancement of domain wall speed was discussed by energy distribution as a function of wall angle configuration in bilayer nanowires.

  17. Effect of Industrial and Organizational Psychology on Administrators' Perception of Entrepreneurial University in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tezcan UYSAL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of industrial and organizational psychology on entrepreneurship university perceptions of academic personnel that maintain their duties as executives within the climate of university. In accordance with this purpose, a study for academicians that carry out their duties as executives virtually in two state universities one of which (Y takes place among entrepreneur and entrepreneurial university index while another (X doesn't take place within this index was conducted. The results of the questionnaires which tried to measure the entrepreneurial university perception and industrial and organizational psychology were analyzed with correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U test within the scope of SPSS program. As a result of the correlation analysis that was conducted for both of the samplings, a significant relationship was detected between negative and positive industrial and organizational psychology and entrepreneurial university perception. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from X university, it was determined that the psychological output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurship university perception of the executives was motivation while the negative output that had the most effect was the intention to quit the job. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from the Y University, it was detected that the positive output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurial university conception of the executives was motivation, while the negative output that had the most effect was job stress. As a result of the comparison of both examples, the fundamental psychological factor that intensified the entrepreneurial university perception was high motivation.

  18. Effective Pedagogical Practices for Online Teaching: Perception of Experienced Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig J.; Card, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Institutions have focused on providing faculty with technological training to enhance their online teaching, but many online instructors would like to learn more effective pedagogical practices. This phenomenological study determines what experienced, award-winning South Dakota e-learning instructors perceive to be effective pedagogical practices.…

  19. University Students' Perceptions of the Life Effects of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie; Gabel, Rodney; Irani, Farzan; Schlagheck, Adam

    2010-01-01

    An open-ended, written survey was administered to 146 university students who did not stutter to obtain their impressions of the effects of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter (PWS). Participants first wrote about the general effects of stuttering and then considered how their lives would be different if they stuttered. Both types of…

  20. Perceptions of Organizational Effectiveness over Organizational Life Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim S.; Whetten, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Student participants at two universities played multisession simulation games involving the development of 18 organizations. Post-session surveys of 583 participants indicated that organizational effectiveness became more important to participants as the organizations developed. This suggests that future organizational effectiveness studies should…

  1. Gaze direction effects on perceptions of upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, W G; Hondzinski, J M; Harper, J G

    2000-12-01

    The effects of varying gaze direction on perceptions of the upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes and of the median plane location were studied in nine subjects with no history of neuromuscular disorders. In two experiments, six subjects aligned the unseen forearm to the trunk-fixed anterior-posterior (a/p) axis and earth-fixed vertical while gazing at different visual targets using either head or eye motion to vary gaze direction in different conditions. Effects of support of the upper limb on perceptual errors were also tested in different conditions. Absolute constant errors and variable errors associated with forearm alignment to the trunk-fixed a/p axis and earth-fixed vertical were similar for different gaze directions whether the head or eyes were moved to control gaze direction. Such errors were decreased by support of the upper limb when aligning to the vertical but not when aligning to the a/p axis. Regression analysis showed that single trial errors in individual subjects were poorly correlated with gaze direction, but showed a dependence on shoulder angles for alignment to both axes. Thus, changes in position of the head and eyes do not influence perceptions of upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes. However, dependence of the errors on arm configuration suggests that such perceptions are generated from sensations of shoulder and elbow joint angle information. In a third experiment, perceptions of median plane location were tested by instructing four subjects to place the unseen right index fingertip directly in front of the sternum either by motion of the straight arm at the shoulder or by elbow flexion/extension with shoulder angle varied. Gaze angles were varied to the right and left by 0.5 radians to determine effects of gaze direction on such perceptions. These tasks were also carried out with subjects blind-folded and head orientation varied to test for effects of head orientation on perceptions of median plane location. Constant

  2. The effects of negative emotions on sensory perception: fear but not anger decreases tactile sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2014-01-01

    Emotions and sensory perceptions are closely intertwined. Of the five senses, sight has been by far the most extensively studied sense in emotion research. Relatively less is known about how emotions influence the other four senses. Touch is essential for nonverbal communication in both humans and other animals. The current investigation tested competing hypotheses about the effect of fear on tactile perception. One hypothesis based on evolutionary considerations predicts that fear enhances sensory perception, including tactile sensitivity. A competing hypothesis based on research on peripheral psychophysiology predicts that fear should decrease tactile sensitivity. Two experiments that induced negative emotional states and measured two-point discrimination ability at the fingertip found that fear reduces tactile sensitivity relative to anger or a neutral control condition (Studies 1 and 2). These findings did not appear to be driven by participants' naïve beliefs about the influence of emotions on touch (Study 3). The results represent the first evidence of the causal impact of emotional states on tactile sensitivity, are consistent with prior evidence for the peripheral physiological effects of fear, and offer novel empirical grounds for developing and advancing theories of emotional influences on sensory perception.

  3. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  4. Evaluation of a visual risk communication tool: effects on knowledge and perception of blood transfusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Mehta, M D

    2003-06-01

    Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.

  5. Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumler, Petra I; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory profiles in order to fully characterize its

  6. Employee Perceptions of HRM and TQM and the Effects on Satisfaction and INtention to Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.; van der Wiele, A.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThere is a growing interest in theory and in practice with regard to the relationship between human resource management [HRM] and total quality management [TQM] as well as the relationship between these two perspectives and business performances. Empirical research suggests significant effects of HRM/TQM on the performances of an organisation. The majority of research in this area is focused on the effects of HRM/TQM at the organisational level. Research on the perceptions of indi...

  7. Effect of patients' rights training sessions for nurses on perceptions of nurses and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa A; Hassan, Mona A; Hamouda, Seham Ibrahim; Abd Allah, Nama M

    2017-11-01

    Patients' rights are universal values that must be respected; however, it is not easy to put such values and principles into effect as approaches and attitudes differ from individual to individual, from society to society, and from country to country. If we want to reach a general conclusion about the status of patient rights in the world as whole, we should examine the situation in individual countries. To study the effect of training sessions for nurses about patients' rights on the perceptions of nurses and patients in two Egyptian hospitals. Quasi-experimental with pre- and posttest design was used in this study. Two groups of participants were included in the study: the first with 97 nurses and the second with 135 patients. A questionnaire sheet was used for nurses and patients to assess their perceptions about patients' rights before starting sessions. The training sessions were developed based on the baseline information gathered in the assessment phase and related literature. After the implementation of the sessions, a posttest was immediately conducted for nurses, while for patients the posttest was conducted 1 month after implementation to evaluate the effect of the nurses' training sessions on the patients' perceptions. The same tools were used in pretest and posttest. Ethical considerations: Written approval was sought and obtained from the administrators of the studied hospitals prior to conducting the study. Oral consent was obtained from nurses and patients willing to participate. Confidentiality and anonymity of the participants were strictly maintained through code numbers on the questionnaires. The improvement in nurses' knowledge and perceptions about patients' rights after implementation of the training sessions was remarkable. Moreover, an improvement in patients' perceptions regarding their rights was reported. Repetition of the training sessions is suggested to achieve continuous improvement. Provision of posters and booklets about a bill of

  8. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  9. Students' perception of teachers' effectiveness and their academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... of teachers' effectiveness and how it affects students' performance in Agricultural Sciences. ... vary their teaching methods to cater for individual differences and needs of the students.

  10. Public Perceptions of GPS Monitoring for Convicted Sex Offenders: Opinions on Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring to Reduce Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.

  11. Disentangling opposing effects of motivational states on pain perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuter, Stephan; Cunningham, Jonathan T.; Wager, Tor D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although the motivation to avoid injury and pain is central to human and animal behavior, this goal compete priority with other homeostatic goals. Animal studies have shown that competing motivational states, such as thirst, reduce pain. However, such states may also induce negative mood, which in humans has been found to increase pain. These opposing effects complicate study of the effects of motivational states in humans. Objectives: To evaluate concurrent effects of motivational state competition and mood on pain ratings. Methods: We compared a thirst challenge against a control group and measured thirst and mood as potential mediators. Pain induced through contact heat stimulation on the left forearm and was tested at 3 time points: before group randomization, after thirst induction, and after rehydration. Results: Overall, the thirst group reported more pain when thirsty compared with baseline and controls. Mediation analyses showed evidence for two opposing effects. First, the thirst challenge increased negative mood and thirstiness, which was related to increased pain. Second, the thirst challenge produced a direct, pain-reducing effect. Conclusion: Competing motivational states reduce pain but also induce concurrent mood changes that can mask motivational state-related effects. PMID:27747310

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

  13. Pupils' Self-Perceptions: The Role of Teachers' Judgment Controlling for Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study the relationship between teachers' judgment and pupils' self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils' perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers' judgment and BFLPE were found to have an…

  14. The Perception of Physical Activity in Ambulatory Persons with Late Effects of Polio: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, Cecilia; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brogårdh, Christina; Lexell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.

  15. Learners’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Spaced Learning Schedule in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Lotfolahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spacing effect is a ubiquitous phenomenon, whereby memory is enhanced for the information that is learned across different points in time rather than being learned at once. A considerable amount of research has focused on the nature of the spacing effect, and there is general acceptance that spacing learning events out in time promotes learning. However, fewer studies have been conducted in educational settings. The aim of this study is to explore learners’ perceptions of different spacing schedules (massed vs. spaced. To achieve the purpose of the study, we taught 30 children 24 English–Farsi word pairs utilizing different spacing schedules. Later, we administered a questionnaire to explore leaarners’ perceptions of both massed and spaced schedules. The results revealed that the children percieved spaced practice to be more effective than massed practice.

  16. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

  17. Effects of Face and Background Color on Facial Expression Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Minami

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting others’ emotional states from their faces is an essential component of successful social interaction. However, the ability to perceive emotional expressions is reported to be modulated by a number of factors. We have previously found that facial color modulates the judgment of facial expression, while another study has shown that background color plays a modulatory role. Therefore, in this study, we directly compared the effects of face and background color on facial expression judgment within a single experiment. Fear-to-anger morphed faces were presented in face and background color conditions. Our results showed that judgments of facial expressions was influenced by both face and background color. However, facial color effects were significantly greater than background color effects, although the color saturation of faces was lower compared to background colors. These results suggest that facial color is intimately related to the judgment of facial expression, over and above the influence of simple color.

  18. Disentangling the effect of illness perceptions on health status in people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne; Kasteleyn, Marise Jeannine; Heijmans, Monique Johanna; de Leeuw, Elke; Schellevis, François Georges; Rijken, Mieke; Rutten, Guy Emile

    2018-03-02

    Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the combination with cardiovascular disease. Perceptions of one illness may influence perceptions of the other condition. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event on change in illness perceptions and whether this mediates the intervention effect on health status. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a RCT. Two hundred one participants were randomised (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n = 101, three home visits) or control group (n = 100). Outcome variables were diabetes and acute coronary event perceptions, assessed with the two separate Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires (BIPQs); and health status (Euroqol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS)). The intervention effect was analysed using ANCOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to assess whether illness perceptions mediated the intervention effect on health status. A positive intervention effect was found on the BIPQ diabetes items coherence and treatment control (F = 8.19, p = 0.005; F = 14.01, p effect was found on the other BIPQ diabetes items consequence, personal control, identity, illness concern and emotional representation. Regarding the acute coronary event, a positive intervention effect on treatment control was found (F = 7.81, p = 0.006). No intervention effect was found on the other items of the acute coronary event BIPQ. Better diabetes coherence was associated with improved health status, whereas perceiving more treatment control was not. The mediating effect of the diabetes perception 'coherence' on health status was not significant. Targeting illness perceptions of people with

  19. Effect of Parkinson Disease on Emotion Perception Using the Persian Affective Voices Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarian, Arezoo; Shavaki, Yunes Amiri; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Jafari, Zahra

    2018-05-04

    Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality. The results of the recordings of five of the actresses and five of the actors who obtained the highest score were used to generate the test. For convergent validity assessment, the correlation between the PAV and a speech prosody comprehension test was examined using a gender- and age-matched control group. To investigate the effect of the PD on emotion perception, the PAV test was performed on 28 patients with mild PD between ages 50 and 70 years. The PAV showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80). A significant positive correlation was observed between the PAV and the speech prosody comprehension test. The test-retest reliability also showed the high repeatability of the PAV (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.815, P ≤ 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the patients with PD and the controls in all subtests. The PAV test is a useful psychometric tool for examining vocal emotion perception that can be used in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Swazi men's perception of the protective effect of male circumcision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about the protective effect of circumcision against STIs including HIV, and its implication to the mass MC strategy. .... In addition, permission to conduct the study was also granted by the FLAS Research and Evaluation Unit. ..... Willingness to be circumcised for preventing HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men.

  1. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  2. Effects of Some Aspects of Rhythm on Tempo Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia Chu

    1984-01-01

    Results indicated that significantly more time is needed to perceive tempo increase than tempo decrease, uneven rhythm then even rhythm, and melody alone than melody with accompaniment. Furthermore, significant interaction effects involving beat locations of tempo change suggest that differential groupings may be a factor in tempo discrimination.…

  3. Perception of Information Technology Enablers for Effective Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedor Brookman; Jakobus Smit; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the importance of enablers in order for IT to support effective supply chain management, as perceived defined by different positions in the supply chain. In the study, a significant difference for the enabler “Funds for IT enablement” is found between the supplier

  4. Does Gender Impact Business Students' Perceptions of Teaching Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Leon; Lavin, Angeline; Davies, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While there are certainly differences of opinion regarding teaching effectiveness, the goal of this study is to investigate whether there is consistency or differences in opinion based on the gender of the student doing the evaluation of the instructor or the gender of the instructor being evaluated. This paper summarizes the gender-based findings…

  5. Perception of Mealybug Wilt Effect and Management among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences (CANS). University of Cape Coast ... vectors and their ant symbionts. Keywords: Mealybug Wilt Effect, Mealybug Management, Mealybug in Pineapple,. Mealybug ... and Tafe in the Volta Region, is a boost for cottage industrialization (Ministry of Food and Agriculture [MoFA], 2006; ...

  6. Effective Communication: Perception of Two Anti-Smoking Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; McEwen, James

    1997-01-01

    Two antismoking advertisements produced in Scotland, one using a fear appeal, the other a positive image, were compared using an interview questionnaire. Subjects' (N=394) preferences and advertising effectiveness were studied. Findings are discussed in terms of psychosocial theories, and a "Preference Model" is proposed. (Author/EMK)

  7. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  8. Current induced domain wall motion and tilting in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the presence of the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jijun; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Guo, Xiaobin; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yupei; Mao, Jian; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li

    2018-04-01

    Current induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) was studied in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) by the spin-orbit torque (SOT). We measured the strength of DMI and SOT efficiency in Pt/Co/Ta with the variation of the thickness of Ta using a current induced hysteresis loop shift method. The results indicate that the DMI stabilizes a chiral Néel-type domain wall (DW), and the DW motion can be driven by the enhanced large SOT generated from Pt and Ta with opposite signs of spin Hall angle in Pt/Co/Ta stacks. The CIDWM velocity, which is 104 times larger than the field driven DW velocity, obeys a creep law, and reaches around tens of meters per second with current density of ~106 A cm‑2. We also found that the Joule heating accompanied with current also accelerates the DW motion. Meanwhile, a domain wall tilting was observed, which increases with current density increasing. These results can be explained by the spin Hall effect generated from both heavy metals Pt and Ta, inherent DMI, and the current accompanying Joule heating effect. Our results could provide some new designing prospects to move multiple DWs by SOT for achieving racetrack memories.

  9. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  10. Hidrogym practice effects: The perception of Wellness of participants in a Community Outreach project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana de Paula e Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to identify the effects of improvement perceived by hidrogym practitioners and to verify possible associations between these and the time and age of practice. 62 people with average age of 50,80 years old (+ 14,05 participated of this study. An instrument built for this research was used for data collection. The content analysis and the non-parametric testes U the Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis were used for data analysis. The results showed that the indicator "disposition" presented the best perception of wellness, though the physical-functional aspects presented more number of cited indicators. The weight diminution indicator did not show index of "much improvement". The participants who had practiced at least six months evidenced better scores in: mood, sleep quality, stress levels and occupational relationship. The participants who were 61 years old or more showed worse perceptions in stress level and articulate pain. In conclusion, hidrogym practice helps to the wellness perception improvement in the psychological, physical-functional and social aspects. Furthermore, aspects related to age group and time of practice could interfere in wellness perception.

  11. The effect of occlusion therapy on motion perception deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaschi, Deborah; Chapman, Christine; Meier, Kimberly; Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Regan, David

    2015-09-01

    There is growing evidence for deficits in motion perception in amblyopia, but these are rarely assessed clinically. In this prospective study we examined the effect of occlusion therapy on motion-defined form perception and multiple-object tracking. Participants included children (3-10years old) with unilateral anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia who were currently undergoing occlusion therapy and age-matched control children with normal vision. At the start of the study, deficits in motion-defined form perception were present in at least one eye in 69% of the children with amblyopia. These deficits were still present at the end of the study in 55% of the amblyopia group. For multiple-object tracking, deficits were present initially in 64% and finally in 55% of the children with amblyopia, even after completion of occlusion therapy. Many of these deficits persisted in spite of an improvement in amblyopic eye visual acuity in response to occlusion therapy. The prevalence of motion perception deficits in amblyopia as well as their resistance to occlusion therapy, support the need for new approaches to amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the personality traits of the patient on pain perception and attitude toward orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kadu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits, pain perception, and person′s attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of two groups: Group 1 consisted of 100 treated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.36 years, and Group 2 consisted of 100 untreated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.41 years. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire that included an assessment of patients′ personality profiles, pain expectation for untreated subjects, pain experience for treated subjects, and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Results: Gender and treatment status did not affect pain perception and attitude of a person toward orthodontic treatment. There was a strong relationship between pain perception and attitude with Pearson′s correlation of 0.367 and P ≤ 0.0001. With one unit increase in attitude there was 0.43 units increase in pain. Patients with high levels of trait neuroticism (P = 0.01 and low levels of trait conscientiousness (P = 0.02 experienced more pain. Patients with high levels of trait conscientiousness showed better attitude (P = 0.01. Conclusion: Personality traits, neuroticism, and conscientiousness have effect on pain perception and attitude of patients toward orthodontic treatment. Patients with better attitude experienced less pain and patients with less pain exhibited better attitude.

