Discussion: Higher reliability and replicability of duration values calculated by Praat software indicates that this software can be applied for more precise determination of duration of stuttered syllables.
Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn
A recent clinical trial (Andrews et al., 2012) showed Syllable Timed Speech (STS) to be a potentially useful treatment agent for the reduction of stuttering for school-age children. The present trial investigated a modified version of this program that incorporated parent verbal contingencies. Participants were 22 stuttering children aged 6-11 years. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS in conversation. Parents were also taught to use verbal contingencies in response to their child's stuttered and stutter-free speech and to praise their child's use of STS. Outcome assessments were conducted pre-treatment, at the completion of Stage 1 of the program and 6 months and 12 months after Stage 1 completion. Outcomes are reported for the 19 children who completed Stage 1 of the program. The group mean percent stuttering reduction was 77% from pre-treatment to 12 months post-treatment, and 82% with the two least responsive participants removed. There was considerable variation in response to the treatment. Eleven of the children showed reduced avoidance of speaking situations and 18 were more satisfied with their fluency post-treatment. However, there was some suggestion that stuttering control was not sufficient to fully eliminate situation avoidance for the children. The results of this trial are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further clinical trials of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S
Speaking rhythmically, also known as syllable-timed speech (STS), has been known for centuries to be a fluency-inducing condition for people who stutter. Cantonese is a tonal syllable-timed language and it has been shown that, of all languages, Cantonese is the most rhythmic (Mok, 2009). However, it is not known if STS reduces stuttering in Cantonese as it does in English. This is the first study to investigate the effects of STS on stuttering in a syllable-timed language. Nineteen native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter were engaged in conversational tasks in Cantonese under two conditions: one in their usual speaking style and one using STS. The speakers' percentage syllables stuttered (%SS) and speech rhythmicity were rated. The rhythmicity ratings were used to estimate the extent to which speakers were using STS in the syllable-timed condition. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction in %SS in the STS condition; however, this reduction was not as large as in previous studies in other languages and the amount of stuttering reduction varied across speakers. The rhythmicity ratings showed that some speakers were perceived to be speaking more rhythmically than others and that the perceived rhythmicity correlated positively with reductions in stuttering. The findings were unexpected, as it was anticipated that speakers of a highly rhythmic language such as Cantonese would find STS easy to use and that the consequent reductions in stuttering would be great, even greater perhaps than in a stress-timed language such as English. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Henning U Voss
Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.
Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn; Arnott, Simone; Bridgman, Kate; de Sonneville, Caroline; Franken, Marie-Christine
This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations. Both SRs and %SS showed large effect sizes from pretreatment to follow-up, although correlations between the 2 measures were moderate at best. Absolute agreement between the 2 measures improved as percentage reduction of stuttering frequency and severity increased, probably due to innate measurement limitations for participants with low baseline severity. Analysis of covariance for the 3 trials showed consistent results. There is no statistical reason to favor %SS over parent-reported stuttering SRs as primary outcomes for clinical trials of early stuttering treatment. However, there are logistical reasons to favor parent-reported stuttering SRs. We conclude that parent-reported rating of the child's typical stuttering severity for the week or month prior to each assessment is a justifiable alternative to %SS as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials of early stuttering treatment.
Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H.
A typical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). “Neurally impaired” versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands, and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable’s motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286
... but treatments can help. They include stuttering therapy, electronic devices, and self-help groups. Starting stuttering therapy early for young children can keep it from becoming a lifelong problem. ...
Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu
Stuttering is a multi-dimensional problem involving a particular kind of speech behavior, feelings, beliefs, self- concepts, and social interactions. Stutterers have "good days"? with less stuttering? and "bad days"? when they can't get a word out. Current research suggests that it is caused by a complex interaction between a person’s physical makeup and the environment. Stutterers are, on average, psychologically normal, except for fears and anxieties around talking. Stress and anxiety may a...
Full Text Available ... he delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied ...
Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu
Full Text Available Stuttering is a multi-dimensional problem involving a particular kind of speech behavior, feelings, beliefs, self- concepts, and social interactions. Stutterers have "good days"? with less stuttering? and "bad days"? when they can't get a word out. Current research suggests that it is caused by a complex interaction between a person’s physical makeup and the environment. Stutterers are, on average, psychologically normal, except for fears and anxieties around talking. Stress and anxiety may aggravate stuttering. On the other hand, most stutterers speak fluently when relaxed, but stutter under stress. Stuttering affects people from all levels of the socioeconomic scale and is found in all parts of the world. The frequency of stuttered words, the type of speech disruption, and the presence of, and type of associated behavior varies from person to person. In terms of prognosis, early detection is important. The aim of this article, is to examine the persons who stutter, within the light of the etiology, frequency, definition, differential diagnosis, and comorbid psychiatric symptoms.
... as speech or language therapy. However, if your child's stuttering is frequent, continues to get worse, and is accompanied by body or facial movements, an evaluation by a speech-language therapist around (instead of before) age 3 is ...
Full Text Available ... delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of ...
Boey, Ronny A.; Wuyts, Floris L.; van de Heyning, Paul H.; Heylen, Louis; de Bodt, Marc S.
Clinical diagnostic procedures to distinguish stuttering from non-stuttering individuals partially rely on the observation of characteristics of stuttered words or syllables. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of such a procedure, and to describe the observed characteristics of stuttered words. Methods…
Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L
Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.
Influência da extensão da palavra e local da ruptura na sílaba na fala de adolescentes e adultos gagos e fluentes The influence of word extension and the position of speech disruption within the syllable structure in the speech of stuttering and fluent adolescents and adults
Fabiola Staróbole Juste
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da extensão da palavra e da posição dentro da sílaba na ocorrência de rupturas de fala em adolescentes e adultos gagos e fluentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 120 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 12 e 49 anos e 11 meses, divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo de Pesquisa 1 (GP1 - 30 adolescentes gagos; Grupo de Pesquisa 2 (GP2 - 30 adultos gagos; Grupo Controle 1 (GC1 - 30 adolescentes fluentes; Grupo Controle 2 (GC2 - 30 adultos fluentes. Foram coletadas amostras de fala contendo 200 sílabas fluentes. Nas amostras de fala, as palavras rompidas foram analisadas quanto à sua extensão (monossílaba, dissílaba, trissílaba e polissílaba e quanto ao local da ruptura na sílaba (posição de ataque, núcleo ou coda. RESULTADOS: Quanto à extensão, os grupos de falantes gagos não apresentaram predominância de rupturas em nenhuma das possibilidades, já para os falantes fluentes, as rupturas foram mais frequentes nas palavras monossilábicas. Em relação ao local da ruptura na sílaba, os falantes gagos apresentaram ruptura principalmente na posição de ataque, enquanto os fluentes apresentaram mais rupturas em posição de núcleo. CONCLUSÃO: De maneira geral, esses resultados sugerem que as rupturas de fala ocorrem no início das palavras e sílabas, indicando uma dificuldade na temporalização entre as velocidades de seleção e ativação fonológica, que ocorre independentemente da extensão da palavra.PURPOSE: To verify the influence of word extension and the position of speech disruption within the syllable structure in the speech of stuttering and fluent adolescents and adults. METHODS: Participants were 120 individuals of both genders, with ages between 12 and 49 years and 11 months, who were divided into four groups: Research Group 1 (RG1 - 30 adolescents who stutter; Research Group 2 (RG2 - 30 adults who stutter; Control Group 1 (CG1 - 30 adolescents who do not stutter
Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann
Purpose: Stuttering varies between and within speaking situations. In this study, the authors used statistical process control charts with 10 case studies to investigate variability of stuttering frequency. Method: Participants were 10 adults who stutter. The authors counted the percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for segments of their speech…
Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.
Ana Paula Ritto
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared the performance of both fluent speakers and people who stutter in three different speaking situations: monologue speech, oral reading and choral reading. This study follows the assumption that the neuromotor control of speech can be influenced by external auditory stimuli in both speakers who stutter and speakers who do not stutter. METHOD: Seventeen adults who stutter and seventeen adults who do not stutter were assessed in three speaking tasks: monologue, oral reading (solo reading aloud and choral reading (reading in unison with the evaluator. Speech fluency and rate were measured for each task. RESULTS: The participants who stuttered had a lower frequency of stuttering during choral reading than during monologue and oral reading. CONCLUSIONS: According to the dual premotor system model, choral speech enhanced fluency by providing external cues for the timing of each syllable compensating for deficient internal cues.
... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Neurogenic Stuttering Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Pathologists Physicians Employers Download brochure What is neurogenic stuttering? Neurogenic stuttering is a type of fluency disorder ...
VALENTINE, DANIEL T.
This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4) was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue) w...
Kearns, R.K.; Norris, D.; Cutler, A.
We describe a reaction time study in which listeners detected word or nonword syllable targets (e.g. zoo, trel) in sequences consisting of the target plus a consonant or syllable residue (trelsh, trelshek). The pattern of responses differed from an earlier word-spotting study with the same material,
Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S
Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.
Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a common disorder of speech dissiliency that is characterized by excessive repetitions of sounds, syllables, and monosyllabic words, as well as sound prolongations and complete blockages of the vocal tract. About 60 million people are affected and it is more common between the age of 3 and 6, when children begin forming sentences and connecting thoughts verbally. There are three types of stuttering known as developmental stuttering, neurogenic stuttering, and psychogenic stuttering. The exact pathophysiology of developmental stuttering is unknown; however, various family and twin studies have repeatedly implicated heredity as a major factor in the etiology of stuttering. It is clear that the genetic influence is not in the form of an exact single gene effect such as autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or x-linked in all families; however, in all of the inheritance forms it is influenced by sex with higher occurrence in males than females at a ratio of 4:1 in older children and adults. Recently special genetic locus has been determined on several autosomal chromosomes related to developmental stuttering. In this report, the proband is a 20-year-old boy was referred to our clinic for premarriage genetic counseling; he has been affected since 3 years and now is under cure. three generation study of his family show 13 individuals are affected by stuttering. For the first it occurred in the proband′s grandfather and after this time about all of affected cases has been seen in consanguineous marriages. Therefore, the genetical inheritance of stuttering is crystal clear in this family and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern is proposed. Totally in such families with repeated occur of stuttering, we cannot account it as a multifactorial disorder.
Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.
Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…
Full Text Available ... research volunteers. If you stutter or have a family member who stutters, you could be eligible to ... Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and ...
Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott
Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc
Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B
The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247
Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The speech rate is one of the parameters considered when investigating speech fluency and is an important variable in the assessment of individuals with communication complaints. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the stuttering severity index with one of the indices used for assessing fluency/speech rate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Fluency and Fluency Disorders Investigation Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy adults with stuttering diagnosis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A speech sample from each participant containing at least 200 fluent syllables was videotaped and analyzed according to a stuttering severity index test and speech rate parameters. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study indicate that the stuttering severity and the speech rate present significant variation, i.e., the more severe the stuttering is, the lower the speech rate in words and syllables per minute. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that speech rate is an important indicator of fluency levels and should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering. This study represents a first attempt to identify the possible subtypes of developmental stuttering. DEFINITION: Objective tests that quantify diseases are important in their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Cream, Angela; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Harrison, Elisabeth; Lincoln, Michelle; Hewat, Sally; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) following speech restructuring treatment to improve the maintenance of treatment effects. The design was an open-plan, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 89 adults and adolescents who undertook intensive speech restructuring treatment. Post treatment, participants were randomly assigned to 2 trial arms: standard maintenance and standard maintenance plus VSM. Participants in the latter arm viewed stutter-free videos of themselves each day for 1 month. The addition of VSM did not improve speech outcomes, as measured by percent syllables stuttered, at either 1 or 6 months postrandomization. However, at the latter assessment, self-rating of worst stuttering severity by the VSM group was 10% better than that of the control group, and satisfaction with speech fluency was 20% better. Quality of life was also better for the VSM group, which was mildly to moderately impaired compared with moderate impairment in the control group. VSM intervention after treatment was associated with improvements in self-reported outcomes. The clinical implications of this finding are discussed.
Chakraborty, Nalanda; Logan, Kenneth J
To examine the effects of measurement method and transcript availability on the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of inexperienced raters' stuttering frequency measurements. 44 adults, all inexperienced at evaluating stuttered speech, underwent 20 min of preliminary training in stuttering measurement and then analyzed a series of sentences, with and without access to transcripts of sentence stimuli, using either a syllable-based analysis (SBA) or an utterance-based analysis (UBA). Participants' analyses were compared between groups and to a composite analysis from two experienced evaluators. Stuttering frequency scores from the SBA and UBA groups differed significantly from the experienced evaluators' scores; however, UBA scores were significantly closer to the experienced evaluators' scores and were completed significantly faster than the SBA scores. Transcript availability facilitated scoring accuracy and efficiency in both groups. The internal reliability of stuttering frequency scores was acceptable for the SBA and UBA groups; however, the SBA group demonstrated only modest point-by-point agreement with ratings from the experienced evaluators. Given its accuracy and efficiency advantages over syllable-based analysis, utterance-based fluency analysis appears to be an appropriate context for introducing stuttering frequency measurement to raters who have limited experience in stuttering measurement. To address accuracy gaps between experienced and inexperienced raters, however, use of either analysis must be supplemented with training activities that expose inexperienced raters to the decision-making processes used by experienced raters when identifying stuttered syllables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fabiola Staróbole Juste
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to acoustically compare the performance of children who do and do not stutter on diadochokinesis tasks in terms of syllable duration, syllable periods, and peak intensity. METHODS: In this case-control study, acoustical analyses were performed on 26 children who stutter and 20 agedmatched normally fluent children (both groups stratified into preschoolers and school-aged children during a diadochokinesis task: the repetition of articulatory segments through a task testing the ability to alternate movements. Speech fluency was assessed using the Fluency Profile and the Stuttering Severity Instrument. RESULTS: The children who stutter and those who do not did not significantly differ in terms of the acoustic patterns they produced in the diadochokinesis tasks. Significant differences were demonstrated between age groups independent of speech fluency. Overall, the preschoolers performed poorer. These results indicate that the observed differences are related to speech-motor age development and not to stuttering itself. CONCLUSIONS: Acoustic studies demonstrate that speech segment durations are most variable, both within and between subjects, during childhood and then gradually decrease to adult levels by the age of eleven to thirteen years. One possible explanation for the results of the present study is that children who stutter presented higher coefficients of variation to exploit the motor equivalence to achieve accurate sound production (i.e., the absence of speech disruptions.
Cholin, Joana; Heiler, Sabrina; Whillier, Alexander; Sommer, Martin
Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005). After refining the preliminary PAiS scale in a pilot study, we administered a revised version to 21 adults who stutter (AWS) and 21 age, gender and education-matched control participants. Results demonstrated that the PAiS had good internal consistency and discriminated the two speaker groups very effectively, with AWS reporting anticipation of speech disruptions significantly more often than adults with typical speech. Correlations between the PAiS total score and both the objective and subjective measures of stuttering severity revealed that AWS with high PAiS scores produced fewer stuttered syllables. This is possibly because these individuals are better able to adaptively use these anticipatory sensations to modulate their speech. These results suggest that, with continued refinement, the PAiS has the potential to provide clinicians and researchers with a practical and psychometrically sound tool that can quantify how a given AWS anticipates upcoming stuttering events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, many ... effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A ...
Full Text Available ... Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, many ... effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A ...
Full Text Available ... the world who have been recruited through speech-language-pathology programs in universities and speech clinics in ... The Stuttering Foundation National Stuttering Association American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Stuttering (a fact sheet from NIDCD) ...
Spurr, David Anton
Stuttering and other forms of breakdown in the smooth flow of speech occur in Joyce’s work at crucial moments, notably moments of confession under the pressure of interrogation. This essay shows how Joyce uses stuttering and other “errors” in correct pronunciation to develop a new literary language that finds its fully achieved form in Finnegans Wake. It explores the links between Joyce’s writing and contemporary psychoanalytical ideas of the “subject” as something which emerges out of the te...
Sari, Hakan; Gökdag, Hatice
Stuttering means that children have difficulties in rhythm, sound, syllable, word and phrase repetitions, or flow of speech cut in the form of extension or block form. In the "International Classification of Diseases" (1992) ("International Classification of Diseases-10" ("ICD-10"), Stuttering was defined as speech…
Full Text Available Objective: Study of prevalence of stuttering in Iranian bilingual societies is essential for determine the effects of linguistic factors in stuttering and therapy demands in these bilingual societies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of stuttering among Javanrud’s bilingual students. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study, all of bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools were examined and in order to this purpose, teacher referral method was used for the primary screening of speech disorders at all. Essential information about speech disorders specifically stuttering had been given to teachers before this primary step. Then researcher diagnosed stuttering students based on personal interview, reading, spontaneous speech and description of serial images that tell a story in Kurdish and Persian. Data were analysed by statistical tests such as Chi-square and Logistic Regression. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1/13 percent. Among primary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2/06, 0/87 and 0/5 percent respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1/35 and among girls was 0/88 percent. An overall male/female ratio was 1/5. Prevalence of stuttering in primary, guidance and high school was differ from each other significantly (P<0/001. Prevalence of stuttering in male was higher than female significantly (P=0/034. Conclusion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanrood’s bilingual students was higher than accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1%. Risk of being stuttering in male was higher than female.
Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19). During the speech task, people who stutter (PWS) showed increased functional connectivity of the right amygdala with the prefrontal gyrus (the left ventromedial frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus) and the left insula compared to controls. During rest, PWS showed stronger functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left orbital frontal gyrus, and between the left hippocampus and left motor areas than controls. Taken together, our results suggest aberrant bottom-up and/or top-down interactions for anxiety regulation, which might be responsible for the higher level of state anxiety during speech and for the anxiety-prone trait in PWS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural underpinnings of anxiety in PWS, thus yielding new insight into the causes of stuttering which might aid strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carter, Alice; Breen, Lauren; Yaruss, J Scott; Beilby, Janet
Self-efficacy has emerged as a potential predictor of quality of life for adults who stutter. Research has focused primarily on the positive relationship self-efficacy has to treatment outcomes, but little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life for adults who stutter. The purpose of this mixed- methods study is to determine the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life for adults who stutter. The Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Stutterers and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering were administered to 39 adults who stutter, aged 18- 77. Percentage of syllables stuttered was calculated from a conversational speech sample as a measure of stuttered speech frequency. Qualitative interviews with semi-structured probes were conducted with 10 adults and analyzed using thematic analysis to explore the lived experience of adults who stutter. Self-efficacy emerged as a strong positive predictor of quality of life for adults living with a stuttered speech disorder. Stuttered speech frequency was a moderate negative predictor of self-efficacy. Major qualitative themes identified from the interviews with the participants were: encumbrance, self-concept, confidence, acceptance, life-long journey, treatment, and support. Results provide clarity on the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life and stuttered speech frequency. Findings highlight that the unique life experiences of adults who stutter require a multidimensional approach to the assessment and treatment of stuttered speech disorders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011
Stutterer's incident in class draws national attention; Stuttering Foundation responds with tips for educators. In response to the articles in the "New York Times," Jane Fraser, president of the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation, wrote in a press release eight tips for educators regarding working with students who stutter. This article presents…
Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel
French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g.…
O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn
This study investigated whether measures of percentage syllables stuttered (%SS) and stuttering severity ratings with a 9-point scale differ when made from audiovisual compared with audio-only recordings. Four experienced speech-language pathologists measured %SS and assigned stuttering severity ratings to 10-minute audiovisual and audio-only recordings of 36 adults. There was a mean 18% increase in %SS scores when samples were presented in audiovisual compared with audio-only mode. This result was consistent across both higher and lower %SS scores and was found to be directly attributable to counts of stuttered syllables rather than the total number of syllables. There was no significant difference between stuttering severity ratings made from the two modes. In clinical trials research, when using %SS as the primary outcome measure, audiovisual samples would be preferred as long as clear, good quality, front-on images can be easily captured. Alternatively, stuttering severity ratings may be a more valid measure to use as they correlate well with %SS and values are not influenced by the presentation mode.
Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Harkrider, Ashley W; Thornton, David; Jenson, David; Kittilstved, Tiffani
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls. PWS produced μ spectra with reduced β amplitudes across conditions, suggesting reduced forward modeling capacity. Group time-frequency differences were associated with noisy conditions only. PWS showed increased μ-β desynchronization when listening to noise and early in discrimination events, suggesting evidence of heightened motor activity that might be related to forward modeling deficits. PWS also showed reduced μ-α synchronization in discrimination conditions, indicating reduced sensory gating. Together these findings indicate spectral and oscillatory analyses of μ rhythms are sensitive to stuttering. More specifically, they can reveal stuttering-related sensorimotor processing differences in listening and auditory discrimination that also may be influenced by basal ganglia deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: One language-related area that has recently received more attention from researchers working in the field of stuttering is phonological working memory. This article aimed to identify phonological skills of working memory in children with stuttering in comparison with normal children, and to obtain the relationship between the increase in the number of syllables in nonwords and the mean percentage of error in non-word repetition in both groups, then to compare them with each other. Methods: Thirty children participated in the study, 15 children who stutter and 15 normal children which were matched by age, gender and socio-economic status. Cases of this study were recruited by non random convenience sampling. The research data collection was based on non-word repetition test. The test included 40 non-words. Independent t-tests and linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Results revealed that in all cases the mean percentage of error was higher in children who stutter than normal children, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Also the mean percentage error did not show a regular increase by increasing the number of syllables in the non-words. So that, in both groups of the study the highest mean percentage of error was related to single-syllable non-words then three-syllable and two-syllable ones. Conclusion: The results of the present research from previous researches support the view that children with stuttering may have some degree of delay and slow in phonological working memory abilities when compared to normal children. It is proposed that in future more researches could be done in more samples, in different age groups of children and adults who stutter.
Aichert, Ingrid; Ziegler, Wolfram
Recent accounts of the pathomechanism underlying apraxia of speech (AOS) were based on the speech production model of Levelt, Roelofs, and Meyer, and Meyer (1999)1999. The apraxic impairment was localized to the phonetic encoding level where the model postulates a mental store of motor programs for high-frequency syllables. Varley and Whiteside…
... Frequently Asked Questions Advancing Research Letting Go Newsletter Stuttering in the News Social Media and Internet Groups Media Information Other Stuttering Sites/Organizations Free Printables & Brochures Other Programs Who ...
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Full Text Available ... communicate with other people, which often affects a person’s quality of life. Dennis Drayna, Ph.D., an ... all the people who we recruit now are individuals who stutter, who have stuttered for a long ...
Full Text Available ... who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of ... variety of ways. We work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year I go to the ...
Full Text Available ... The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, ... about NIDCD Stuttering Research The Long Road to Discovery: Stuttering Genes Turn Up in the Most Unexpected ...
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Novšak Brce, Jerneja
Different authors agree that stuttering is a multifactorial disorder which requires correspondingly evaluation, diagnosis and treatment (Conture 2001; Logan, Yaruss, 1999; Vanryckeghem, Brutten, 1997; Zebrowski, Kelly, 2002). The process of diagnosing stuttering should take into account the affective, behavioral and cognitive aspects of the stuttering disorder (Vanryckeghem, Brutten, 2007). Researches show that the temperament of the individual is an important factor in stuttering. In chil...
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since knowing the mechanisms which evoke non-fluency is the first step in the treatment of stuttering, and there are very few researches in Persian which consider the role of the linguistic factors behind stuttering, this study is an attempt to provide answers to some of numerous questions about stuttering by comparing the stuttered words` type in stuttered children and adults. Materials and Methods: In this study stuttered people were divided into 5 age groups as follows: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-16, and older than 17 years old. Each group had ten participants. Forty-two of the 50 participants were male, and the youngest person was 3 years old and the eldest one was 32 years old. The study method involved recording at least 5 minuets of spontaneous speech of every one who was diagnosed of suffering from stuttering by two speech and language pathologists. The percent of non-fluency on every word's type was determined where a content word was followed or preceded by a function word (Function-Function-Content words and Function-Content words contexts. Then these findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of this study show while function words are dominantly more stuttered than content words in children less than 13 years old in Function-Function-Content words context, we consider more disfluency on content words and second function word by getting old. We consider more stuttering on function words in children less that 13 years old in Function-Content words context too and increased non-fluency on content word by growing up. Results also show meaningful differences between the fifth group and others in the amount of stuttering on second function word in the Function-Function-Content words contexts and also between the first group and the others in amount of non-fluency both on function and content words in Function-Content words context. Conclusion: People who stutter from Farsi speakers
Full Text Available ... National Stuttering Association where I give a talk about our research, and I recruit and I enroll research subjects ... a fact sheet from NIDCD) Questions and Answers about NIDCD Stuttering Research The Long Road to Discovery: Stuttering Genes Turn ...
Full Text Available ... people can actually do things to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, can we use this ...
Sahin, Huseyin Alparslan; Krespi, Yakup; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Coban, Oguzhan
Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of phonological awareness of stuttering children and children with fluent speech. The sample consisted of 64 children, between 56 and 83 months old (4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months. Examinees were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of 32 stuttering children, 19 males, and 13 females. The control group consisted of 32 children with fluent speech, whose age and sex were equal to the age and sex of the children in the experimental group. The research was conducted in preschools and primary schools in Tuzla and Una-Sana Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The subjects were examined with 7 subtests (syllable and phoneme blending abilities, ability to rhyme, phoneme segmentation, phoneme deletion, phoneme transposition and spoonerisms. Each of the subtest scores, which index a variety of phonological awareness abilities, was examined separately. Phonological awareness score is the total score which relates to a common result that the subjects achieved on these 7 individual subtests. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between stuttering children and their peers with fluent speech in relation to Phonological awareness score. The examination of differences between stuttering and non-stuttering children in individual variables, which describe phonological awareness, showed that there was statistically significant difference in the ability to rhyme between these two subjects groups. T-test was used for examination of the differences between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers, and also female stuttering children and their fluent peers for the phonological awareness variables. The results exhibited statistically significant differences in the variable Rhyme between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers. In addition, we examined the ability of phonemic analysis of children who stutter and children with fluent
Daniel T. Valentine
Full Text Available This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4 was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue were obtained in each of the 10-week intervention periods. In addition, the Communication Attitudes Test-Revised was used to assess the children’s attitudes toward speaking. Following the telepractice period, parents and children completed a questionnaire concerning the therapy experience via telepractice. Both children continued to improve fluency as measured by the weekly fluency samples. SSI-4 severity ratings improved for one child and remained consistent for the other. These outcomes appear to demonstrate that telepractice is viable for improving and maintaining fluency.
Full Text Available Background: Investigation of strategies and methods of therapy in stutterers regarding to its characteristics, length of treatment, and relapse of stuttering is very important. Acupuncture has been introduced as a therapeutic method for the treatment of stuttering. The aim of the present research was the identification of the results of intervention of laser acupuncture in comparison with speech therapy in stutterers. Materials and Methods: This clinical - trial and case control research was conducted on 20 stutterers and 20 non-stutterers. In the present study, speech therapy and laser acupuncture were used on 10 persons who had developmental stuttering from childhood. Results: The results were compared with the data of speech therapy and placebo laser in 10 control subjects. All of the subjects were followed up for 12 weeks after the intervention. The obtained data showed that accompanying of speech therapy with laser acupuncture resulted the increasing of maintenance and therapeutic effects of stuttering treatment and decreasing of relapsing. The speech rate and percent of stuttered words before and after the intervention in both groups (A and B were decreased. Following the results after 12 weeks showed that the results were stable in laser group more than the other group and there was a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that using of laser acupuncture therapy accompanying by speech therapy has many effects on the treatment of stuttering and prevents the relapsing of stuttering that is very common.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...
Büchel, Christian; Sommer, Martin
Stuttering, with its characteristic disruption in verbal fluency, has been known for centuries; earliest descriptions probably date back to the Biblical Moses' “slowness of speech and tongue” and his related avoidance behavior (Exodus 4, 10–13). Stuttering occurs in all cultures and ethnic groups (Andrews et al. 1983; Zimmermann et al. 1983), although prevalence might differ. Insofar as many of the steps in how we produce language normally are still a mystery, disorders like stuttering are ev...
Full Text Available Electromyographic biofeedback was used to reduce tension and enhance control of the speech associated muscles, resulting in a reduction of the frequency of stuttering. Five sessions were conducted over a course of three weeks. A mild, moderate and severe stutterer were assessed. A decrease in stuttering frequency was seen in each subject from pre to post biofeedback sessions on both a descriptive and an inferential level.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF. Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG, and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG. The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds delayed by Fono Tools software. Results: the DAF caused a significant improvement in the fluency of spontaneous speech in RG when compared to speech under NAF. The effect of DAF was different in CG, because it increased the common disfluencies and the total of disfluencies in spontaneous speech and reading, besides showing an increase in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies in reading. The intergroup analysis showed significant differences in the two speech tasks for the two listening conditions in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies and in the total of disfluencies, and in the flows of syllable and word-per-minute in the NAF. Conclusion: the results demonstrated that delayed auditory feedback promoted fluency in spontaneous speech of adults who stutter, without interfering in the speech rate. In non-stuttering adults an increase occurred in the number of common disfluencies and total of disfluencies as well as reduction of speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading.
Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin
The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of the lips. Stuttering can make it difficult to communicate with other people, which often affects a person’s quality of life. Dennis Drayna, Ph. ...
Full Text Available ... to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the ... human geneticists really can’t make progress. How do we find our subjects? Well, we find them ...
Full Text Available ... King George VI of England’s speech challenge known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a ... overcome this communication disorder heard in speeches such as this one he delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering ...
Full Text Available ... actually do things to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? ... the disorder. — CROSS FADE — The foundation of our studies is the human subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human ...
Ali Akbar Tahaei
Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.
Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S
General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan
The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...
Full Text Available ... the disorder but also how with work and understanding people can actually do things to mitigate the ... subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists ... About Nature vs. Nuture and the Genetics of Stuttering? What ...
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Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena
To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.
Mawson, Anthony R; Radford, Nola T; Jacob, Binu
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children. Evidence marshaled from the literature on stuttering and from related sources suggests the hypothesis that stuttering is a neuro-motor disorder resulting from perinatal or later-onset hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII), and that chronic stuttering and its behavioral correlates are manifestations of recurrent transient ischemic episodes affecting speech-motor pathways. The hypothesis could be tested by comparing children who stutter and nonstutterers (controls) in terms of the occurrence of perinatal trauma, based on birth records, and by determining rates of stuttering in children exposed to HII during the perinatal period. Subject to testing, the hypothesis suggests that interventions to increase brain perfusion directly could be effective both in the treatment of stuttering and its prevention at the time of birth or later trauma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sahin, Huseyin Alparslan; Krespi, Yakup; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Coban, Oguzhan
Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction. PMID:16082078
Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…
Huseyin Alparslan Sahin
Full Text Available Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction.
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that motor and speech disorders co-occur during development. In the present study, we investigated whether stuttering, a developmental speech disorder, is associated with a motor timing deficit in childhood and adolescence. By testing sensorimotor synchronization abilities, we aimed to assess whether predictive timing is dysfunctional in young participants who stutter (8-16 years. Twenty German children and adolescents who stutter and 43 non-stuttering participants matched for age and musical training were tested on their ability to synchronize their finger taps with periodic tone sequences and with a musical beat. Forty percent of children and 90 percent of adolescents who stutter displayed poor synchronization with both metronome and musical stimuli, falling below 2.5 % of the estimated population based on the performance of the group without the disorder. Synchronization deficits were characterized by either lower synchronization accuracy or lower consistency or both. Lower accuracy resulted in an over-anticipation of the pacing event in participants who stutter. Moreover, individual profiles revealed that lower consistency was typical of participants that were severely stuttering. These findings support the idea that malfunctioning predictive timing during auditory-motor coupling plays a role in stuttering in children and adolescents.
Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental
Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan
The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed.
Jackson, Eric S; Yaruss, J Scott; Quesal, Robert W; Terranova, Valerie; Whalen, D H
Many people who stutter experience the phenomenon of anticipation-the sense that stuttering will occur before it is physically and overtly realized. A systematic investigation of how people who stutter respond to anticipation has not been previously reported. The purposes of this study were to provide self-report evidence of what people do in response to anticipation of stuttering and to determine the extent to which this anticipation occurs. Thirty adults who stutter indicated on a Likert rating scale the extent to which they anticipate stuttering and answered three open-ended (written) questions regarding how they respond to anticipation. All participants reported experiencing anticipation at least "sometimes," and 77% of the participants reported experiencing anticipation "often" or "always." The extent to which participants reported experiencing anticipation was not related to stuttering severity, impact, or treatment history. Analysis of written responses revealed 24 major categories, which were heuristically divided into action or non-action responses. Categories representing avoidance and self-management strategies were further divided into 14 and 19 subcategories, respectively. Participants were just as likely to view anticipation as helpful as they were to view it as harmful. Findings demonstrate that most, if not all, adults who stutter experience anticipation, and the majority of adults who stutter report doing so at least often. Adults who stutter respond to this anticipation by altering the speech production process in various ways. Results highlight the importance of the role that anticipation plays in how stuttering behaviors manifest themselves. The reader will be able to: (a) summarize existing literature on the anticipation of stuttering; (b) describe the role and extent of anticipation of stuttering in adults; (c) describe the various ways that adults who stutter respond to anticipation; (d) describe the importance of measuring anticipation in
Full Text Available ... About Grants Policy & Compliance Grants News/Blog Contracts Loan Repayment More » Search the NIH Guide Quick Links ... a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow ...
Surushkina, S Yu; Chutko, L S; Aitbekov, K A; Nikishena, I S; Bondarchuk, Yu I
To determine the clinical presentations of stuttering in children with tics treated with noofen. Authors examined 181 children with tics, aged 7-13. Stuttering was identified in 23.2% of cases. Thirty children with tics and comorbid stuttering received noofen. RESULTS AND СONCLUSION: The prevalence of stuttering in children with tics was significantly higher than in the population. Stuttering was significantly more frequent in children with transient tics than chronic tics. Neurotic stuttering was recorded more frequently. The high efficacy of noofen was shown; the decrease in ticks was obtained in 80% of cases, the reduction of stuttering in 66.7% of cases. The data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies, confirming the improvement of patients after treatment, are presented.
Caroline de Sonneville-Koedoot
Full Text Available Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter.In this multicenter randomized controlled trial with an 18 month follow-up, preschool children who stutter who were referred for treatment were randomized to direct treatment (Lidcombe Program; n = 99 or indirect treatment (RESTART-DCM treatment; n = 100. Main inclusion criteria were age 3-6 years, ≥3% syllables stuttered (%SS, and time since onset ≥6 months. The primary outcome was the percentage of non-stuttering children at 18 months. Secondary outcomes included stuttering frequency (%SS, stuttering severity ratings by the parents and therapist, severity rating by the child, health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems, and speech attitude.Percentage of non-stuttering children for direct treatment was 76.5% (65/85 versus 71.4% (65/91 for indirect treatment (Odds Ratio (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4, p = .42. At 3 months, children treated by direct treatment showed a greater decline in %SS (significant interaction time x therapy: β = -1.89; t(282.82 = -2.807, p = .005. At 18 months, stuttering frequency was 1.2% (SD 2.1 for direct treatment and 1.5% (SD 2.1 for indirect treatment. Direct treatment had slightly better scores on most other secondary outcome measures, but no differences between treatment approaches were significant.Direct treatment decreased stuttering more quickly during the first three months of treatment. At 18 months, however, clinical outcomes for direct and indirect treatment were comparable. These results imply that at 18 months post treatment onset, both treatments are roughly equal in treating developmental stuttering in ways that surpass expectations of natural recovery. Follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings in the longer term
Constantino, Christopher Dominick; Manning, Walter H; Nordstrom, Susan Naomi
The experience of passing as fluent, also called covert stuttering, has been uncritically framed as an inherently negative pursuit. Historically passing has been understood as a repression of one's true, authentic self in response to either psychological distress or social discrimination. The authors of this paper seek a more nuanced understanding of passing. We ask, how must a person relate to herself in order to pass as fluent? This is a qualitative research study in which the authors utilized the ethical theories of philosopher Michel Foucault to contextualize data obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine participants who pass as fluent. Rather than a repression of an authentic self our data suggests passing is more usefully understood as a form of resistance by people who stutter to a hostile society. Participants learned from experiences of delegitimization that their stuttering had ethical ramifications. Consequently, they used a variety of self-forming practices to pass and thereby achieve the privileges that come with perceived able-bodiedness. Passing as fluent is not an inauthentic form of stuttering but a form of stuttering that is produced through the use of specific technologies of communication. These technologies of communication are constituted by the unique ethical relationship of the person who stutters with herself. Passing can be understood as an active form of resistance rather than a passive form of repression. By theorizing passing as fluent as an ethical relationship, we open up the possibility of changing the relationship and performing it differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne
The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.
Full Text Available After a brief reply to some critical remarks raised by Mario Enrietti in a paper published in “Studi Slavistici”, VI (2009, the Author tries to explain why Enrietti’s theory of an exogenous, namely Romance origin of the Slavic open syllable structure should be rejected.
Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen
Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…
Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.
Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)
Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai
Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…
Lambert, Eric; Kandel, Sonia; Fayol, Michel; Esperet, Eric
Four experiments examined whether motor programming in handwriting production can be modulated by the syllable structure of the word to be written. This study manipulated the number of syllables. The items, words and pseudo-words, had 2, 3 or 4 syllables. French adults copied them three times. We measured the latencies between the visual…
Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara
This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…
Lowe, Robyn; Helgadottir, Fjola; Menzies, Ross; Heard, Rob; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a…
Full Text Available ... Media Contacts Images and B-roll Events Social Media More » Quick Links ... challenge known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a speech therapist to overcome this communication disorder heard in speeches such as this one ...
Full Text Available ... repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, ... We’ve worked with families around the world who have been recruited through speech-language-pathology programs in universities and speech clinics ...
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Full Text Available ... of our studies is the human subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists really can’t make progress. How do we find our subjects? Well, we find them through a variety of ways. We work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year ...
Full Text Available ... You Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, ... from NIH Footer NIH Home En Español Site Map Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Web Policies and ...
Full Text Available ... are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied ... a long industrial depression… What was the impact of The King’s Speech? Video of What Did You Think About " ...
Kaplan, N R; Kaplan, M L
This article describes the application of Gestalt therapy concepts to the treatment of stuttering. Within this framework stuttering is seen as an organized self-system rather than a symptom. This self-system is maintained and reinforced by the stutter's experience of this physical self, self-expectancies, self-messages, projections on others, and total viewing of self as a limited and inadequate person. The individual enmeshes himself or herself into this system and restricts himself to familiar behaviors, in this case stuttering, because he has no framework for other ways of functioning. The Gestalt therapeutic framework as a basis of unlocking the individual's limited style of functioning is explored.
Full Text Available Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old.The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment. This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.
O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…
Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Onslow, Mark
Background: Many adults who stutter presenting for speech treatment experience social anxiety disorder. The presence of mental health disorders in adults who stutter has been implicated in a failure to maintain speech treatment benefits. Contemporary theories of social anxiety disorder propose that the condition is maintained by negative…
Maria Anca; Carolina Bodea Haţegan; Lăcrămioara Prihoi
This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with t...
Full Text Available Edgar Durand,1 Alexander G Weil,2 Marc Lévêque1,3 1Espace éthique de l’Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris et Département de recherche en éthique, South Paris University, Paris, France; 2Pediatric Neurosurgical Department, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Service de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France We read with interest the article entitled “Anterior capsulotomy improves persistent developmental stuttering with a psychiatric disorder: a case report and literature review” published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.1 The authors report on a 28-year-old man with persistent developmental stuttering who was treated by bilateral anterior capsulotomy in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, this is a new and previously unreported application of this technique for this indication. Accordingly, as the authors highlight, “the evidence for surgical treatment of persistent developmental stuttering and associated psychiatric disorders is limited”, placing their approach within the clinical research forum. In this experimental context, this case report brings forward several important reflections on patient evaluation, technique utilized, and postoperative follow-up. Read the original article
Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.
Cherry, Jonathan C; Gordon, Kevin Eric
A 12-year-old girl presented to our pediatric emergency department after a head injury with symptoms of concussion and acute stuttering. A PubMed search identified only 1 similar pediatric case. We investigated whether new-onset stuttering may be seen in the presence of acute concussive symptoms using an infodemiologic approach. We conducted a search with a metabrowser search engine (www.dogpile.com) using the free-text words "concussion" and "stuttering." The first 100 hits were scanned specifically for forum posts, extracting reports of concussions that were followed by new-onset stuttering. Duplicates were minimized by cross-referencing user name, location, date, and reported age and sex. Of the first 100 hits, we identified 17 unique posts that described an injury leading to a concussion followed within a short interval by new-onset stuttering. Posts were primarily by the affected individual (76%) and 64% involved female individuals. Sports and falls/injury accounted for most injuries (71%). Forty-one percent of posts explicitly stated that the concussion had been formally diagnosed. For those that reported the timing of stuttering onset (47%), the stuttering was documented within 1 hour of the injury (4/8) or between 1 and 24 hours (4/8). The ease with which we found so many reports of stuttering after head injury with concussive symptoms confirms that new-onset stuttering may be a symptom of concussion. Our experience highlights both a failure of using conventional medical literature and a success of using nontraditional information sources in identifying uncommonly associated symptoms of frequently encountered conditions.
Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark
Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.
Perez, Hector R; Stoeckle, James H
To provide an update on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched for past and recent studies on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. Most recommendations are based on small studies, limited-quality evidence, or consensus. Stuttering is a speech disorder, common in persons of all ages, that affects normal fluency and time patterning of speech. Stuttering has been associated with differences in brain anatomy, functioning, and dopamine regulation thought to be due to genetic causes. Attention to making a correct diagnosis or referral in children is important because there is growing consensus that early intervention with speech therapy for children who stutter is critical. For adults, stuttering can be associated with substantial psychosocial morbidity including social anxiety and low quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment has received attention in recent years, but clinical evidence is limited. The mainstay of treatment for children and adults remains speech therapy. A growing body of research has attempted to uncover the pathophysiology of stuttering. Referral for speech therapy remains the best option for children and adults. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Cholin, Joana; Dell, Gary S.; Levelt, Willem J. M.
We investigated the role of syllables during speech planning in English by measuring syllable-frequency effects. So far, syllable-frequency effects in English have not been reported. English has poorly defined syllable boundaries, and thus the syllable might not function as a prominent unit in English speech production. Speakers produced either…
... Employers Tweet If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering... Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Edward G. Conture, Vanderbilt University. Is Your Child Stuttering? If your child has difficulty speaking and tends ...
A South African Sign Language Dictionary for Families with Young Deaf Children (SLED 2006) was used with permission ... Figure 1: Syllable structure of a CVC syllable in the word “bed”. In spoken languages .... often than not, there is a societal emphasis on 'fixing' a child's deafness and attempting to teach deaf children to ...
Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius
Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.
Rietveld, A.C.M.; Schiller, N.O.; Caspers, J.; Chen, Y.; Heeren, W.; Pacilly, J.; Schiller, N.O.; Zanten, E. van
This paper reports a syllable monitoring experiment that examines the role of segmental phonetic information in Dutch. Participants were presented with lists of spoken words and were required to detect auditorily specified targets that matched or did not match the initial syllable of the spoken
Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.
The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…
Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.
This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded
Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane
Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki
This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning.
Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrèse, Aurélie; Castet, Eric
Previous studies of foveal visual word recognition provide evidence for a low-level syllable decomposition mechanism occurring during the recognition of a word. We investigated if such a decomposition mechanism also exists in peripheral word recognition. Single words were visually presented to subjects in the peripheral field using a 6° square gaze-contingent simulated central scotoma. In the first experiment, words were either unicolor or had their adjacent syllables segmented with two different colors (color/syllable congruent condition). Reaction times for correct word identification were measured for the two different conditions and for two different print sizes. Results show a significant decrease in reaction time for the color/syllable congruent condition compared with the unicolor condition. A second experiment suggests that this effect is specific to syllable decomposition and results from strategic, presumably involving attentional factors, rather than stimulus-driven control.
Shenker, Rosalee C.
Stuttering occurs across all languages and cultures. However, the impact of speaking more than one language on assessment and treatment of young children who stutter is not well documented. This paper discusses some of the challenges related to clinical issues pertaining to this population including (a) identifying stuttering in an unfamiliar…
Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Bobaru, M.; Havelund, K.; Holzmann, G.J.; Joshi, R.
We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering
Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Roychoudhury, A.; D'Souza, M.
We define governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a
Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger
Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…
Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.
We de¿ne governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a
Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…
Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz
Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…
Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Jones, Robin M.; Kim, Hanjoe
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether emotional reactivity and emotional stress of children who stutter (CWS) are associated with their stuttering frequency, (b) when the relationship between emotional reactivity and stuttering frequency is more likely to exist, and (c) how these associations are mediated by a 3rd…
Full Text Available Objectives: Stuttering is one of the most prevalent speech and language disorders. Symptomology of stuttering has been surveyed from different aspects such as biological, developmental, environmental, emotional, learning and linguistic. Previous researches in English-speaking people have suggested that some linguistic features such as word meanings may play a role in the frequency of speech non-fluency in people who stutter. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of word meanings on the frequency of dysfluency in Persian-speaking adults with developmental stuttering. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was performed on 14 adults who stuttered. Their average age was 25 years. The frequency of non-fluency instances was evaluated upon reading two lists containing 60 words and 60 non-words. The words were selected on the basis of common Persian syllable structures. ‘Kolmogoro-Smirnov one sample test’ and paired t-test was used to analyze data the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the dysfluency in word and non-word lists (P<0.05. Discussion: The findings of this study indicate a significant increase in the frequency of dysfluency on non-words than on real words. It seems that the phonological encodingprocess of non-word reading is much more complex than for word reading, because, in non-word reading, the component of semantic content retrieval (word meaning is missing when compared to word reading.
Hughes, Stephanie; Gabel, Rodney; Irani, Farzan; Schlagheck, Adam
An open-ended, written survey was administered to 146 university students who did not stutter to obtain their impressions of the effects of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter (PWS). Participants first wrote about the general effects of stuttering and then considered how their lives would be different if they stuttered. Both types of…
Silva, Lorene Karoline; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Maciel, Thamiris Moreira; Ribeiro, Jessyca Kelly Barbosa Carneiro; Souza, Marina Alves de; Chaves, Flávia Gonçalves
Verify the knowledge of teachers from public and private schools about stuttering and attest the effectiveness of the Teacher Training Program on Stuttering in the expansion of this knowledge. The study sample comprised 137 early-childhood teachers. Initially, the teachers responded to a questionnaire on stuttering. After that, 75 teachers attended a 4-hour Teacher Training Program on Stuttering. One month later, the teachers responded to the same questionnaire again. The following points were observed after the training program: increased percentage of teachers who consider as low the prevalence of stuttering in the population; beginning of reports stating that stuttering is more frequent in males; increased number of teachers who consider stuttering hereditary; decreased incidence of teachers who believe stuttering is psychological; prevalence of those who believe stuttering is a consequence of multiple causes; decreased rate of teachers who believe stuttering is emotional; a better understanding of how educators should behave to help stutterers. Before the course, the teachers had some knowledge regarding stuttering, but it was insufficient to differentiate from other language disorders. The Program expanded their knowledge on stuttering. However, it proved to be more effective with respect to the characteristics of stuttering than to the attitudes of the teachers.
González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles
Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. © The Author(s) 2016.
Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew
Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Conclusions: It seems that olanzapine does have better impact in controlling stuttering, and it may be recommended to prescribe olanzapine for stutters as the first choice to control the stuttering under a careful follow-up.
Cox, A R; Hutcheson, L
Skill in reading long words is prerequisite to dyslexics' literacy. Instant recognition of printed symbols is easy for those readers with photographic memories, but dyslexics often fail to recognize visually many long words which are actually familiar to them auditorially. Scientific, automatic, multisensory procedures for dividing longer words into easily read syllables can enable students to translate visual symbols rapidly and thereby to read, write, or spell accurately words of any length.Over one thousand dyslexics, aged seven to fifteen, guided the interdisciplinary team at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas to develop, observe results, and test specific structured, sequential steps in working out longer words. The ten-year study (1965-1975) in the Language Laboratory of the Hospital established the Alphabetic Phonics curriculum which is now used successfully, not only in remedial groups but in regular classes of any size or age, in public and private schools in 45 states and six foreign countries.The newly-established Aylett Royall Cox Institute in Dallas prepares teachers and Master Instructors to train both students and other teachers. Comparable Alphabetic Phonics Teacher Training Centers are already established in Houston and Lubbock, Texas, in Oklahoma City, and at Columbia University Teachers College in New York.
style HMM models are generated for each of the clusters during training. During testing .... manual segmentation at syllable-like units followed by isolated style recognition of continu- ous speech ..... obtaining demisyllabic reference patterns.
Full Text Available In the line of the monitoring studies initiated by Mehler et al. (1981, a group of Italian listeners were asked to detect auditory CV and CVC targets in carrier words beginning with a CV, a CVC or a CVG (G = geminate syllable with variable initial syllable stress. By slowing participants reaction times, using both catch and foil trials, a syllable effect was found, partially modulated by participants’ speed but not by stress location. When catch trials were removed in a second experiment the syllable effect was not observed, even if reaction times were similar to that of the first experiment. We discuss these data in relation to the language transparency hypothesis and the nature of the pivotal consonant.
Thiel, Cedric; Yang, Jin; Crawley, Brianna; Krishna, Priya; Murry, Thomas
Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers. Prospective study. Measures of estimated Ps, AFR, and aerodynamic vocal efficiency (AVE) were obtained from 19 female and four male speakers ages 22-44 years with no history of voice disorders. Subjects repeated a series of /pa/ syllables and a sentence at comfortable effort level into a face mask with a pressure-sensing tube between the lips. AVE varies as a function of the speech material in normal subjects. Ps measures were significantly higher for the sentence-production samples than for the syllable-production samples. AFR was higher during sentence production than syllable production, but the difference was not statistically significant. AVE values were significantly higher for syllable versus sentence productions. The results suggest that subjects increase Ps and AFR in sentence compared with syllable production. Speaking task is a critical factor when considering measures of AVE, and this preliminary study provides a basis for further aerodynamic studies of patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kolling, G H; Höltzcke, P
When visual acuity for distance is tested correct recognition of (as an example) 6 of 10 Landolt-rings is required. On the other hand, it is very difficult to define visual acuity exactly with reading cards, the result will also depend on the patient's reading ability. The new near vision test consists of 10 syllables with two letters being calibrated according to DIN 58,220 (part 2 A1-correlation of optotypes) by Rassow et al. . The patient is required to recognize 6 syllables out of 10 correctly. To test crowding phenomena the syllables are connected by a letterlike symbol. In 18 patients suffering from squint amblyopia and in 18 patients suffering from anisometropic amblyopia visual acuity with Oculus reading cards and with the new near vision test was identical. The crowding syllables test yielded a visual acuity comparable to that determined with the C test according to Haase/Hohmann . The new near vision test makes it possible to examine visual acuity for reading with syllables as exactly as for single optotypes using Landolt-rings. In both cases, 6 of 10 answers have to be correct. Additionally, reading time for one syllable can be restricted to one second when patients with nystagmus are being tested.