  13. Effect of price display on brand luxury perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Parguel , Béatrice; Delécolle , Thierry; Valette-Florence , Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Based on two experimental studies, this paper investigates the impact of price display in the luxury sector on perceived brand luxury and brand attitude. Using a sample of students, Study1 shows that price display is associated with higher perceived quality, uniqueness, and conspicuousness for a fictitious luxury brand presented in a store window. Using two real luxury brands and a larger sample of consumers, Study 2 confirms the positive effect of price display on the brand’s perceived consp...

  14. Effects of Auditory Stimuli on Visual Velocity Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Shibata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. Previous studies have reported that the duration of visual events is perceived as being longer for events filled with auditory stimuli than for events not filled with auditory stimuli, ie, the so-called “filled-duration illusion.” In this study, we have shown that auditory stimuli also affect the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. In Experiment 1, a moving comparison stimulus (4.2∼5.8 deg/s was presented together with filled (or unfilled white-noise bursts or with no sound. The standard stimulus was a moving visual stimulus (5 deg/s presented before or after the comparison stimulus. The participants had to judge which stimulus was moving faster. The results showed that the perceived velocity in the auditory-filled condition was lower than that in the auditory-unfilled and no-sound conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on velocity adaptation. The results showed that the effects of velocity adaptation in the auditory-filled condition were weaker than those in the no-sound condition. These results indicate that auditory stimuli tend to decrease the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus.

  15. Effect of risk perception on epidemic spreading in temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinet, Antoine; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Barrat, Alain

    2018-01-01

    Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond the assumption of an absence of coupling between the spread of a disease and the structure of the contacts on which it unfolds. Models including awareness of the spread have been proposed, to mimic possible precautionary measures taken by individuals that decrease their risk of infection, but have mostly considered static networks. Here, we adapt such a framework to the more realistic case of temporal networks of interactions between individuals. We study the resulting model by analytical and numerical means on both simple models of temporal networks and empirical time-resolved contact data. Analytical results show that the epidemic threshold is not affected by the awareness but that the prevalence can be significantly decreased. Numerical studies on synthetic temporal networks highlight, however, the presence of very strong finite-size effects, resulting in a significant shift of the effective epidemic threshold in the presence of risk awareness. For empirical contact networks, the awareness mechanism leads as well to a shift in the effective threshold and to a strong reduction of the epidemic prevalence.

  16. Being watched: the effect of social self-focus on interoceptive and exteroceptive somatosensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Cardini, Flavia; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-04-01

    We become aware of our bodies interoceptively, by processing signals arising from within the body, and exteroceptively, by processing signals arising on or outside the body. Recent research highlights the importance of the interaction of exteroceptive and interoceptive signals in modulating bodily self-consciousness. The current study investigated the effect of social self-focus, manipulated via a video camera that was facing the participants and that was either switched on or off, on interoceptive sensitivity (using a heartbeat perception task) and on tactile perception (using the Somatic Signal Detection Task (SSDT)). The results indicated a significant effect of self-focus on SSDT performance, but not on interoception. SSDT performance was not moderated by interoceptive sensitivity, although interoceptive sensitivity scores were positively correlated with false alarms, independently of self-focus. Together with previous research, our results suggest that self-focus may exert different effects on body perception depending on its mode (private versus social). While interoception has been previously shown to be enhanced by private self-focus, the current study failed to find an effect of social self-focus on interoceptive sensitivity, instead demonstrating that social self-focus improves exteroceptive somatosensory processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Route effect on the perception of public transport services quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica-Olmo, J.; Gachs-Sanchez, H.M.; Lizarraga, C.

    2016-07-01

    User satisfaction sets a basic example for public service quality, especially those considered as basic necessities. The quality in transport service related to conceptualization and measurement, as a decisive demand key, presents challenges for both economic and mobility policies.Several operator companies are involved in the transport sector. Therefore this report aims to design a model of overall satisfaction based on the level of satisfaction with a specific set of factors, considering individual characteristics of users and the differential effect of different bus lines.The current presentation has applied a combined method, using Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) and a Logit Multilevel Model (LMLM) in two-steps. (Author)

  18. The effect of consumers’ perception to the satisfaction of use of traditional medicines in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. S.; Supriana, T.; Haryanti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of chemical medicines fluctuated in 2009-2014, whereas the consumption of solid traditional medicine increased in 2009-2014. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of consumers’s perception on the consumption of traditional medicinal plants. The data was analysed by using a binomial logit regression analysis. It is found that the consumers’s perceptions affect customer satisfaction simultaneously are the health benefits variable, quality of traditional medicine variable, price of traditional medicine and available product; the health benefits variable and quality of traditional medicine variable partially have significant effects to customers’s satisfaction simultaneously satisfaction partially; the health benefit variable and quality of traditional medicine is found to have a marginal effect of 7% and 4%, respectively.

  19. Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christine M; Strzempko, Fran; Danford, Cynthia; Kools, Susan

    2002-01-01

    To understand and document children's stated experiences and beliefs about television and to elicit their suggestions for alternative activities. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 51 Anglo and Latino children, ages 7-10, in a large Northern California city. Philosophical underpinnings of developmental psychology were the basis for multiphase thematic analysis. Data were collected in 1998-1999. Themes were identified in five conceptual categories. Findings showed that children did not perceive many parental rules related to TV watching, rather daily routines are associated with TV viewing. Children revealed both covert and overt motivations for watching. Nearly all participants spoke of the deception of advertising, but they were unclear about the role of commercial sponsors in payment for TV shows. Children perceived both negative physical and behavioral health effects of TV and they had great difficulty imagining life without a TV. Children perceived television as providing educational and relational needs. Although they preferred alternatives to TV, they had difficulty articulating and getting those needs met. Clinicians and researchers can utilize these findings to design health interventions that attenuate the health-impairing effects of habitual sedentary activity in childhood.

  20. Effectiveness of teachers' training in assessment techniques: participants' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, N; Gautam, A; Lamsal, M; Paudel, B H; Lal Das, B K; Aryal, M

    2011-01-01

    Medical education has experienced a rapidly changing scenario especially during the past three decades. Teachers training programs have emerged in recent years as a more in depth and comprehensive mechanisms for strengthening instructional skills and formulating assessment techniques among faculty members. The present study was carried out with the aim of assessing effectiveness of teacher training workshop on assessment techniques at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health sciences (BPKIHS), Dharan, Nepal. Methods: In this prospective questionnaire based study, the 26 entry level teachers were enrolled. They were requested to fill the questionnaire before and after the workshop on the assessment techniques at BPKIHS, Dharan. Twenty six teachers majority of whom were entry level teachers comprising of medical, dental, nursing and allied sciences participated in pre- and post test analysis on the various components of written and oral examinations. A two and half days long training was conducted having 9 hours of teaching interactive sessions, 6 hours of group exercises, daily evaluation and 3 hours of presentation by participants. There was high degree of agreement with most topics of the assessment training. There was a significant gain in knowledge (p training being informative and learned new things about assessment. More practice session with longer duration with invited resource persons were also suggested for an effective session. Thereis an immense opportunity for a better and comprehensive training in evaluation techniques in medical education..

  1. What is common becomes normal: the effect of obesity prevalence on maternal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkin, N; Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lamberti, A

    2013-05-01

    This analysis investigates the poorly-known effect of local prevalence of childhood obesity on mothers' perception of their children's weight status. In 2008, a national nutritional survey of children attending the third grade of elementary school was conducted in Italy. Children were measured and classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). A parental questionnaire included parental perception of their child's weight status (underweight, normal, a little overweight and a lot overweight). Regions were classified by childhood obesity prevalence (maternal perception and regional obesity prevalence, and maternal and child characteristics were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Complete data were available for 37 590 children, of whom 24% were overweight and 12% obese. Mothers correctly identified the status of 84% of normal weight, 52% of overweight and 14% of obese children. Among overweight children, factors associated with underestimation of the child's weight included lower maternal education (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4), residence in a high-obesity region (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.9-2.6), male gender (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and child's BMI. Higher regional obesity prevalence is associated with lower maternal perception, suggesting that what is common has a greater likelihood of being perceived as normal. As perception is a first step to change, it may be harder to intervene in areas with high-obesity prevalence where intervention is most urgent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  3. Effects of loneliness on illness perception in persons with a chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Tuncay, Fatma; Fertelli, Tülay; Mollaoğlu, Mukadder

    2018-04-01

    To determine the effects of loneliness on illness perception in persons with a chronic disease. How an illness is perceived not only affects all dimensions of a person's life but also plays an important role in his/her coping with the complications and consequences of the disease. One of the factors that influence the illness perception is loneliness. The study is a descriptive study. The study sample included 206 individuals over the 18 years of age, conscious, having had a chronic illness at least 1 year, having no communication problems and agreeing to participate in the study after being informed about the study. Data were collected with the Personal Information Form, the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. The forms were administered to the participants in an unoccupied patient room, and the data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The results of the study revealed that individuals with a chronic disease perceived emotional symptoms accompanying the disease more intensely that they accepted their disease was a chronic one and that their personal control and treatment control of the disease were at a middle level. The mean score the participants obtained from the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale was 38.49 ± 11.15. There was a significant negative correlation between this mean score and the mean scores obtained from the following subscales consequences, treatment control, illness perception and emotional representations. In this study, it was concluded that the participants perceived their loneliness level as moderate and that their illness perception was negatively affected as their loneliness levels increased. The knowledge of clinical nurses about perception of patients with chronic illnesses and conditions affecting that perception will enhance compliance with the illness management or treatment strategies. Clinical nurses should observe residents closely for

  4. The effect of short exposure to coloured light on thermal perception: a study using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Chinazzo, Giorgia; Chamilothori, Kynthia; Wienold, Jan; Andersen, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of short exposure to coloured light on thermal perception. To give the impression of natural daylight passing through coloured filters, but avoiding the drawbacks of conducting an experiment with daylight, continuously changing due to daily and seasonal variations, and to weather conditions, we investigate the use of Virtual Reality as a means to control the visual conditions, creating a hybrid environment with thermal and visual stimuli from the real and vi...

  5. Conceptual framework of acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Lamothe, Lise; Ritchie, Judith A; Doran, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new conceptual framework for acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work and perceptions of team effectiveness. Acute care nurse practitioners contribute positively to patient care by enacting an expanded scope of practise. Researchers have found both positive and negative reactions to the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. The process of role enactment, shifting role boundaries, and perceptions of team effectiveness has been studied disparately. A framework linking team structures and processes to desirable outcomes is needed. Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PsycInfo, MedLine, PubMed, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, JSTOR Archive, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1985-2010. A descriptive multiple-case study was completed from March 2009-May 2009. A new conceptual framework describing how role enactment and boundary work affect perceptions of team effectiveness was developed by combining theoretical and empirical sources. The framework proposes proximal indicators used by team members to assess their team's performance. The framework identifies the inter-related dimensions and concepts that different stakeholders need to consider when introducing nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. Further study is needed to identify team-level outcomes that reflect the contributions of all providers to quality patient care, and explore the patients' and families' perceptions of team effectiveness following the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners. The new framework can guide decision-making and research related to the structures, processes, and outcomes of nurse practitioner roles in healthcare teams. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The role of risk perception in making flood risk management more effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.

  7. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-01-01

    The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution ...

  8. Clinical teaching in restorative dentistry and the variation between students' and supervisors' perceptions of its effectiveness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Polyzois, I

    2010-05-01

    To investigate if there was an agreement between the students and supervisors on the quality of clinical teaching in Restorative Dentistry in the Dublin Dental School and Hospital and to identify differences on how effective clinical teaching is perceived between three academic years. In addition it aimed to identify the existence of any similarities between students\\' and supervisors\\' perceptions of specific teaching behaviours that are most and least helpful in learning.

  9. Features of an effective operative dentistry learning environment: students' perceptions and relationship with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksudaj, N; Lekkas, D; Kaidonis, J; Townsend, G C; Winning, T A

    2015-02-01

    Students' perceptions of their learning environment influence the quality of outcomes they achieve. Learning dental operative techniques in a simulated clinic environment is characterised by reciprocal interactions between skills training, staff- and student-related factors. However, few studies have examined how students perceive their operative learning environments and whether there is a relationship between their perceptions and subsequent performance. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify which learning activities and interactions students perceived as supporting their operative skills learning and to examine relationships with their outcomes. Longitudinal data about examples of operative laboratory sessions that were perceived as effective or ineffective for learning were collected twice a semester, using written critical incidents and interviews. Emergent themes from these data were identified using thematic analysis. Associations between perceptions of learning effectiveness and performance were analysed using chi-square tests. Students indicated that an effective learning environment involved interactions with tutors and peers. This included tutors arranging group discussions to clarify processes and outcomes, providing demonstrations and constructive feedback. Feedback focused on mistakes, and not improvement, was reported as being ineffective for learning. However, there was no significant association between students' perceptions of the effectiveness of their learning experiences and subsequent performance. It was clear that learning in an operative technique setting involved various factors related not only to social interactions and observational aspects of learning but also to cognitive, motivational and affective processes. Consistent with studies that have demonstrated complex interactions between students, their learning environment and outcomes, other factors need investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effect of consumer expectations and perceptions regarding sanitation on access to clean water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available and Sanitation Centre. Drangert, Jan-Olof, Louiza Christina Duncker, Gertrude Matsebe, and Victoria Abu Atukunda. 2006. “Ecological Sanitation, Urban Agriculture and Gender in Peri- Journal of Ethical Urban Living 34 urban Settlements: A Comparative Study... the author worked on. Publication Details Journal of Ethical Urban Living (ISSN: 2470-2641). August, 2017. Volume 1, Issue 1. Citation Duncker, Louiza. 2017. “The Effect of Consumer Expectations and Perceptions Regarding Sanitation on Access to Clean Water...

  11. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H. D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EE...

  12. An Empirical Investigation of the Effect of Interaction Justice Perception on Consumer Intentions after Complaining

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh S. Bhandari; Michael J. Polonsky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how apology as interaction justice impacts on consumer perceptions of service recovery attempt. Data was collected using hypothetical scenarios. Two types of service failures were proposed and the impact of recovery action on each failure type was compared. Findings include that there is direct effect of recovery action on consumer future intentions in both type of failures. Implications and direction to the future research were proposed.

  13. Perception through a Perspective-Taking Lens: Differential Effects on Judgment and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ku , Gillian; Wang , Cynthia S.; Galinsky , Adam D.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In contrast to the view that social perception has symmetric effects on judgments and behavior, the current research explored whether perspective-taking leads stereotypes to differentially affect judgments and behavior. Across three studies, perspective-takers consistently used stereotypes more in their own behavior while simultaneously using them less in their judgments of others. After writing about an African American, perspective-taking tendencies were positively c...

  14. Radiography Faculty Engaged in Online Education: Perceptions of Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Technological Self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Shirley J; Flora, Bethany H

    2017-01-01

    To assess radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses. An original survey instrument was created by selecting items from 3 instruments used in prior research and adding unique questions designed to elicit demographic data from faculty. The sample included a national dataset of radiography faculty members employed in Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology-accredited programs in the United States. Findings showed that faculty perceptions of online course effectiveness are not affected significantly by faculty position, type of institution, faculty age, or years of teaching experience. Positive perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses moderately increased with years of teaching online courses, number of online courses taught in the past 5 years, and perceived competence with the use of technology. Faculty satisfaction with interaction in online courses moderately increased as the years of teaching online courses increased. However, the number of years of teaching online courses was not related to faculty satisfaction with teaching online courses or faculty satisfaction with institutional support. Online technology acceptance had a moderately positive relationship with perceived ease of use and a strong positive relationship with perceived usefulness of online technology. In addition, the use of technology-enhanced learning methods had a strong positive relationship with technological self-efficacy. Radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses improved with experience in teaching online courses and competence with use of technology. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of online technology were related directly to online technology acceptance. Furthermore, faculty members with technological self-efficacy were more likely to use technology-enhanced learning methods in the online environment.

  15. A Taxonomy of Terror - About the Effect of Different Kinds of Terror on Risk Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism is an increasing problem; still, research systematically investigating the impact of varying kinds of terrorism is scarce. The present investigation uses hypothetical scenarios to look at effects of diverging sorts of terrorism on risk perceptions in a student- and a tourist sample. Two characteristics of terrorism were varied systematically: frequency (whether terrorism hits a destination where terrorism is frequent or infrequent) and degree of organization (whether terrorism is co...

  16. Effect of stress on pain perception in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGhamdi, Kholoud S; AlSheikh Mona H

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of physical and mental stressors on pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pressure pain tolerance (PTOL) values, and to compare these different types of stressors on its ability to affect PPT and PTOL values in young women. We also correlated body mass index (BMI) with PPT and PTOL in young women.This was a self-controlled study carried out on 79 second-year female medical students in the Department of Physiology, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the year 2007. The students were assessed before, and after they were subjected to a mental (exam), and 2 physical stressors. Measurements of PPT and PTOL were carried out using a pressure algometer. The 2 physical stressors used were: cold water immersion and isometric exercise (ISO EX) with a dynamometer. Students' body mass indices were measured in addition to the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate for each student before, and after exposure to the stressors. All 3 stressors significantly increased the PPT values (p=0.000). The PTOL was also significantly increased immediately after exposure to the physical stressors (p=0.000), while for the mental stressor, the PTOL readings were not significantly increased. Among the 3 types of stressors, the cold water immersion was the most effective in increasing PPT and PTOL. Moreover, a significant (p=0.009) negative correlation was demonstrated between the BMI and PTOL readings. Various types of physical and mental stressors significantly increased PPT and PTOL readings in young female adults, in addition to the significant findings that students with higher body mass indices tolerated pain less. (author)

  17. Teachers' perceptions of effective science, technology, and mathematics professional development and changes in classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriack, Anna Christine

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into

  18. The effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlin, M

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception. These experiments tested the appropriateness of two adult time-perception models (attentional and storage size) for younger ages. Children were given stimulus sets of equal time which varied by level of processing (deep/shallow) and quantity (list length). In the first experiment, 28 children in Grade 6 reproduced presentation times of various quantities of pictures under deep (living/nonliving categorization) or shallow (repeating label) conditions. Students also compared pairs of durations. In the second experiment, 128 children in Grades K, 2, 4, and 6 reproduced presentation times under similar conditions with three or six pictures and with deep or shallow processing requirements. Deep processing led to decreased estimation of time. Higher quantity led to increased estimation of time. Comparative judgments were influenced by quantity. The interaction between age and depth of processing was significant. Older children were more affected by depth differences than were younger children. Results were interpreted as supporting different aspects of each adult model as explanations of children's time perception. The processing effect supported the attentional model and the quantity effect supported the storage size model.

  19. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eAlsius

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e. a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  20. Person perception from changing emotional expressions: primacy, recency, or averaging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xia; van Kleef, Gerben A; Sauter, Disa A

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic changes in emotional expressions are a valuable source of information in social interactions. As the expressive behaviour of a person changes, the inferences drawn from the behaviour may also change. Here, we test the possibility that dynamic changes in emotional expressions affect person perception in terms of stable trait attributions. Across three experiments, we examined perceivers' inferences about others' personality traits from changing emotional expressions. Expressions changed from one emotion ("start emotion") to another emotion ("end emotion"), allowing us to disentangle potential primacy, recency, and averaging effects. Drawing on three influential models of person perception, we examined perceptions of dominance and affiliation (Experiment 1a), competence and warmth (Experiment 1b), and dominance and trustworthiness (Experiment 2). A strong recency effect was consistently found across all trait judgments, that is, the end emotion of dynamic expressions had a strong impact on trait ratings. Evidence for a primacy effect was also observed (i.e. the information of start emotions was integrated), but less pronounced, and only for trait ratings relating to affiliation, warmth, and trustworthiness. Taken together, these findings suggest that, when making trait judgements about others, observers weigh the most recently displayed emotion in dynamic expressions more heavily than the preceding emotion.

  1. Source Credibility and the Biasing Effect of Narrative Information on the Perception of Vaccination Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.

  2. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  3. Effective communication: perception of two anti-smoking advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, A; McEwen, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents part of a survey which investigated people's response to different approaches to health education campaigns. The main objective of the original study was to find out whether the respondents preferred a fear-inducing campaign or a positive image advertising. Two anti-smoking advertisement produced by the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS), one using a fear appeal and the other, using a positive image were examined. A sample of 394 subjects in three age groups took part in the study and they were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. A high proportion in each group, including smokers indicated that they preferred the fear-inducing campaign. To investigate why people prefer this type of image, respondents were asked to explain their reasons. It was found that effective communication requires: (1) reality, (2) clear cut message, (3) simplicity, and (4) thought provoking nature and impact of the message. In addition, with regard to the advertising appeals it was found that both positive image and negative image campaigns could be used to attract attention and consequently communicate with the target population. Finally, the findings of this study in the light of psychosocial theories are discussed, and the Preference Model is proposed as providing a better understanding of the process behind people's preferences.

  4. Professionals' perceptions of the effect of pornography on Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    The aims were to gain a deeper understanding of how personnel, who work with adolescents, reason about the effect of pornography and its spread in the media, and to explore how well prepared they consider themselves to be in addressing sexual health and gender equality. An inductive, exploratory, qualitative study with focus group discussions was selected. Seventeen participants with different professions were invited into five heterogeneous groups. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Conflicting messages about sexuality became the core category. Participants were of the opinion that pornography conveyed a contradictory message compared with national public health goals, societal laws, and regulations. They believed that young people use pornography as a source of information and stimulation. Furthermore, they thought that pornography contributed to norm-creating ideals and a demanding sexuality, thus, confirming the traditional gender order. The participants opined that a professional approach was required when addressing sexuality and gender equality issues and requested better training tools and more cultural competence. Professionals working with adolescents perceived that pornography conveys a conflicting message about sexuality. They expressed a need for adequate tools for improving education on health and sexuality, including gender equality aspects and critical media analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  6. Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, A

    1985-01-01

    Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

  7. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  8. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of e-Cigarette Advertisements on Adolescents' Perceptions of Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Popova, Lucy; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-12-13

    This study examined the effect of exposure to "cigalike" (products resembling cigarettes) e-cigarette advertisements on adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. A nationally representative sample of 802 adolescents (13-17 years old) was randomly assigned to watch three e-cigarette or three control advertisements. Never-smokers who saw the e-cigarette advertisements (n = 352) reported significantly lower perceived risks of smoking than those in the control condition (n = 320). Ever-smokers (n = 130) did not show significant differences across the conditions. In subgroup analyses, current smokers (reported smoking in the past 30 days, n = 31) in the e-cigarette condition reported significantly lower perceived benefits of smoking than those in the control condition. E-cigarette advertisements can affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. Many advertisements, especially the ones promoting "cigalikes," depict e-cigarettes as being similar to cigarettes (e.g., look, flavor) but also as a solution for cigarettes' shortcomings (e.g., bad smell). While the advertisements include messages about problems posed by cigarettes, proposing e-cigarettes as a solution may decrease the perceived risks of smoking among never-smokers. It may also not be clear to adolescents whether advertisements are for cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Regulating e-cigarette advertisements to minimize adolescents' exposure may prevent potential harmful effects on never-smokers' perception of smoking.

  10. Satiation or availability? Effects of attention, memory, and imagery on the perception of ambiguous figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlitz, Krista L.; O'Leary, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The prolonged-inspection technique has been used to demonstrate effects of satiation on the perception of ambiguous figures. We propose that the inspection phase, in which subjects view an unambiguous version of the stimulus prior to observing the ambiguous figure, does not create neural fatigue but rather provides a context in which the alternative percept is apprehended and gains perceptual strength through processes such as imagination or memory. The consequent availability of the alternative organization drives the perceptual phenomena that have been thought to reflect satiation. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that (1) preexperimental exposure to the target figures and (2) allocation of attention to the inspection figures were both necessary in order to obtain results similar to those predicted by the satiation model. In Experiment 2, we obtained similar results, finding that effects of prior inspection were greater the greater the amount and availability of information regarding the alternative percept during the inspection phase. Subjects who generated visual images of the noninspected alternative during inspection yielded results comparable to those from subjects to whom both versions were presented visually.

  11. Effects of standardised cigarette packaging on craving, motivation to stop and perceptions of cigarettes and packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Chong, Chwen B; Aspinall, Emily; Michie, Susan; McEwen, Andy

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether standardised packs of the form introduced in Australia are associated with a reduction in acute craving and/or an increase in motivation to stop, and to replicate previous findings on perceptions of packaging, perceptions of smokers using it and perceived effects on behaviour. Following abstinence of at least 12 h, 98 regular and occasional smokers were randomised to exposure to their own cigarette package, another branded package or a standardised package. Craving (QSU-brief), motivation to stop, both at baseline and post-exposure. Ratings of 10 attributes concerning package design, perceived smoker characteristics and effects on behaviour, post-exposure only. For craving, a mixed model ANCOVA showed a significant interaction of packaging and time of measurement (F(2,94) = 8.77, p interaction for motivation to stop smoking (p = .9). The standardised pack was perceived to be significantly less appealing and less motivating to buy cigarettes, smokers using them were perceived as less popular and cigarettes from them expected to taste worse. Standardised cigarette packaging may reduce acute (hedonic) craving and is associated with more negative perceptions than branded packaging with less prominent health warnings.

  12. Gender and cultural effects on perception of psychological violence in the partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Álvarez, Carmen; Estrada Aranda, Benito; López Huerto, José A

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting similar figures of couple (man-woman) violence and works questioning the validity of the instruments employed have generated controversy about the conceptualization of this construct. One of the critical issues is the different ways of perceiving violence between men and women, as well as its nature in the cultural context. This may affect self-reported answers. A questionnaire evaluating the degree of violence perceived in ten kinds of psychological partner abuse was applied. 1750 students from Spain and Mexico, all of them randomly selected, completed it. Through MANOVA, greater perception of violence in the Spanish sample than in the Mexican one was obtained; in both countries, there was a greater perception in women than in men. Effects of gender-culture interaction were obtained in four dimensions: Isolation, Sexual Pressure, Emotional Manipulation, and Dominance. Multidimensional scaling showed two perceived dimensions: (1) "Proactive-Passive Tactics", stronger in the Spanish culture and (2) "Punitive-Emotional Tactics", stronger in the Mexican culture. These results confirm gender-culture effects in perception of psychological violence in the partner.

  13. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  14. A RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON PERCEPTION OF SUPPORT FOR INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÖNÜL KAYA ÖZBAĞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of organizational climate is fairly important in terms of improving innovation in organizations. For that reason, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of organizational climate dimensions (organizational encouragement, supervisory support, team support, otonomy, participation flexibility and communication on perception of support for innovation. Here the aim is trying to help administrators by determining the factors that increase or prevent innovation. Data obtained from 86 enterprises that are operating in Kocaeli is used in order to analyze the relationships among variables. After factor analysis, data is tested through correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings of research indicate that organizational climate dimensions affect perception of support for innovation.

  15. An investigation on the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on perceptions of service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on perceptions of service quality in city of Tehran, Iran in 2013. The study considers the behavior of citizens in terms of five perspectives including altruism, generosity, loyalty, social customs and courtesy. The study selects 229 regular employees of this municipality organization and applies a questionnaire designed in Likert scale. The results of Pearson correlation test as well as stepwise regression technique indicate that there were positive and meaningful relationships between organizational citizenship behavior including Altruism, (β = 0.445, Sig. =0.043, Social Customs, (β = 0.395, Sig. = 0.000, Generosity (β = 0.299, Sig. = 0.000, Loyalty (β = 0.193, Sig. =0.000 and Courtesy (β = 1.221, Sig. =0.000 and perceptions of service quality.

  16. Effects of hearing-aid dynamic range compression on spatial perception in a reverberant environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Henrik Gert; Wiinberg, Alan; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fast-acting hearing-aid compression on normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners’ spatial perception in a reverberant environment. Three compression schemes—independent compression at each ear, linked compression between the two ears, and “spatially ideal......” compression operating solely on the dry source signal—were considered using virtualized speech and noise bursts. Listeners indicated the location and extent of their perceived sound images on the horizontal plane. Linear processing was considered as the reference condition. The results showed that both...... independent and linked compression resulted in more diffuse and broader sound images as well as internalization and image splits, whereby more image splits were reported for the noise bursts than for speech. Only the spatially ideal compression provided the listeners with a spatial percept similar...

  17. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidian A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ali Navidian,1 Shahindokht Navabi Rigi,2 Parvin Soltani2 1Department of Counseling, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; 2Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IranBackground: Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women.Methods: This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50 and control (n=50. Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20 with descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001. Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling.Discussion: Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. Keywords: group sexual counseling, belief, attitude

  18. Effects of cautionary messages and vulnerability factors on viewers' perceptions of alcohol advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Dwayne C; Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming

    2005-09-01

    This study examined how individual difference vulnerability factors affect college students' perceptions of beer commercial actors' age, attractiveness and drinking. We were also interested in whether viewers' exposure to a cautionary message would affect their perceptions of the actors' drinking behavior. Three groups of college students were exposed to the same set of two alcohol advertisements. After watching the ads, each group received a different cautionary message prior to answering questions about the ad's content: (1) a neutral message (viewed by 42% [n = 119] of the sample), (2) a U.S. federal warning (viewed by 31% [n = 89]) and (3) an industry message (viewed by 27% [n = 76]). We also examined three putative vulnerability factors: age (underage 21 or not), gender and family history of alcohol problems (yes or no) as well as the effects of quantity-frequency of alcohol consumption, episodic heavy drinking, severity of alcohol dependence, disinhibition sensation seeking and the eight factors of the Alcohol Expectancy Scale. The cautionary messages had no effect on viewers' perceptions of characters' age, attractiveness and drinking behavior. Although neither of the commercials depicted the physical act of drinking, the student raters nevertheless perceived the characters to be heavy episodic drinkers. Those reporting more alcohol dependence symptoms perceived increased drinking for the male characters, as did females and viewers with expectancies for social and physical pleasure. Perceptions of the drinking in beer commercials are based in part on the character depicted in the ad and in part on the demographic and personal vulnerability factors of the viewer.

  19. Self-perception of knowledge and adherence reflecting the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli-Hernandez, Carolina; Lucchetta, Rosa Camila; de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandez; Mastroianni, Patricia de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate which indirect method for assessing adherence best reflects highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectiveness and the factors related to adherence. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2012 at a reference center of the state of São Paulo. Self-report (simplified medication adherence questionnaire [SMAQ]) and drug refill parameters were compared to the viral load (clinical parameter of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy [EP]) to evaluate the EP. The "Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Adhesión al Tratamiento Antiretroviral" (CEAT-VIH) was used to evaluate factors related to adherence and the EP and, complementarily, patient self-perception of adherence was compared to the clinical parameter of the EP. Seventy-five patients were interviewed, 60 of whom were considered as adherent from the clinical parameter of the EP and ten were considered as adherent from all parameters. Patient self-perception about adherence was the instrument that best reflected the EP when compared to the standardized self-report questionnaire (SMAQ) and drug refill parameter. The level of education and the level of knowledge on HAART were positively correlated to the EP. Forgetfulness, alcohol use, and lack of knowledge about the medications were the factors most frequently reported as a cause of nonadherence. A new parameter of patient self-perception of adherence, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive instrument, could be applied and assessed as easily as self-report (SMAQ) during monthly drug refill, since it allows monitoring adherence through pharmaceutical assistance. Therefore, patient adherence to HAART could be evaluated using self-perception (CEAT-VIH) and the viral load test.

  20. Gender effects in young road users on road safety attitudes, behaviours and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cordellieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.

  1. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  2. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Lopatin, Sergei; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  3. Student and faculty perceptions of effective clinical instructors in ADN programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac-Caille, A M; Oermann, M H

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of associate degree nursing (ADN) students and faculty of characteristics of effective clinical teachers and determine whether there were differences between these two groups. A survey was conducted of 292 students in various levels of their ADN programs and 59 faculty members from the same five programs, which were randomly selected from across Michigan. Data were collected using the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Inventory, which includes 48 characteristics of effective clinical instructors arranged in five subscales. Students identified "demonstrates clinical skills and judgment" as the most important characteristic of effective clinical instructors, while faculty identified "explains clearly" as the most important characteristic. There was agreement on 6 of the top 10 characteristics identified by both groups. Both groups rated "directs student to useful literature in nursing" as the least important characteristic of effective clinical instructors. The students' and faculty's perceptions of effective clinical instructors differed by subscales, with students identifying evaluation characteristics as most important (mean = 4.73, SD = .42) and faculty identifying interpersonal relationships as most important (mean = 4.72, SD = .31). A t test indicated a significant difference between student and faculty means for the interpersonal relationships subscales, with faculty rating this group of characteristics as more important than students did (t = 2.49, p = .0 14).

  4. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  5. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  7. HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS, AND ITS EFFECTS ON THEIR HEALTH BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi Selcuk TABAK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between health locus of control perceptions and health behaviours of adolescents as well as the effectiveness of lectures on health locus of control to them. The subjects of our study are 192 students in 6 groups of the 9. Grade students of a high school. Three groups of 108 students were randomly selected as the experiment group who were subjected to 4 class-hours specific lectures on health locus of control. The rest 84 students constituted the control group. A 34-item questionnaire for health behaviours and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, were filled by the students before and after the lectures. The lectures on health locus of control increased the perception of internal health locus of control of adolescents while decreasing chance health locus of control. The differences between experiment and control groups in this aspect were found to be statistically significant. Internal health locus of control is the main source for the increase of responsibility and management of individuals on their health. The relations that were detected between students’ health behaviours and information solicitation and their perceptions of health locus of control showed that the students with higher internal health locus of control are more eager to be responsible and active for their health, especially, for the health behaviours such as physical exercise, smoking, tooth-brushing, medical check-ups so on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 118-130

  8. The Effects of Self-Disclosure on Male and Female Perceptions of Individuals Who Stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; McGill, Megann; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Cappellini, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both videos, participants completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speakers. Controlling for observer and speaker gender, listeners were more likely to select speakers who self-disclosed their stuttering as more friendly, outgoing, and confident compared with speakers who did not self-disclose. Observers were more likely to select speakers who did not self-disclose as unfriendly and shy compared with speakers who used a self-disclosure statement. Controlling for self-disclosure and observer gender, observers were less likely to choose the female speaker as friendlier, outgoing, and confident compared with the male speaker. Observers also were more likely to select the female speaker as unfriendly, shy, unintelligent, and insecure compared with the male speaker and were more likely to report that they were more distracted when viewing the videos. Results lend support to the effectiveness of self-disclosure as a technique that persons who stutter can use to positively influence the perceptions of listeners.