Vanhoutte, Sarah; Van Borsel, John; Cosyns, Marjan; Batens, Katja; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Roost, Dirk; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick
A neural hallmark of developmental stuttering is abnormal articulatory programming. One of the neurophysiological substrates of articulatory preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely performed in persons who stutter and mainly focus on the effect of task variation rather than on interindividual variation in stutter related variables. However, variations in motor programming seem to be related to variation in stuttering frequency. The current study presents a case report of acquired stuttering following stroke and stroke related surgery in the left superior temporal gyrus. A speech related CNV task was administered at four points in time with differences in stuttering severity and frequency. Unexpectedly, CNV amplitudes at electrode sites approximating bilateral motor and left inferior frontal gyrus appeared to be inversely proportional to stuttering frequency. The higher the stuttering frequency, the lower the activity for articulatory preparation. Thus, the amount of disturbance in motor programming seems to determine stuttering frequency. At right frontal electrodes, a relative increase in CNV amplitude was seen at the test session with most severe stuttering. Right frontal overactivation is cautiously suggested to be a compensation strategy. In conclusion, late CNV amplitude elicited by a relatively simple speech task seems to be able to provide an objective, neural correlate of stuttering frequency. The present case report supports the hypothesis that motor preparation has an important role in stuttering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified ten syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Stuttering is a functional impairment of speech, which is manifested by conscious, but nonintentionally interrupted, disharmonic and disrhythmic fluctuation of sound varying in frequency and intensity. Aetiology of this disorder has been conceived within the frame of theoretical models, which tend to connect genetic and epigenetic factors. OBJECTIVE The goal of the paper was to study the characteristics of the family functioning of stuttering children in comparison to the family functioning of children without speech disorder, which confirmed the justification of the introduction of family orientated therapeutic interventions into the therapy spectrum of child stuttering. METHOD Seventy-nine nucleus families of 3 to 6 year-old children were examined; of these, 39 families had stuttering children and 40 had children without speech disorder. The assessment of family characteristics was made using the Family Health Scale, an observer-rating scale which according to semistructured interview and operational criteria, measures 6 basic dimensions of family functioning: Emotional State, Communication, Borders, Alliances, Adaptability & Stability, Family Skills. A total score calculated from the basic dimensions, is considered as a global index of family health. RESULTS Families with stuttering children compared to families with children without speech disorder showed significantly lower scores in all the basic dimension of family functioning, as well as in the total score on the Family Health Scale. CONCLUSION Our research results have shown that stuttering children in comparison with children without speech disorder live in families with unfavorable emotional atmosphere, impaired communication and worse control over situational and developmental difficulties, which affect children's development and well-being. In the light of previous research, the application of family therapy modified according to the child's needs is now considered
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...
Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin
Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.
Vilsen, Søren B; Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante
Stutters are common and well documented artefacts of amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) regions when using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) occurring as strands one or more motifs shorter or longer than the parental allele. Understanding the mechanism and rate by which stutters are created...... is especially important when the samples contain small amounts of DNA or DNA from multiple contributors. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) and the stutter ratio. This holds if there is only a single type of stutter variant. However...
Janeth Hernández Jaramillo
Full Text Available Objective: this study compares the performance of two groups of participants with and without aphasia anomic in a lexical decision tasks (LDT and spelling, in relation to the effect of the variables of word frequency and syllable. Materials and methods: a prospective study with a 2x2x2 design, which administered the LDT, in which each she/he had to decide if it was a real Spanish word or not, pressing one of two keys. To the task of spelling, they had to spell orally each of words presented auditorily. Results: It was found that in the LTD, the experimental group made more errors in the high-frequency stimuli syllable while the control group had more errors in the low-frequency syllables. In terms of reaction times was evident that the experimental group took longer to solve the task than the control group. The spelling task performance showed no difference in groups or conditions (lexical frequency and syllable. Conclusions: similar than other researches in normalized population, the results of this study demonstrate the effect of lexical frequency facilitation and inhibition that generates high syllable frequency.
Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt
Stutter peaks are artefacts that arise during PCR amplification of short tandem repeats. Stutter peaks are especially important in forensic case work with DNA mixtures. The aim of the study was primarily to estimate the stutter rates of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler kit. We found that the stutter rates...
Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Davidow, Jason H
The fact that some people who stutter have the ability to anticipate a stuttering moment is essential for several theories of stuttering and important for maximum effectiveness of many currently used treatment techniques. The "anticipation effect," however, is poorly understood despite much investigation into this phenomenon. In the present paper, we combine (1) behavioral evidence from the stuttering-anticipation literature, (2) speech production models, and (3) models of error detection to propose a theoretical model of anticipation. Integrating evidence from theories such as Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis, Levelt's Perceptual Monitoring Theory, Guenther's The Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, Postma's Covert Repair Hypothesis, among others, our central thesis is that the anticipation of a stuttering moment occurs as an outcome of the interactions between previous learning experiences (i.e., learnt associations between stuttered utterances and any self-experienced or environmental consequence) and error monitoring. Possible neurological mechanisms involved in generating conscious anticipation are also discussed, along with directions for future research. The reader will be able to: (a) describe historical theories that explain how PWS may learn to anticipate stuttering; (b) state some traditional sources of evidence of anticipation in stuttering; (c) describe how PWS may be sensitive to the detection of a stuttering; (d) state some of the neural correlates that may underlie anticipation in stuttering; and (e) describe some of the possible utilities of incorporating anticipation into stuttering interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin
Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Packman, Ann
Purpose: This prologue serves to introduce a research forum composed of studies that address the topic of stuttering in school-age children and adolescents. Researchers are encouraged to continue to build the knowledge base that sustains evidence-based practice in this area. Method: The nature of stuttering as it evolves from early childhood into…
Anthony B. Joseph
Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.
Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae
Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…
Choo, Ai Leen; Chang, Soo-Eun; Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Loucks, Torrey M.
Multiple studies have reported both functional and neuroanatomical differences between adults who stutter and their normally fluent peers. However, the reasons for these differences remain unclear although some developmental data suggest that structural brain differences may be present in school-age children who stutter. In the present study, the…
McGroarty, Allan; McCartan, Rebecca
Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter. Participants also reported perceptions of their stuttering including its overall impact, ratings of previous speech therapy, and behavioural intentions to initiate pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in future. Necessity and concern beliefs were distributed widely across the sample and in a pattern indicating a relatively balanced perception of the benefits and costs of medication prescribed specifically for stuttering. Of the study's measures, the necessity-concerns differential most strongly predicted the behavioural intention to initiate pharmacotherapy. The overall impact of stuttering predicted intentions to seek both pharmacotherapy and speech therapy. Participants reported the likelihood of pursuing pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in equal measure. The theoretical model of medication representations appears to be a useful framework for understanding the beliefs of adults who stutter towards the medical treatment of their disorder. The findings of this study may be of interest to clinicians and researchers working in the field of stuttering treatment and to people who stutter considering pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.
Logan, Kenneth J; Willis, Julie R
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adults who do not stutter can predict communication-related attitudes of adults who do stutter. 40 participants (mean age of 22.5 years) evaluated speech samples from an adult with mild stuttering and an adult with severe stuttering via audio-only (n=20) or audio-visual (n=20) modes to predict how the adults had responded on the S24 scale of communication attitudes. Participants correctly predicted which speaker had the more favorable S24 score, and the predicted scores were significantly different between the severity conditions. Across the four subgroups, predicted S24 scores differed from actual scores by 4-9 points. Predicted values were greater than the actual values for 3 of 4 subgroups, but still relatively positive in relation to the S24 norm sample. Stimulus presentation mode interacted with stuttering severity to affect prediction accuracy. The participants predicted the speakers' negative self-attributions more accurately than their positive self-attributions. Findings suggest that adults who do not stutter estimate the communication-related attitudes of specific adults who stutter in a manner that is generally accurate, though, in some conditions, somewhat less favorable than the speaker's actual ratings. At a group level, adults who do not stutter demonstrate the ability to discern minimal versus average levels of attitudinal impact for speakers who stutter. The participants' complex prediction patterns are discussed in relation to stereotype accuracy and classic views of negative stereotyping. The reader will be able to (a) summarize main findings on research related to listeners' attitudes toward people who stutter, (b) describe the extent to which people who do not stutter can predict the communication attitudes of people who do stutter; and (c) discuss how findings from the present study relate to previous findings on stereotypes about people who stutter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc
Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Pliatsikas, Christos; Finnegan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Mark; Boyles, Rowan; Watkins, Kate E
Stuttering is a disorder in which the smooth flow of speech is interrupted. People who stutter show structural and functional abnormalities in the speech and motor system. It is unclear whether functional differences reflect general traits of the disorder or are specifically related to the dysfluent speech state. We used a hierarchical approach to separate state and trait effects within stuttering. We collected sparse-sampled functional MRI during two overt speech tasks (sentence reading and picture description) in 17 people who stutter and 16 fluent controls. Separate analyses identified indicators of: (1) general traits of people who stutter; (2) frequency of dysfluent speech states in subgroups of people who stutter; and (3) the differences between fluent and dysfluent states in people who stutter. We found that reduced activation of left auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex bilaterally, and medial cerebellum were general traits that distinguished fluent speech in people who stutter from that of controls. The stuttering subgroup with higher frequency of dysfluent states during scanning (n = 9) had reduced activation in the right subcortical grey matter, left temporo-occipital cortex, the cingulate cortex, and medial parieto-occipital cortex relative to the subgroup who were more fluent (n = 8). Finally, during dysfluent states relative to fluent ones, there was greater activation of inferior frontal and premotor cortex extending into the frontal operculum, bilaterally. The above differences were seen across both tasks. Subcortical state effects differed according to the task. Overall, our data emphasise the independence of trait and state effects in stuttering. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grimes, Stephen M.
This dissertation investigates statistical properties of segment collocation and syllable geometry of the Hungarian language. A corpus and dictionary based approach to studying language phonologies is outlined. In order to conduct research on Hungarian, a phonological lexicon was created by compiling existing dictionaries and corpora and using a…
heart of the phonology consists of a hierarchy of ranked and violable universal constraints therefore, it is argued that .... a separate involving /r/ and the consonant of the preceding syllable. In other words, it is assumed that /r/ became the bearer of the tone only because of the elision of the vowel that should have been before ...
Motivating evidence is drawn from other languages, specifically Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, because it is believed that, except for the coda, the binary branching nature of syllable constituents is universally imposed in the world\\'s languages. Also, no one language or dialect can exhaustively account for all linguistic ...
Chobert, Julie; Marie, Celine; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Besson, Mireille
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of musical expertise in 9-year-old children on passive (as reflected by MMN) and active (as reflected by discrimination accuracy) processing of speech sounds. Musician and nonmusician children were presented with a sequence of syllables that included standards and deviants in vowel frequency,…
Cutler, A.; Carter, D.M.
Studies of human speech processing have provided evidece for a segmentation strategy in the perception of continuous speech, whereby a word boundary is postulated, and a lexical access procedure initiated, at each metrically strong syllable. The likely success of this strategy was here estimated
Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a fairly common speech disorder. However, the etiology is poorly understood and is likely to be heterogeneous. The aim of this research is to investigate phonological encoding complexity on speech fluency in 6-9 year old stuttering children in comparison with non-stutterers in Tehran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive analytic research was done on 18 stuttering children with profound and severe level and 18 non-stuttering children. The stuttering subjects were selected by convenience and normal subjects were matched to stuttering subjects by gender, age and geographics. A non-word test comprising 87 non-words was used to investigate phonological encoding and phonological complexity effects on speech fluency. Stimuli were presented in random order with approximately 5 seconds between items, using a computer via external Toshiba SOMIC SM-818 headphone and requested subject was asked to repeat them. Results: The results indicated that speech fluency decreased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phonological complexity comparing to controls. Conclusion: The findings of the present research seem to suggest that, stuttering children may have deficits in phonological encoding. The deficit has been increased with phonological encoding complexity. Based on covert repair hypothesis, phonological difficulty may cause covert self- repair and leads to different patterns of stuttering.
Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M
This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.
McCulloch, Julia; Swift, Michelle C; Wagnitz, Bianca
The current study aimed to benchmark clinical outcomes for preschool-aged clients (2;0-5;11 years old) that attended a student-led clinic and undertook the Lidcombe Program. A case file audit was undertaken for all preschool clients who attended the clinic between February 2008 and February 2013 and commenced the Lidcombe Program. Clients were grouped according to Stage 1 completion. A mixed ANOVA was used to test for differences between the groups in initial and final percentage syllables stuttered (%SS). Associations between case variable factors and treatment duration were investigated using Pearson correlations. Clients who completed Stage 1 had final %SS and severity rating (SR) scores comparable to the literature; however, the median Stage 1 duration was greater. Over half of the clients (57%) withdrew prior to completing Stage 1. These clients had a significantly higher %SS at final treatment session than their completing peers. Initial %SS and SR scores were the only case variables associated with treatment duration. Students can achieve the same short-term treatment outcomes for children who stutter using the Lidcombe Program as the current published literature; however, treatment duration is greater and may impact completion. Implications of this for clinical education are discussed.
Geoffrey A Coalson
Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS are less accurate in their immediate repetition of novel phonological sequences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS. The present study examined whether manipulation of the following two aspects of traditional nonword repetition tasks unmask distinct weaknesses in phonological working memory in AWS: (1 presentation of stimuli with less-frequent stress patterns, and (2 removal of auditory-orthographic cues immediately prior to response.Fifty-two participants (26 AWS, 26 AWNS produced 12 bisyllabic nonwords in the presence of corresponding auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., immediate repetition task, and the absence of auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., short-term recall task. Half of each cohort (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to the stimuli with high-frequency trochaic stress, and half (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to identical stimuli with lower-frequency iambic stress.No differences in immediate repetition accuracy for trochaic or iambic nonwords were observed for either group. However, AWS were less accurate when recalling iambic nonwords than trochaic nonwords in the absence of auditory-orthographic cues.Manipulation of two factors which may minimize phonological demand during standard nonword repetition tasks increased the number of errors in AWS compared to AWNS. These findings suggest greater vulnerability in phonological working memory in AWS, even when producing nonwords as short as two syllables.
Unicomb, Rachael; Hewat, Sally; Spencer, Elizabeth; Harrison, Elisabeth
There is a paucity of evidence to guide treatment for children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder. Some guidelines suggest treating the two disorders simultaneously using indirect treatment approaches; however, the research supporting these recommendations is over 20 years old. In this clinical case series, we investigate whether these co-occurring disorders could be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches supported by up-to-date, high-level evidence, and whether this could be done in an efficacious, safe and efficient manner. Five pre-school-aged participants received individual concurrent, direct intervention for both stuttering and speech sound disorder. All participants used the Lidcombe Program, as manualised. Direct treatment for speech sound disorder was individualised based on analysis of each child's sound system. At 12 months post commencement of treatment, all except one participant had completed the Lidcombe Program, and were less than 1.0% syllables stuttered on samples gathered within and beyond the clinic. These four participants completed Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program in between 14 and 22 clinic visits, consistent with current benchmark data for this programme. At the same assessment point, all five participants exhibited significant increases in percentage of consonants correct and were in alignment with age-expected estimates of this measure. Further, they were treated in an average number of clinic visits that compares favourably with other research on treatment for speech sound disorder. These preliminary results indicate that young children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder may be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches. This method of service delivery may have implications for cost and time efficiency and may also address the crucial need for early intervention in both disorders. These positive findings highlight the need for further research in the area and contribute to
Baus, Cristina; Gutiérrez, Eva; Carreiras, Manuel
The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native) of Catalan Signed Language (LSC) were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement, and Handshape). The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the combination Handshape-Movement slowed down signing latencies, but only in the non-native group. A facilitatory effect was observed for both groups when pictures and distractors shared Location-Movement. Importantly, linguistic models have considered this phonological combination to be a privileged unit in the composition of signs, as syllables are in spoken languages. Thus, our results support the functional role of syllable units during phonological articulation in sign language production.
St Louis, Kenneth O; Flynn, Timothy W
This study sought to determine the extent to which experimentally induced positive attitudes in high school students in a previous investigation were maintained 7 years later. Authors and assistants recruited 36 adults in their early 20s (Follow-up group) who, in high school, had witnessed either a live oral talk by a person who stutters or a professionally made video on stuttering designed for teens followed by a short talk by the same speaker. The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering was administered before and after the interventions in high school and 7 years later such that pre-post group comparisons were made. Previously, the Follow-up group had demonstrated highly positive changes in their attitudes after the interventions. In addition, a control group of 56 former high school students from the same state, who did not participate in the interventions, were recruited and compared to the Follow-up group. The Follow-up group, which was found to be representative of the original high school cohort, held more positive Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering mean ratings than the Control group, although somewhat less positive than their previous postintervention ratings. The Follow-up group maintained many of the positive changes in their beliefs and self reactions regarding stuttering that were induced 7 years earlier after witnessing personal stories and facts about stuttering.
Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Byrd, Courtney T; Bedore, Lisa M; Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L
Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking CWS were analysed. All four bilingual participants produced significantly more stuttering on function words compared to content words, irrespective of their position in the utterance, in their Spanish narrative and conversational speech samples. Three of the four participants also demonstrated more stuttering on function compared to content words in their narrative speech samples in English, but only one participant produced more stuttering on function than content words in her English conversational sample. These preliminary findings are discussed relative to linguistic planning and language proficiency and their potential contribution to stuttered speech.
ALTHAUS, M; VINK, HJF; MINDERAA, RB; GOORHUISBROUWER, SM; OOSTERHOFF, MD
Objective: The authors studied the effects of the alpha(2)-receptor agonist clonidine on stuttering in children. Method: Using a double-blind crossover study, they gave placebo or 4 mu g/kg body weight per day to 25 stuttering children who were 6-13 years old. Stuttering was measured by counting the
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…
J. D. Duffy
Full Text Available A case of neurogenic stuttering induced by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine is described. The association of neurogenic stuttering with acquired lateralized motor deficits in the patient described is discussed with reference to current theories regarding the pathogenesis of neurogenic stuttering.
Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud
There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke
Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…
Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.
The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…
Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.
Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…
Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…
Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring
Childhood Education, 2004
What should parents of a child who stutters do if their child speaks more than one language? Research shows that a child's language skills can affect his or her fluency, according to the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation of America. However, it has not been proven that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering. If the child is…
Craig-McQuaide, Anna; Akram, Harith; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Tripoliti, Elina
Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence of structural and functional changes in the BG in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal BG cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation for other indications is presented in order to emphasize the role of BG in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation. PMID:25452719
Tumanova, Victoria; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Test of Childhood Stuttering observational rating scales (TOCS; Gillam et al., 2009) (1) differed between parents who did versus did not express concern (independent from the TOCS) about their child's speech fluency; (2) correlated with children's frequency of stuttering measured during a child-examiner conversation; and (3) correlated with the length and complexity of children's utterances, as indexed by mean length of utterance (MLU). Participants were 183 young children ages 3:0-5:11. Ninety-one had parents who reported concern about their child's stuttering (65 boys, 26 girls) and 92 had parents who reported no such concern (50 boys, 42 girls). Participants' conversational speech during a child-examiner conversation was analyzed for (a) frequency of occurrence of stuttered and non-stuttered disfluencies, and (b) MLU. Besides expressing concern or lack thereof about their child's speech fluency, parents completed the TOCS observational rating scales documenting how often they observe different disfluency types in speech of their children, as well as disfluency-related consequences. There were three main findings. First, parents who expressed concern (independently from the TOCS) about their child's stuttering reported significantly higher scores on the TOCS Speech Fluency and Disfluency-Related Consequences rating scales. Second, children whose parents rated them higher on the TOCS Speech Fluency rating scale produced more stuttered disfluencies during a child-examiner conversation. Third, children with higher scores on the TOCS Disfluency-Related Consequences rating scale had shorter MLU during child-examiner conversation, across age and level of language ability. Findings support the use of the TOCS observational rating scales as one documentable, objective means to determine parental perception of and concern about their child's stuttering. Findings also support the notion that parents are
De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R
This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self
Panico, James; Healey, E Charles; Knopik, Jennifer
Past research studies have focused on perceptions of stuttering by various age groups and only a few have examined how children react to a peer who stutters. All of these studies used a quantitative analysis but only one included a qualitative analysis of elementary school age children's responses to stuttering. The aim of this study was to further explore the perceptions of elementary school students toward a peer who stutters using both quantitative and qualitative analyses of three levels of stuttering. Participants included 88 elementary school children between 8 and 12 years of age. Each participant viewed one of four audiovisual samples of a peer producing fluent speech and mild, moderate, and severe simulated stuttering. Each participant then rated five Likert statements and answered three open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that negative ratings and the percentage of negative comments increased as the frequency of stuttering increased. However, the children in this study indicated that they were comfortable listening to stuttering and would be comfortable making friends with the peer who stutters. The findings of this study together with past research in this area should help clinicians and their clients appreciate the range of social and emotional reactions peers have of a child who stutters. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) discuss past research regarding children's perceptions of stuttering; (b) summarize the need to explore the perceptions of elementary-aged children toward a peer who stutters; (c) describe the major quantitative and qualitative findings of children's perceptions of stuttering; and (d) discuss the need for disseminating more information about stuttering to children and teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruz, C; Amorim, H; Beca, G; Nunes, R
Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed. Thirty-three publications were analyzed. Neurogenic stuttering is a rare entity whose epidemiological incidence is yet not fully established. It is correlated with several neurological diseases and with several possible localizations within the nervous system. Notwithstanding the recent advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism, it is not yet possible to establish a single pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic stuttering. The differential diagnosis is complex and requires the detailed knowledge of other language disorders. The treatment is currently based on specific speech language therapy strategies. Neurogenic stuttering is a complex disorder which is not fully understood. Additional studies might help to better explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to open doors to novel therapeutic methods.
Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline
Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662
Healey, E. Charles; Gabel, Rodney M.; Daniels, Derek E.; Kawai, Nori
The aim of this study was to examine listener perceptions of an adult male person who stutters (PWS) who did or did not disclose his stuttering. Ninety adults who do not stutter individually viewed one of three videotaped monologues produced by a male speaker with severe stuttering. In one monologue, 30 listeners heard the speaker disclose…
Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H
The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.
Maviş, Ilknur; St Louis, Kenneth O; Özdemir, Sertan; Toğram, Bülent
The study sought to identify clinical beliefs and attitudes of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Turkey and to compare them to previous research on SLTs in the USA and UK. The Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) inventory was administered by mail to nearly all-practicing SLTs in Turkey (n=61). Turkish SLTs, whose caseloads contained a substantial number of people who stutter, agreed with CATS items suggesting psychological causes and problems for those who stutter. They strongly believed therapy should focus on parent counseling for preschoolers who stutter as well as adolescents. They were not optimistic about carrying out stuttering therapy nor about the likelihood that children who stutter could be effectively treated. Attitudes toward stuttering by clinicians who treat them are important considerations in the conduct and outcomes of stuttering therapy. Additionally, SLTs working with stuttering clients should benefit from professional views and clinical experiences of their colleagues from surveys such as this one. The reader will be able to describe: (a) the components of the CATS, (b) common themes in Turkish speech and language therapists' attitudes toward stuttering, (c) differences between the attitudes of speech and language therapists from Turkey versus the United States and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin
Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iimura, Daichi; Yada, Yasuto; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Toshimitsu; Miyawaki, Manami; Van Borsel, John
To determine laypeople's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. A total of 303 respondents, recruited by street sampling, completed a questionnaire assessing the prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different races, cause, treatment, association with intelligence, and hereditariness of stuttering. The questionnaire used was a Japanese version of that devised by Van Borsel, Verniers, and Bouvry (1999) for use in Belgium. Although around half of the respondents had heard or met a stutterer, they tended to misunderstand the stuttering; e.g., respondents estimated the prevalence of stuttering as high. Knowledge also differed according to age, gender, and education level. Specifically, older individuals, females, and individuals with higher levels of education tended to have greater knowledge of stuttering. In comparing the results of the present study with similar studies conducted in Belgium, China, and Brazil, we observed several similarities and differences. Although most respondents were to some extent familiar with stuttering, their overall knowledge of the condition was limited. Certain factors could be involved in having knowledge of stuttering, such as one's life experience, cultural background, and social attitudes toward stuttering. The findings suggest the need for growing knowledge and awareness of stuttering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C. R.; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Peterson, Bradley S.
Objective To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. Methods We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. Results We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls in Broca’s area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca’s area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. Conclusions rCBF is reduced in Broca’s region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca’s region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. PMID:28035724
Jacks, Adam; Marquardt, Thomas P.; Davis, Barbara L.
Changes in consonant and syllable-level error patterns of three children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were investigated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed to assess the accuracy of consonants and syllables. Consonant accuracy was low overall, with most frequent errors on middle- and…
Sequeira, Sarah Dos Santos; Specht, Karsten; Hamalainen, Heikki; Hugdahl, Kenneth
Lateralization of verbal processing is frequently studied with the dichotic listening technique, yielding a so called right ear advantage (REA) to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. However, little is known about how background noise affects the REA. To address this issue, we presented CV-syllables either in silence or with traffic background noise…
Zhao, Xu; Berent, Iris
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., "blif" ? "bnif" ? "bdif" ? "lbif" where ? indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types…
forces the sequence of words in syllables to agree with the acceptable order of any given language. ithin the broader ... structure constraints within the purview of universal grammar without the need to generate ... syllables to form words triggers phonological processes, and also, the phonotactic constraints of languages ...