  9. Embodied memory: effective and stable perception by combining optic flow and image structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception studies typically focus either on optic flow structure or image structure, but not on the combination and interaction of these two sources of information. Each offers unique strengths in contrast to the other's weaknesses. Optic flow yields intrinsically powerful information about 3D structure, but is ephemeral. It ceases when motion stops. Image structure is less powerful in specifying 3D structure, but is stable. It remains when motion stops. Optic flow and image structure are intrinsically related in vision because the optic flow carries one image to the next. This relation is especially important in the context of progressive occlusion, in which optic flow provides information about the location of targets hidden in subsequent image structure. In four experiments, we investigated the role of image structure in "embodied memory" in contrast to memory that is only in the head. We found that either optic flow (Experiment 1) or image structure (Experiment 2) alone were relatively ineffective, whereas the combination was effective and, in contrast to conditions requiring reliance on memory-in-the-head, much more stable over extended time (Experiments 2 through 4). Limits well documented for visual short memory (that is, memory-in-the-head) were strongly exceeded by embodied memory. The findings support J. J. Gibson's (1979/1986, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin) insights about progressive occlusion and the embodied nature of perception and memory.

  10. Word position and stress effects in consonant cluster perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilibrasi, Luca; Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the saliency effect for word beginnings reported in children with dyslexia (Marshall & Van der Lely, 2009) can be found also in typically developing children. Thirty-four typically developing Italian children aged 8-10 years completed two specifically designed tasks: a production task and a perception task. Both tasks used nonwords containing clusters consisting of plosive plus liquid (e.g. pl). Clusters could be either in a stressed or in an unstressed syllable and could be either in initial position (first syllable) or in medial position (second syllable). In the production task, children were asked to repeat the nonwords. In the perception task, the children were asked to discriminate between two nonwords differing in one phoneme belonging to a cluster by reporting whether two repetitions were the same or different. Results from the production task showed that children are more accurate in repeating stressed than unstressed syllables, but there was no difference with respect to position of the cluster. Results from the perception task showed that children performed more accurately when discriminating word initial contrasts than when discriminating word medial contrasts, especially if the cluster was unstressed. Implications of this finding for clinical assessments are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of semiconductor GaAs laser irradiation on pain perception in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkovic, N.; Manev, H.; Pericic, D.; Skala, K.; Jurin, M.; Persin, A.; Kubovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of subacute exposure (11 exposures within 16 days) of mice to the low power (GaAs) semiconductive laser-stimulated irradiation on pain perception was investigated. The pain perception was determined by the latency of foot-licking or jumping from the surface of a 53 degrees C hot plate. Repeated hot-plate testing resulted in shortening of latencies in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. Laser treatment (wavelength, 905 nm; frequency, 256 Hz; irradiation time, 50 sec; pulse duration, 100 nsec; distance, 3 cm; peak irradiance, 50 W/cm2 in irradiated area; and total exposure, 0.41 mJ/cm2) induced further shortening of latencies, suggesting its stimulatory influence on pain perception. Administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) prolonged the latency of response to the hot plate in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. This prolongation tended to be lesser in laser-irradiated animals. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism of the observed effect of laser.

  12. Health Professionals' Perceptions of the Effects of Exercise on Joint Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Serena; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Jones, Jeremy G; Markland, David A; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2017-09-01

    Although exercise is an important factor in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), research indicates that patients perceive that health professionals (HPs) are uncertain about the place of exercise in treatment and its relationship with joint damage. The present study investigated the perceptions of HPs regarding the effects of exercise on joint health in RA patients. A questionnaire investigating perceptions of exercise and joint health was distributed via professional networks and websites. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to analyse questionnaire data and develop a focus group interview guide. Focus groups were conducted with multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) of rheumatology HPs and analysed using framework analysis. A total of 137 rheumatology HPs (95 female; 27-65 years of age) completed questionnaires. CFA showed that a four-factor model provided a marginally acceptable fit. Analysis of four focus groups (n = 24; 19 female; 30-60 years of age) identified five themes relating to HPs' perceptions of exercise and joint health in RA patients: 'Exercise is beneficial', 'Concerns about damage to joints', 'Patients have barriers to exercise', 'HP knowledge differs' and 'Patients may think service delivery is vague'. HPs were highly aware of the benefits and importance of exercise for RA patients. However, to remove the patient perception that HPs lack certainty and clarity regarding exercise it is important to ensure: (i) consistent promotion of exercise across the whole MDT; (ii) clear provision of information regarding rest, joint protection and exercise; (iii) HP education to ensure consistent, accurate knowledge, and understanding of the potential for conflicting advice when promoting exercise as part of an MDT. Copy © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The effect of a medical opinion on self-perceptions of weight for Mexican adults: perception of change and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Román Sicilia, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the relationship between perceived and actual Body Mass Index (BMI) and the effect of a prior identification of obesity by a medical professional for adults using difference in response for two distinct BMI self-perception questions. Typically, self-perception studies only investigate the relation with current weight, whereas here the focus is on the self-perception of weight differences. A statistical approach was used to assess responses to the Mexican ENSANUT 2006 survey. Adults in the range of BMI from 13 to 60 were tested on responses to a categorical question and a figure rating scale self-perception question. Differences in response by gender and identification of obesity by a medical professional were analysed using linear regression. Results indicated that regardless of current BMI and gender, a verbal intervention by a medical professional will increase perceived BMI independently of actual BMI but does not necessarily make the identified obese more accurate in their BMI estimates. A shift in the average self-perception was seen with a higher response for the identified obese. A linear increase in perceived BMI as a function of actual BMI was observed in the range BMI self-image, to be considerably less. It was seen that an identification of obesity by a health care professional did not improve ability to judge weight but, rather, served as a new anchor from which the identified obese judge their weight, suggesting that even those identified obese who have lost weight, perceive their weight to be greater than it actually is. We believe that these results can be explained in terms of two cognitive biases; the self-serving bias and the anchoring bias.

  14. Effects of ecstasy on cooperative behaviour and perception of trustworthiness: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L H; Ferguson, B; Morgan, C J A; Swaboda, N; Jones, L; Fenton, R; Wall, M B; Curran, H V

    2014-11-01

    Acute recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') can promote pro-social effects which may alter interpersonal perceptions. To explore such effects, this study investigated whether acute recreational use of ecstasy was associated with changes in individual perception of trustworthiness of people's faces and co-operative behaviours. An independent group, repeated measures design was used in which 17 ecstasy users were tested on the night of drug use (day 0) and again three days later (day 3); 22 controls were tested on parallel days. On each day, participants rated the trustworthiness of 66 faces, carried out three co-operative behaviour tasks (public good; dictator; ultimatum game) and completed mood self-ratings. Acute ecstasy use was associated with increased face trustworthiness ratings and increased cooperative behaviour on the dictator and ultimatum games; on day 3 there were no group differences on any task. Self-ratings showed the standard acute ecstasy effects (euphoria, energy, jaw clenching) with negative effects (less empathy, compassion, more distrust, hostility) emerging on day 3. Our findings of increased perceived trustworthiness and co-operative behaviours following use of ecstasy suggest that a single dose of the drug enhances aspects of empathy. This may in turn contribute to its popularity as a recreational drug and potentially to its enhancement of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. An Empirical Investigation of Consumer Price Perception and Reputation Dimensions’ Effects on Attitude Toward Private Label Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Haidong; Sadeque, Saalem

    2007-01-01

    The study empirically investigated the effects of consumer price perception dimension and reputation dimension on attitude toward private label brands among young Swedish consumers. Consumer price perception dimension includes value consciousness, price consciousness, and price-quality association factors. Reputation dimension includes retailer’s reputation, existence of word-of-mouth (WOM), positive WOM, and negative WOM. Previous studies have found that factors under the consumer price perc...

  17. Similar effects of feature-based attention on motion perception and pursuit eye movements at different levels of awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Feature-based attention enhances visual processing and improves perception, even for visual features that we are not aware of. Does feature-based attention also modulate motor behavior in response to visual information that does or does not reach awareness? Here we compare the effect of feature-based attention on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements in response to moving dichoptic plaids–stimuli composed of two orthogonally-drifting gratings, presented separately to each eye–in ...

  18. Cultural competence and perceptions of community health workers' effectiveness for reducing health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda M; Okoye, Mekam T; Boulware, L Ebony; Carson, Kathryn A; Marsteller, Jill A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions improve health outcomes of patients from underserved communities, but health professionals' perceptions of their effectiveness may impede integration of CHWs into health care delivery systems. Whether health professionals' attitudes and skills, such as those related to cultural competence, influence perceptions of CHWs, is unknown. A questionnaire was administered to providers and clinical staff from 6 primary care practices in Maryland from April to December 2011. We quantified the associations of self-reported cultural competence and preparedness with attitudes toward the effectiveness of CHWs using logistic regression adjusting for respondent age, race, gender, provider/staff status, and years at the practice. We contacted 200 providers and staff, and 119 (60%) participated. Those reporting more cultural motivation had higher odds of perceiving CHWs as helpful for reducing health care disparities (odds ratio [OR] = 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.48-28.80). Those reporting more frequent culturally competent behaviors also had higher odds of believing CHWs would help reduce health disparities (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.61-7.92). Attitudes toward power and assimilation were not associated with perceptions of CHWs. Cultural preparedness was associated with perceived utility of CHWs in reducing health care disparities (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.21-4.51). Providers and staff with greater cultural competence and preparedness have more positive expectations of CHW interventions to reduce healthcare disparities. Cultural competency training may complement the use of CHWs and support their effective integration into primary care clinics that are seeking to reduce disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Ghanaian parents' perceptions of pre and postnatal nutrient supplements and their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine P; Okronipa, Harriet; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Kumordzie, Sika; Oaks, Brietta M; Ocansey, Maku E; Young, Rebecca R; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-15

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been studied in efficacy and effectiveness trials, but little is known about how parents perceive the products and their effects. In a randomised trial in Ghana, efficacy of SQ-LNS provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum and to their children from 6 to 18 months of age was assessed by comparison with iron-folic acid (IFA) capsules and multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules provided to women. In a follow-up study conducted when the index children from the original trial were between 4 and 6 years of age, we used survey-based methods to assess retrospective and current parental perceptions of nutrient supplements generally and of SQ-LNS and their effects compared with perceptions IFA and MMN capsules. Most parents perceived that the assigned supplements (SQ-LNS, IFA, or MMN) positively impacted the mother during pregnancy (approximately 89% of both mothers and fathers) and during lactation (84% of mothers and 86% of fathers). Almost all (≥90%) of mothers and fathers perceived that the assigned supplement positively impacted the index child and expected continued positive impacts on the child's health and human capital into the future. A smaller percentage of parents perceived negative impacts of the supplements (7%-17% of mothers and 4%-12% of fathers). Perceptions of positive impacts and of negative impacts did not differ by intervention group. The results suggest that similar populations would likely be receptive to programs to deliver SQ-LNS or micronutrient capsules. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts...... radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion...

  1. Hearing Loss in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion: Actual and Simulated Effects on Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Conductive hearing loss simulations have attempted to estimate the speech-understanding difficulties of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). However, the validity of this approach has not been evaluated. The research aim of the present study was to investigate whether a simple, frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation of OME-related hearing loss was able to reflect the actual effects of conductive hearing loss on speech perception. Forty-one school-age children with OME-related hearing loss were recruited. Each child with OME was matched with a same sex and age counterpart with normal hearing to make a participant pair. Pure-tone threshold differences at octave frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz for every participant pair were used as the simulation attenuation levels for the normal-hearing children. Another group of 41 school-age otologically normal children were recruited as a control group without actual or simulated hearing loss. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test was utilized, and sentence recall accuracy at four signal to noise ratios (SNR) considered representative of classroom-listening conditions were derived, as well as reception thresholds for sentences (RTS) in quiet and in noise using adaptive protocols. The speech perception in quiet and in noise of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly poorer than that of otologically normal children. Analysis showed that RTS in quiet of children with OME-related hearing loss and of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly correlated and comparable. A repeated-measures analysis suggested that sentence recall accuracy obtained at 5-dB SNR, 0-dB SNR, and -5-dB SNR was similar between children with actual and simulated OME-related hearing loss. However, RTS in noise in children with OME was significantly better than that for children with simulated OME-related hearing loss. The present frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation method reflected

  2. The moderating effect of teamwork perceptions on the organizational politics--job satisfaction relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, M; Witt, L A

    2001-06-01

    By using regression analyses on data from 355 full-time employees of a customer-service organization in the eastern United States, the authors tested the hypothesis that perceptions of organizational politics are more strongly related to job dissatisfaction among individuals who perceive low levels of teamwork importance than among those who perceive high levels of teamwork importance. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis of the data revealed that the moderating effect of teamwork importance was most relevant at average-to-high levels of perceived politics. That finding supports the assertion that one way to address the negative impact of organizational politics is to try to ensure that employees value teamwork.

  3. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  4. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  5. General practitioners' perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions: an exploration of underlying constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions shown to be effective through clinical trials are not readily implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, little is known regarding how clinicians construct their perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions. This study aims to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the nature of 'effectiveness'. Methods The design was qualitative in nature using the repertory grid technique to elicit the constructs underlying the perceived effectiveness of a range of medical interventions. Eight medical interventions were used as stimuli (diclophenac to reduce acute pain, cognitive behaviour therapy to treat depression, weight loss surgery to achieve weight loss, diet and exercise to prevent type 2 diabetes, statins to prevent heart disease, stopping smoking to prevent heart disease, nicotine replacement therapy to stop smoking, and stop smoking groups to stop smoking. The setting involved face-to-face interviews followed by questionnaires in London Primary Care Trusts. Participants included a random sample of 13 general practitioners. Results Analysis of the ratings showed that the constructs clustered around two dimensions: low patient effort versus high patient effort (dimension one, and small impact versus large impact (dimension two. Dimension one represented constructs such as 'success requires little motivation', 'not a lifestyle intervention', and 'health-care professional led intervention'. Dimension two represented constructs such as 'weak and/or minimal evidence of effectiveness', 'small treatment effect for users', 'a small proportion of users will benefit' and 'not cost-effective'. Constructs within each dimension were closely related. Conclusions General practitioners judged the effectiveness of medical interventions by considering two broad dimensions: the extent to which interventions involve patient effort, and the size of their impact. The latter is informed by trial evidence, but

  6. [Effects of nurses' perception of servant leadership on leader effectiveness, satisfaction and additional effort: focused on the mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Kim, Nam Eun

    2012-02-01

    This study was done to examine the effects of nurses' perception of servant leadership on leader effectiveness, satisfaction and promoting additional effort. The focus was the mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence. Data were collected from 361 RN-BSN students and nurses participating in nationally attended in-service training programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural analysis with SPSS 17.0 windows program and Amos 7.0. Direct effects of nurses' perception of servant leadership were negative, but mediating effects of trust and value congruency were positively correlated with leader effectiveness, satisfaction and additional effort, that is servant leadership should be effective through mediating factors. The study results indicate that if the middle managers of nurses can build leader trust and value congruency between nurses through servant leadership, leader effectiveness, satisfaction and additional effort on the part of the nurses could result in a positive change in the long term.

  7. The effects of objectification on stereotypical perception and attractiveness of women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollero Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectification has been found to have negative consequences on how women are perceived by others. However in an even more sexualized world being a sexual object has become a standard of physical attractiveness for women and objectification could foster a positive evaluation increasing attractiveness. Although Objectification Theory was originally grounded in women’s experiences, some research points to the promise of Objectification Theory for understanding men’s experiences as well. The aim of the paper was investigating the effects of objectification on gender stereotypes and perceived attractiveness. Two experimental studies were conducted. Study 1 (N=139 investigated the effects of objectification on female targets. Study 2 (N=146 investigated the effects on male targets. In both studies three dependent variables were considered: communality, agency, and attractiveness. Results of Study 1 revealed that objectified women were considered less communal and more attractive. Moreover, men perceived objectified women less agentic than the non-objectified ones, whereas women showed the opposite perception. Concerning men, objectification has a limited impact, as it interacted with participants’ gender only on communality: men considered objectified males more communal than the non-objectified ones, while women revealed the opposite perception.

  8. [Effects of message and personal involvement on risk perception and acceptance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuchi, A; Takigawa, T

    1999-10-01

    The present study analyzed people's risk perception regarding driving a car with studded or non-studded winter tires. Subjects were 252 residents of Sapporo, where a recent municipal ordinance prohibited studded tires, allowing only non-studded ones. Questionnaire data were examined concerning (1) the relationship between risk perception and its acceptance, (2) the effect of an inserted message, which was either positive or negative about the use of non-studded tires, and (3) the role of personal involvement, assessed with Personal Involvement Inventory (Zaichkowsky, 1985), regarding winter driving. Results were as follows: (1) The use of non-studded tires was favorably judged because of social benefit, but subjects hesitated to choose them because of a higher perceived possibility of an accident. (2) The inserted message had significant effects on benefit evaluation and perceived accident possibility. The effects were weaker for drivers who had experienced driving a car with studded tires. And (3) personal involvement had a weak correlation with risk judgements of the present study.

  9. Effects of sound amplification in self-perception of tinnitus and hearing loss in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Melo Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the use of hearing aids in self-perception of tinnitus and hearing loss in the elderly. METHODS: A total of 24 elderly patients between 60 and 70 years of age with moderate-grade sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated and divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of tinnitus. All volunteers were fitted with binaural micro-channel hearing aids of the same brand and model and submitted to tests, scales, and questionnaires relevant to this topic. The evaluations were performed before and after one and three months of effective use of these hearing aids. RESULTS: Acoustic stimulation through the effective use of hearing aids caused a reduction in the perception of tinnitus sound intensity (especially in evaluations with the prosthesis on and in nuisance associated with this symptom and with hearing loss. In addition, all participants were satisfied with the use of hearing aids. CONCLUSION: The continuous use of hearing aids is beneficial for the treatment of tinnitus and hearing loss, bringing satisfaction to users.

  10. Effectiveness of online simulation training: Measuring faculty knowledge, perceptions, and intention to adopt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Park, Chang; O'Rourke, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Best practice standards of simulation recommend standardized simulation training for nursing faculty. Online training may offer an effective and more widely available alternative to in-person training. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study evaluated the effectiveness of an online simulation training program, examining faculty's foundational knowledge of simulation as well as perceptions and intention to adopt. One-group pretest-posttest design. A large school of nursing with a main campus and five regional campuses in the Midwestern United States. Convenience sample of 52 faculty participants. Knowledge of foundational simulation principles was measured by pre/post-training module quizzes. Perceptions and the intention to adopt simulation were measured using the Faculty Attitudes and Intent to Use Related to the Human Patient Simulator questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in faculty knowledge after training and observable improvements in attitudes. Attitudes significantly influenced the intention to adopt simulation (B=2.54, p<0.001). Online simulation training provides an effective alternative for training large numbers of nursing faculty who seek to implement best practice of standards within their institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception and recognition memory of words and werds: two-way mirror effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Goldinger, Stephen D; Stone, Gregory O

    2006-10-01

    We examined associative priming of words (e.g., TOAD) and pseudohomophones of those words (e.g., TODE) in lexical decision. In addition to word frequency effects, reliable base-word frequency effects were observed for pseudohomophones: Those based on high-frequency words elicited faster and more accurate correct rejections. Associative priming had disparate effects on high- and low-frequency items. Whereas priming improved performance to high-frequency pseudohomophones, it impaired performance to low-frequency pseudohomophones. The results suggested a resonance process, wherein phonologic identity and semantic priming combine to undermine the veridical perception of infrequent items. We tested this hypothesis in another experiment by administering a surprise recognition memory test after lexical decision. When asked to identify words that were spelled correctly during lexical decision, the participants often misremembered pseudohomophones as correctly spelled items. Patterns of false memory, however, were jointly affected by base-word frequencies and their original responses during lexical decision. Taken together, the results are consistent with resonance accounts of word recognition, wherein bottom-up and top-down information sources coalesce into correct, and sometimes illusory, perception. The results are also consistent with a recent lexical decision model, REM-LD, that emphasizes memory retrieval and top-down matching processes in lexical decision.

  12. Perception of Science Standards' Effectiveness and Their Implementation by Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Yakobovitch, Anat

    2011-06-01

    The introduction of standards into the education system poses numerous challenges and difficulties. As with any change, plans should be made for teachers to understand and implement the standards. This study examined science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the standards for teaching and learning, and the extent and ease/difficulty of implementing science standards in different grades. The research used a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research tools were questionnaires that were administered to elementary school science teachers. The majority of the teachers perceived the standards in science as effective for teaching and learning and only a small minority viewed them as restricting their pedagogical autonomy. Differences were found in the extent of implementation of the different standards and between different grades. The teachers perceived a different degree of difficulty in the implementation of the different standards. The standards experienced as easiest to implement were in the field of biology and materials, whereas the standards in earth sciences and the universe and technology were most difficult to implement, and are also those evaluated by the teachers as being implemented to the least extent. Exposure of teachers' perceptions on the effectiveness of standards and the implementation of the standards may aid policymakers in future planning of teachers' professional development for the implementation of standards.

  13. The relationship between patients' perceptions of team effectiveness and their care experience in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Amira; Rhodes, Karin V; Burchill, Christian N; Datner, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    Effective teamwork is important in the fast-paced Emergency Department (ED) setting. Most of the teamwork literature addresses the provider's perspective of teamwork rather than the patient's perspective. Examine the relationship between patients' perceptions of teamwork and care experience in the ED. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of adult patients seen at the University of Pennsylvania ED during the fall of 2011. Patients rated overall satisfaction, pain management, trust, and confidence in the team and likelihood of treatment compliance (outcomes) and four components of team effectiveness (role clarity, shared goals, relationships, and job satisfaction) on a Likert scale. We examined the relationship between patients' perception of teamwork and the outcomes using multivariate analysis, controlling for sociodemographic factors. We collected 1010 surveys. Patients rated the individual components of teamwork equally, with about 70% rating teamwork as "Very High." Most patients who rated teamwork highly also rated their confidence and trust in their providers highly (80-90%) compared to 20% of those who rated teamwork lower. The relative risk ratios between high and low teamwork were 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-5.9) for overall satisfaction, 3.9 (95% CI 2.7-5.8) for satisfaction with pain treatment, 5.3 (95% CI 3.6-7.8) for confidence in providers, and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.5) for likelihood to follow-up treatment recommendations. Patient satisfaction and willingness to adhere to treatment recommendations are highly correlated with patients' perceptions of ED teamwork. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Differences in Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture between Charge and Noncharge Nurses: Implications for Effectiveness Outcomes Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleise Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of evidence-based practice guidelines can be influenced by nurses’ perceptions of the organizational safety culture. Shift-by-shift management of each nursing unit is designated to a subset of staff nurses (charge nurses, whom are often recruited as champions for change. The findings indicate that compared to charge nurses, noncharge nurses were more positive about overall perceptions of safety (=.05 and teamwork (<.05. Among charge nurses, significant differences were observed based on the number of years’ experience in charge: perception of teamwork within units [(3,365=3.52, <.01]; overall perceptions of safety, [(3,365=4.20, <.05]; safety grade for work area [(3,360=2.61, <.05]; number of events reported within the last month [(3,362=3.49, <.05]. These findings provide important insights to organizational contextual factors that may impact effectiveness outcomes research in the future.

  15. Effects of prosody on spoken Thai word perception in pre-attentive brain processing: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipun Arunphalungsanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the unfamiliar stressed prosody on spoken Thai word perception in the pre-attentive processing of the brain evaluated by the N2a and brain wave oscillatory activity. EEG recording was obtained from eleven participants, who were instructed to ignore the sound stimuli while watching silent movies. Results showed that prosody of unfamiliar stress word perception elicited N2a component and the quantitative EEG analysis found that theta and delta wave powers were principally generated in the frontal area. It was possible that the unfamiliar prosody with different frequencies, duration and intensity of the sound of Thai words induced highly selective attention and retrieval of information from the episodic memory of the pre-attentive stage of speech perception. This brain electrical activity evidence could be used for further study in the development of valuable clinical tests to evaluate the frontal lobe function in speech perception.

  16. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  17. Electric current-induced detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms from surgical stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Biomaterial-centered infections of orthopedic percutaneous implants are serious complications which can ultimately lead to osteomyelitis, with devastating effects on bone and surrounding tissues, especially since the biofilm mode of growth offers protection against antibiotics and since removal

  18. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  19. Effects of a chemical imbalance causal explanation on individuals' perceptions of their depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Joshua J; Lickel, James J; Deacon, Brett J

    2014-05-01

    Although the chemical imbalance theory is the dominant causal explanation of depression in the United States, little is known about the effects of this explanation on depressed individuals. This experiment examined the impact of chemical imbalance test feedback on perceptions of stigma, prognosis, negative mood regulation expectancies, and treatment credibility and expectancy. Participants endorsing a past or current depressive episode received results of a bogus but credible biological test demonstrating their depressive symptoms to be caused, or not caused, by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Results showed that chemical imbalance test feedback failed to reduce self-blame, elicited worse prognostic pessimism and negative mood regulation expectancies, and led participants to view pharmacotherapy as more credible and effective than psychotherapy. The present findings add to a growing literature highlighting the unhelpful and potentially iatrogenic effects of attributing depressive symptoms to a chemical imbalance. Clinical and societal implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  1. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Arlt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.

  2. Self-perception of knowledge and adherence reflecting the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagli-Hernandez C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Dagli-Hernandez,1 Rosa Camila Lucchetta,1 Tales Rubens de Nadai,2 José Carlos Fernandez Galduróz,3 Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni1 1Department of Drugs and Medications, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, 2Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Americo Brasiliense State Hospital, 3Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To evaluate which indirect method for assessing adherence best reflects highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART effectiveness and the factors related to adherence. Method: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2012 at a reference center of the state of São Paulo. Self-report (simplified medication adherence questionnaire [SMAQ] and drug refill parameters were compared to the viral load (clinical parameter of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy [EP] to evaluate the EP. The “Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Adhesión al Tratamiento Antiretroviral” (CEAT-VIH was used to evaluate factors related to adherence and the EP and, complementarily, patient self-perception of adherence was compared to the clinical parameter of the EP. Results: Seventy-five patients were interviewed, 60 of whom were considered as adherent from the clinical parameter of the EP and ten were considered as adherent from all parameters. Patient self-perception about adherence was the instrument that best reflected the EP when compared to the standardized self-report questionnaire (SMAQ and drug refill parameter. The level of education and the level of knowledge on HAART were positively correlated to the EP. Forgetfulness, alcohol use, and lack of knowledge about the medications were the factors most frequently reported as a cause of nonadherence. Conclusion: A new parameter of patient self-perception of adherence, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive instrument, could be applied and assessed as easily as self

  3. [The CSI effect and its impact on the perceptions of forensic science experts' work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojer, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.

  4. Effects of Competing Narratives on Public Perceptions of Opioid Pain Reliever Addiction during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-10-01

    Opioid pain reliever addiction has increased among women of reproductive age over the last fifteen years. News media and public attention have focused on the implications of this trend for infants exposed to opioids prenatally, with state policy responses varying in the extent to which they are punitive or public health oriented. We fielded a six-group randomized experiment among a nationally representative sample of US adults to test the effects of narratives portraying a woman with opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy on beliefs about people addicted to opioid pain relievers, perceptions of treatment effectiveness, policy attitudes, and emotional responses. Portraying a high socioeconomic status (SES) woman in the narrative lowered perceptions of individual blame for addiction and reduced public support for punitive policies. Depicting the barriers to treatment faced by a low SES woman lowered support for punitive policies and increased support for expanded insurance coverage for treatment. The extent to which narratives portraying successfully treated addiction affected public attitudes depended on the SES of the woman portrayed. These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma toward this population, reduce support for punitive policies, and increase support for more public health-oriented approaches to addressing this problem. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  5. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.

  6. The effect of varying talker identity and listening conditions on gaze behavior during audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Julie N; Paré, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G

    2008-11-25

    During face-to-face conversation the face provides auditory and visual linguistic information, and also conveys information about the identity of the speaker. This study investigated behavioral strategies involved in gathering visual information while watching talking faces. The effects of varying talker identity and varying the intelligibility of speech (by adding acoustic noise) on gaze behavior were measured with an eyetracker. Varying the intelligibility of the speech by adding noise had a noticeable effect on the location and duration of fixations. When noise was present subjects adopted a vantage point that was more centralized on the face by reducing the frequency of the fixations on the eyes and mouth and lengthening the duration of their gaze fixations on the nose and mouth. Varying talker identity resulted in a more modest change in gaze behavior that was modulated by the intelligibility of the speech. Although subjects generally used similar strategies to extract visual information in both talker variability conditions, when noise was absent there were more fixations on the mouth when viewing a different talker every trial as opposed to the same talker every trial. These findings provide a useful baseline for studies examining gaze behavior during audiovisual speech perception and perception of dynamic faces.

  7. The Effect of Adolescent Training Program on Risky Health Behaviours and Health Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.

  8. Designing Effective Natural Hazards Preparedness Communications: Factors that Influence Perceptions and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Even though most people believe that natural hazards preparation is important for mitigating damage to their homes and basic survival in the aftermath of a disaster, few actually disaster-proof their homes, create plans, or obtain supplies recommended by agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Several observational studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics such as income and psychological characteristics such as self-efficacy affect whether or not an individual takes action to prepare for a natural hazard. These studies, however, only suggest that these characteristics may play a role. There has been little research that systematically investigates how these characteristics play a role in people's perceptions of recommended preparatory activities and decisions to perform them. Therefore, in Study 1, we explore people's perceptions of natural hazards preparedness measures on four dimensions: time, cost, helpfulness, and sense of preparedness. We further investigate if these responses vary by the socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of self-efficacy, knowledge, and income level. In Study 2, we experimentally test whether people's sense of self-efficacy, as it relates to natural hazards, can be manipulated through exposure to an "easy-and-effective" versus a "hard-and-effective" set of preparation measures. Our findings have implications for the design of natural hazards communication materials for the general public.

  9. Cigarette Design Features: Effects on Emission Levels, User Perception, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Richter, Patricia A; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Christina V; Watson, Clifford H

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information. Whereas filter ventilation results in lower machine-generated emissions, it also leads to perceptions of lighter taste and relative safety in smokers who can unwittingly employ more intense smoking behavior to obtain the desired amount of nicotine and sensory appeal. Filter additives that modify smoke emissions can also modify sensory cues, resulting in changes in smoking behavior. Flavor capsules increase the cigarette's appeal and novelty, and lead to misperceptions of reduced harm. Slim cigarettes have lower yields of some smoke emissions, but smoking behavior can be more intense than with standard cigarettes. Physical design features significantly impact machine-measured emission yields in cigarette smoke, product appeal, smoking behaviors, and exposures in smokers. The influence of current and emerging design features is important in understanding the effectiveness of regulatory actions to reduce smoking-related harm.

  10. Online Language Teaching: Teacher Perceptions of Effective Communication Tools, Required Skills and Challenges of Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Liesbeth; Zhu, Chang; Depryck, Koen

    2018-01-01

    To date, teacher perceptions of online language teaching have attracted very little attention. However, these perceptions may influence decisions regarding instructional design, teaching practices and eventually the learning experience. Furthermore, teacher perceptions can contribute to the design of teacher training programs. This study provides…

  11. A degradation model for stray current induced corrosion in underground reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of stray currents on durability and reinforcement corrosion of underground concrete structures. Cathodic protection of underground pipelines are stationary sources of stray current interference with concrete, and rail traction systems are non-stationary sources. The

  12. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance.

  13. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  14. Perceptions of effective relationships in an institutional care setting for older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Roos

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: This article reports older residents’ perceptions of effective relationships. Motivation for the study: Effective relationships protect against loneliness and depression and contribute to well-being. The facility was identified by a social worker as a showcase for effective relationships, but it was not clear what these consist of. Research approach, design and method: The World Café, a qualitative, participatory action research method, was applied to an economically deprived, urban facility caring for older people in Gauteng, South Africa. Three positively framed questions elicited perceptions from participants (nine men, ten women, aged 65–89. Visual and textual data were obtained and thematically analysed until saturation had been achieved. Themes were then subjected to deductive direct content analysis in terms of Self-Interactional Group Theory (SIGT. Main findings: Older residents perceive care managers as friendly and trustworthy and co-residents as caring. Care managers were seen as flexible, empathetic and congruent leaders and they confirmed residents. Relationships between residents were parallel-defined with relational qualities such as empathy and unconditional acceptance. Residents’ needs for privacy were honoured and they felt confirmed. Group dynamics were underpinned by caring and a stimulating environment provided opportunities for engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Relationships between managers and consumers are facilitated by flexibility, empathy, congruence and unconditional acceptance. Supportive group dynamics develop when people confirm and accept one another. A stimulating environment that encourages continuous and close interpersonal contact contributes to effective relationships. Contribution/value-add: Effective relationships should be understood on different levels.

  15. Spin current induced by a charged tip in a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchamkhalova, B.S., E-mail: s.bagun@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    We show that the charged tip of the probe microscope, which is widely used in studying the electron transport in low-dimensional systems, induces a spin current. The effect is caused by the spin–orbit interaction arising due to an electric field produced by the charged tip. The tip acts as a spin-flip scatterer giving rise to the spin polarization of the net current and the occurrence of a spin density in the system.

  16. Theory of in-plane current induced spin torque in metal/ferromagnet bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanashi, Kohei; Sigrist, Manfred; Chen, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach that simultaneously incorporates the spin Hall effect (SHE), spin diffusion, quantum well states, and interface spin–orbit coupling (SOC), we address the interplay of these mechanisms as the origin of the spin–orbit torque (SOT) induced by in-plane currents, as observed in the normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayer thin films. Focusing on the bilayers with a ferromagnet much thinner than its spin diffusion length, such as Pt/Co with  ∼10 nm thickness, our approach addresses simultaneously the two contributions to the SOT, namely the spin-transfer torque (SHE-STT) due to SHE-induced spin injection, and the inverse spin Galvanic effect spin–orbit torque (ISGE-SOT) due to SOC-induced spin accumulation. The SOC produces an effective magnetic field at the interface, hence it modifies the angular momentum conservation expected for the SHE-STT. The SHE-induced spin voltage and the interface spin current are mutually dependent and, hence, are solved in a self-consistent manner. The result suggests that the SHE-STT and ISGE-SOT are of the same order of magnitude, and the spin transport mediated by the quantum well states may be an important mechanism for the experimentally observed rapid variation of the SOT with respect to the thickness of the ferromagnet.