Unger, J. Marshall
Further evidence is offered to support the argument that ko-type o-ending syllables may have been secondary in nature in Old Japanese. Pre-Old Japanese indicates the */uwa/ sequence was manifested as /uwe/ and /uwu/ endings of o-ending syllable verbs. (SCC)
Teinonen, Tuomas; Huotilainen, Minna
Statistical segmentation of continuous speech, i.e., the ability to utilise transitional probabilities between syllables in order to detect word boundaries, is reflected in the brain's auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). The N1 and N400 ERP components are typically enhanced for word onsets compared to random syllables during active…
Halle, F; Gahr, M.; Kreutzer, M.
Particular features of the song of adult male canaries such as a large syllable repertoire resulting in a great diversity of song phrases and special so-called 'complex' syllables enhance various features of female reproductive behaviour. These features are produced in a species or strain dependent
Baker, B; Ross, E; Girson, J
The present study aimed to examine the attitudes of a group of South African speech-language pathologists towards stuttering and stuttering therapy. Further aims were to investigate whether a stereotype of stutterers was found among these speech-language pathologists, and to determine whether there was any relationship between the attitudes held about stutterers, and the therapists' training and experience. A random probability sample of respondents was selected from the population of speech therapists registered with the Interim Medical and Dental Council of South Africa (I.M.D.C.S.A.). A self-administered mailed questionnaire was employed to realise the aims of the study. The main result of this investigation indicated that almost 50% of the sample of qualified clinicians surveyed, viewed stutterers as a group characterised by specific personality traits and psychological problems. This belief held true irrespective of the number of years of experience working in the field, the time of graduation, the frequency of treating stutterers, or the training emphasis. Implications of these results are considered with respect to student training, continuing education of qualified practitioners and future research.
Mary E. Weidner
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Extensive research documents ubiquitous negative attitudes towards stuttering, but when and how they develop is unclear. This non-experimental, comparative study examined US and Turkish preschoolers to explore the origin of stuttering attitudes cross-culturally. Method: The authors compared stuttering attitudes of 28 US and 31 Turkish non-stuttering preschoolers on English and Turkish versions of experimental prototypes of the newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes–Stuttering/Child (POSHA–S/Child. Children first watched a short video of two stuttering avatar characters and then answered oral questions about stuttering. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire. Differences in the US and Turkish POSHA–S/Child means were calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Attitudes of the US and Turkish children were remarkably similar. Children rated most of the items negatively but also rated some items as neutral or positive. They held relatively more negative attitudes towards traits and personalities of children who stutter yet relatively more positive attitudes towards stuttering children’s potential. Conclusion: Stuttering attitudes in children appear to be partly independent of culture.
Nakisci, Egemen; Ozdemir, Ramazan S.
Background and objectives Extensive research documents ubiquitous negative attitudes towards stuttering, but when and how they develop is unclear. This non-experimental, comparative study examined US and Turkish preschoolers to explore the origin of stuttering attitudes cross-culturally. Method The authors compared stuttering attitudes of 28 US and 31 Turkish non-stuttering preschoolers on English and Turkish versions of experimental prototypes of the newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes–Stuttering/Child (POSHA–S/Child). Children first watched a short video of two stuttering avatar characters and then answered oral questions about stuttering. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire. Differences in the US and Turkish POSHA–S/Child means were calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results Attitudes of the US and Turkish children were remarkably similar. Children rated most of the items negatively but also rated some items as neutral or positive. They held relatively more negative attitudes towards traits and personalities of children who stutter yet relatively more positive attitudes towards stuttering children’s potential. Conclusion Stuttering attitudes in children appear to be partly independent of culture. PMID:28470081
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Walling, Donovan R.
Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…
Zhao, Xu; Berent, Iris
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., [Formula: see text] lbif, where [Formula: see text] indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types exists in participants' language, and even when the stimuli are presented in print. These results suggest that the syllable hierarchy cannot be reduced to either lexical or auditory/phonetic pressures. Here, we examine whether the syllable hierarchy is due to articulatory pressures. According to the motor embodiment view, the perception of a linguistic stimulus requires simulating its production; dispreferred syllables (e.g., lbif) are universally disliked because their production is harder to simulate. To address this possibility, we assessed syllable preferences while articulation was mechanically suppressed. Our four experiments each found significant effects of suppression. Remarkably, people remained sensitive to the syllable hierarchy regardless of suppression. Specifically, results with auditory materials (Experiments 1-2) showed strong effects of syllable structure irrespective of suppression. Moreover, syllable structure uniquely accounted for listeners' behavior even when controlling for several phonetic characteristics of our auditory materials. Results with printed stimuli (Experiments 3-4) were more complex, as participants in these experiments relied on both phonological and graphemic information. Nonetheless, readers were sensitive to most of the syllable hierarchy (e.g., [Formula: see text]), and these preferences emerged when articulation was suppressed, and even when the statistical properties of our materials were controlled via a regression analysis. Together, these findings indicate that speakers possess broad grammatical preferences that are irreducible to either sensory or motor factors.
Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian
The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.
C. de Sonneville (Caroline); C.A.M. Bouwmans-Frijters (Clazien); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)
textabstractAbstract: Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to
Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a disorder that not only affects the person's oral communications but also makes problems for behavioral aspects including both personal and social ones. This study aims at identifying the attitudes of such phenomenon and detecting the life experriences of those stuttering in order to help speech therapists carry out comprehensive and effective therapy plans to decrease stuttering and to contribute them to have a better and more convenient life and social activities. Materials & Methods: This reasearch has been done in a qualitative research and the phenomenology approach. Tewenty one adults who stutter purposefully selected and interviewed in deep and focus groups. The interviewees’ words were completely recorded and the subjects were written down by listening to the participants’ oral discriptions.The themes obtained from the life experiences of those stuttering categorized based on the Van Manon's method and analyzed as well. Results: The life experiences of people stuttering appeared in eight domains as below: 1- Being humiliated by others 2- Trying to content others in dialogue 3- Understanding of others of stutter 4-Other s Gender 5- Being ridiculed by others 6- Other s pity 7- Speaking completed by others 8- Other s Impatient and little attention 9- Other s Position and status Conclusion: Stuttering is a multi-dimensional disorder influencing on both making speech disabilities and all the aspects of the person's life. This disorder makes problems for inter- personal communications and influences the life quality of the one stuttering. According to the degree of its intensity, it affects on the occupational, family and educational situations. Others' presence highly arouses the outlook of the person stuttering. Meantime, the teachers, classmates and families play a significant role in the person's affections and emotions. Removing speech symptoms can not alone contribute to improvement,modifying the person
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline
Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bainbridge, Lauren A; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J
Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of stuttering events on eight 3-min audiovisual speech samples from adults and children who stutter. Stuttering judgment training involved use of either the Stuttering Measurement System (SMS), Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) programs, or no training. To test for the reliability of any training effect, SMS training was repeated with the 4th group. Both SMS-trained groups produced approximately 34% improvement, significantly better than no training or the SMAAT program. The SMAAT program produced a mixed result. The SMS program was shown to produce a "medium" effect size improvement in the accuracy of stuttering event counts, and this improvement was almost perfectly replicated in a 2nd group. Half of the SMAAT judges produced a 36% improvement in accuracy, but the other half showed no improvement. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the durability of the reported improvements, but these positive effects justify the importance of stuttering measurement training.
Francisco Gutierrez Diez
Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.
Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.
In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…
Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.
Purpose: To determine whether stuttering judgment accuracy is influenced by familiarity with the stuttering speaker's language. Method: Audiovisual 7-min speech samples from nine 3- to 5-year-olds were used. Icelandic children who stutter (CWS), preselected for different levels of stuttering, were subdivided into 5-s intervals. Ten experienced…
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee
Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…
Stuttering is a speech defect which is seen in all countries. Stuttering affects fluency of speech due to some physiological, psychological and neurological causes. Protractions, clogs and repeats are seen in stuttering. Since it will probably result in social handicaps, stuttering should be considered as more important than other speech defects.…
Smith, Kylie A.; Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Kefalianos, Elaina; Hearne, Anna; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and…
Weidner, Mary E; St Louis, Kenneth O; Burgess, Megan E; LeMasters, Staci N
This study investigated attitudes of nonstuttering preschool and kindergarten children toward peers who stutter in order to identify differences by age groups and better understand the genesis of stuttering attitudes. The study also examined the use of a new stuttering attitudes instrument designed for use with young children. The newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes-Stuttering/Child was verbally administered to 27 preschool and 24 kindergarten children who do not stutter in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. Overall, preschoolers held more negative stuttering attitudes than kindergarteners, but results were not uniformly in that direction. In both groups, the attribute of stuttering was viewed more negatively than individuals who stutter. Children viewed the potential of peers who stutter as quite positive, whereas their knowledge about and experience with stuttering were generally limited and some of their beliefs quite negative. Negative or uninformed stuttering attitudes among nonstuttering children begin as early as the preschool years. This study provides empirical evidence for the need to educate young children about the nature of stuttering and how to respond appropriately to peers who stutter. Readers should be able to: (a) describe attitudinal differences between kindergarteners and preschoolers toward peers who stutter; (b) describe the parameters of the POSHA-S/Child; (c) describe the nature of stuttering attitudes in young children relative to their beliefs and self reactions; and (d) describe the implications and future direction of stuttering attitude research in young children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leech, Kathryn A.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Brown, Barbara; Weber, Christine M.
Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter,…
Farrell, Meagan T; Abrams, Lise
Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological forms, like syllables, may influence the occurrence of TOT states. In the current study, we investigated the role of first-syllable frequency on TOT incidence and resolution in young (18-26 years of age), young-old (60-74 years of age), and old-old (75-89 years of age) adults. Data from 3 published studies were compiled, where TOTs were elicited by presenting definition-like questions and asking participants to respond with "Know," "Don't Know," or "TOT." Young-old and old-old adults, but not young adults, experienced more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency first syllables relative to high-frequency first syllables. Furthermore, age differences in TOT incidence occurred only for words with low-frequency first syllables. In contrast, when a prime word with the same first syllable as the target was presented during TOT states, all age groups resolved more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency syllables. These findings support speech production models that allow for bidirectional activation between conceptual, lexical, and phonological forms of words. Furthermore, the age-specific effects of syllable frequency provide insight into the progression of age-linked changes to phonological processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Purpose: A common question encountered by speech-language pathologists while dealing with adults who stutter (AWS is whether their disclosure of stuttering to listeners would change their perception. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of self-disclosure and speaker sex on adult listeners’ perceptions of simulated stuttering. Method: The study involved a group of 100 college students between the age range of 18 and 25 years, who judged the videotaped speech samples of 1 male and 1 female person, who simulated stuttering in disclosed and undisclosed state. The listener perception was evaluated through a questionnaire developed for the purpose. Results: The trends suggested that a female AWS possessed overall better listener perception as compared with male AWS in undisclosed condition and received better perception by listeners in more domains than male AWS in disclosed state. Conclusions: Listener perception seems to be a sex-specific phenomenon which gets affected by one’s disclosure about stuttering and the culture of the listeners.
The Antwerp epidemiological and phenomenological study on stuttering focuses on the onset and development of stuttering. Descriptive data related to the onset of stuttering were obtained for a group of 1549 participants. The reported and observed variables were obtained in order to test several hypotheses concerning the age-related, gender-related and interrelated phenomena. The following aspects of stuttering and the related phenomena were studied: (a) stuttering-like disfluencies (typ...
Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun
Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…
Boyle, Michael P.
Purpose: To create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale. Method: Two-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency…
Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.
This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.
This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the controversial topic of stuttering in preschool children and how to evaluate the options for treatment, emphasizing the role of external research evidence. Method: A hypothetical but realistic case study of a 3-year-old boy who stutters is described. Two contrasting approaches to treatment are…
Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…
Cavenagh, Penny; Costelloe, Sarah; Davis, Steve; Howell, Peter
Five factors (gender, handedness, some aspects of general health, family history, and intelligence) that could assist speech-language pathologists in identification of children who stutter (CWS) in 42 CWS and 34 fluent control children (children who do not stutter [CWNS]) were investigated. The data reported here were obtained from assessments…
Arena, Richard M.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Jacob J.
Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of…
Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine
Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including…
Full Text Available Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its aetiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia. Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence that stuttering of structural and functional changes in the basal ganglia in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal basal ganglia cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation (DBS for other indications is presented in order to emphasise the role of basal ganglia in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation.
Abdalla, Fauzia; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: The authors of this quasi-experimental design study explored the effect of an educational documentary video that presented factual and emotional aspects of stuttering on changing attitudes toward stuttering of preservice trainees and in-service public school teachers in Kuwait. Method: Participants were 99 preservice trainees (48 control,…
Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.
Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…
There are many treatments currently available for stuttering, for both children and adults. These range from direct interventions intended to reduce the severity and/or frequency of the speech behaviors of stuttering, to those intended to alleviate the anxiety and other mental health issues that can accompany the disorder. However, as there are…
Aumont-Boucand, V.; Millard, S.; Packman, A.
In this paper, two proponents of different approaches to early stuttering discuss how they would manage a hypothetical case of stuttering in a preschool-age girl. Two evidence-based approaches are discussed: Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the Lidcombe Program. This paper arose from an oral discussion session held at the International Fluency Association Conference in Tours, France in 2012.
Blood, Gordon W.
This article describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for relapse management in adolescents who stutter. The package includes game-based training techniques in problem solving, communication skills, and assertiveness; coping responses for stuttering episodes; and realistic expectations for fluency and relapse. Follow-up results with…
Packman, Ann; Meredith, Grant
The World Wide Web (WWW) was 20 years old last year. Enormous amounts of information about stuttering are now available to anyone who can access the Internet. Compared to 20 years ago, people who stutter and their families can now make more informed choices about speech-language interventions, from a distance. Blogs and chat rooms provide opportunities for people who stutter to share their experiences from a distance and to support one another. New technologies are also being adopted into speech-language pathology practice and service delivery. Telehealth is an exciting development as it means that treatment can now be made available to many rural and remotely located people who previously did not have access to it. Possible future technological developments for speech-language pathology practice include Internet based treatments and the use of Virtual Reality. Having speech and CBT treatments for stuttering available on the Internet would greatly increase their accessibility. Second Life also has exciting possibilities for people who stutter. The reader will (1) explain how people who stutter and their families can get information about stuttering from the World Wide Web, (2) discuss how new technologies have been applied in speech-language pathology practice, and (3) summarize the principles and practice of telehealth delivery of services for people who stutter and their families. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John
This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…
Lee, Amanda Savio; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika; Blomgren, Michael
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of English-speaking speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to evaluate stuttering behaviour in two Spanish-English bilingual adults who stutter (AWS1 and AWS2). The English-speaking SLPs were asked to judge the frequency, severity, type, duration, and physical concomitants of stuttering in both languages of the two AWS. The combined results from the English-speaking SLPs were then compared to the judgements of three Spanish-English bilingual SLPs. Results indicated that English-speaking SLPs (1) judged stuttering frequency to be greater in Spanish than English for AWS1, and equal in Spanish and English for AWS2, (2) were more accurate at evaluating individual moments of stuttering for the English samples compared to the Spanish samples, (3) identified fewer and less severe stuttering behaviours than the bilingual SLPs in both languages, and (4) were accurate judges of overall stuttering severity in both languages. The results correspond to past research examining the accuracy of stuttering evaluations in unfamiliar languages. Possible explanations for the findings, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed.
Moore Gerety, Finnian McKean
This study explores the emergence of OM, the Sanskrit mantra and critically ubiquitous "sacred syllable" of South Asian religions. Although OM has remained in active practice in recitation, ritual, and meditation for the last three thousand years, and its importance in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions is widely acknowledged, the syllable's early development has received little attention from scholars. Drawing on the oldest textual corpus in South Asia, the Vedas, I survey one thousand yea...
Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M
Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the
Alim Sabur Ajibola
Full Text Available Stuttered speech is a dysfluency rich speech, more prevalent in males than females. It has been associated with insufficient air pressure or poor articulation, even though the root causes are more complex. The primary features include prolonged speech and repetitive speech, while some of its secondary features include, anxiety, fear, and shame. This study used LPC analysis and synthesis algorithms to reconstruct the stuttered speech. The results were evaluated using cepstral distance, Itakura-Saito distance, mean square error, and likelihood ratio. These measures implied perfect speech reconstruction quality. ASR was used for further testing, and the results showed that all the reconstructed speech samples were perfectly recognized while only three samples of the original speech were perfectly recognized.
Brejon Teitler, N
Stuttering is a communication disorder affecting speech which is then considered disfluent. What happens when a person who stutters speaks several languages? There will be constant interactions between multilinguism and stuttering. The disorder will generally appear differently according to the spoken language. Linguistic factors have an impact on stuttering, with disfluencies appearing differently according to the speaker’s proficiency in using each language. Emotional factors related to the choice of the spoken language can exaggerate the disorder, hence influencing the speaker’s choice of a language, even choices in life. These factors are to be taken into consideration when assessing stuttering, with a particular attention to cultural aspects. Finally, stuttering variability according to the spoken language will also have an impact on therapeutic decisions.
Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L.; Yau, Teresa S.-K.
In tonal languages, syllabic fundamental frequency (F0) patterns (``lexical tones'') convey lexical meaning. Listeners need to relate such pitch patterns to the pitch range of a speaker (``tone normalization'') to accurately identify lexical tones. This study investigated the amount of tonal information required to perform tone normalization. A target CV syllable, perceived as either a high level, a low level, or a mid level Cantonese tone, was preceded by a four-syllable carrier sentence whose F0 was shifted (1 semitone), or not shifted. Four conditions were obtained by gating one, two, three, or four syllables from the onset of the target. Presentation rate (normal versus fast) was set such that the duration of the one, two, and three syllable conditions (normal carrier) was equal to that of the two, three, and four syllable conditions (fast carrier). Results suggest that tone normalization is largely accomplished within 250 ms or so prior to target onset, independent of the number of syllables; additional tonal information produces a relatively small increase in tone normalization. Implications for models of lexical tone normalization will be discussed. [Work supported by the RGC of the Hong Kong SAR, Project No. HKU 7193/00H.
Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.
The main purpose of the present study was to differentiate between people who stutter and control speakers regarding their ability to assemble motor plans and to prepare (and execute) muscle commands. Adult males who stutter, matched for age, gender, and educational level with a group of control
Huinck, W.J.; Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Peters, H.F.M.; Hulstijn, W.
This study was designed to investigate if persons who stutter differ from persons who do not stutter in the coproduction of different types of consonant clusters, as measured in the number of dysfluencies and incorrect speech productions, in speech reaction times and in word durations. Based on the
Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C R; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O; Peterson, Bradley S
To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls in Broca's area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca's area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. rCBF is reduced in Broca's region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca's region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1865-1874, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Langevin, M.; Huinck, W.J.; Kully, D.; Peters, H.F.M.; Lomheim, H.; Tellers, M.
There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of stuttering treatment programs delivered in domestic and international contexts and to determine if treatment delivered internationally is culturally sensitive. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program (CSP) within
Varley, Rosemary; Whiteside, Sandra; Windsor, Fay; Fisher, Helen
In a recent article, Aichert and Ziegler (2004) explore whether apraxia of speech (AOS) can be explained by disruption of the phonetic plans for high frequency syllables. This approach is a hybrid one, combining the notion of a mental syllabary with an explanation that the impairment in AOS results from reduced access to supra-segmental phonetic…
Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki
Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.
Marcotte, Anne K
The purpose of this clinical focus article is to summarize 1 possible process that a clinician might follow in designing and conducting a treatment program with John, a 14-year-old male individual who stutters. The available research evidence, practitioner experience, and consideration of individual preferences are combined to address goals, treatment procedures, and outcomes for John. The stuttering treatment research literature includes multiple well-designed reviews and individual studies that have shown the effectiveness of prolonged speech (and smooth speech and related variations) for improving stuttered speech and for improving social, emotional, cognitive, and related variables in adolescents who stutter. Based on that evidence, and incorporating the additional elements of practitioner experience and client preferences, this clinical focus article suggests that John would be likely to benefit from a treatment program based on prolonged speech. The basic structure of 1 possible such program is also described, with an emphasis on the goals and outcomes that John could be expected to achieve.
August E. Woerner
Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.
St Louis, Kenneth O; Przepiorka, Aneta M; Beste-Guldborg, Ann; Williams, Mandy J; Blachnio, Agata; Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Reichel, Isabella K; Ware, Mercedes B
The study sought to identify major-specific, training, and cultural factors affecting attitudes toward stuttering of speech-language pathology (SLP) students. Eight convenience samples of 50 students each from universities in the USA and Poland filled out the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in English or Polish, respectively. USA samples included undergraduate and graduate students in SLP majors or non-SLP majors as well as a sample of non-SLP students who were Native Americans. Polish samples included SLP (logopedics), psychology, and mixed majors. SLP students held more positive attitudes than non-SLP students in both countries. Graduate students held more positive attitudes than undergraduate students in the USA, and this effect was stronger for SLP than for non-SLP students. Native American students' stuttering attitudes were similar to other American non-SLP students' attitudes. Polish student attitudes were less positive overall than those of their American student counterparts. SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering are affected by a "halo effect" of being in that major, by specific training in fluency disorders, and by various cultural factors, yet to be clearly understood. The reader will be able to: (a) describe major factors affecting SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering; (b) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of students from the USA and Poland; (c) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of Native American students from the USA and non-Native American students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the past two decades, stuttering and its relation to social anxiety disorder have been researched using different approaches in study fields such as neurolinguistics and neuropsychology. This paper presents a review of research publications about social anxiety disorder in children who stutter. It takes into account studies of stuttering, social anxiety disorders, the possible causes as well as atti-tudes and beliefs towards stuttering. Also, therapies or treatments that have been conducted on both English-speaking children who stutter in the Western context and Mandarin-speaking children stut-terers in Asia, Taiwan in particular; will be looked at
Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.
Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui
Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215
Coleman, Craig E
This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment and treatment strategies and approaches are discussed. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model can help guide clinicians through the assessment and treatment process to ensure that all areas of stuttering are considered. Comprehensive assessment and treatment helps clinicians address all relevant elements of a stuttering disorder, rather than focusing exclusively on reducing speech disruptions.
Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; Cumming, Steven
The experiential claims of nine people who stuttered were examined with the purpose of determining the impact of stuttering on their work lives and to further examine what meaning they derive from these experiences. Six male and three female participants aged 29-61 years (mean age, 41.4) who stuttered were interviewed and verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Credibility was established by way of member checking, researcher comparison with only consensual themes and interpretations presented in the final analysis. Four Superordinate themes, "stuttering is always there; stuttering at work reveals a problem; stuttering limits communication; and stuttering limits occupational progression" were distilled by descriptive and interpretative treatment of the interview transcripts. The interpretative level of analysis identified self-stigma as central to the meaning derived from these experiences. Participants' expectation of stigmatizing public attitudes, together with their own self-validation of such attitudes perpetuated diminished feelings about self-esteem and self-efficacy. Fear of negative evaluation may be heightened in the work context and might mediate feelings of self-stigma in this context. Superordinate themes and their subthemes indicate that stuttering is problematic at work by way of perpetuating in the PWS an expectation of negative evaluation by others. Findings implicate issues of self-stigma as generating feelings of self-doubt and self-reproach in PWS in the workplace. The development and effects of self-stigma in PWS have broader implications than the workplace context alone and further examination of the issues of self-stigma in stuttering is recommended. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe how stuttering might affect workplace experiences; (b) describe the impact of stuttering on communication in the work context; (c) describe how qualitative methods can provide
Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.
Seyed Sadegh Rahimi
Conclusion Based on the OASES-A characteristics, people who stutter had a lower level of quality of life. It was also found that the quality of life of people with mild and moderate stages of stuttering was better than the people at severe and very severe stages. In addition, age, gender, education, and vocation were found to affect the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to make positive changes in the psychological aspect of the assessment and treatment processes of adults with stuttering. In addition, attitude should be considered for better interactions in daily communications and to improve the quality of life.
Byrd, Courtney T.; Donaher, Joseph
Purpose: Best practice for developmental stuttering remains a topic of debate. In the clinical forum following the introduction, four fluency experts balance the evidence and expertise to describe their approach to assessment and treatment.
Bright, Jo-Anne; Curran, James M
The determination of parameters such as stutter ratio is important to inform a laboratory's forensic DNA profile interpretation strategy. As part of a large data analysis project to implement a continuous model of DNA profile interpretation we analysed stutter ratio data from eight different forensic laboratories for the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 multiplex. This allowed a comparison of inter laboratory variation. The maximum difference for any one laboratory from the average of the best fit determined by the model was 0.31%. These results indicate that stutter ratios calculated from samples analysed using the same profiling kit are not expected to differ between laboratories, even those using different capillary electrophoresis platforms. A common set of laboratory parameters are able to be generated and used for profile interpretation at all laboratories using the same multiplex and cycle number, potentially reducing the need for individual laboratories to determine stutter ratios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spencer, Elizabeth; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Ferguson, Alison
This paper describes a study in which Systemic Functional Linguistics was applied to describe how people who stutter use language. The aim of the study was to determine and describe any differences in language use between a group of 10 adults who stutter and 10 matched normally-fluent speakers. In addition to formal linguistic analyses, analyses drawn from Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to further investigate the expression of both syntactic and semantic complexity. The findings from this study replicated previous findings of Packman et al. in which they found that the language used by people who stutter was significantly less complex than the control group. Another major finding was that adults who stuttered used the linguistic resource of modality significantly less than the normally-fluent matched peers. The implications these strategies have on communication and social participation will be discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide a summary overview of some of the more important scientific evidence of neurological differences between stutterers and non-stutterers. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ‘n opsommende oorsig te bied van die belangrikste wetenskaplike bewyse vir neurologiese verskille tussen mense wat hakkel en mense wat nie hakkel nie. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Purpose: Developmental stuttering may be associated with diminished psychological well-being which has been documented from late childhood onwards. It is important to establish the point at which behavioural, emotional and social problems emerge in children who stutter. Methods: The study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, whose initial cohort comprised 18,818 children. Analysis involved data collected when the cohort members were 3, 5 and 11 years old. The association between parent...
Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders. However, its etiology is poorly understood, and is likely to be heterogeneous. Impairment of cognitive functions such as emotional memory and attention is one of the important factors. The aim of this research is to compare explicit and implicit memory between stutterers and normal individuals and also comparison of anxiety and depression between 2 groups. Materials & Methods: This is a case-control and analytical research.The participated individuals in this research were 30 male and female stutterers and the same number as the matched control group. The control group was matched for gender, age, education and bilingualism. The cue recall task performed to investigate explicit memory and the word stem completing task for implicit memory. The anxiety and depression of the individuals were measured by using general Hygiene Questionnaire (GHQ28 in this study. The performance of the individuals was measured based on positive and negative words in explicit and implicit memory and was compared with anxiety and depression score they obtained. Data was analyzed by using independent T-test, paired T-test, U-Man Witney and Willkaxon test. Results: The data indicated that stutterers recognized less emotionally positive words in explicit memory as compared with nonstutterers. Also, stutterers recognized more emotionally negative words as compared with emotionally positive words in explicit and implicit memory tasks (P<0/05. Additionally, stutterers showed more anxiety and depression as compared to nonstutterers. This difference was significant except for depression (P0.05. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the role of cognitive functions including emotional memory in motor speech programming and the difference in the function of positive versus negative emotional memories between stutterers and nonstutterers in this research, the role of emotional memory can be considered as an important
Maruthy, Santosh; Venugopal, Sahana; Parakh, Priyanka
A longstanding hypothesis about the underlying mechanisms of stuttering suggests that speech disfluencies may be associated with problems in timing and temporal patterning of speech events. Fifteen adults who do and do not stutter read five sentences, and from these, the vocalic and consonantal durations were measured. Using these, pairwise variability index (raw PVI for consonantal intervals and normalised PVI for vocalic intervals) and interval based rhythm metrics (PercV, DeltaC, DeltaV, VarcoC and VarcoV) were calculated for all the participants. Findings suggested higher mean values in adults who stutter when compared to adults who do not stutter for all the rhythm metrics except for VarcoV. Further, statistically significant difference between the two groups was found for all the rhythm metrics except for VarcoV. Combining the present results with consistent prior findings based on rhythm deficits in children and adults who stutter, there appears to be strong empirical support for the hypothesis that individuals who stutter may have deficits in generation of rhythmic speech patterns.
Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Pirutinsky, Steven
Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study. Groups were matched on age (CWS: M=49.63, SD=10.34, range=38-80months; CWNS: M=50.63, SD=9.82, range=37-74months), cognitive ability, and language skills. All children completed a computer-based variation of the DCCS, in which they matched on-screen bivalent stimuli to response buttons based on rules that switched mid-task. Results showed increased slowing for CWS compared to controls during the postswitch phase, as well as contrasting patterns of speed-accuracy tradeoff for CWS and CWNS as they moved from the preswitch to postswitch phase of the task. Group differences in performance suggest that early stuttering may be associated with difficulty shifting attention efficiently and greater concern about errors. Findings are consistent with a growing literature indicating links between weak attentional control and persisting developmental stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sudo, Daisuke; Doutake, Youichi; Yokota, Hidenori; Watanabe, Eiju
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6). After neurosurgical drainage and antibiotic treatment, the symptoms had resolved. This case is unique in that the therapeutic effects and localisation of the cause of stuttering were rapidly identified, allowing for a more accurate description of the neural circuitry related to stuttering. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Introduction : Even though stuttering is probably as old a phenomenon as the human speech itself, the stuttering therapy is still a challenge for the therapist and requires constant searching for new methods. Qigong may prove to be one of them. Aim of the research: The research paper presents the results of an experimental investigation evaluating the usefulness of qigong practice in stuttering therapy. Material and methods: Two groups of stuttering adults underwent 6-month therapy. In group I – the experimental one (n = 11 – the therapy consisted of speech fluency training, psychotherapy and qigong practice. In group II – the control one (n = 12 – it included speech fluency training and psychotherapy. In both groups 2-hour sessions of speech fluency training and psychotherapy were conducted twice a week. Two-hour qigong sessions took place once a week. Results: After 6 months the therapy results were compared with regard to the basic stuttering parameters, such as the degree of speech disfluency, the level of logophobia and speech disfluency symptoms. Improvement was observed in both groups, the beneficial effects, however, being more prominent in the qigong-practising group. Conclusions : Qigong exercises used in the therapy of stuttering people along with speech fluency training and psychotherapy give beneficial effects.
Tichenor, Seth; Leslie, Paula; Shaiman, Susan; Yaruss, J Scott
Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension. Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples. Two board-certified specialists in fluency evaluated the samples using the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 and a checklist adapted for this study. Speakers rated their tension using the same forms, and then discussed their experiences in a qualitative interview so that themes related to physical tension could be identified. The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers' experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers' acceptance of stuttering. The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine
Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiologic, and central neurophysiologic bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language and other cognitive and emotional processes. During the time when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes. We summarize our current understanding of the various developmental trajectories relevant for the understanding of stuttering in early childhood. We also present theoretical and experimental approaches that we believe will be optimal for even more rapid progress toward developing better and more targeted treatment for stuttering in the preschool children who are more likely to persist in stuttering. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kraft, Shelly Jo; Yairi, Ehud
Objective The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification. Summary A gradual progression has been made from the early crude methods of counting percentages of stuttering probands who have relatives who stutter to recent studies using entire genomes of DNA collected from each participant. Despite the shortcomings of some early studies, investigators have accumulated a substantial body of data showing a large presence of familial stuttering. This encouraged more refined research in the form of twin studies. Concordance rates among twins were sufficiently high to lend additional support to the genetic perspective of stuttering. More sophisticated aggregation studies and segregation analyses followed, producing data that matched recognized genetic models, providing the final ‘go ahead’ to proceed from the behavior/statistical genetics into the sphere of biological genetics. Recent linkage and association studies have begun to reveal contributing genes to the disorder. Conclusion No definitive findings have been made regarding which transmission model, chromosomes, genes, or sex factors are involved in the expression of stuttering in the population at large. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22067705
Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D
Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in persistent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area, TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech.
Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.
Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749
Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle
The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…
Brundage, Shelley B.; Whelan, Cory J.; Burgess, Cathleen M.
Stuttering and autism can co-occur and when they do it presents a significant communication challenge. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the fluency rules program (FRP; Runyan and Runyan, Stuttering and related disorders of fluency, in 2007) to reduce stuttering frequency in a man with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).…
Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.
The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that persons who stutter, when compared to persons who do not stutter, are less able to assemble abstract motor plans for short verbal responses. Subjects were adult males who stutter and age- and sex-matched control speakers, who were
Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.
Ellis, Antonio L.; Hartlep, Nicholas D.
Stuttering places students at-risk for being stereotyped and experiencing identity difficulties in school. This study hoped to fill a lacuna in the literature on the educational experiences of African American male stutterers. Six African American adult males who stuttered and lived in Washington, DC; Maryland; and/or Virginia participated in this…
Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…
Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN was used to investigate the processing of cluster and noncluster initial consonants in consonant vowel syllables in the human brain. The MMN was elicited by either syllable with cluster or noncluster initial consonant, phonetic contrasts being identical in both syllables. Compared to the noncluster consonant, the cluster consonant elicited a more prominent MMN. The MMN to the cluster consonant occurred later than that of the noncluster consonant. The topography of the mismatch responses showed clear left-hemispheric laterality in both syllables. However, the syllable with an initial noncluster consonant stimulus produced MMN maximum over the middle temporal gyrus, whereas maximum of the MMN activated by the syllable with initial cluster consonant was observed over the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that the MMN component in consonant-vowel syllables is more sensitive to cluster compared to noncluster initial consonants. Spatial and temporal features of the cluster consonant indicate delayed activation of left-lateralized perisylvian cell assemblies that function as cortical memory traces of cluster initial consonant in consonant-vowel syllables.
Campos, Ana Duarte; Mendes Oliveira, Helena; Soares, Ana Paula
The role of syllables as a sublexical unit in visual word recognition and reading is well established in deep and shallow syllable-timed languages such as French and Spanish, respectively. However, its role in intermediate stress-timed languages remains unclear. This paper aims to overcome this gap by studying for the first time the role of…
Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia
Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…
Freud, Debora; Kichin-Brin, Marina; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Roziner, Ilan; Amir, Ofer
This study aims to examine the association between adults' experience of stuttering and their age, gender and marital status, as well as to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the OASES-A. The Hebrew version of the OASES-A was administered to 91 adults-who-stutter. The validity of the translated version was evaluated using a subset of 43 participants, who also completed three additional instruments: (a) a Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS) self-rating scale, (b) the Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC), (c) the Students Life Satisfaction scale (SLSS). Finally, the correlations between the participants' OASES-A scores and their age, gender and marital status were calculated. A negative correlation was found between the participants' OASES-A impact scores and their age (pstuttering, whereas gender is not. In addition, the Hebrew version of the OASES-A is valid and comparable with equivalent versions in other languages. This facilitates the application of the OASES-A in future clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Natália Casagrande Brabo
"Protocolo de Avaliação da Apraxia Verbal e Não-verbal" (Martins and Ortiz, 2004. RESULTS: regarding the abilities of verbal praxis, there was a statistically significant difference of number of typical and atypical disfluencies showed by the two studied groups. Phrase repetition was the only type of typical disfluency which showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Blocking, syllable repetition and prolonging were the atypical disfluencies which showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Regarding the non-verbal praxic abilities, a statistically significant difference was not found between the groups in the performance of lip, tongue and jaw movements, isolated and in sequence. CONCLUSION: the adult stutterers showed a significantly higher number of typical and atypical disfluencies than non-stutterers (verbal praxis. Stutterers do not differ from non-stutterers in their non-verbal praxic abilities. This finding contradicts those who believe that early stuttering affects non-verbal praxis.
of the global rhythmic context with regard to both the prominence and the F(0) patterns. Two conclusions were drawn on this basis. First, listeners use speech rhythm to predict the perceptual properties of syllables, which is in line with the guide function that speech rhythm is assumed to have in German...
Full Text Available Objective: A research was conducted to assess the phonological awareness in hearing-impaired children in comparison to normal children. In this context, we discussed about the ability of these children in identification of rhyme and word segmentation to syllables. Method and Material: The sample of this study is composed of 320 children, 160 normal & 160 hearing-impaired with a hearing-loss. Of over 70 dB, studying in the 1st t 4th grade of the primary schools in Tehran. They are divided into two groups at each level (20 girls & 20 boys. Results: 1 Hearing-impaired children's scores on test related to rhyme and syllable is lower as compared with normal children. 2 Hearing-impaired children are more potent on test of word segmentation to syllables in comparison to that related to rhyme, while normal children are more successful on test of word segmentation to syllables as compared with that related to rhyme. Discussion: Hearing is an important factor in phonological awareness. Formal education at special schools doesn't compensate for the hearing impairment as to development of the phonological awareness.
Thomas, Donna C.; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Lincoln, Michelle
Background: Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment uses pseudo-word targets with varying lexical stress to target simultaneously articulation, prosodic accuracy and coarticulatory transitions in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The treatment is efficacious for the acquisition of imitated pseudo-words, and generalization of skill to…
Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria
Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…
Peh, Wendy Y X; Roberts, Todd F; Mooney, Richard
Vocal communication depends on the coordinated activity of sensorimotor neurons important to vocal perception and production. How vocalizations are represented by spatiotemporal activity patterns in these neuronal populations remains poorly understood. Here we combined intracellular recordings and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine how learned birdsong and its component syllables are represented in identified projection neurons (PNs) within HVC, a sensorimotor region important for song perception and production. These experiments show that neighboring HVC PNs can respond at markedly different times to song playback and that different syllables activate spatially intermingled PNs within a local (~100 μm) region of HVC. Moreover, noise correlations were stronger between PNs that responded most strongly to the same syllable and were spatially graded within and between classes of PNs. These findings support a model in which syllabic and temporal features of song are represented by spatially intermingled PNs functionally organized into cell- and syllable-type networks within local spatial scales in HVC. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355589-17$15.00/0.
Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.
Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…
To test opposing theories about the relationship between intonation and syllable timing, these boundary features were compared in a longitudinal study of 9 children's speech development between the mean ages of 16 and 25 months. Results suggest that young children acquire the skills that control intonation earlier than they do skills of final…
Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Fayol, Michel
This study examined the theoretical controversy on the impact of syllables and bigrams in handwriting production. French children and adults wrote words on a digitizer so that we could collect data on the local, online processing of handwriting production. The words differed in the position of the lowest frequency bigram. In one condition, it…
Ramsay, Douglas S.
Infants were tested for unimanual handedness at weekly intervals for a 14-week period beginning with the week of onset of duplicated syllable babbling. Group analyses indicating effects of sex and/or birth order on fluctuations and date review for individual infants suggested considerable variability across infants in occurrence and/or timing of…
Beilby, Janet M; Byrnes, Michelle L; Young, Kate N
Stuttering impacts on the child in a variety of ways, notably in terms of communicative impairment and psychosocial impact. In addition, the stuttering disorder has a holistic impact, affecting those with whom the child who stutters lives. Within the family constellation, the closest person to the individual who stutters is often their sibling. This study investigated the experiences of fluent siblings of children who stutter to examine the impact that stuttering may have on their lives. A mixed methods research design incorporated qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative questionnaires. The results of the qualitative investigation revealed four aspects of children's lives that were affected by having a sibling who stuttered: the relationship between siblings, the impact on the fluent sibling, the impact on the parent relationship with both children, and the impact on the sibling's relationship with others. Findings revealed that siblings of children who stutter exhibited strongly negative emotions, and differing levels of responsibility associated with their involvement in the actual stuttering management programme. Furthermore, for the fluent sibling, secondary to having a brother or sister who stuttered, communication with and attention from their parents was variable. The results of the quantitative component of the study revealed children who stutter and their siblings demonstrated significantly greater closeness, and concurrently, increased conflict and status disparity than did the control fluent sibling dyads. The parents of the experimental sibling dyads also demonstrated significantly greater partiality towards a child, namely the child who stuttered, than did the parents of the control sibling dyads. The reader will be able to: (1) identify the themes associated with having a sibling who stutters; (2) identify how the quality of the sibling relationship differs between sibling dyads that do and do not consist of a sibling who stutters; and
St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene
The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico
Betty L. McMicken
Full Text Available This research article describes the remediation of moderate stuttering in an adult client who experienced speech dysfluency for more than 40 years. Treatment took place at an urban residential rehabilitation mission where the client was court sentenced for a history of felonies and current narcotic sales and use. In conjunction with the operant conditioning instruction of the rehabilitation mission, the Ryan Fluency Program was implemented along with the initial use of pause time in response to the complex needs of the client. The article provides an overview of the assessment (Fluency Interviews, Criterion Tests and treatment program. At present, 2.5 years post-initiation of treatment, the client has reported and been observed to have achieved smooth, forward-flowing, natural sounding speech throughout his work environment, family interaction, and daily life.
Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there have been few empirical studies on the attitudes of Korean SLPs toward stuttering. To determine whether the attitudes of Korean SLPs and speech-language pathology students toward stuttering would be different according to the status of clinical certification, stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum in stuttering. Survey data from 37 certified Korean SLPs and 70 undergraduate students majoring in speech-language pathology were analysed. All the participants completed the modified Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) Inventory. Results showed that the diagnosogenic view was still accepted by many participants. Significant differences were found in seven out of 46 CATS Inventory items according to the certification status. In addition significant differences were also found in three items and one item according to stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum experience in stuttering, respectively. Clinical and educational experience appears to have mixed influences on SLPs' and students' attitudes toward stuttering. While SLPs and students may demonstrate more appropriate understanding and knowledge in certain areas of stuttering, they may feel difficulty in their clinical experience, possibly resulting in low self-efficacy. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Full Text Available Objective: Early Diagnosis and intervention of primary stuttering is the key for prevention of chronic developmental stuttering. Normal nonfluency of children under 5 years old is an important differential diagnosis of primary stuttering. The goals of this research are finding accuracy of diagnoses on children referred to Saba speech therapy Clinic labeled as normal nonfluency and introducing move precise methods of differential diagnosis. Materials & Methods: The research method is case series study in which through simple sampling procedure stuttering children referring to SabA Clinic during 1382 & 83 were studied. 10. Research tools and data collection consist of: questionnair, spontaneous speech sample recording and determining VOT using laryngograph processor. It should be noted that because normative date of stutteres VOT the lack of the normal subjects VOT are analysed and comared with stutterers. Results: Based on numerical criteria, our findings indicate that only one of stutterers was normal nonfluent and the others were stutteres. VOT data of stutteres also were compared to that of normal matched children. The results revealed that all of stutterers had significantly (P<0.05 longer VOT than normal subjects . Conclusion: This study provides a good numeric and clinical index for speech language pathologists for diagnosis of primary stuttering and normal nonfluency. Morover,. using VOT would help accurate diagnosis.
Picillo, Marina; Vincos, Gustavo B; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso
Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency, occasionally present in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD co-incident stuttering may either worsen or improve after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Sixteen out of 453 PD patients (3.5%) exhibited stuttering after DBS (PD-S) and were compared with a group of patients without stuttering (PD-NS) using non-parametric statistics. After DBS, stuttering worsened in 3 out of 4 patients with co-incidental stuttering. Most PD-S underwent subthalamic (STN) DBS, but 4 were implanted in the globus pallidus (GPi). Nine out of 16 PD-S (56.3%) reported a positive familial history for stuttering compared to none of the PD-NS. PD-S were mainly male (81.3%) with slight worse motor features compared to PD-NS. Herein, we describe a group of PD patients developing stuttering after DBS and report the presence of a positive familial history for stuttering as the most relevant risk factor, suggesting a possible underlying genetic cause. The fact that stuttering occurred after either STN or GPi DBS is an argument against the impact of medication reduction on stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berry, Andrew J.
Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)
Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted
Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)
In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…
Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.
Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had st...
Kevin Richard Sitek; Kevin Richard Sitek; Shanqing eCai; Shanqing eCai; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Joseph S Perkell; Joseph S Perkell; Frank eGuenther; Satrajit S Ghosh; Satrajit S Ghosh
Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had ...
Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven
Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may be different. This study reports on the case of a bilingual adult who speaks Spanish and English simultaneously and whose dominant language is Spanish. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages. The samples chosen for the analysis of speech corpus were: spontaneous speech, description of the picture and reading. Some differences in the stuttering distribution were found. Of the disfluent instants, 61.39 % of the total was presented in English and the other remaining 38.61 % in Spanish. In both languages, stuttering by word type was more frequent in function words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, particles and infinitive forms than in content words (i.e. verbs, nouns, adjectives. As observed, dysfluency types were similar in Spanish and English, with the greatest percentage being word repetition, followed by phonemic prolongations. These were more frequent in English than in Spanish. Although it is possible to find similarities in the stuttering pattern suggesting general stuttering laws, differences associated not only with language-specific idiosyncrasies but also with the individual’s bilingualism characteristics were also found.
Reed, Phil; Wu, Yaqionq
To outline the uses of logistic regression and other statistical methods for risk factor analysis in the context of research on stuttering. The principles underlying the application of a logistic regression are illustrated, and the types of questions to which such a technique has been applied in the stuttering field are outlined. The assumptions and limitations of the technique are discussed with respect to existing stuttering research, and with respect to formulating appropriate research strategies to accommodate these considerations. Finally, some alternatives to the approach are briefly discussed. The way the statistical procedures are employed are demonstrated with some hypothetical data. Research into several practical issues concerning stuttering could benefit if risk factor modelling were used. Important examples are early diagnosis, prognosis (whether a child will recover or persist) and assessment of treatment outcome. After reading this article you will: (a) Summarize the situations in which logistic regression can be applied to a range of issues about stuttering; (b) Follow the steps in performing a logistic regression analysis; (c) Describe the assumptions of the logistic regression technique and the precautions that need to be checked when it is employed; (d) Be able to summarize its advantages over other techniques like estimation of group differences and simple regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo
Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering "state" in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation).
Conclusion The results of this study showed that PWS show improvement in accuracy, reaction time and sequence duration variables from day 1 to day 3. Also, PWS show more substantial number of errors compared to PNS, but this difference was not significant between the two groups. Similar results were obtained for the reaction time. Results of this study demonstrated that PWS show slower sequence duration compared to PNS. Some studies suggested that this could be because people who stutter use a control strategy to reduce the number of errors, although many studies suggested that this may indicate motor learning. According to speech motor skills hypothesis, it can be concluded that people who stutter have limitations in motor speech learning abilities. The findings of the present study could have clinical implication for the treatment of stuttering.
Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine
Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Picoloto, Luana Altran; Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Cerqueira, Amanda Venuti; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de
To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech fluency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders. The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: fluency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The "Wilcoxon Signal Post" test was used in the intragroup analysis and "Mann-Whitney" test in the intergroup analysis. The DAF caused a statistically significant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disfluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically significant effects on SGAPD fluency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders. The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech fluency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in fluency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.
Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena
To describe the language development in a sample of young children who stutter during the first 12 months after stuttering onset was reported. Language production was analysed in a sample of 66 children who stuttered (aged 2-4 years). The sample were identified from a pre-existing prospective, community based longitudinal cohort. Data were collected at three time points within the first year after stuttering onset. Stuttering severity was measured, and global indicators of expressive language proficiency (length of utterances and grammatical complexity) were derived from the samples and summarised. Language production abilities of the children who stutter were contrasted with normative data. The majority of children's stuttering was rated as mild in severity, with more than 83% of participants demonstrating very mild or mild stuttering at each of the time points studied. The participants demonstrated developmentally appropriate spoken language skills comparable with available normative data. In the first year following the report of stuttering onset, the language skills of the children who were stuttering progressed in a manner that is consistent with developmental expectations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Shivangi; Casenhiser, Devin; Hedinger, Tricia; Kittilstved, Tiffani; Saltuklaroglu, Tim
The NEO-FFI has been widely used to demonstrate personality differences between people who stutter (PWS) and those who do not. These differences can be interpreted as indicators of internal sources of disability that contribute to handicaps associated with stuttering. The aim of the current study was to use this same tool to determine the perceived impact of stuttering on personality in order to provide a similar indicator of how external factors may contribute to the stuttering disability. A total of 49 non-stuttering young adults were given the NEO-FFI-3 after watching a video of someone stuttering (moderately to severely) and after watching a video of someone speaking fluently. Participants were asked to answer test items while imagining that they had spoken like the persons in the videos for their entire lives. When asked to assume the stuttering perspective, participants reported themselves to be significantly more neurotic (P stuttered perspectives are consistent with existing stereotypes about PWS. These differences are greater than and only partially consistent with differences in personality found between PWS and non-stuttering individuals. The findings support the notion that external factors (e.g. listener reactions and stereotypes about PWS) contribute strongly to the manner in which stuttering restricts function and results in handicaps.
Chu, Shin Ying; Barlow, Steven M; Lee, Jaehoon; Wang, Jingyan
This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations. PD participants exhibited the general features of reciprocity between OOS, OOI and DLI muscles as reflected in the EMG during syllable production. The control group showed significantly higher integrated EMG amplitude ratio in the DLI:OOS muscle pairs than PD participants. No speech rate effects were found in EMG muscle reciprocity and amplitude magnitude across all muscle pairs. Similar patterns of muscle reciprocity in PD and controls suggest that corticomotoneuronal output to the facial nucleus and respective perioral muscles is relatively well-preserved in our cohort of mild idiopathic PD participants. Reduction of EMG amplitude ratio among PD participants is consistent with the putative reduction in the thalamocortical activation characteristic of this disease which limits motor cortex drive from generating appropriate commands which contributes to bradykinesia and hypokinesia of the orofacial mechanism.
Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Morris, Paul; Reddy, Vasudevi
To date, the literature on perception of affective, pragmatic, and grammatical prosody abilities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been sparse and contradictory. It is interesting to note that the primary perception of syllable stress within the word structure, which is crucial for all prosody functions, remains relatively unexplored in ASD. Thus, in the current study, we explored syllable stress perception sensitivity and its relationship to speech production abnormalities and communicative ability in adults with ASD. A same-different syllable stress perception task using pairs of identical 4-syllable words was delivered to 42 adults with/without high-functioning ASD, matched for age, to investigate primary speech perception ability in ASD. Speech production and communicative ability in ASD was measured using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000). As predicted, the results showed that adults with ASD were less sensitive in making judgments about syllable stress relative to controls. Also, partial correlations revealed a key association of speech production abnormalities with stress perception sensitivity, rather than communicative ability. Our findings provide empirical evidence for deficits on primary syllable stress perception in ASD and its role on sociocommunicative difficulties. This information could facilitate the development of effective interventions for speech and language therapy and social communication.
Kevin Richard Sitek
Full Text Available Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex. Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and orbitofrontal cortex may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.
Sitek, Kevin R; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S
Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.
Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.
Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a complex disease that influences occupational, social, academic and emotional achievements. The aim of this study was to correlate the stuttering severity index with speaking rates of mothers and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the child rehabilitation clinics of Tehran city. METHODS: 35 pairs of mothers and their children who stuttered were studied. There were 29 boys and six girls, of mean age 8.5 years (range: 5.1-12.0. Speech samples from the mother-child pairs were audiotaped for approximately 15 minutes, until a reciprocal verbal interaction had been obtained. This sample was then analyzed in accordance with a stuttering severity index test and speaking rate parameters. RESULTS: The research results outlined a significant relationship between the mothers’ speaking rate and their children’s stuttering severity. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the mothers’ speaking rate should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering.
Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine
Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiological, and central neurophysiological bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language, other cognitive, and emotional processes. During the time window when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes. We summarize our current understanding of the various developmental trajectories relevant for the understanding of stuttering in early childhood. We also present theoretical and experimental approaches that we believe will be optimal for even more rapid progress toward developing better and more targeted treatment for stuttering in the preschool children who are more likely to persist in stuttering. PMID:27701705
Coleman, Craig E.
Purpose: This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Method: Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment…
Per A Alm
Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15 and in controls (n = 15. In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026, with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049. The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.
Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Key, Alexandra P; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M
This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Participants were 17 young children who stutter and 22 young children who do not stutter (between 4 years 0 months to 6 years 11 months). The dependent measures were (1) mean amplitude of late positive potential (LPP, an ERP sensitive to emotional stimuli) during passive (i.e., no response required) picture viewing and directed reappraisal tasks and (2) emotional reactivity and regulation related scores on caregiver reports of young children's temperament (Children's Behavior Questionnaire, CBQ). Young CWS, when compared to CWNS, exhibited significantly greater LPP amplitudes when viewing unpleasant pictures, but no significant between-group difference when viewing pleasant pictures and during the emotion regulation condition. There were, however, for CWS, but not CWNS, significant correlations between temperament-related measures of emotion and cortical measures of emotional reactivity and regulation. Findings provide further empirical support for the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering, and that CWS's inherent temperamental proclivities need to be taken into account when empirically studying or theorizing about this association. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Civier, Oren; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal
Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter. We compare the diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways. We complement the analysis with an overview of the methodology and a roadmap of the pathways implicated in PDS according to the existing literature. We report differences in the microstructural properties of the anterior callosum, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right cingulum in people who stutter compared with fluent controls. Persistent developmental stuttering is consistently associated with differences in bilateral distributed networks. We review evidence showing that PDS involves differences in bilateral dorsal fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal pathways, in callosal pathways, in several motor pathways and in basal ganglia connections. This entails an important role for long range white matter pathways in this disorder. Using a wide-lens analysis, we demonstrate differences in additional, right hemispheric pathways, which go beyond the replicable findings in the literature. This suggests that the affected circuits may extend beyond the known language and motor pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusion According to the results, the detection protocol of malingering stuttering is of good internal consistency and concurrent validity. However, considering that the sample population was not large in the present study, it can be said that this study is a preliminary evaluation to find the psychometric features of the instruments, with the aim of laying the groundwork for further studies.
Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine
Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…
Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.
Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930
Morgan, Stephen L.; Leenman, Theodore S.; Todd, Jennifer J.; Kentucky; Weeden, Kim A.
To evaluate a stutter-step model of academic performance in high school, this article adopts a unique measure of the beliefs of 12,591 high school sophomores from the Education Longitudinal Study, 2002-2006. Verbatim responses to questions on occupational plans are coded to capture specific job titles, the listing of multiple jobs, and the listing…
Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.
Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203
Freud, Debora; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Katz-Bernstein, Nitza; Fostick, Leah
This groundbreaking research compares the experience of stuttering among adult male People Who Stutter (PWS) from the ultra-Orthodox (UO) Jewish community in Israel to those from Secular/Traditional (ST) backgrounds. Participants were 32 UO and 31 ST PWS, aged 18-67 years. Self-report questionnaires utilized: Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS); Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES-A); Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS); Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC). Demographic, religious, and stuttering information was collected. Groups were compared on scales, and correlations between scales and the PSS. Subjective stuttering severity ratings were significantly higher among the UO. A significant group effect was found for the OASES-A quality of life subscale, but not other subscales. Significant positive correlations were found between: 1) PSS and OASES-A Total Impact; 2) PSS and 3 OASES subscales; and 3) PSS and SABC (indicating increased avoidance with increased stuttering severity rating). A significant negative correlation was found between the PSS and SLSS, indicating lower life satisfaction with higher rates of stuttering severity among the ST. Interestingly, when tested by group, significant correlations between the PSS and all other study measures were observed only among the ST. UO participants showed higher subjective stuttering severity ratings, yet less impact on quality of life, and no correlation between subjective stuttering and other measures of stuttering experience. These novel findings may result from the combined protective effect of religiosity and socio-cultural characteristics on UO PWS' well-being, despite heightened concern about social consequences of stuttering within UO society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.
Furini, Juliana; Picoloto, Luana Altran; Marconato, Eduarda; Bohnen, Anelise Junqueira; Cardoso, Ana Claudia Vieira; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de
ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF). Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG), and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG). The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds dela...
Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue
Social anxiety is common for those who stutter and efficacious cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for them appears viable. However, there are difficulties with provision of CBT services for anxiety among those who stutter. Standalone Internet CBT treatment is a potential solution to those problems. CBTpsych is a fully automated, online social anxiety intervention for those who stutter. This report is a Phase I trial of CBTpsych. Fourteen participants were allowed 5 months to complete seven sections of CBTpsych. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments tested for social anxiety, common unhelpful thoughts related to stuttering, quality of life and stuttering frequency. Significant post-treatment improvements in social anxiety, unhelpful thoughts, and quality of life were reported. Five of seven participants diagnosed with social anxiety lost those diagnoses at post-treatment. The two participants who did not lose social anxiety diagnoses did not complete all the CBTpsych modules. CBTpsych did not improve stuttering frequency. Eleven of the fourteen participants who began treatment completed Section 4 or more of the CBTpsych intervention. CBTpsych provides a potential means to provide CBT treatment for social anxiety associated with stuttering, to any client without cost, regardless of location. Further clinical trials are warranted. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe that social anxiety is common in those who stutter; (b) discuss the origin of social anxiety and the associated link with bullying; (c) summarize the problems in provision of effective evidence based cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter; (d) describe a scalable computerized treatment designed to tackle the service provision gap; (e) describe the unhelpful thoughts associated with stuttering that this fully automated computer program was able to tackle; (f) list the positive outcomes for individuals who stuttered that participated in this trial such as the
Boyle, Michael P; Dioguardi, Lauren; Pate, Julie E
The effects of three anti-stigma strategies for stuttering-contact (hearing personal stories from an individual who stutters), education (replacing myths about stuttering with facts), and protest (condemning negative attitudes toward people who stutter)-were examined on attitudes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward people who stutter. Two hundred and twelve adults recruited from a nationwide survey in the United States were randomly assigned to one of the three anti-stigma conditions or a control condition. Participants completed questionnaires about stereotypes, negative emotional reactions, social distance, discriminatory intentions, and empowerment regarding people who stutter prior to and after watching a video for the assigned condition, and reported their attitude changes about people who stutter. Some participants completed follow-up questionnaires on the same measures one week later. All three anti-stigma strategies were more effective than the control condition for reducing stereotypes, negative emotions, and discriminatory intentions from pretest to posttest. Education and protest effects for reducing negative stereotypes were maintained at one-week follow-up. Contact had the most positive effect for increasing affirming attitudes about people who stutter from pretest to posttest and pretest to follow-up. Participants in the contact and education groups, but not protest, self-reported significantly more positive attitude change about people who stutter as a result of watching the video compared to the control group. Advocates in the field of stuttering can use education and protest strategies to reduce negative attitudes about people who stutter, and people who stutter can increase affirming attitudes through interpersonal contact with others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The correlation of stuttering and different linguistic factors is assessed in many studies. The obtained results can pave the way to reach a better understanding of stuttering, as well as finding more appropriate treatments. This study investigates the effect of utterance length on speech dysfluency comparing stuttering Persian(Farsi -speaking children and nonstuttering ones.Methods: Ten stuttering and ten nonstuttering Persian-speaking children between 4 and 6 years of age, matched by age and gender where included in this cross-sectional study. All individuals were investigated by ten sets of simple and complex sentences. Morphemes were added one by one to sentences in each set in order to assess the impact of utterance length on dysfluency. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: In practicing ten sets of sentences, the speech dysfluency shows significant enhance with increase of utterance length in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p=0.001. Furthermore, while comparing two groups of simple and complex sentences, significant increase of speech dysfluency was observed by length enhance of utterance, in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p<0.05. The comparison of stuttering and nonstuttering children showed significant difference between the two groups as well (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of this study show that increase in utterance length in both simple and complex sentences lead to increase in dysfluency in stuttering and nonstuttering children. Stuttering children indicated more dysfluency than nonstuttering ones.
Ingham, Roger J; Ingham, Janis C; Euler, Harald A; Neumann, Katrin
Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention. Although much has been learned about the neural underpinnings of stuttering, little research in any of the reviewed areas has thus far contributed to the advancement of stuttering treatment. Much of the research on the neurology of stuttering that does have therapy potential has been largely driven by a speech-motor model that is designed to account for the efficacy of fluency-inducing strategies and strategies that have been shown to yield therapy benefits. Investigations on methods that will induce neuroplasticity are overdue. Strategies profitable with other disorders have only occasionally been employed. However, there are signs that investigations on the neurology of adults who have recovered from stuttering are slowly being recognized for their potential in this regard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena
This study aims to determine whether the communication and language skills of children who have a history of stuttering are different from children who do not have a history of stuttering at ages 2-5 years. This study utilizes data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS), a longitudinal study with a community sample of 1910 children recruited in Melbourne, Australia, as well as a concurrent study examining the onset and progression of stuttering. Participants with a history of stuttering (n = 181) and a control group without a history of stuttering (n = 1438) were identified according to the established protocol of these two existing studies. The stuttering group scored higher than the non-stuttering group on all of the communication and language outcomes measured. The group differences were statistically significant on four of the seven measures and these findings were maintained when potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Importantly, the children with a history of stuttering, as a group, and the control group without a history of stuttering demonstrated developmentally-appropriate early communication and language skills.
Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues
The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.
Mock, Jeffrey R; Foundas, Anne L; Golob, Edward J
Developmental stuttering is characterized by fluent speech punctuated by stuttering events, the frequency of which varies among individuals and contexts. Most stuttering events occur at the beginning of an utterance, suggesting neural dynamics associated with stuttering may be evident during speech preparation. This study used EEG to measure cortical activity during speech preparation in men who stutter, and compared the EEG measures to individual differences in stuttering rate as well as to a fluent control group. Each trial contained a cue followed by an acoustic probe at one of two onset times (early or late), and then a picture. There were two conditions: a speech condition where cues induced speech preparation of the picture's name and a control condition that minimized speech preparation. Across conditions stuttering frequency correlated to cue-related EEG beta power and auditory ERP slow waves from early onset acoustic probes. The findings reveal two new cortical markers of stuttering frequency that were present in both conditions, manifest at different times, are elicited by different stimuli (visual cue, auditory probe), and have different EEG responses (beta power, ERP slow wave). The cue-target paradigm evoked brain responses that correlated to pre-experimental stuttering rate. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle
This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT whole-word repetitions (WWR should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.
Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter
Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887
Translation, Assessment and Deployment of Stuttering Instruments into Different Languages: Comments Arising from Bakhtiar et al., "Investigation of the Reliability of the SSI-3 for Preschool Persian-Speaking Children Who Stutter" ["J. Fluency Disord." 35 (2010) 87-91
Karimi, Hamid; Nilipour, Reza; Shafiei, Bijan; Howell, Peter
Bakhtiar, Seifpanahi, Ansari, Ghanadzade and Packman (2010) reported high inter-, and intra-judge agreement of a translation of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-3) for preschool Persian-speaking children who stutter. Translation of SSI-3 into Persian is desirable as there is no standardised stuttering severity test for that language.…
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Beyers, Wim; Struyf, Elke
The theory that self-esteem is substantially constructed based on social interactions implies that having a stutter could have a negative impact on self-esteem. Specifically, self-esteem during adolescence, a period of life characterized by increased self-consciousness, could be at risk. In addition to studying mean differences between stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents, this article concentrates on the influence of stuttering severity on domain-specific and general self-esteem. Subsequently, we investigate if covert processes on negative communication attitudes, experienced stigma, non-disclosure of stuttering, and (mal)adaptive perfectionism mediate the relationship between stuttering severity and self-esteem. Our sample comprised 55 stuttering and 76 non-stuttering adolescents. They were asked to fill in a battery of questionnaires, consisting of: Subjective Screening of Stuttering, Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Erickson S-24, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Stigmatization and Disclosure in Adolescents Who Stutter Scale. SEM (structural equation modeling) analyses showed that stuttering severity negatively influences adolescents' evaluations of social acceptance, school competence, the competence to experience a close friendship, and global self-esteem. Maladaptive perfectionism and especially negative communication attitudes fully mediate the negative influence of stuttering severity on self-esteem. Group comparison showed that the mediation model applies to both stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents. We acknowledge the impact of having a stutter on those domains of the self in which social interactions and communication matter most. We then accentuate that negative attitudes about communication situations and excessive worries about saying things in ways they perceive as wrong are important processes to consider with regard to the self-esteem of adolescents who stutter. Moreover, we provide evidence that these covert
Leticia Correa Celeste
. Samples were collected with a corpus of 10 key phrases that were produced in the neutral form, expressing doubt and certainty, totaling 840 utterances. The acoustic analysis was performed using Praat and the following parameters were analyzed: time and speech rate and articulation, presence and duration of pauses and disfluencies, duration of vowels in pre-tonic and tonic syllables and occurrence of post-tonic vowel. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskall Wallis and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 95%. RESULTS: the expression of doubt has the lowest rate of articulation in the control group, followed by neutral and certainty expressions, with statistically significant differences. Also in the control group, there was presence of pauses and disfluencies only in the expression of doubt. In the experimental group, the largest difference was found in the vowel duration of the stressed syllable. CONCLUSION: generally speaking, CG varied more its temporal organization in order to express attitudes. However, it is also possible to note a trend in the group of people who stutter. As for the speech rate, by removing the pauses and disfluencies, we see that both GE1 and GE2 differentiate certainty, faster articulating each syllable.
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Vogel, Adam; Pezic, Angela; Mensah, Fiona; Conway, Laura; Bavin, Edith; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS and typically developing (TD fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area, caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.
Qiao, Jianping; Wang, Zhishun; Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L; Sikora, Chamonix O; Peterson, Bradley S
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.
Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L.; Sikora, Chamonix O.; Peterson, Bradley S.
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca’s area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS. PMID:28759567
Chu, Shin Ying; Sakai, Naomi; Mori, Koichi; Iverach, Lisa
This study reports Japanese normative data for the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering (UTBAS) scales. We outline the translation process, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the UTBAS scales. The translation of the UTBAS scales into Japanese (UTBAS-J) was completed using the standard forward-backward translation process, and was administered to 130 Japanese adults who stutter. To validate the UTBAS-J scales, scores for the Japanese and Australian cohorts were compared. Spearman correlations were conducted between the UTBAS-J and the Modified Erickson Communication Attitude scale (S-24), the self-assessment scale of speech (SA scale), and age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the UTBAS-J were assessed. Independent t-tests were conducted to evaluate the differences in the UTBAS-J scales according to gender, speech treatment experience, and stuttering self-help group participation experience. The UTBAS-J showed good test-retest reliability, high internal consistency, and moderate to high significant correlations with S-24 and SA scale. A weak correlation was found between the UTBAS-J scales with age. No significant relationships were found between UTBAS-J scores, gender and speech treatment experience. However, those who participated in the stuttering self-help group demonstrated lower UTBAS-J scores than those who did not. Given the current scarcity of clinical assessment tools for adults who stutter in Japan, the UTBAS-J holds promise as an assessment tool and outcome measure for use in clinical and research environments. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hersh, Elliot V.; Ciancio, Sebastian G.; Kuperstein, Arthur S.; Stoopler, Eric T.; Moore, Paul A.; Boynes, Sean G.; Levine, Steven C.; Casamassimo, Paul; Leyva, Rina; Mathew, Tanya; Shibly, Othman; Creighton, Paul; Jeffers, Gary E.; Corby, Patricia M.A.; Turetzky, Stanley N.; Papas, Athena; Wallen, Jillian; Idzik-Starr, Cynthia; Gordon, Sharon M.
Background The authors evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels compared with those of a vehicle (placebo) gel for the temporary relief of toothache pain. They also assessed the compliance with the label dose administration directions on the part of participants with toothache pain. Methods Under double-masked conditions, 576 participants self-applied study gel to an open tooth cavity and surrounding oral tissues. Participants evaluated their pain intensity and pain relief for 120 minutes. The authors determined the amount of gel the participants applied. Results The responders’ rates (the primary efficacy parameter), defined as the percentage of participants who had an improvement in pain intensity as exhibited by a pain score reduction of at least one unit on the dental pain scale from baseline for two consecutive assessments any time between the five- and 20-minute points, were 87.3 percent, 80.7 percent and 70.4 percent, respectively, for 20 percent benzocaine gel, 10 percent benzocaine gel and vehicle gel. Both benzocaine gels were significantly (P ≤ .05) better than vehicle gel; the 20 percent benzocaine gel also was significantly (P ≤ .05) better than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. The mean amount of gel applied was 235.6 milligrams, with 88.2 percent of participants applying 400 mg or less. Conclusions Both 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels were more efficacious than the vehicle gel, and the 20 percent benzocaine gel was more efficacious than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. All treatments were well tolerated by participants. Practical Implications Patients can use 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels to temporarily treat toothache pain safely. PMID:23633700
Alm, Per A
Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation
Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem
Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Sheena; Ding, Yi; Ness, Molly; Chen, Eric C
The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers. The invented spelling task consistently differentiated those with reading difficulties from typical readers. It explained unique variance in conventional spelling, but not in word reading. Word stress explained unique variance in both word reading and conventional spelling, highlighting the importance of addressing phonological awareness at the supra-segmental level. Poor readers had poorer performance when spelling both real and nonreal words and demonstrated substantial difficulty in detecting word stress. Poor readers struggled with spelling words with double consonants at the beginning and ending of words, and performed worse on spelling two- and three-syllable words than typical readers. Practical implications for early identification and instruction are discussed.
William E Wood
Full Text Available Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking, but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills.
Full Text Available Speech is a complex auditory stimulus which is processed according to several time-scales. Whereas consonant discrimination is required to resolve rapid acoustic events, voice perception relies on slower cues. Humans, right from preterm ages, are particularly efficient to encode temporal cues. To compare the capacities of preterms to those observed in other mammals, we tested anesthetized adult rats by using exactly the same paradigm as that used in preterm neonates. We simultaneously recorded neural (using ECoG and hemodynamic responses (using fNIRS to series of human speech syllables and investigated the brain response to a change of consonant (ba vs. ga and to a change of voice (male vs. female. Both methods revealed concordant results, although ECoG measures were more sensitive than fNIRS. Responses to syllables were bilateral, but with marked right-hemispheric lateralization. Responses to voice changes were observed with both methods, while only ECoG was sensitive to consonant changes. These results suggest that rats more effectively processed the speech envelope than fine temporal cues in contrast with human preterm neonates, in whom the opposite effects were observed. Cross-species comparisons constitute a very valuable tool to define the singularities of the human brain and species-specific bias that may help human infants to learn their native language.
Phélip, Marion; Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques
In their groundbreaking work featuring verbal dichotic listening tasks, Mondor and Bryden showed that tone cues do not enhance children's attentional orienting, in contrast to adults. The magnitude of the children's right-ear advantage was not attenuated when their attention was directed to the left ear. Verbal cues did, however, appear to favour the orientation of attention at around 10 years, although stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs), which ranged between 450 and 750 ms, were not rigorously controlled. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the role of both types of cues in a typical CV-syllable dichotic listening task administered to 8- to 10-year-olds, applying a protocol as similar as possible to that used by Mondor and Bryden, but controlling for SOA as well as for cued ear. Results confirmed that verbal cues are more effective than tone cues in orienting children's attention. However, in contrast to adults, no effect of SOA was observed. We discuss the relative difficulty young children have processing CV syllables, as well as the role of top-down processes in attentional orienting abilities.
Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D
We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions. (paper)
Olander, Lindsey; Smith, Anne; Zelaznik, Howard N.
Purpose: To determine whether young children who stutter have a basic motor timing and/or a coordination deficit. Method: Between-hands coordination and variability of rhythmic motor timing were assessed in 17 children who stutter (4-6 years of age) and 13 age-matched controls. Children clapped in rhythm with a metronome with a 600-ms interbeat…
Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.
Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…
Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Comelekoglu, Ulku
We investigated the role of delayed cerebral maturation, hemisphere asymmetry and regional differences in children with stuttering and healthy controls during resting state and hyperventilation, using conventional EEG techniques and quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis. This cross-sectional case control study included 26 children with stuttering and…
Howell, Peter; Bailey, Eleanor; Kothari, Nayomi
Three schemes for assessing stuttering were compared. They differed with respect to whether they included whole-word repetitions as characteristics more typical of stuttering. Persistent and recovered groups of children were examined to see whether: (1) one of the schemes differentiated the groups better than others; (2) more and less typical of…
Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Ingham, Roger J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Paolini, Katherine E.; Grafton, Scott T.
Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N = 4) using event-related…
Brocklehurst, Paul H.; Lickley, Robin J.; Corley, Martin
This study investigates whether the experience of stuttering can result from the speaker's anticipation of his words being misrecognized. Twelve adults who stutter (AWS) repeated single words into what appeared to be an automatic speech-recognition system. Following each iteration of each word, participants provided a self-rating of whether they…
Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. Aims: The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Methods &…
Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…
Charoensook, Janet; Maguire, Gerald A
The prevalence of stuttering is approximately 1% of the population, affecting an estimated 3 million individuals in the United States. The dopamine hypothesis of stuttering explains that abnormally increased cerebral dopamine affects the balanced levels that maintain the basal ganglia circuits, which helps with timing cues in initiating speech. This is especially significant when considering treatment strategies. We report a reduction in stuttering with lurasidone, a potent D2 receptor antagonist with a relatively favorable adverse effects profile. We conducted a non-randomized, open-label study of lurasidone in patients with stuttering (N = 7). Patients self-reported stuttering severity, locus of control, and avoidance using the Subjective Screening of Stuttering (SSS) scale and were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. We observed a notable, statistically significant improvement in all areas of stuttering, as rated by the SSS scale. According to the CGI-Improvement Scale, 2 patients were scored as "very much improved" and 5 were scored as "much improved." This open-label study of lurasidone in patients with stuttering showed improvement in subjective symptoms, in CGI scores, and on the SSS scale.
Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun
Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…
Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.
We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.
Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.
This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…
Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.
Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…
Ardila, Alfredo; Ramos, Eliane; Barrocas, Robert
Stuttering patterns may differ when comparing two languages. In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may potentially be found. This study reports on the case of a 27-year-old Spanish/English simultaneous bilingual whose dominant language is English. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages…
Stager, Sheila V.; Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen
Purpose: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert…
Rautakoski, Pirkko; Hannus, Therese; Simberg, Susanna; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka
The present study explored the prevalence of self-reported stuttering in a Finnish twin population and examined the extent to which the variance in liability to stuttering was attributable to genetic and environmental effects. We analyzed data of 1728 Finnish twins, born between 1961 and 1989. The participants were asked to complete a…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…
Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne
Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…
Prestes, Raquel; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Santos, Renata Beatriz Fernandes; Marangoni, Andrea Tortosa; Schiefer, Ana Maria; Gil, Daniela
Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n=20) and non-stutters (n=21), compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Buhr, Anthony P.; Jones, Robin M.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.
Background: It is already known that preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) tend to stutter on function words at the beginning of sentences. It is also known that phonological errors potentially resulting in part-word repetitions tend to occur on content words. However, the precise relation between word class and repetition type in preschool-age…
Several studies of utterance planning and attention processes in stuttering have raised the prospect of working memory involvement in the disorder. In this paper, potential connections between stuttering and two elements of Baddeley's [Baddeley, A. D. (2003). "Working memory: Looking back and looking forward." "Neuroscience," 4, 829-839] working…
Arnold, Hayley S.; Conture, Edward G.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation are associated with developmental stuttering, as well as determine the feasibility of these methods in preschool-age children. Nine preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and nine preschool-age children…
Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.
Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…
C. de Sonneville (Caroline); E.A. Stolk (Elly); T. Rietveld (Toni); M.-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)
textabstractObjective Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter. Methods In this
Dumas, Nathaniel William
Using the Practice Theory Approach to Language, this dissertation examines how social actors use communicative practices within activities to constitute a communicative context that I call the American English Stuttering Speech Community (AESSC). Building on previous linguistic research on stuttering and sociological research on collectives of…
Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia
Background: Little is known about the experience of stuttering for people over 55 years of age. Recent research has established that the same types of stuttering behaviours, cognitions, and emotional consequences experienced during young adulthood persist into older age. Aims: The aims were to investigate perceptions of limitations to activity and…
Abou Ella, Mahmoud; Saleh, Marwa; Habil, Ihab; El Sawy, Mohammed; El Assal, Lamia
To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.
Morrish, Taryn; Nesbitt, Amy; le Roux, Mia; Zsilavecz, Ursula; van der Linde, Jeannie
Research involving stuttering in multilingual individuals is limited. Speech-language therapists face the challenge of treating a diverse client base, which includes multilingual individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the stuttering moments across English, Afrikaans, and German in a multilingual speaker. A single multilingual adult with…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. Objective: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. Methods: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n = 20 and non-stutters (n = 21, compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Results: Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Conclusion: Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components.