  17. Effects of a physical activity programme on body perception and composition in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Ricardo Contreras-Jordán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a six months' physical activity programme for overweight and obese adolescents, in order to improve the perception of their own body image and composition between two groups of adolescents, and to check possible gender differences. Aims The aim is to improve the body perception and composition in overweight adolescents with a physical activity programme. Methods It was a quasi-experimental design, with a control group and intervention group. Measures of pre-test and post-test were taken. A total of 38 adolescents that belong to the first cycle of Compulsory Secondary aged 12–15, with a body mass index (BMI higher than the 85th percentile according to the WHO (World Health Organization, participated in the intervention. The anthropometric variables, height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the circumference of the waist, hip, arm and medial calf, were measured pre- and post-treatment. The body image perception was measured using the Gardner test. The experimental group participated in the physical activity programme for a six months period. The physical activity intervention consisted of three sessions of 90 minutes each week in a sports centre. The structure of the sessions consisted of a warm-up (5–10 minutes, a main activity (60–70 minutes, combineding strength and cardiovascular training and a cool-down (7–10 minutes. Results After physical activity intervention the results showed significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group in the circumference of the waist, the hip, the arm, the medial calf (p<0.01 and as well as the fat percentage, the percentage of muscle mass (p<0.05. The results showed how the body image distortion presented a significant and negative correlation with the circumference of the waist (p<0.001, of the hips (p<0.01, and of the arm (p<0.001, differences were observed between gender. Conclusion Our study

  18. Effects of Rational-Emotive Health Education Program on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday

    2016-07-01

    Exploring beliefs about personal risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential to understanding what motivates people to engage in behaviors that reduce or increase their risk of HIV infection. Therefore, the current study's objective was to examine the effects of a Rational-Emotive Health Education Program (REHEP) on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria.Forty-four participants were identified as having high-risk perceptions about HIV infection through a self-report questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria. The treatment process was guided by a REHEP manual and consisted of 8 weeks of full intervention and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated measures analysis of variance to assess improvements in individual participants and across control and treatment group risk perceptions after the intervention.HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents did not differ across the treatment and control groups at baseline. Through REHEP, HIV risk perceptions significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to those in the control group. REHEP had significant effect on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents exposed to treatment group, despite their sex. Religious background did not determine the significant effect of REHEP on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents in the treatment group.Follow-up studies that would use a REHEP to assist client population from other parts of the country to promote HIV risk reduction, especially among those with high-risk behavior, are needed in Nigeria.

  19. Prolonged asymmetric vestibular stimulation induces opposite, long-term effects on self-motion perception and ocular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Botti, F M; Kyriakareli, A; Ferraresi, A; Faralli, M; Schieppati, M; Bronstein, A M

    2013-04-01

    Self-motion perception and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were investigated in healthy subjects during asymmetric whole body yaw plane oscillations while standing on a platform in the dark. Platform oscillation consisted of two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude (40°) but different duration, featuring a fast (FHC) and a slow half-cycle (SHC). Rotation consisted of four or 20 consecutive cycles to probe adaptation further with the longer duration protocol. Self-motion perception was estimated by subjects tracking with a pointer the remembered position of an earth-fixed visual target. VOR was measured by electro-oculography. The asymmetric stimulation pattern consistently induced a progressive increase of asymmetry in motion perception, whereby the gain of the tracking response gradually increased during FHCs and decreased during SHCs. The effect was observed already during the first few cycles and further increased during 20 cycles, leading to a totally distorted location of the initial straight-ahead. In contrast, after some initial interindividual variability, the gain of the slow phase VOR became symmetric, decreasing for FHCs and increasing for SHCs. These oppositely directed adaptive effects in motion perception and VOR persisted for nearly an hour. Control conditions using prolonged but symmetrical stimuli produced no adaptive effects on either motion perception or VOR. These findings show that prolonged asymmetric activation of the vestibular system leads to opposite patterns of adaptation of self-motion perception and VOR. The results provide strong evidence that semicircular canal inputs are processed centrally by independent mechanisms for perception of body motion and eye movement control. These divergent adaptation mechanisms enhance awareness of movement toward the faster body rotation, while improving the eye stabilizing properties of the VOR.

  20. Intensive foreign language learning reveals effects on categorical perception of sibilant voicing after only 3 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Derdau Sørensen, Stine

    2015-01-01

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories take place within 6-12 months of exposure to a foreign language. Results from laboratory language training show effects of very targeted training on non-native speech contrasts within only one to three weeks...... of training. Results from immersion studies are inconclusive, but some suggest continued effects on non-native speech perception after 6-8 years of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in the timing of adaptation to foreign speech sounds in a longitudinal study of foreign language learning....... We examined two groups of Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian Arabic) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive multi-faceted language training. We conducted two experiments (identification and discrimination) with the cadets who were tested four times: at the start...

  1. Teachers' Perceptions about the Barriers and Catalysts for Effective Practices with ICT in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakich, Eva

    This paper presents perceptions of four primary school teachers from two Victorian government primary schools about the barriers and catalyst for effective practices with ICT. Findings of the semi-structured qualitative interviews confirm results of previous studies indicating that access to reliable infrastructure, adequate technical support, and time pressures are still considered to be some of the most significant barriers to successful ICT integration in public schools. Teacher interviews however also reveal that the challenges of integrating ICT in teaching and learning can be counterbalanced by a number of variables, which include: owning a laptop, having access to ongoing professional learning, sharing effective practices, drawing on student expertise and being supported by a whole-school approach to teaching and learning with ICT.

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Teaching: A Comparative Study of Elementary School Teachers from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingqi; Muñoz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This international study investigated Chinese and American elementary school teachers' perceptions of effective teaching. The sample comprised Chinese (n = 108) and US (n = 110) participating teachers. The Effective Teaching Quality Survey (ETQS) was adopted for this comparative education research, an instrument that operationalized Stronge's…

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of Faculty and Student Perceptions of Effective Online Class Communities Using Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Rebecca; Welch, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative approach in understanding factors that are evident in effective online class communities. Instructors and students in the same class were asked about their perceptions regarding what constitutes an effective online experience. The analysis was done using both Herzberg's (1962, 1965) motivator-hygiene factors…

  4. Effect of Guided Collaboration on General and Special Educators' Perceptions of Collaboration and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a guided collaboration approach during professional learning community meetings (PLC's) on the perceptions of general and special educators as well as the effect on student performance as measured by benchmark evaluation. A mixed methodology approach was used to collect data through surveys, weekly…

  5. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

  6. Online technology use in physiotherapy teaching and learning: a systematic review of effectiveness and users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mącznik, Aleksandra K; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Baxter, G David

    2015-09-28

    The use of online technologies in health professionals' education, including physiotherapy, has been advocated as effective and well-accepted tools for enhancing student learning. The aim of this study was to critically review the effectiveness, and user perceptions of online technology for physiotherapy teaching and learning. Following databases were systematically searched on the 31(st) of August 2013 for articles describing implementation of online technologies into physiotherapy teaching and learning: ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic search complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Medline, Embase, and Scopus. No language, design or publishing date restrictions were imposed. Risk of bias was assessed using the 2011 Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool checklist (MMAT). A total of 4133 articles were retrieved; 22 articles met the inclusion criteria and were accepted for final analysis: 15 on the effectiveness of technology, and 14 on users' perceptions. Included studies used three designs: case study (14 articles), controlled trial (3), and randomized controlled trial (5). Studies investigated both pre-registration physiotherapy students (1523) and physiotherapy professionals (171). The quality of studies ranged from 67 to 100 % on the MMAT checklist which can be considered moderate to excellent. More than half of the studies (68 %) received scores greater than 80 %. Studies typically investigated websites and discussion boards. The websites are effective in enhancing practical skills performance, and discussion boards in knowledge acquisition, as well as in development of critical and reflective thinking. Students' perceptions of the use of websites were mostly positive, providing students with entertaining, easy accessible resources. Perceived barriers to the use of websites included difficulties with internet connection, insufficiently interactive material, or personal preference for paper-based materials. Discussion boards were perceived as

  7. Perception-Induced Effects of Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR) for Stereotypical and Admired Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voliotis, Seraphim; Vlachos, Pavlos A; Epitropaki, Olga

    2016-01-01

    How do stakeholders react to Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR)? What are the emotional mechanisms and behavioral outcomes following CSiR perception? The psychology of CSR literature has yet to address these important questions and has largely considered CSR and CSiR as the opposite poles of the same continuum. In contrast, we view CSR and CSiR as distinct constructs and theorize about the cognitive (perceptual), emotional, and behavioral effects of CSiR activity on observers (i.e., primary and secondary stakeholders) building on theories of intergroup perception. Specifically, building on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske et al., 2002) and the BIAS map (i.e., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes; Cuddy et al., 2007)-which extends the SCM by predicting behavioral responses-we make predictions on potential stakeholder reactions to CSiR focusing on two practice-relevant cases: (a) a typical for-profit firm that engages in a CSiR activity, (b) an atypical admired firm that engages in CSiR activity.

  8. Effect of Waveform on Tactile Perception by Electrovibration Displayed on Touch Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Yasemin; Guclu, Burak; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of input voltage waveform on our haptic perception of electrovibration on touch screens. Through psychophysical experiments performed with eight subjects, we first measured the detection thresholds of electrovibration stimuli generated by sinusoidal and square voltages at various fundamental frequencies. We observed that the subjects were more sensitive to stimuli generated by square wave voltage than sinusoidal one for frequencies lower than 60 Hz. Using Matlab simulations, we showed that the sensation difference of waveforms in low fundamental frequencies occurred due to the frequency-dependent electrical properties of human skin and human tactile sensitivity. To validate our simulations, we conducted a second experiment with another group of eight subjects. We first actuated the touch screen at the threshold voltages estimated in the first experiment and then measured the contact force and acceleration acting on the index fingers of the subjects moving on the screen with a constant speed. We analyzed the collected data in the frequency domain using the human vibrotactile sensitivity curve. The results suggested that Pacinian channel was the primary psychophysical channel in the detection of the electrovibration stimuli caused by all the square-wave inputs tested in this study. We also observed that the measured force and acceleration data were affected by finger speed in a complex manner suggesting that it may also affect our haptic perception accordingly.

  9. Effect of the Enabling Perception of Costing Systems by Managers in the Performance of their Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eduardo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the effect of the enabling perception of costing systems by managers in the performance of their tasks, mediated by the intensity in of use of these costing systems and the level of psychological empowerment. The research was carried out through a survey of 62 companies listed in the Perfil das Empresas com Projetos Aprovados ou em Implantação na Zona Franca de Manaus Profile of Companies, in 2014. With a view to analyzing the hypotheses replicated from Mahama’s and Cheng’s (2013 study, the Structural Equations Modeling technique wasused. The research results show that the managers’ enabling perception of costing systems does not affect their  intensity of use, but it impacts on psychological empowerment, and this is directly reflected in the performance of tasks, indicating that the greater the empowerment, the better manager performance will be. It isconcluded that the model partially supports the relationships delineated and that the antecedents related to the costing systems require further study.

  10. Ophthalmological assessment of cannabis-induced persisting perception disorder: is there a direct retinal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobor, Ditta; Strasser, Torsten; Zobor, Gergely; Schober, Franziska; Messias, Andre; Strauss, Olaf; Batra, Anil; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is a psychotomimetic agent that induces impairment of sensory perception. We present detailed clinical and electrophysiological data of patients with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after marijuana consumption. A HPPD patient and four heavy cannabis smokers with no visual disturbances (controls) underwent complete ophthalmological examination including psychophysical tests (visual acuity, color vision, visual field, and dark adaptation) and detailed electrophysiological examinations, including extended Ganzfeld ERG, multifocal ERG, and electrooculography (EOG). Furthermore, electrically evoked phosphene thresholds (EPTs) were measured to further evaluate retinal function. Ophthalmological and most electrophysiological examinations were within normal limits for the HPPD patient and for all control subjects. Interestingly, EOG results of the HPPD patient showed a slightly reduced fast oscillation ratio, diminished standing potentials of the slow oscillations, and a light peak within normal range resulting in higher Arden ratios. The EPTs of the patient were reduced, in particular for pulses with long durations (50 ms) causing visual sensations even at lowest possible currents of the neurostimulator. The control subjects did not reveal such alterations. Our findings suggest a direct effect of cannabinoids on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium function, which may be involved in disturbances of the visual function experienced after drug consumption. The observations presented here may contribute to the elucidation of the detailed mechanism. Furthermore, EOG and EPT measurements may be useful tools to demonstrate long-term retinal alterations in cannabis-induced HPPD in patients.

  11. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYING IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT ON ENHANCING SPATIAL PERCEPTION WITHIN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Taisser Abu Alatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in Information Technology (IT and digital media have introduced new opportunities to design studio and new dimensions to design and architecture. The current research studies how the immersion of Virtual Reality (VR in architectural design studio affects spatial perception through the design process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using such environments on changing the way how to design for human experience: how it will improve students' spatial understanding of Three Dimensions (3D volumes, and how it will enhance their imagination, enrich their creativity and promote their ability to experience their design's sensations. This study hypothesizes that using an immersive virtual environment in design studio will empower students' imaginations and give them the ability to understand and experience their ideas. It will give them the opportunity to check their design's validity with greater 3D exploration, understanding and comprehension of spatial volumes.  Within a framework of an experimental design research, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate what had been assumed.  The research used teaching, monitoring, explanatory observation and evaluation methods. The results showed that VR can not only enhance spatial perception and improve the design, but also it can affect the design process and make changes in the architectural design way of thinking. It can help designers to incorporate human experience within the design process.

  12. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2016-08-01

    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Crossmodal effect of music and odor pleasantness on olfactory quality perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that ratings of the perceived pleasantness and quality of odors can be modulated by auditory stimuli presented at around the same time. Here, we extend these results by assessing whether the hedonic congruence between odor and sound stimuli can modulate the perception of odor intensity, pleasantness, and quality in untrained participants. Unexpectedly, our results reveal that broadband white noise, which was rated as unpleasant in a follow-up experiment, actually had a more pronounced effect on participants’ odor ratings than either the consonant or dissonant musical selections. In particular, participants rated the six smells used as being less pleasant and less sweet when they happened to be listening to white noise, as compared to any one of the other music conditions. What is more, these results also add evidence to the existence a close relationship between an odor’s hedonic character and the perception of odor quality. So, for example, independent of the sound condition, pleasant odors were rated as sweeter, less dry, and brighter than the unpleasant odors. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the understanding of crossmodal correspondences between olfactory and auditory stimuli.

  14. Transient current induced in thin film diamonds by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Kada, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal diamond is a suitable material for the next generation particle detectors because of the superior electrical properties and the high radiation tolerance. In order to investigate charge transport properties of diamond particle detectors, transient currents generated in diamonds by single swift heavy ions (26 MeV O 5+ and 45 MeV Si 7+ ) are investigated. We also measured two dimensional maps of transient currents by single ion hits. In the case of 50 μm-thick diamond, both the signal height and the collected charge are reduced by the subsequent ion hits and the charge collection time is extended. Our results are thought to be attributable to the polarization effect in diamond and it appears only when the transient current is dominated by hole current. In the case of 6 μm-thick diamond membrane, an “island” structure is found in the 2D map of transient currents. Signals in the islands shows different applied bias dependence from signals in other regions, indicating different crystal and/or metal contact quality. Simulation study of transient currents based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem clarifies that accumulation of space charges changes distribution of electric field in diamond and causes the polarization effect.

  15. Event-related potentials reveal linguistic suppression effect but not enhancement effect on categorical perception of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Yang, Ling; Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Meichao; Shao, Yulan; Zhang, Honghong

    2014-08-01

    The present study used the event-related potential technique to investigate the nature of linguistic effect on color perception. Four types of stimuli based on hue differences between a target color and a preceding color were used: zero hue step within-category color (0-WC); one hue step within-category color (1-WC); one hue step between-category color (1-BC); and two hue step between-category color (2-BC). The ERP results showed no significant effect of stimulus type in the 100-200 ms time window. However, in the 200-350 ms time window, ERP responses to 1-WC target color overlapped with that to 0-WC target color for right visual field (RVF) but not left visual field (LVF) presentation. For the 1-BC condition, ERP amplitudes were comparable in the two visual fields, both being significantly different from the 0-WC condition. The 2-BC condition showed the same pattern as the 1-BC condition. These results suggest that the categorical perception of color in RVF is due to linguistic suppression on within-category color discrimination but not between-category color enhancement, and that the effect is independent of early perceptual processes. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of eddy current induced in track on medium-low speed maglev train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanchun; Jia, Zhen; He, Guang; Li, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic levitation (EMS) maglev train relies on the attraction between the electromagnets and rails which are mounted on the train to achieve suspension. During the movement, the magnetic field generated by the electromagnet will induce the eddy current in the orbit and the eddy current will weaken the suspended magnetic field. Which leads to the attenuation of the levitation force, the increases of suspension current and the degradation the suspension performance. In this paper, the influence of eddy current on the air gap magnetic field is solved by theoretical analysis, and the correction coefficient of air gap magnetic field is fitted according to the finite element data. The levitation force and current are calculated by the modified formula, and the velocity curves of the levitation force and current are obtained. The results show that the eddy current effect increases the load power by 61.9% in the case of heavy loads.

  17. Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.

    2013-05-07

    In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.

  18. Wave-current induced erosion of cohesive riverbanks in northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiaghalam, N.; Clark, S.; Ahmari, H.; Hunt, J.

    2015-03-01

    The field of cohesive soil erosion is still not fully understood, in large part due to the many soil parameters that affect cohesive soil erodibility. This study is focused on two channels, 2-Mile and 8-Mile channels in northern Manitoba, Canada, that were built to connect Lake Winnipeg with Playgreen Lake and Playgreen Lake with Kiskikittogisu Lake, respectively. The banks of the channels consist of clay rich soils and alluvial deposits of layered clay, silts and sands. The study of erosion at the sites is further complicated because the flow-induced erosion is combined with the effects of significant wave action due to the large fetch length on the adjacent lakes, particularly Lake Winnipeg that is the seventh largest lake in North America. The study included three main components: field measurements, laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Field measurements consisted of soil sampling from the banks and bed of the channels, current measurements and water sampling. Grab soil samples were used to measure the essential physical and electrochemical properties of the riverbanks, and standard ASTM Shelby tube samples were used to estimate the critical shear stress and erodibility of the soil samples using an erosion measurement device (EMD). Water samples were taken to estimate the sediment concentration profile and also to monitor changes in sediment concentration along the channels over time. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used to collect bathymetry and current data, and two water level gauges have been installed to record water levels at the entrance and outlet of the channels. The MIKE 21 NSW model was used to simulate waves using historical winds and measured bathymetry of the channels and lakes. Finally, results from the wave numerical model, laboratory tests and current measurement were used to estimate the effect of each component on erodibility of the cohesive banks.

  19. Wave-current induced erosion of cohesive riverbanks in northern Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kimiaghalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of cohesive soil erosion is still not fully understood, in large part due to the many soil parameters that affect cohesive soil erodibility. This study is focused on two channels, 2-Mile and 8-Mile channels in northern Manitoba, Canada, that were built to connect Lake Winnipeg with Playgreen Lake and Playgreen Lake with Kiskikittogisu Lake, respectively. The banks of the channels consist of clay rich soils and alluvial deposits of layered clay, silts and sands. The study of erosion at the sites is further complicated because the flow-induced erosion is combined with the effects of significant wave action due to the large fetch length on the adjacent lakes, particularly Lake Winnipeg that is the seventh largest lake in North America. The study included three main components: field measurements, laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Field measurements consisted of soil sampling from the banks and bed of the channels, current measurements and water sampling. Grab soil samples were used to measure the essential physical and electrochemical properties of the riverbanks, and standard ASTM Shelby tube samples were used to estimate the critical shear stress and erodibility of the soil samples using an erosion measurement device (EMD. Water samples were taken to estimate the sediment concentration profile and also to monitor changes in sediment concentration along the channels over time. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP was used to collect bathymetry and current data, and two water level gauges have been installed to record water levels at the entrance and outlet of the channels. The MIKE 21 NSW model was used to simulate waves using historical winds and measured bathymetry of the channels and lakes. Finally, results from the wave numerical model, laboratory tests and current measurement were used to estimate the effect of each component on erodibility of the cohesive banks.

  20. Perceptions and attitudes of the French about the greenhouse effect; Les francais et l'effet de serre: perceptions et attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisan, F. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    ADEME conducts a yearly survey of a representative sample of the French population in order to assess perceptions of the greenhouse effect and to gauge people's willingness to change everyday activities so as to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. A first series of questions tries to identify how the French perceive and understand phenomena related to the greenhouse effect. Their opinions are collected about the means to fight against this effect and, in particular, about the actions they would be able to undertake personally. The 2002 survey, its major results presented herein, tried to assess the degree of acceptability of definite measures for fighting against the greenhouse effect. This sort of opinion poll should bring to light certain presuppositions underlying people's expectations and perhaps lead us to bear in mind the long term while imagining more ambitious changes in our life-styles. (author)

  1. The Effect of Inspiratory Resistance on Exercise Performance and Perception in Moderate Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Vaughan, Jeremiah; Quinn, Tyler D; Followay, Brittany; Roberge, Raymond; Glickman, Ellen L; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Seo, Yongsuk, Jeremiah Vaughan, Tyler D. Quinn, Brittany Followay, Raymond Roberge, Ellen L. Glickman, and Jung-Hyun Kim. The effect of inspiratory resistance on exercise performance and perception in moderate normobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 18:417-424, 2017. Respirators are simple and efficient in protecting workers against toxic airborne substances; however, their use may limit the physical performance of workers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inspiratory resistance on physical performance and breathing perception in normobaric hypoxia. Nine healthy men wore a tight-fitting respiratory mask outfitted with one of four different inspiratory resistors (R) (0, 1.5, 4.5, 7.5 cm H 2 O/L/Sec) while exercising at normobaric hypoxia (17% O 2 ) at submaximal exercise workloads of 50, 100, and 150 W on a cycle ergometer for 10 minutes each, followed by a maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) test to exhaustion. Maximal power output at R7.5 was significantly lower than R0 (p = 0.016) and R1.5 (p = 0.035). Respiration rate was significantly reduced at R4.5 (p = 0.011) and R7.5 (p ≤ 0.001) compared with R0. Minute ventilation was significantly decreased in R7.5 compared with R0 (p = 0.003), R1.5 (p = 0.010), and R4.5 (p = 0.016), whereas VO 2 was not significantly changed. Breathing comfort (BC) and breathing effort (BE) were significantly impaired in R7.5 (BC: p = 0.025, BE: p = 0.001) and R4.5 (BC: p = 0.007, BE: p = 0.001) compared with R0, but rating of perceived exertion (RPE) remained unchanged. Added inspiratory resistance limited maximal power output and increased perceptions of BC and BE in normobaric hypoxia. However, low-to-moderate inspiratory resistance did not have a deleterious effect on VO 2 or RPE at submaximal or maximal exercise. Perceptual and physiological characteristics of respirators of varying inspiratory resistances should be considered by manufacturers and end users during

  2. Effectiveness of a behavior change communication intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions about abortion in Bihar and Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn L; Warvadekar, Janardan; Pearson, Erin

    2013-09-01

    Although abortion became legal in India in 1971, many women are unaware of the law. Behavior change communication interventions may be an effective way to promote awareness of the law and change knowledge of and perceptions about abortion, particularly in settings in which abortion is stigmatized. To evaluate the effectiveness of a behavior change communication intervention to improve women's knowledge about India's abortion law and their perceptions about abortion, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in intervention and comparison districts in Bihar and Jharkhand. Household surveys were administered at baseline in 2008 and at follow-up in 2010 to independent, randomly selected cross-sectional samples of rural married women aged 15-49. Logistic regression difference-in-differences models were used to assess program effectiveness. Analysis demonstrated program effectiveness in improving awareness and perceptions about abortion. The changes in the odds of knowing that abortion is legal and where to obtain safe abortion services were larger between baseline and follow-up in the intervention districts than the changes in odds observed in the comparison districts (odds ratios, 16.1 and 1.9, respectively). Similarly, the increase in women's perception of greater social support for abortion within their families and the increase in perceived self-efficacy with respect to family planning and abortion between baseline and follow-up was greater in the intervention districts than in the comparison districts (coefficients, 0.17 and 0.18, respectively). Behavior change communication interventions can be effective in improving knowledge of and perceptions about abortion in settings in which lack of accurate knowledge hinders women's access to safe abortion services. Multiple approaches should be used when attempting to improve knowledge and perceptions about stigmatized health issues such as abortion.

  3. Light-current-induced acceleration of degradation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhang, Fan; He, Junjie; Lian, Jiarong; Zeng, Pengju; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle

    2018-04-01

    The photo-conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved considerably in recent years, but the poor stability of PSCs still prevents their commercialization. In this report, we use the rate of the integrated short-circuit current change (Drate) to investigate the performance degradation kinetics and identify the degradation of PSCs that is accelerated by the light current. The value of Drate increases by an order of magnitude from about 0.02 to 0.35 mA cm-2·min-1 after light-IV testing. The accelerated degradation progress is proven to be dominated by the hydration process and the migration of the iodine ions of the light current. The migration of the iodine ions enhances the hydration process through a chain reaction, enabling the formation of fast diffusion channels for both H2O and O2, which induce the rapid decomposition of the perovskite film and increase the density of the trap state. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement data also indicate that the super oxygen may be formed due to the PCBM damage caused by the migration iodine ions. An understanding of the degradation acceleration mechanism would provide an insight into the effect of ion migration on the stability of PSCs.

  4. Simulated Design Strategies for SPECT Collimators to Reduce the Eddy Currents Induced by MRI Gradient Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Amine M.; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Günter; Verhoyen, Gregory; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout

    2015-10-01

    Combining single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the insertion of highly conductive SPECT collimators inside the MRI scanner, resulting in an induced eddy current disturbing the combined system. We reduced the eddy currents due to the insert of a novel tungsten collimator inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils. The collimator was produced with metal additive manufacturing, that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the induced magnetic field due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators to reduce the induced eddy currents. We modeled the x-, y-, and z-gradient coil and the different collimator designs and simulated them with FEKO, a three-dimensional method of moments / finite element methods (MoM/FEM) full-wave simulation tool. We used a time analysis approach to generate the pulsed magnetic field gradient. Simulation results show that the maximum induced field can be reduced by 50.82% in the final design bringing the maximum induced magnetic field to less than 2% of the applied gradient for all the gradient coils. The numerical model was validated with measurements and was proposed as a tool for studying the effect of a SPECT collimator within the MRI gradient coils.

  5. Information technology industry certification's impact on undergraduate student perception of instructor effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, David L.

    The field of Computer Information Systems (CIS) or Information Technology (IT) is experiencing rapid change. A 2003 study analyzing the IT degree programs and those of competing disciplines at 10 post-secondary institutions concluded that information technology programs are perceived differently from information systems and computer science programs and are significantly less focused on both math and pure science subjects. In Information Technology programs, voluntary professional certifications, generally known in the Information Technology field as "IT" certifications, are used as indicators of professional skill. A descriptive study noting one subject group's responses to items that were nearly identical except for IT certification information was done to investigate undergraduate CIS/IT student perceptions of IT industry certified instructors. The subject group was comprised of undergraduate CIS/IT students from a regionally accredited private institution and a public institution. The methodology was descriptive, based on a previous model by Dr. McKillip, Professor of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, utilizing a web-based survey instrument with a Likert scale, providing for voluntary anonymous responses outside the classroom over a ten day window. The results indicated that IT certification affected student perceptions of instructor effectiveness, teaching methodology, and student engagement in the class, and to a lesser degree, instructor technical qualifications. The implications suggest that additional research on this topic is merited. Although the study was not designed to examine the precise cause and effect, an important implication is that students may be motivated to attend classes taught by instructors they view as more confident and effective and that teachers with IT industry certification can better engage their students.

  6. Perceptions of effective and ineffective nurse-physician communication in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F Patrick; Gorman, Geraldine; Slimmer, Lynda W; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Nurse-physician communication affects patient safety. Such communication has been well studied using a variety of survey and observational methods; however, missing from the literature is an investigation of what constitutes effective and ineffective interprofessional communication from the perspective of the professionals involved. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse and physician perceptions of effective and ineffective communication between the two professions. Using focus group methodology, we asked nurses and physicians with at least 5 years' acute care hospital experience to reflect on effective and ineffective interprofessional communication and to provide examples. Three focus groups were held with 6 participants each (total sample 18). Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded into categories of effective and ineffective communication. The following themes were found. For effective communication: clarity and precision of message that relies on verification, collaborative problem solving, calm and supportive demeanor under stress, maintenance of mutual respect, and authentic understanding of the unique role. For ineffective communication: making someone less than, dependence on electronic systems, and linguistic and cultural barriers. These themes may be useful in designing learning activities to promote effective interprofessional communication.

  7. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect; Les representations profanes de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti-Watel, P. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMR 379, Epidemiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquees a l' Innovation Medicale / ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Hammer, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-GRETS), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-10-15

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  8. The Effect of “Insufficient Milk Supply” Concept Intervention on Mother's Perception of Breast Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekar Dwi Anggraeni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organisation (WHO recommends every mother to provide exclusive breastfeeding for their infants because of its benefits. However the exclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia was only 35%in 2013. One of the main factors affecting low exclusive breastfeeding rate was maternal perception of having low breastmilk supply. There were no previous studies examining the effect of "Insufficient Milk Supply" concept intervention on mother’s perception of low breastmilk production. This research was an innovation in nursing. Aim: To investigate the effect of intervention program based on “Insufficient Milk Supply” concept on mother’s perception of low breastmilk supply. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment pretest-posttest. Postpartum mothers were provided an intervention using a module based on the concept of "Insufficient Milk Supply". The perception of breastmilk production was measured using the Nine-items of Lactation Scale. Data were analyzed using independent t test and paired t test. Results: The t test assumptions were examined and yielded that the data were normally distributed and the variances were homogeneous. The results showed there were significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test in the intervention group (t = -9,03, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study offers evidence that Insufficient Milk Supply can be used in nursing practice as a concept to improve the perception of the mother's breastmilk supply.

  9. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  10. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective Against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet being protective against environmental contaminants, their levels of concern about exposure, and their interest in learning about protective food-related strategies. A needs assessment to collect such information has not been conducted among older adults. Health fair survey results showed that they perceived diet as beneficial against contaminants, were concerned about health implications of exposure, and were interested in learning how to protect health through diet-related strategies. Results suggest that a nutrition-focused curriculum addressing how dietary strategies can help protect against environmental contaminants is needed for Extension professionals.

  11. The effects of stakeholder involvement on perceptions of an evaluation's credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Miriam R; Azzam, Tarek

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a study of the effects of stakeholder involvement on perceptions of an evaluation's credibility. Crowdsourced members of the public and a group of educational administrators read a description of a hypothetical program and two evaluations of the program: one conducted by a researcher and one conducted by program staff (i.e. program stakeholders). Study participants were randomly assigned versions of the scenario with different levels of stakeholder credibility and types of findings. Results showed that both samples perceived the researcher's evaluation findings to be more credible than the program staff's, but that this difference was significantly reduced when the program staff were described to be highly credible. The article concludes with implications for theory and research on evaluation dissemination and stakeholder involvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of the context on facial expressions perception: a behavioral study on the Kuleshov effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbi, Marta; Heimann, Katrin; Barratt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are of major importance to understanding the emotions, intentions, and mental states of others. Strikingly, so far most studies on the perception and comprehension of emotions have used isolated facial expressions as stimuli; for example, photographs of actors displaying facial...... expressions belonging to one of the so called ‘basic emotions’. However, our real experience during social interactions is different: facial expressions of emotion are mostly perceived in a wider context, constituted by body language, the surrounding environment, and our beliefs and expectations. Already...... in the early twentieth century, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov argued that such context could significantly change our interpretation of facial expressions. Prior experiments have shown behavioral effects pointing in this direction, but have only used static images portraying some basic emotions. In our...

  13. The relationship between subjective perception and the psychological effects of patients in spatial isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibert, Fabienne; Eckstein, Monika; Günther, Frank; Mutters, Nico T

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients. Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany's largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, pSurfing the internet had a positive relationship with thinking about beautiful things (r=.41, pwell-being of the patient.

  14. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  15. Effects of auditory vection speed and directional congruence on perceptions of visual vection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Isabella Alexis

    Spatial disorientation is a major contributor to aircraft mishaps. One potential contributing factor is vection, an illusion of self-motion. Although vection is commonly thought of as a visual illusion, it can also be produced through audition. The purpose of the current experiment was to explore interactions between conflicting visual and auditory vection cues, specifically with regard to the speed and direction of rotation. The ultimate goal was to explore the extent to which aural vection could diminish or enhance the perception of visual vection. The study used a 3 x 2 within-groups factorial design. Participants were exposed to three levels of aural rotation velocity (slower, matched, and faster, relative to visual rotation speed) and two levels of aural rotational congruence (congruent or incongruent rotation) including two control conditions (visual and aural-only). Dependent measures included vection onset time, vection direction judgements, subjective vection strength ratings, vection speed ratings, and horizontal nystagmus frequency. Subjective responses to motion were assessed pre and post treatment, and oculomotor responses were assessed before, during, and following exposure to circular vection. The results revealed a significant effect of stimulus condition on vection strength. Specifically, directionally-congruent aural-visual vection resulted in significantly stronger vection than visual and aural vection alone. Perceptions of directionally-congruent aural-visual vection were slightly stronger vection than directionally-incongruent aural-visual vection, but not significantly so. No significant effects of aural rotation velocity on vection strength were observed. The results suggest directionally-incongruent aural vection could be used as a countermeasure for visual vection and directionally-congruent aural vection could be used to improve vection in virtual environments, provided further research is done.

  16. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Thornton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social responsibility (SR has been of continuing interest in the United States and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013 that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors (PNEA as proposed in Intentional Change Theory (ICT. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll’s (1991 pyramid of social responsibility to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions.

  17. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility (SR) has been of continuing interest in the U.S. and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013) that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors as proposed in intentional change theory. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll's (1991) pyramid of SR to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions.

  18. The effect of oxytocin on biological motion perception in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Kis, Anna; Kanizsár, Orsolya; Hernádi, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that the neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in the regulation of several complex human social behaviours. There is, however, little research on the effect of oxytocin on basic mechanisms underlying human sociality, such as the perception of biological motion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of oxytocin on biological motion perception in dogs (Canis familiaris), a species adapted to the human social environment and thus widely used to model many aspects of human social behaviour. In a within-subjects design, dogs (N = 39), after having received either oxytocin or placebo treatment, were presented with 2D projection of a moving point-light human figure and the inverted and scrambled version of the same movie. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as physiological responses, and behavioural response was evaluated by observing dogs' looking time. Subjects were also rated on the personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness by their owners. As expected, placebo-pretreated (control) dogs showed a spontaneous preference for the biological motion pattern; however, there was no such preference after oxytocin pretreatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin pretreatment female subjects looked more at the moving point-light figure than males. The individual variations along the dimensions of Agreeableness and Neuroticism also modulated dogs' behaviour. Furthermore, HR and HRV measures were affected by oxytocin treatment and in turn played a role in subjects' looking behaviour. We discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of the neurohormonal regulatory mechanisms of human (and non-human) social skills.

  19. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility (SR) has been of continuing interest in the U.S. and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013) that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors as proposed in intentional change theory. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll’s (1991) pyramid of SR to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions. PMID:26113830

  20. Effects of a strategy to improve offender assessment practices: Staff perceptions of implementation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Wayne N; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Peters, Roger H; Stahler, Gerald J; Lehman, Wayne E K; Stein, Lynda A R; Monico, Laura; Eggers, Michele; Abdel-Salam, Sami; Pierce, Joshua C; Hunt, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Colleen; Frisman, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    This implementation study examined the impact of an organizational process improvement intervention (OPII) on a continuum of evidence based practices related to assessment and community reentry of drug-involved offenders: Measurement/Instrumentation, Case Plan Integration, Conveyance/Utility, and Service Activation/Delivery. To assess implementation outcomes (staff perceptions of evidence-based assessment practices), a survey was administered to correctional and treatment staff (n=1509) at 21 sites randomly assigned to an Early- or Delayed-Start condition. Hierarchical linear models with repeated measures were used to examine changes in evidence-based assessment practices over time, and organizational characteristics were examined as covariates to control for differences across the 21 research sites. Results demonstrated significant intervention and sustainability effects for three of the four assessment domains examined, although stronger effects were obtained for intra- than inter-agency outcomes. No significant effects were found for Conveyance/Utility. Implementation interventions such as the OPII represent an important tool to enhance the use of evidence-based assessment practices in large and diverse correctional systems. Intra-agency assessment activities that were more directly under the control of correctional agencies were implemented most effectively. Activities in domains that required cross-systems collaboration were not as successfully implemented, although longer follow-up periods might afford detection of stronger effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender and perceptions of leadership effectiveness: a meta-analysis of contextual moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian-Underdahl, Samantha C; Walker, Lisa Slattery; Woehr, David J

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that men are typically perceived as more appropriate and effective than women in leadership positions, a recent debate has emerged in the popular press and academic literature over the potential existence of a female leadership advantage. This meta-analysis addresses this debate by quantitatively summarizing gender differences in perceptions of leadership effectiveness across 99 independent samples from 95 studies. Results show that when all leadership contexts are considered, men and women do not differ in perceived leadership effectiveness. Yet, when other-ratings only are examined, women are rated as significantly more effective than men. In contrast, when self-ratings only are examined, men rate themselves as significantly more effective than women rate themselves. Additionally, this synthesis examines the influence of contextual moderators developed from role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002). Our findings help to extend role congruity theory by demonstrating how it can be supplemented based on other theories in the literature, as well as how the theory can be applied to both female and male leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  3. Belief in a Werther Effect: Third-Person Effects in the Perceptions of Suicide Risk for Others and the Moderating Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Sebastian; Reinemann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Werther Effect research has almost solely focused on the behavioral level of media effects. Clinically relevant predispositions like depression as well as the moderating role of media effects on a perceptional level have been omitted so far. To bridge this gap, we reanalyzed the data of an experiment conducted by Rustad, Small, Jobes, Safer, and…

  4. The effects of ethnicity, musicianship, and tone language experience on pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2018-02-01

    Language and music are intertwined: music training can facilitate language abilities, and language experiences can also help with some music tasks. Possible language-music transfer effects are explored in two experiments in this study. In Experiment 1, we tested native Mandarin, Korean, and English speakers on a pitch discrimination task with two types of sounds: speech sounds and fundamental frequency (F0) patterns derived from speech sounds. To control for factors that might influence participants' performance, we included cognitive ability tasks testing memory and intelligence. In addition, two music skill tasks were used to examine general transfer effects from language to music. Prior studies showing that tone language speakers have an advantage on pitch tasks have been taken as support for three alternative hypotheses: specific transfer effects, general transfer effects, and an ethnicity effect. In Experiment 1, musicians outperformed non-musicians on both speech and F0 sounds, suggesting a music-to-language transfer effect. Korean and Mandarin speakers performed similarly, and they both outperformed English speakers, providing some evidence for an ethnicity effect. Alternatively, this could be due to population selection bias. In Experiment 2, we recruited Chinese Americans approximating the native English speakers' language background to further test the ethnicity effect. Chinese Americans, regardless of their tone language experiences, performed similarly to their non-Asian American counterparts in all tasks. Therefore, although this study provides additional evidence of transfer effects across music and language, it casts doubt on the contribution of ethnicity to differences observed in pitch perception and general music abilities.

  5. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  6. (In)visible threats? The third-person effect in perceptions of the influence of Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Angela; Sullivan, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of Facebook has generated numerous discussions on the individual-level effects of social networking. However, we know very little about people's perceptions of the effects of the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The current investigation reports the findings from a survey designed to help us better understand young people's estimates of the perceived negative effects of Facebook use on themselves and others in regard to three outcome categories: (1) personal relationships, (2) future employment opportunities, and (3) privacy. Congruent with Davidson's third-person effect theory, respondents, when asked about the three outcome categories, believed that the use of Facebook had a larger negative impact on others (e.g., "your closest friends," "younger people," "people in your Facebook network of friends," and "Facebook users in general") than on themselves. Overall, results were inconclusive when it came to the link between the third-person perceptual gap and support for enhanced regulation of Facebook. Implications and limitations of this research are discussed.

  7. Effects of 16-weeks of Pilates on health perception and sleep quality among elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, V S; Vilaça, J; Haas, A N; Fernandes, H M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 16 weeks of mat-based Pilates training on health perception and sleep quality among elderly women. A randomized and controlled trial was conducted in Caxias do Sul, Brazil, in 2015, in which 61 healthy older women were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG; n=31, average of 64.25 years old, SD 0.14) and control group (CG; n=30, average of 63.75 years old, SD 0.08). The EG participants performed mat-based Pilates exercises twice a week in 60-min sessions, whereas the CG did not train. All participants completed Brazilian-adapted and validated versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) at baseline and after 16 weeks. Significant time x group interaction effects were found for the GHQ-12 total score (pPilates EG when compared to the CG. All significant effects were classified as moderate to high. These results indicate that 16 weeks of mat-based Pilates training significantly improves the perceived health status and some sleep quality indices among elderly women. However, more studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of equipment-based Pilates exercises among this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapists' experiences and perceptions of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: critical happenings in effective and ineffective teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Kitty M; De Souza, Lorraine H

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports the second part of an exploratory study into occupational therapists' and physiotherapists' perceptions and experiences of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: the factors that were thought to influence effective and ineffective teamwork, and the meaning behind effective and ineffective teamwork in neurological rehabilitation. The study was undertaken through semi-structured interviews of 10 therapists from three different neurological rehabilitation teams based in the United Kingdom, and used the critical incident technique. Through analysis of the data, several main themes emerged regarding the perceived critical happenings in effective and ineffective teamwork. These were: team events and characteristics, team members' characteristics, shared and collaborative working practices, communication, specific organizational structures, environmental, external, and patient and family-related factors. Effective and ineffective team-work was perceived to impact on a number of levels: having implications for the team, the patient, individual team members, and the neurological rehabilitation service. The study supported the perceived value of team work within neurological rehabilitation. It also indicated the extensive and variable factors that may influence the team-working process as well as the complex and diverse nature of the process.

  9. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  10. The validity of self-reported vs. measured body weight and height and the effect of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

  11. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  12. Perceptions of Missouri High School Principals Regarding the Effectiveness of In-School Suspension as a Disciplinary Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Ward H.; Enger, John M.

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined Missouri high school principals' perceptions of the effectiveness of various disciplinary procedures, with a focus on in-school suspension (ISS). A survey mailed to 200 Missouri high school principals elicited 159 responses, a 77 percent response rate. The questionnaire asked principals to…

  13. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  14. Educators' Perceptions of the Effects of School Uniforms on School Climate in a Selected Metropolitan Disciplinary Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Emmanuel Onoh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the perceptions…

  15. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  16. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  17. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work : development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  18. Effects of newly designed hospital buildings on staff perceptions : a pre-post study to validate design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.J.A.; Heel, L. van; Goedhart, R.; Dusseldorp, E.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Burdorf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates effects of the newly built nonpatient-related buildings of a large university medical center on staff perceptions and whether the design objectives were achieved. Background: The medical center is gradually renewing its hospital building area of 200,000 m.(2) This

  19. The Effects of Using Technology and the Internet on Some Iranian EFL Students' Perceptions of Their Communication Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Nabi A.; Eskandari, Zahra; Rahimi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of implementing a CALL framework on the students' perceptions of their communication classroom environments. The What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was distributed twice among 34 (F=14 and M=20) Iranian EFL students, the first time after a ten-session-long regular no-tech communication…

  20. A Study of Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Effect of the Globalization on Higher Education: The Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateyat, Khaled A.; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate Jordanian higher education faculty members' perceptions of the phenomenon of globalization and its effect on higher education. The participants in this study were 6 faculty members from a Jordanian university. Four of the participants have leadership positions at the university. Two of them were deans, one…

  1. An Investigation of the Effects of a Graphic Organizer in an Online Serious Game on Learning Outcomes and Attitudinal Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin

    2015-01-01

    A serious game, which is designed for learning purposes rather than recreational purposes, has been applied for digital game-based Learning. This study investigated the effects of graphic organizers in a serious game, "The Transistor", on learning outcomes and attitudinal perceptions. A total of 99 participants were randomly assigned to…

  2. Improving Assessment Processes in Higher Education: Student and Teacher Perceptions of the Effectiveness of a Rubric Embedded in a LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Doug; Lim, Siew Leng

    2013-01-01

    Students and teachers play different roles and thus have different perceptions about the effectiveness of assessment including structure, feedback, consistency, fairness and efficiency. In an undergraduate Business Information Systems course, a rubric was designed and semi-automated through a learning management system (LMS) to provide formative…

  3. Online Learning Perceptions and Effectiveness of Research Methods Courses in a Hispanic-Serving Higher Education Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Cavazos Vela, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors first reviewed related literature on possible factors that influence learning between an online learning (OL) course format and a face-to-face (F2F) course format. The authors investigated OL and F2F learning perceptions and effectiveness of a graduate-level research methods course at a Hispanic-serving institution…

  4. An Examination of Police Officers' Perceptions of Effective School Responses to Active Shooter Scenarios: A Phenomenological Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Florence E.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…

  5. The influence of action-effect anticipation on bistable perception: Differences between onset rivalry and ambiguous motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogge, M.; Gayet, S.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2018-01-01

    Perception is strongly shaped by the actions we perform. According to the theory of event coding, and forward models of motor control, goal-directed action preparation activates representations of desired effects. These expectations about the precise stimulus identity of one's action-outcomes (i.e.

  6. Evaluating the Effect of a Campus-Wide Social Norms Marketing Intervention on Alcohol-Use Perceptions, Consumption, and Blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinni; Hancock, Linda; Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda; Alshagra, Mariam; Ericson, Rhianna; Niazi, Zackaria; Dick, Danielle M.; Adkins, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts at a large, urban, public university. Participants: 4,172 college students (1,208 freshmen, 1,159 sophomores, 953 juniors, and 852 seniors) who completed surveys in Spring 2015 for the Spit for Science…

  7. The impact of unemployment on school leavers' perception of health. Mediating effect of financial situation and social contacts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Nagyova, Iveta; Salonna, Ferdinand; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Objectives: The main purpose of this paper is to explore whether unemployment influences adolescents' subjective perception of health and whether perceived financial stress and social contacts can mediate the effect of employment status on health. We are also interested in the differences in

  8. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  10. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  11. Implementing Self-Assessment in Singapore Primary Schools: Effects on Students' Perceptions of Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hwei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Student academic self-assessment engages the students in deliberate reflection about what they are learning and how they are learning it. This intervention study investigated the effects of self-assessment training on students' perceptions towards self-assessment in two Singaporean primary schools. The study, which used a pretest-posttest design,…

  12. The Effect of Creating Digital Storytelling on Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy Perceptions and Attitudes toward Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotluk, Nihat; Kocakaya, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Digital Storytelling (DST) on the (a) academic achievement, (b) attitude towards physics and (c) self efficacy perception of secondary school students. This study consists of an experimental group and a comparison group which are formed by equal number of students. The six-weeks study adopted a…

  13. Thinking big: The effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral

  14. Effects of cumulative trauma load on perceptions of health, blood pressure, and resting heart rate in urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Warren, Rhonda

    2014-04-01

    This study examined relationships between cumulative trauma (CT) and urban African American (AA) adolescents' blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and perceptions of health. A correlational design using secondary data analysis studied effects of CT, health outcomes, and perceptions of health. Participants were 175 urban AA youth (11-16 years) who completed structured surveys and physiological measures of HR and BP before and after exercise. AA youth were experiencing high levels of CT. Negative correlations were obtained between AA females' perceptions of their health and systolic BP with levels of trauma. No gender differences were found in HR or BP. AA females with high CT may perceive themselves as less healthy and can be at risk for health problems. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  16. Evaluating the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinni; Hancock, Linda; Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda; Alshagra, Mariam; Ericson, Rhianna; Niazi, Zackaria; Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts at a large, urban, public university. 4,172 college students (1,208 freshmen, 1,159 sophomores, 953 juniors, and 852 seniors) who completed surveys in Spring 2015 for the Spit for Science Study, a longitudinal study of students' substance use and emotional health. Participants were e-mailed an online survey that queried campaign readership, perception of peer alcohol use, alcohol consumption, frequency of consumption, and frequency of blackouts. Associations between variables were evaluated using path analysis. We found that campaign readership was associated with more accurate perceptions of peer alcohol use, which, in turn, was associated with self-reported lower number of drinks per sitting and experiencing fewer blackouts. This evaluation supports the use of social norms marketing as a population-level intervention to correct alcohol-use misperceptions and reduce blackouts.

  17. An investigation on the effects of perception and marketing expenditure, financial and non-financial promotions on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ataheryan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effects of perception and marketing expenditures as well as financial and non-financial promotions on brand equity. The proposed study of this paper prepares a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular customers of three types of Shampoo in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of structural equation modeling for the proposed study of this paper has been accomplished based on LISREL software. The results of the survey on testing various hypotheses indicate that perception on marketing expenditure, financial as well as non-financial promotion and word of mouth advertisement influence positively on brand awareness and negatively on non-financial promotions (α=0.01. In addition, brand awareness influences positively on perception quality (α=0.01. Brand awareness as well as brand associate also influence on brand loyalty (α=0.01.

  18. HIV-Positive Patients' Perceptions of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Relation to Subjective Time: Imprinting, Domino Effects, and Future Shadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, David; Toupin, Isabelle; Engler, Kim; Lènàrt, Andràs; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment adherence barriers are major concerns in HIV care. They are multiple and change over time. Considering temporality in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers could improve adherence management. We explored how temporality manifests itself in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers. We conducted 2 semi-structured focus groups on adherence barriers with 12 adults with HIV which were analyzed with grounded theory. A third focus group served to validate the results obtained. Three temporal categories were manifest in HIV-positive patients' perceptions of barriers: (1) imprinting (events with lasting impacts on patients), (2) domino effects (chain of life events), and (3) future shadowing (apprehension about long-term adherence). An overarching theme, weathering (gradual erosion of abilities to adhere), traversed these categories. These temporalities explain how similar barriers may be perceived differently by patients. They could be useful to providers for adapting their interventions and improving understanding of patients' subjective experience of adherence.

  19. Perception, Cognition, and Effectiveness of Visualizations with Applications in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkin, Michelle A.

    Visualization is a powerful tool for data exploration and analysis. With data ever-increasing in quantity and becoming integrated into our daily lives, having effective visualizations is necessary. But how does one design an effective visualization? To answer this question we need to understand how humans perceive, process, and understand visualizations. Through visualization evaluation studies we can gain deeper insight into the basic perception and cognition theory of visualizations, both through domain-specific case studies as well as generalized laboratory experiments. This dissertation presents the results of four evaluation studies, each of which contributes new knowledge to the theory of perception and cognition of visualizations. The results of these studies include a deeper clearer understanding of how color, data representation dimensionality, spatial layout, and visual complexity affect a visualization's effectiveness, as well as how visualization types and visual attributes affect the memorability of a visualization. We first present the results of two domain-specific case study evaluations. The first study is in the field of biomedicine in which we developed a new heart disease diagnostic tool, and conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of 2D versus 3D data representations as well as color maps. In the second study, we developed a new visualization tool for filesystem provenance data with applications in computer science and the sciences more broadly. We additionally developed a new time-based hierarchical node grouping method. We then conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the new tool with its radial layout versus the conventional node-link diagram, and the new node grouping method. Finally, we discuss the results of two generalized studies designed to understand what makes a visualization memorable. In the first evaluation we focused on visualization memorability and conducted an online study using Amazon's Mechanical Turk with

  20. Effects of stick design features on perceptions of characteristics of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Savvas, Steven

    2013-09-01

    To examine the extent (if any) that cigarette stick dimension, tipping paper design and other decorative design/branding have on Australian smokers' perceptions of those cigarettes. An internet survey of 160 young Australian adult ever-smokers who were shown computer images of three sets of cigarette sticks--five sticks of different lengths and diameters (set A), five sticks with different tipping paper design (set B) and four sticks of different decorative design (set C). Branding was a between-subjects randomised condition for set C. For each set, respondents ranked sticks on most and least attractive, highest and lowest quality and strongest and weakest taste. Cigarette sticks were perceived as different on attractiveness, quality and strength of taste. Standard stick length/diameter was perceived as the most attractive and highest quality stick, with men more inclined to rate a slim stick as less attractive. A stick with a cork-patterned tipping paper and a gold band was seen as most attractive, of highest quality and strongest in taste compared to other tipping designs. Branded sticks were seen as more attractive, higher in quality and stronger tasting than non-branded designs, regardless of brand, although the effects were stronger for a prestige compared with a budget brand. Characteristics of the cigarette stick affect smokers' perceptions of the attributes of those cigarettes and thus are a potential means by which product differentiation can occur. A comprehensive policy to eliminate promotional aspects of cigarette design and packaging needs to include rules about stick design.