Rabaeys, Henk; Bijleveld, Henny-Annie; Devroey, Dirk
Recently, a case report described a decrease in frequency of stuttering after intake of methylphenidate (MPH). This study was undertaken to investigate if this effect could again be reproduced in a population of young healthy male adult persons with developmental stuttering. A double-blind randomized crossover trial, with a 2-week washout period, including 15 Dutch-speaking young healthy persons with developmental stuttering, assessed the effects of a single dose of 20 mg MPH compared with placebo on stuttering. Dependent and 1-sample t tests were used to detect significant differences. The end point was the number of stutter moments and self-perceived improvement. MPH yielded a significant decrease in the number of stutter moments when reading and speaking (P = 0.002), which was not the case with placebo (P = 0.090). There was a significant improvement from baseline after intake of MPH as compared with placebo (P = 0.003). Self-perceived improvement with MPH was not significantly better as compared with placebo (P = 0.28). This study showed that the participants had an objective statistically significant decrease in the frequency of stuttering with MPH, and this was not the case with placebo. This was also the case for a reduction in stutter moments when reading out loud and speaking spontaneously. However, this result was not subjectively perceived by the participants. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…
Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.
This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…
Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin
A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower…
Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G; Tumanova, Victoria; Clark, Chagit E; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering differ in articulation, language and attentional abilities and family histories of articulation, language and attention related disorders. Participants were 25 young CWS and 50 young CWNS. All 75 participants' caregivers consistently reported a positive or negative family history of stuttering across three consecutive time points that were about 8 months apart for a total of approximately 16 months. Each participant's family history focused on the same, relatively limited number of generations (i.e., participants' parents & siblings). Children's family history of stuttering as well as articulation, language, and attention related disorders was obtained from one or two caregivers during an extensive interview. Children's speech and language abilities were measured using four standardized articulation and language tests and their attentional abilities were measured using caregiver reports of temperament. Findings indicated that (1) most caregivers (81.5% or 75 out 92) were consistent in their reporting of positive or negative history of stuttering; (2) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering, compared to those with a negative family history of stuttering, were more likely to have reported a positive family history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (3) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering had lower language scores than those with a negative family history of stuttering. However, there were no such significant differences in family histories of ADHD and language scores for CWS with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering. In addition, although 24% of CWS versus 12% of CWNS's caregivers reported a positive family history of stuttering, inferential analyses indicated no significant differences between CWS and CWNS in relative proportions of family
Janeth Hernández Jaramillo
Full Text Available The present study corresponds to a single subject design, analyzes the patterns of stuttering in the speech corpus in various oral language tasks, under the conditions of use or non-use of Delayed Auditory Feedback (DAF, in order to establish the effect of the DAF in the frequency of occur¬rence and type of dysrhythmia. The study concludes the positive effect of the DAF, with a rate of return of 25 % on the errors of fluency, with variation depending on the type of oral production task. This in turn suggests that 75 % of the disfluency or linked with top encode failures or not susceptible to resolve or compensated by the DAF. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for therapeutic intervention in stuttering.
Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid
The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.
Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Results: Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. Conclusion: When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.
Davidow, Jason H; Zaroogian, Lisa; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A
This clinical focus article highlights the need for future research involving ways to assist children who stutter in the classroom. The 4 most commonly recommended strategies for teachers were found via searches of electronic databases and personal libraries of the authors. The peer-reviewed evidence for each recommendation was subsequently located and detailed. There are varying amounts of evidence for the 4 recommended teacher strategies outside of the classroom, but there are no data for 2 of the strategies, and minimal data for the others, in a classroom setting. That is, there is virtually no evidence regarding whether or not the actions put forth influence, for example, stuttering frequency, stuttering severity, participation, or the social, emotional, and cognitive components of stuttering in the classroom. There is a need for researchers and speech-language pathologists in the schools to study the outcomes of teacher strategies in the classroom for children who stutter.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS. Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1 was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2 was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1 or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking. Three differences were found between AWS and AFS. First, the mean amplitude of the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S1 (S1-P3 was smaller in AWS than in AFS, which implies that AWS may have deficits in investing working memory on phonological programming. Second, the topographic shift from the early phase to the late phase of contingent negative variation occurred earlier for AWS than for AFS, thus suggesting that the motor preparation process is promoted in AWS. Third, the NoGo effect in the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S2 (S2-P3 was larger for AFS than for AWS, indicating that AWS have difficulties in inhibiting a planned speech response. These results provide a full picture of the speech preparation and response inhibition processes of AWS. The relationship among these three findings is discussed. However, as stuttering was not manipulated in this study, it is still unclear whether the effects are the causes or the results of stuttering. Further studies are suggested to explore the relationship between stuttering and the effects found in the present study.
Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley
We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672
Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A
This study experimentally investigated behavioral correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation and their relation to speech (dis)fluency in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter during emotion-eliciting conditions. Participants (18 CWS, 14 boys; 18 CWNS, 14 boys) completed two experimental tasks (1) a neutral ("apples and leaves in a transparent box," ALTB) and (2) a frustrating ("attractive toy in a transparent box," ATTB) task, both of which were followed by a narrative task. Dependent measures were emotional reactivity (positive affect, negative affect), emotion regulation (self-speech, distraction) exhibited during the ALTB and the ATTB tasks, percentage of stuttered disfluencies (SDs) and percentage of non-stuttered disfluencies (NSDs) produced during the narratives. Results indicated that preschool-age CWS exhibited significantly more negative emotion and more self-speech than preschool-age CWNS. For CWS only, emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., distraction, self-speech) during the experimental tasks were predictive of stuttered disfluencies during the subsequent narrative tasks. Furthermore, for CWS there was no relation between emotional processes and non-stuttered disfluencies, but CWNS's negative affect was significantly related to nonstuttered disfluencies. In general, present findings support the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering. Specifically, findings are consistent with the notion that preschool-age CWS are more emotionally reactive than CWNS and that their self-speech regulatory attempts may be less than effective in modulating their emotions. The reader will be able to: (a) communicate the relevance of studying the role of emotion in developmental stuttering close to the onset of stuttering and (b) describe the main findings of the present study in relation to previous studies that have used different methodologies to investigate the role of emotion in developmental
Vanhoutte, Sarah; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick
The present study aimed to evaluate whether increased activity related to speech motor preparation preceding fluently produced words reflects a successful compensation strategy in stuttering. For this purpose, a contingent negative variation (CNV) was evoked during a picture naming task and measured by use of electro-encephalography. A CNV is a slow, negative event-related potential known to reflect motor preparation generated by the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BGTC) - loop. In a previous analysis, the CNV of 25 adults with developmental stuttering (AWS) was significantly increased, especially over the right hemisphere, compared to the CNV of 35 fluent speakers (FS) when both groups were speaking fluently (Vanhoutte et al., (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.013). To elucidate whether this increase is a compensation strategy enabling fluent speech in AWS, the present analysis evaluated the CNV of 7 AWS who stuttered during this picture naming task. The CNV preceding AWS stuttered words was statistically compared to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words and FS fluent words. Though no difference emerged between the CNV of the AWS stuttered words and the FS fluent words, a significant reduction was observed when comparing the CNV preceding AWS stuttered words to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words. The latter seems to confirm the compensation hypothesis: the increased CNV prior to AWS fluent words is a successful compensation strategy, especially when it occurs over the right hemisphere. The words are produced fluently because of an enlarged activity during speech motor preparation. The left CNV preceding AWS stuttered words correlated negatively with stuttering frequency and severity suggestive for a link between the left BGTC - network and the stuttering pathology. Overall, speech motor preparatory activity generated by the BGTC - loop seems to have a determining role in stuttering. An important divergence between left and right hemisphere is
Cheadle, Oliver; Sorger, Clarissa; Howell, Peter
Feedback delivered over auditory and vibratory afferent pathways has different effects on the fluency of people who stutter (PWS). These features were exploited to investigate the neural structures involved in stuttering. The speech signal vibrated locations on the body (vibrotactile feedback, VTF). Eleven PWS read passages under VTF and control (no-VTF) conditions. All combinations of vibration amplitude, synchronous or delayed VTF and vibrator position (hand, sternum or forehead) were presented. Control conditions were performed at the beginning, middle and end of test sessions. Stuttering rate, but not speaking rate, differed between the control and VTF conditions. Notably, speaking rate did not change between when VTF was delayed versus when it was synchronous in contrast with what happens with auditory feedback. This showed that cerebellar mechanisms, which are affected when auditory feedback is delayed, were not implicated in the fluency-enhancing effects of VTF, suggesting that there is a second fluency-enhancing mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Byrd, Courtney T; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi
This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and phonological associates (i.e., hybrid condition) of a single, unpresented critical "lure" word. Three parameters of recall performance were measured across these 3 conditions: (a) number of accurately recalled words, (b) order of recall (primacy vs. recency effect), and (c) number of critical lures produced (i.e., false memories). Significant group differences were noted in recall accuracy specific to list type and also list position as well as relative to critical lure productions. Results suggest that certain basic memory processes (i.e., recency effect) and the processing of gist semantic information are largely intact in adults who stutter, but recall of verbatim phonological information and subvocal rehearsal may be deficient.
Full Text Available The aims of this paper are twofold: Firstly, to describe the configuration of self-identity formations evident across and within research stories of adults living with stuttering; and secondly, to discuss the clinical implications of these findings. The study on which this paper is based used life history narratives to describe the types, processes and configurations of self-identity formations of adults who stuttered since childhood. Through open-ended, in-depth interviews 7 participants shared their experiences of living with stuttering. The interviews were analysed at a first level using narrative analysis and at a second level to further describe the types, processes and configurations of self-identity formations evident in the stories. The findings on configurations of self-identity formations were that the two types of self-identity formations Able and DisOther were present in singular and dual configurations. The dual self-identity formations occurred in co-existing, competing and coalescing relationships within particular time periods in their stories. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Banzina, Elina; Dilley, Laura C.; Hewitt, Lynne E.
The importance of secondary-stressed (SS) and unstressed-unreduced (UU) syllable accuracy for spoken word recognition in English is as yet unclear. An acoustic study first investigated Russian learners' of English production of SS and UU syllables. Significant vowel quality and duration reductions in Russian-spoken SS and UU vowels were found,…
Overby, Megan; Caspari, Susan S
This pilot study explored the volubility, consonant singleton acquisition, and syllable structure development between infants and toddlers (birth-24 months) with typical speech sound production (TYP) and those later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). A retrospective longitudinal between- and within-subjects research design was utilized (TYP N=2; CAS N=4). Vocalizations from participants were analyzed between birth-24 months from home videotapes, volunteered by the children's parents, according to type (nonresonant vs. resonant), volubility, place and manner of consonant singletons, and syllable shape (V, CV, VC, CVC, VCV, CVCV, VCVC, and "Other"). Volubility between groups was not significant but statistically significant differences were found in the number of: resonant and non-resonant productions; different consonant singletons; different place features; different manner classes; and proportional use of fricative, glottal, and voiceless phones. Infants and toddlers in the CAS group also demonstrated difficulty with CVCs, had limited syllable shapes, and possible regression of vowel syllable structure. Data corroborate parent reports that infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS present differently than do those with typical speech sound skills. Additional study with infants and toddlers later diagnosed with non-CAS speech sound disorder is needed. Readers will: (1) describe current perspectives on volubility of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS; (2) describe current perspectives of the consonant singleton and syllable shape inventories of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS; and (3) discuss the potential differences between the speech sound development of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS and those with typical speech sound skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke
Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception.
Ding, Nai; Pan, Xunyi; Luo, Cheng; Su, Naifei; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jianfeng
How the brain groups sequential sensory events into chunks is a fundamental question in cognitive neuroscience. This study investigates whether top-down attention or specific tasks are required for the brain to apply lexical knowledge to group syllables into words. Neural responses tracking the syllabic and word rhythms of a rhythmic speech sequence were concurrently monitored using electroencephalography (EEG). The participants performed different tasks, attending to either the rhythmic speech sequence or a distractor, which was another speech stream or a nonlinguistic auditory/visual stimulus. Attention to speech, but not a lexical-meaning-related task, was required for reliable neural tracking of words, even when the distractor was a nonlinguistic stimulus presented cross-modally. Neural tracking of syllables, however, was reliably observed in all tested conditions. These results strongly suggest that neural encoding of individual auditory events (i.e., syllables) is automatic, while knowledge-based construction of temporal chunks (i.e., words) crucially relies on top-down attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Why we cannot understand speech when not paying attention is an old question in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Speech processing is a complex process that involves multiple stages, e.g., hearing and analyzing the speech sound, recognizing words, and combining words into phrases and sentences. The current study investigates which speech-processing stage is blocked when we do not listen carefully. We show that the brain can reliably encode syllables, basic units of speech sounds, even when we do not pay attention. Nevertheless, when distracted, the brain cannot group syllables into multisyllabic words, which are basic units for speech meaning. Therefore, the process of converting speech sound into meaning crucially relies on attention. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/381178-11$15.00/0.
Guttormsen, Linn Stokke; Kefalianos, Elaina; Næss, Kari-Anne B
This article presents a meta-analytic review of differences in communication attitudes between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). To be included in this review, the studies had to include a group of CWS and CWNS between the ages of 3-18 years and a measurement of communication attitudes. The journal articles were identified by using the key words stutter*, speech disfluenc*, fluency disorder*, and stammer* cross-referenced to awareness*, reaction*, attitude*, KiddyCAT, CAT, A-19 Scale, PASS and OASES. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The results showed that CWS exhibit more negative communication attitudes than CWNS from the preschool years. The differences between the groups increased with age, but were not influenced by gender. The results indicate that negative communication attitudes can be an effect of stuttering. Key issues requiring further investigation are whether communication attitudes differ as a function of age at stuttering onset and whether communication attitudes influence the development of stuttering. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) summarise empirical findings with regard to the relationship between communication attitudes and childhood stuttering; (b) describe the different instruments used to measure communication attitudes; (c) discuss the relationship between communication attitudes, age and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medina, Angela M
The aim of this study was to identify the linguistic resources a Hispanic mother used to convey her beliefs about the aetiology of her adult son's stuttering. A qualitative research paradigm was adopted for data collection and analysis. An Ecuadorian mother and her adult son who stutters recorded a conversation in Spanish about the son's stuttering. Tools derived from systemic functional linguistic (SFL) theory were used to analyse conversation transcripts and to describe the word choices and sentence structures the mother used to talk about her son's stuttering. The mother deflected community-assigned blame for causing her son's stuttering by configuring her 'strong' temperament as a separate, uncontrollable entity. She structured the pervasiveness of stigma, lack of resources and misinformation within the community as causes for her inability to identify and seek help for her son's stuttering, which also served as a means for deflecting blame. SFL-based analyses were appropriate tools for the investigation of how a Hispanic mother construes her views, attitudes and experiences relative to her son's stuttering. Clinical implications of findings regarding parent education and the utility of SFL-based tools in the speech-language therapy setting are discussed.
Hum, Jean; Rietveld, Toni; Wiedijk, Piet; van Lieshout, Pascal
There are theoretical and empirical reasons to consider a potential role for copper metabolism in the brain in how it could influence stuttering. However, a link between stuttering and dietary intake has never been researched in a systematic way. This pilot study therefore aimed to explore a possible association between ingested amounts of copper and thiamine (vitamin B1) with stuttering frequency using a double blind cross-over longitudinal paradigm. 19 adults who stutter between 20 and 51 years old filled out an online survey for 9 consecutive weeks. The survey consisted of self-assessed fluency and mood state scales, as well as food journals. After 4 weeks, the participants consumed either copper or thiamine supplements for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout period, and another period of two weeks taking the other supplement. Formal speech assessments were done pre/post baseline and at the end of each supplement intake. Participants were not informed about the nature of the supplements during the experiment and the investigators were blinded to the order of the supplements. The results demonstrated that copper and thiamine had no measurable effect on the amount of stuttering (self and formal assessments) but there was a moderate, significant correlation between mood state and fluency. The findings do not support notions of dietary influences of ingested copper or thiamine on stuttering but do provide modest support for a relationship between variations in stuttering and self-perceived anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brosch, S; Haege, A; Kalehne, P; Johannsen, H S
The identification of critical characteristics which might predict whether childhood stuttering will become chronic. Part of the study investigates the relationship between hearing and central processing of acoustic stimuli, cerebral dominance and the clinical course of the stuttering. A prospective study of 79 stuttering children aged 3-9 years. The subjects were examined with regard to their cerebral dominance in various tests of laterality, their peripheral hearing and their ability to discriminate sound using the dichotic discrimination test according to Uttenweiler (V. Uttenweiler, Dichotischer Diskriminationstest für Kinder, Sprache Stimme Gehör 4 (1980) 107-111). Results were correlated with the probability of remission of stuttering. Comparisons were made with a control group of 18 children of kindergarten age with normal speech. The period of investigation was 18 months. Seventy-two children underwent follow-up examinations. Of these, 36 achieved fluency of speech. The results of the dichotic discrimination test showed no relation to the rate of remission. When the relationship between handedness and stuttering was investigated, it was found that left-handed children had a significantly poorer chance of attaining speech fluency. The Uttenweiler test allowed no prognostic evaluation of the future course of stuttering in the age group studied, though auditory dominance was not completely developed in a majority of the 3-6 year-old children. Handedness, however, appears to be related to the probability that stuttering will become chronic.
Full Text Available Michelle A Donaghy,1 Kylie A Smith,2,3 1Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, 2Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Childrens Hospital, 3Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: Stuttering is a speech disorder, with onset often occurring in the preschool years. The prevalence of stuttering in young children is much higher than that in the general population, suggesting a high rate of recovery. However, we are unable to predict which children will recover without treatment, and it is widely acknowledged that stuttering therapy during childhood provides the best safeguard against chronic stuttering. This review reports on current evidence-based stuttering treatment options for preschoolers through to adolescents. We discuss the clinical challenges associated with treating pediatric clients who stutter at different stages of development and explore potential areas of treatment research that might serve to advance current clinical practice in the future. Keywords: stuttering, stammering, pediatric, therapy, evidence based
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task.Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT.Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter, SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls.Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter.
Hertsberg, Naomi; Zebrowski, Patricia M
The goals of this study were to determine whether young children who stutter (CWS) perceive their own competence and social acceptance differently than young children who do not stutter (CWNS), and to identify the predictors of perceived competence and social acceptance in young speakers. We administered the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) to 13 CWS and 14 CWNS and examined group differences. We also collected information on the children's genders, temperaments, stuttering frequencies, language abilities, and phonological skills to identify which of these factors predicted PSPCSA scores. CWS, as a group, did not differ from CWNS in their perceived general competence or social acceptance. Gender predicted scores of perceived general competence, and stuttering frequency predicted perceived social acceptance. Temperament, language abilities, and phonological skills were not significant predictors of perceived competence or social acceptance in our sample. While CWS did not significantly differ from CWNS in terms of perceived competence and social acceptance, when both talker groups were considered together, girls self-reported greater perceived competence than boys. Further, lower stuttering frequency was associated with greater perceived social acceptance. These preliminary findings provide motivation for further empirical study of the psychosocial components of childhood stuttering. Readers will be able to describe the constructs of perceived competence and social acceptance in young children, and whether early stuttering plays a role in the development of these constructs. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abrahams, Kristen; Harty, Michal; St Louis, Kenneth O; Thabane, Lehana; Kathard, Harsha
As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers'attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers' attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009-2014. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.
Cosyns, Marjan; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Van Borsel, John
Speech-language pathologists nowadays are more and more confronted with clients who speak a language different from their own mother tongue. The assessment of persons who speak a foreign language poses particular challenges. The present study investigated the possible role and interplay of factors involved in the identification of stuttering severity in a foreign language. Nineteen speech-language pathologists from five different countries (i.e. Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Belgium) rated stuttering severity of speech samples featuring persons who stutter speaking Icelandic, Swedish, Norwegian, or Dutch. Additionally, they were asked to score how easy they found it to rate the samples. Accuracy of rating stuttering severity in another language appeared to be foremost determined by the client's stuttering severity, while experienced ease of rating stuttering severity was essentially related to closeness of the language of the clinician to that of the client and familiarity of the clinician with the client's language. Stuttering measurement training programmes in different languages are needed.
Roth, Carole R; Cornis-Pop, Micaela; Beach, Woodford A
Reports of increased incidence of adult onset stuttering in veterans and service members with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan lead to a reexamination of the neurogenic vs. psychogenic etiology of stuttering. This article proposes to examine the merit of the dichotomy between neurogenic and psychogenic bases of stuttering, including symptom exaggeration, for the evaluation and treatment of the disorder. Two case studies of adult onset stuttering in service members with mTBI from improvised explosive device blasts are presented in detail. Speech fluency was disrupted by abnormal pauses and speech hesitations, brief blocks, rapid repetitions, and occasional prolongations. There was also wide variability in the frequency of stuttering across topics and conversational situations. Treatment focused on reducing the frequency and severity of dysfluencies and included educational, psychological, environmental, and behavioral interventions. Stuttering characteristics as well as the absence of objective neurological findings ruled out neurogenic basis of stuttering in these two cases and pointed to psychogenic causes. However, the differential diagnosis had only limited value for developing the plan of care. The successful outcomes of the treatment serve to illustrate the complex interaction of neurological, psychological, emotional, and environmental factors of post-concussive symptoms and to underscore the notion that there are many facets to symptom presentation in post-combat health.
Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie
With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.
Valente, Ana Rita S; St Louis, Kenneth O; Leahy, Margaret; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T
Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes. The POSHA-S was translated to European Portuguese through a five-step process. Thereafter, a local administrative office-based, three-stage, cluster, probability sampling scheme was carried out to obtain 311 adult respondents who filled out the questionnaire. The Portuguese population held stuttering attitudes that were generally within the average range of those observed from numerous previous POSHA-S samples. Demographic variables that predicted more versus less positive stuttering attitudes were respondents' age, region of the country, years of school completed, working situation, and number of languages spoken. Non-predicting variables were respondents' sex, marital status, and parental status. A local administrative office-based, probability sampling scheme generated a respondent profile similar to census data and indicated that Portuguese attitudes are generally typical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maruthy, Santosh; Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
A longstanding hypothesis about the sensorimotor mechanisms underlying stuttering suggests that stuttered speech dysfluencies result from a lack of coarticulation. Formant-based measures of either the stuttered or fluent speech of children and adults who stutter have generally failed to obtain compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that these individuals differ in the timing or degree of coarticulation. Here, we used a sensitive acoustic technique-spectral coefficient analyses-that allowed us to compare stuttering and nonstuttering speakers with regard to vowel-dependent anticipatory influences as early as the onset burst of a preceding voiceless stop consonant. Eight adults who stutter and eight matched adults who do not stutter produced C 1 VC 2 words, and the first four spectral coefficients were calculated for one analysis window centered on the burst of C 1 and two subsequent windows covering the beginning of the aspiration phase. Findings confirmed that the combined use of four spectral coefficients is an effective method for detecting the anticipatory influence of a vowel on the initial burst of a preceding voiceless stop consonant. However, the observed patterns of anticipatory coarticulation showed no statistically significant differences, or trends toward such differences, between the stuttering and nonstuttering groups. Combining the present results for fluent speech in one given phonetic context with prior findings from both stuttered and fluent speech in a variety of other contexts, we conclude that there is currently no support for the hypothesis that the fluent speech of individuals who stutter is characterized by limited coarticulation.
Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq
An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. (The ASHA Leader, 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The survey questions pertained to and investigated attitudes, knowledge and beliefs towards stuttering as well as comparative attitudes toward several other conditions. The aim was to identify whether potential barriers existed that might hinder the establishment and conduct of treatment programs for stuttering within Kuwait. These potential barriers might be negative stereotypes, misconceptions about stuttering, cultural beliefs as well as lack of awareness of the disorder within Kuwaiti society. The instrument successfully sampled a variety of beliefs, reactions and emotions that identified cultural beliefs, societal ignorance and confusion about the disorder. It was found that although stuttering appears to be a disorder that most people in Kuwait are aware of and familiar with, their level of knowledge about stuttering in general and about some specific aspects of the disorder was limited. This indicates a need to disseminate scientific information about stuttering in Kuwait and possibly other Arabic speaking countries. Readers will be able: (1) to evaluate the status of speech-language pathology in Kuwait and the Middle East and compare it to that in other countries, such as Australia and the United States; (2) to list similarities in the stereotypes and attitudes towards stuttering cross-culturally. Readers will also be able to: (3) discuss the differences in knowledge and attitudes according to age, gender and educational level in Kuwait; (4) discuss public awareness and knowledge of stuttering among Arabs in Kuwait specifically.
Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We used the analysis-resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/ and (ii a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/. In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Stuttering is a prevalent disorder in children and adolescents. Because attention is the only fuel resource for cognitive functions and the language have high cognitive functions, then it is possible that speech difficulties are related to attention deficit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attentional demand of speech in children and adolescents with developmental stuttering. Materials & Methods: It is a dependent measurement study though which 30 school students (8-13 yr. were selected by convenience sampling and speech therapist´s detection from Shahriyar. The instruments were used in this research consist of: a text for reading, a device for recording of speech, and stuttering severity instrument-3 (SSI-3. The research was implemented in two conditions: single task (only reading and dual task (reading along finger tapping task. The data were analyzed using T- test. Results: Findings show that stuttering severity increased in dual task condition (divided attention. Conclusion: This result suggests that a decreased attentional capacity in children with developmental stuttering cause an increase in the number of stuttering words. With a better understanding of attentional functions of stuttering people as an important cognitive variables, we can take a step toward recognizing cognitive vulnerability of disorder. Therefore, intervention programs for children with developmental stuttering should pay attention to cognitive deficits and prior to speech interventions, the cognitive deficits should be eliminated with neuropsychological implements. With the improvement of neurological base of speech which is the first point of that in the brain, the considerable improvement may be seen in the stuttering severity.
Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency with an unknown pathogenesis. The similarity of its phenotype and natural history with other childhood neuropsychiatric disorders of frontostriatal pathology suggests that stuttering may have a closely related pathogenesis. We investigated in this study the potential involvement of frontostriatal circuits in developmental stuttering. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 persons with stuttering and 52 fluent controls during performance of the Simon Spatial Incompatibility Task. We examined differences between the two groups of blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation associated with two neural processes, the resolution of cognitive conflict and the context-dependent adaptation to changes in conflict. Stuttering speakers and controls did not differ on behavioral performance on the task. In the presence of conflict-laden stimuli, however, stuttering speakers activated more strongly the cingulate cortex, left anterior prefrontal cortex, right medial frontal cortex, left supplementary motor area, right caudate nucleus, and left parietal cortex. The magnitude of activation in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated inversely in stuttering speakers with symptom severity. Stuttering speakers also showed blunted activation during context-dependent adaptation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region that mediates cross-temporal contingencies. Frontostriatal hyper-responsivity to conflict resembles prior findings in other disorders of frontostriatal pathology, and therefore likely represents a general mechanism supporting functional compensation for an underlying inefficiency of neural processing in these circuits. The reduced activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex likely represents the inadequate readiness of stuttering speakers to execute a sequence of motor responses.
Full Text Available Background: Acquired neurogenic stuttering has been considered a fairly uncommon clinical occurrence; speech-activated myoclonus is a rare entity that can mimic stuttering and is caused by a wide array of etiologies.Case Report: Here we report a patient with myoclonus–dystonia syndrome (MDS, due to an identified disease-causing mutation, who displayed speech-activated myoclonus mimicking stuttering.Discussion: In MDS, myoclonus has only infrequently been reported to affect speech. This case further expands the spectrum of conditions causing the rare clinical phenomenon of speech-activated myoclonus.
Trichon, Mitchell; Tetnowski, John
Self-help activities for people who stutter (PWS) have been gaining in popularity; however, there is a scarcity of evidence to support their utility in stuttering management. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the lived experience of individuals who attended a self-help conference(s) for PWS from the perspective of a PWS to learn its potential utility in stuttering management. The investigator used Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to systematically collect authentic data of this social phenomenon. Twelve participants were recruited from a self-help conference and the self-help community of PWS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 4-18 months after each participant's last conference. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Themes were explained in investigator narratives and illustrated through participants' quotes. Interpreted themes of the experience of having attended a self-help conference(s) for PWS included: socializing opportunities with other PWS, affiliation, redefining oneself and post-conference disclosures. A conclusion of the study was that the experience of having attended a self-help conference(s) for PWS helped to minimize negative impact that stuttering can have on daily functioning. It appears that self-help conferences were perceived as a safer or "stutter-friendly" environment and promoted social interaction, relationship building, and community building through planned and unplanned activities. Another conclusion was that the experience of having attended self-help conferences for PWS helped participants to communicate more easily. Reported increases in social activity and an "openness" about stuttering, suggest self-help conferences' utility in stuttering management. These findings are supported by other studies about successful stuttering management and self-help activities for PWS. They have helped attendees who stutter to communicate more easily and suggest a reduction in the negative impact that
Maturo, Anthony J.
Don't ever take your support staff for granted. By support staff, I mean the people in personnel, logistics, and finance; the ones who can make things happen with a phone call or a signature, or by the same token frustrate you to no end by their inaction; these are people you must depend on. I've spent a lot of time thinking about how to cultivate relationships with my support staff that work to the advantage of both of us. The most important thing that have learned working with people, any people--and I will tell you how I learned this in a minute--is there are some folks you just can't motivate, so forget it, don't try; others you certainly can with a little psychology and some effort; and the best of the bunch, what I call the 80 percenters, you don't need to motivate because they're already on the team and performing beautifully. The ones you can't change are rocks. Face up to it, and just kick them out of your way. I have a reputation with the people who don't want to perform or be part of the team. They don't come near me. If someone's a rock, I pick up on it right away, and I will walk around him or her to find someone better. The ones who can be motivated I take time to nurture. I consider them my projects. A lot of times these wannabes are people who want to help but don't know how. Listen, you can work with them. Lots of people in organizations have the mindset that all that matters are the regulations. God forbid if you ever work outside those regulations. They've got one foot on that regulation and they're holding it tight like a baby holds a blanket. What you're looking for is that first sign that their minds are opening. Usually you hear it in their vocabulary. What used to sound like "We can't do that ... the regulations won't allow it ... we have never done this before," well, suddenly that changes to "We have options ... let's take a look at the options ... let me research this and get back to you." The 80 percenters you want to nurture too, but
Tahmasebi, Neda; Shafie, Bijan; Karimi, Hamid; Mazaheri, Masood
The fourth version of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-4) has been available since 2009. It has some modifications and new features which make it more appropriate at least for clinical practice, although further documentation is needed. The objective of the current research was to translate SSI-4 into Persian language and to discuss its relative and absolute reliability as well as its criterion validity for Persian adults who stutter (PWS). We also aimed to study how the new subjective self-reports of the SSI-4 complement the stuttering severity score obtained from the SSI-3 or the SSI-4. The cross-cultural guideline recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment project was used to translate the SSI-4 into Persian language. Thirty five PWS from ages 17 to 42 were recruited and 10 speech and language pathologists assessed their stuttering severity using either the SSI-4 or stuttering severity ratings (SR) to test validity and reliability of the Persian translated version. A very high inter-judge relative reliability along with a poor absolute inter-judge reliability was found for the SSI-4 scores. The results were more promising for the intra-judge absolute reliability. Test-retest reliability of the complementary questions to the SSI-4 was also found acceptable. However, no strong relationship was found between the SSI-4 scores and its complementary questions. The Persian version of the SSI-4 can be used reliably by trained SLPs for research and clinical purposes, but not to document small changes in stuttering severity. We argue that the response of participants to the complementary self-report questions should also be considered in calculating their stuttering severity score. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Botha, Anél; Ras, Elizbé; Abdoola, Shabnam; Van der Linde, Jeannie
Persons with stuttering (PWS) often present with other co-occurring conditions. The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) proposes that it is important to understand the full burden of a health condition. A few studies have explored voice problems among PWS, and the characteristics of voices of PWS are relatively unknown. The importance of conducting future research has been emphasised. This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI) and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Only two participants (10%) obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18) scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia) of voice (35%), while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08) have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41). The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.
Mendonça, Marcelo D; Barbosa, Raquel; Seromenho-Santos, Alexandra; Reizinho, Carla; Bugalho, Paulo
Stuttering, a speech fluency disorder, is a rare complication of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We report a 61 years-old patient with PD, afflicted by severe On and Off dystonia, treated with Subthalamic Nucleus DBS that developed post-DBS stuttering while on 130 Hz stimulation. Stuttering reduction was noted when frequency was changed to 80 Hz, but the previously observed dystonia improvement was lost. There are no reports in literature on patients developing stuttering with low-frequency stimulation. We question if low-frequency stimulation could have a role for managing PD's post-DBS stuttering, and notice that stuttering improvement was associated with dystonia worsening suggesting that they are distinct phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrew C Etchell
Full Text Available The fluent production of speech requires accurately timed movements. In this article, we propose that a deficit in brain timing networks is the core neurophysiological deficit in stuttering. We first discuss the experimental evidence supporting the involvement of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area in stuttering and the involvement of the cerebellum as a mechanism for compensating for the neural deficits that underlie stuttering. Next, we outline the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus as another putative compensatory locus in stuttering and suggest a role for this structure in an expanded core timing-network. Subsequently, we review behavioral studies of timing in people who stutter and examine their behavioral performance as compared to people who do not stutter. Finally, we highlight challenges to existing research and provide avenues for future research with specific hypotheses.
Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim
'Choral speech', 'unison speech', or 'imitation speech' has long been known to immediately induce reflexive, spontaneous, and natural sounding fluency, even the most severe cases of stuttering. Unlike typical post-therapeutic speech, a hallmark characteristic of choral speech is the sense of 'invulnerability' to stuttering, regardless of phonetic context, situational environment, or audience size. We suggest that choral speech immediately inhibits stuttering by engaging mirror systems of neurons, innate primitive neuronal substrates that dominate the initial phases of language development due to their predisposition to reflexively imitate gestural action sequences in a fluent manner. Since mirror systems are primordial in nature, they take precedence over the much later developing stuttering pathology. We suggest that stuttering may best be ameliorated by reengaging mirror neurons via choral speech or one of its derivatives (using digital signal processing technology) to provide gestural mirrors, that are nature's way of immediately overriding the central stuttering block. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Donaghy, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; O'Brian, Sue; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark
The Lidcombe Program is a behavioural treatment for stuttering in children younger than 6 years that is supported by evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The treatment incorporates parent verbal contingencies for stutter-free speech and for stuttering. However, the contribution of those contingencies to reductions in stuttering in the program is unclear. Thirty-four parent-child dyads were randomized to two treatment groups. The control group received standard Lidcombe Program and the experimental group received Lidcombe Program without instruction to parents to use the verbal contingency request for self-correction. Treatment responsiveness was measured as time to 50% stuttering severity reduction. No differences were found between groups on primary outcome measures of the number of weeks and clinic visits to 50% reduction in stuttering severity. This clinical experiment challenges the assumption that the verbal contingency request for self-correction contributes to treatment efficacy. Results suggest the need for further research to explore this issue.
Binder, Laurence M; Spector, Jack; Youngjohn, James R
Three cases are presented of peculiar speech and language abnormalities that were evaluated in the context of personal injury lawsuit or workers compensation claims of brain dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injuries. Neuropsychological measures of effort and motivation showed evidence of suboptimal motivation or outright malingering. The speech and language abnormalities of these cases probably were not consistent with neurogenic features of dysfluent speech including stuttering or aphasia. We propose that severe dysfluency or language abnormalities persisting after a single, uncomplicated, mild traumatic brain injury are unusual and should elicit suspicion of a psychogenic origin.
Thippaiah, Srinagesh Mannekote; Nagaraja, Soumya; Birur, Badari; Pandurangi, Ananda
Stuttering Priapism is a recurrent, persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual desire due to altered genital hemodynamics, affecting the arterial component (high flow, non-ischemic) or the veno-occlusive mechanism (low flow, ischemic). Both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase the risk for priapism with greater implications in typicals than atypicals. Prompt recognition and treatment are important as 40% to 50% of patients with stuttering priapism may develop an erectile dysfunction if left untreated. There are several case reports in the literature about the association between psychotropic agents and priapism. However, there are no reports of successfully treating stuttering priapism using pseudoephedrine (sudafed) in the adult population. Here we present successful management of psychotropics induced stuttering priapism with pseudoephedrine in a male patient with schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Introduction: Stuttering is not a problem of individuals, but it’s a problem in the verbal communication with others. Individual and group treatment is equally important to use while working with people who stutter.Purpose: Group treatment is used to allow the patient adequate adjustment in all problematic situations (situations increasing stuttering in the environment and to gradually inhibit negative emotions.Material and methods: Objective speech tool is used in this testing (evaluation of speech status under Fiedler, PA Standop, R.Stotern-Schwarzenberg, Munchen, 1978 to determine the degree and type of speech disorder. The anxiety feeling is also evaluated, where the subjective assessment of patients' anxiety is expressed in units SUD (subjective units of disturbance or distress - subjective assessment of suffering.Results and Conclusion: The results showed that group stationary treatment has a huge significance in reducing the anxiety of patients who stutter.
Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel
Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self-reporting. Using nation-wide questionnaire answers from 33,317 Danish twins, a univariate biometric analysis based on the liability threshold model was performed in order to estimate the heritability of stuttering. The self......-reported incidences for stuttering were from less than 4% for females to near 9% for males. Both probandwise concordance rate and tetrachoric correlation were substantially higher for monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, indicating substantial genetic influence on individual liability. Univariate biometric...... analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.84/0.81. Moderate unique environmental effects were also found. Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self...
Watermeyer, Brian; Kathard, Harsha
The centrality of communicating in human life means that communication difficulties are experienced at a deeply personal level and have significant implications for identity. Intervention methods may interact positively or negatively with these experiences. This paper explores this intersection in the case of stuttering, suggesting that some intervention styles may dovetail unhelpfully with the "mainstream" prizing of normalcy. In particular, most "western" societies offer a performance-oriented milieu which prizes efficiency, immediacy and competitiveness, diverting energy from the equally important work of understanding and integrating difference. Given that a person who stutters speaks fluently and with a stutter, stuttering can lean toward a complex view of disability identity-being both able and disabled. This split repertoire invites psychologically costly efforts at being "un-disabled". Interventions which amplify this tendency can contribute to an alienation from self amid strivings for normalcy.
Full Text Available Engin Burak Selçuk,1 Lale Gönenir Erbay,2 Özlem Özel Özcan,3 Sükrü Kartalci,2 Kadir Batcioğlu4 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Inonu University Medical Faculty, 4Inonu University Pharmacy Faculty, Malatya, Turkey Background: Stuttering is defined as a disruption in the rhythm of speech and language articulation, where the subject knows what he/she wants to say, but is unable to utter the intended word or phrase fluently. The effect of sex on development and chronicity of stuttering is well known; it is more common and chronic in males. We aimed to investigate the relationship between developmental stuttering and serum testosterone levels in this study.Materials and methods: In this study, we evaluated a total of 50 children (7–12 years of age; eight (16% were female and 42 (84% were male. Twenty-five children who stutter and 25 typically fluent peers with the same demographic properties (ages between 7 years and 12 years were included in this study. The testosterone levels of the two groups were determined in terms of nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The difference between the means of the two groups was analyzed.Results: The medians of the testosterone levels of the stutterer and control groups were determined as 20 ng/mL (range =12–184 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL (range =2–30 ng/mL, respectively. Testosterone levels of the stutterer group were significantly higher than in the control group (I=0.001. Besides, there was a significant correlation between the severity of the stuttering and testosterone levels in the stutterer group (I=0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that testosterone may have an effect on the severity of developmental stuttering and on the clinical differences between sexes. However, further investigations are needed to show that testosterone may play a role in the etiology of developmental
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Attention has causal role in speech and language processing. Studies are limited about relation between attention and language development. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the difference shifting attention function in children with developmental stuttering and fluent speech.Methods: Thirty children who stutter (21 boys and 9 girls and thirty children who did not stutter (21 boys and 9 girls were evaluated. Shifting attention function was investigated using Wisconsin card sorting test. The data were analyzed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent t, and Mann-Whitney U-tests.Results: Between group analysis showed significant differences for all of the indexes in Wisconsin card sorting test . The number of categories completed in children who stutter was significantly less than that control group (p<0.05. But preservative errors, total errors, total tries, time of test performance and try for first pattern in children who stutter was more than in the control group and data differences were significant for all of the indexes (p<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that children with and without stuttering are different in shifting attention function and children who stutter have weaker function in shifting attention. The findings were linked to emerging theoretical frameworks of stuttering development and that were taken to suggest a possible role for attention processes in developmental stuttering.
Metzger, F Luise; Auer, Tibor; Helms, Gunther; Paulus, Walter; Frahm, Jens; Sommer, Martin; Neef, Nicole E
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra. Strikingly, in adults who stutter, substantia nigra activity correlated positively with stuttering severity. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses yielded altered task-related network formations in adults who stutter compared to fluent speakers. Specifically, in adults who stutter, the globus pallidus and the thalamus showed increased network synchronization with the inferior frontal gyrus. This implies dynamic shifts in the response preparation-related network organization through the basal ganglia in the context of a non-speech motor task in stuttering. Here we discuss current findings in the traditional framework of how D1 and D2 receptor activity shapes focused movement selection, thereby suggesting a disproportional involvement of the direct and the indirect pathway in stuttering.
Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, researchers have increasingly turned to study the relation between stuttering and syntactic complexity. This study investigates the effect of syntactic complexity on theamount of speech dysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children and adults in conversational speech. The obtained results can pave the way to a better understanding of stuttering in children andadults, and finding more appropriate treatments.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 15 stuttering adult Persian-speakers, older than 15 years, and 15 stuttering child Persian-speakers of 4-6 years of age. In this study, first a 30 minute sample of the spontaneous speech of the participants was provided. Then the utterances of each person were studied in respect to the amount of dysfluency and syntactic complexity. The obtained information was analyzed using paired samples t-test.Results: In both groups of stuttering children and adults, there was a significant difference between the amount of dysfluency of simple and complex sentences (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that an increase in syntactic complexity in conversational speech, increased the amount of dysfluency in stuttering children and adults. Moreover,as a result of increase of syntactic complexity, dysfluency had a greater increase in stuttering children than stuttering adults.
Koutsodimitropoulos, Ellen; Buultjens, Melissa; St Louis, Kenneth O; Monfries, Melissa
Stuttering is a disorder of fluency that extends beyond its physical nature and has social, emotional and vocational impacts. Research shows that individuals often exhibit negative attitudes towards people who stutter; however, there is limited research on the attitudes and beliefs of speech pathology students towards people who stutter in Australia. Existing research is predominantly quantitative; whereas this mixed-method study placed an emphasis on the qualitative component. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of final year Australian speech pathology students towards people who stutter. This mixed-method study applied the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes - Stuttering (POSHA-S) and semi-structured interviews to gather data from final year speech pathology students from a major university in Australia. The overall qualitative findings identified that final year Australian speech pathology students exhibit positive attitudes towards people who stutter. The results also illustrated the role of education in influencing attitudes of students as well as increasing their confidence to work with people who stutter. This research revealed that Australian final year speech pathology students exhibit positive attitudes towards people who stutter. They displayed an understanding that people who stutter may have acquired traits such as shyness as a response to their personal situation and environment, rather than those traits being endemic to them. Results also suggested that education can play a role in creating confident student clinicians in their transition to practice, and positively influence their attitudes and beliefs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yoshida, M; Sagara, T; Nagano, M; Korenaga, K; Makishima, K
The discrimination of mono-syllable words (67S word-list) pronounced by a male and a female speaker was investigated in noise in 39 normal hearing subjects. The subjects listened to the test words at a constant level of 62 dB together with white or weighted noise in four S/N conditions. By processing the data with logit transformation, S/N-discrimination curves were presumed for each combination of a speech material and a noise. Regardless of the type of noise, the discrimination scores for the female voice started to decrease gradually at a S/N ratio of +10 dB, and reached 10 to 20% at-10 dB. For the male voice in white noise, the discrimination curve was similar to those for the female voice. On the contrary, the discrimination score for the male voice in weighted noise declined rapidly from a S/N ratio of +5 dB, and went below 10% at -5 dB. The discrimination curves seem to be shaped by the interrelations between the spectrum of the speech material and that of the noise.
In 31 Japanese children with spastic diplegia and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the age at which they could read Hiragana (phonetic symbols for syllables) and psychometric data were examined. Reading of Hiragana was achieved between 2 and 8 years of age in all subjects except one. Four children could read Hiragana at 2 to 3 years of age, an age which is considered early among Japanese children. Performance IQs of the Wechsler Scale were lower than Verbal IQs in 18 of 19 children who were administered this test, and DQs of the cognitive adaptive (C-A) area of the K-form developmental test (a popular test in Japan) were lower than those of the language social area in all 12 children taking this test. Among eight children having performance IQs or DQs of C-A less than 50, seven acquired reading ability of Hiragana at 8 years of age or below. A visuoperceptual disorder manifested by diplegic children with PVL does not affect the acquisition of Kana-reading ability.
Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in
Erdemir, Aysu; Walden, Tedra A; Jefferson, Caswell M; Choi, Dahye; Jones, Robin M
This study investigated the possible association of emotional processes and articulation rate in pre-school age children who stutter and persist (persisting), children who stutter and recover (recovered) and children who do not stutter (nonstuttering). The participants were ten persisting, ten recovered, and ten nonstuttering children between the ages of 3-5 years; who were classified as persisting, recovered, or nonstuttering approximately 2-2.5 years after the experimental testing took place. The children were exposed to three emotionally-arousing video clips (baseline, positive and negative) and produced a narrative based on a text-free storybook following each video clip. From the audio-recordings of these narratives, individual utterances were transcribed and articulation rates were calculated. Results indicated that persisting children exhibited significantly slower articulation rates following the negative emotion condition, unlike recovered and nonstuttering children whose articulation rates were not affected by either of the two emotion-inducing conditions. Moreover, all stuttering children displayed faster rates during fluent compared to stuttered speech; however, the recovered children were significantly faster than the persisting children during fluent speech. Negative emotion plays a detrimental role on the speech-motor control processes of children who persist, whereas children who eventually recover seem to exhibit a relatively more stable and mature speech-motor system. This suggests that complex interactions between speech-motor and emotional processes are at play in stuttering recovery and persistency; and articulation rates following negative emotion or during stuttered versus fluent speech might be considered as potential factors to prospectively predict persistence and recovery from stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bilal, Nagihan; Kurutas, Ergül Belge; Orhan, Israfil
Stuttering is a widespread but little understood disease. There has been a recent increase in neuropathophysiological, genetic, and biochemical studies related to the etiopathogenesis. As developmental stuttering continues in adult males, hormonal factors are thought to have an effect. In this study, an evaluation was made for the first time of serum GPER-1 level in patients with a stutter. Prospective case control. The study included 30 patients with a stutter, aged < 18 years, and 35 age-matched children as the control group. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-3 form was administered to the patients. Evaluations were made of serum GPER-1, TSH, estradiol, prolactin, and progesterone and testosterone levels. GPER-1 level was determined as 0.51 (0.42-0.67) ng/mL in the patients and as 0.19 (0.13-0.25) ng/mL in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A statistically significant difference was determined between genders with GPER-1 level of 0.56 (0.44-0.68) ng/mL in the male stuttering patient group and 0.44 (0.35-0.49) ng/mL in the female patient group (p = 0.026). Differential diagnosis with ROC analysis for the serum GPER-1 levels was statistically significant [Area under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.998, confidence interval, CI 0.992-1.000, p < 0.001]. The GPER-1 levels of the stuttering patients were found to be higher than those of the control group and GPER-1 levels of male patients were higher than those of females. As GPER-1 has high sensitivity and sensitivity, it could be considered important in the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering.
Chow, Ho Ming; Chang, Soo-Eun
Stuttering affects the fundamental human ability of fluent speech production, and can have a significant negative impact on an individual's psychosocial development. While the disorder affects about 5% of all preschool children, approximately 80% of them recover naturally within a few years of stuttering onset. The pathophysiology and neuroanatomical development trajectories associated with persistence and recovery of stuttering are still largely unknown. Here, the first mixed longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of childhood stuttering has been reported. A total of 195 high quality DTI scans from 35 children who stutter (CWS) and 43 controls between 3 and 12 years of age were acquired, with an average of three scans per child, each collected approximately a year apart. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure reflecting white matter structural coherence, was analyzed voxel-wise to examine group and age-related differences using a linear mixed-effects (LME) model. Results showed that CWS exhibited decreased FA relative to controls in the left arcuate fasciculus, underlying the inferior parietal and posterior temporal areas, and the mid body of corpus callosum. Further, white matter developmental trajectories reflecting growth rate of these tract regions differentiated children with persistent stuttering from those who recovered from stuttering. Specifically, a reduction in FA growth rate (i.e., slower FA growth with age) in persistent children relative to fluent controls in the left arcuate fasciculus and corpus callosum was found, which was not evident in recovered children. These findings provide first glimpses into the possible neural mechanisms of onset, persistence, and recovery of childhood stuttering. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lieshout, Pascal van; Ben-David, Boaz; Lipski, Melinda; Namasivayam, Aravind
In the present study, an Emotional Stroop and Classical Stroop task were used to separate the effect of threat content and cognitive stress from the phonetic features of words on motor preparation and execution processes. A group of 10 people who stutter (PWS) and 10 matched people who do not stutter (PNS) repeated colour names for threat content words and neutral words, as well as for traditional Stroop stimuli. Data collection included speech acoustics and movement data from upper lip and lower lip using 3D EMA. PWS in both tasks were slower to respond and showed smaller upper lip movement ranges than PNS. For the Emotional Stroop task only, PWS were found to show larger inter-lip phase differences compared to PNS. General threat words were executed with faster lower lip movements (larger range and shorter duration) in both groups, but only PWS showed a change in upper lip movements. For stutter specific threat words, both groups showed a more variable lip coordination pattern, but only PWS showed a delay in reaction time compared to neutral words. Individual stuttered words showed no effects. Both groups showed a classical Stroop interference effect in reaction time but no changes in motor variables. This study shows differential motor responses in PWS compared to controls for specific threat words. Cognitive stress was not found to affect stuttering individuals differently than controls or that its impact spreads to motor execution processes. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) discuss the importance of understanding how threat content influences speech motor control in people who stutter and non-stuttering speakers; (2) discuss the need to use tasks like the Emotional Stroop and Regular Stroop to separate phonetic (word-bound) based impact on fluency from other factors in people who stutter; and (3) describe the role of anxiety and cognitive stress on speech motor processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin
Abstract A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain–behaviour and structure–function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI–diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor
Kristen Abrahams; Michal Harty; Kenneth O. St. Louis; Lehana Thabane; Harsha Kathard
Background: As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers’attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers’ attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes–Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009–2014. Method: A quantitative, cross-sec...
Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of 17 3- to 5-year-old CWS and 9 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no statistically significant between-group difference in chronological age (CWS: M = 45.53 months, SD = 8.32; CWNS: M = 47.67 months, SD = 6.69). All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a series of speaking samples that varied by: (a) conversational partner [parent and clinician], (b) location [home and clinic], and (c) context [conversation and narrative]. The primary dependent measures for this study were the number of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) per total number of spoken words [%SLD] and the ratio of SLD to total disfluencies (TD) [SLD/TD]. Results indicated that significant variability of stuttering did not exist as a result of conversational partner or location. Changes in context, however, did impact the CWS, who demonstrated higher SLD/TD in the conversation sample versus a narrative sample. Consistent with hypotheses, CWS and CWNS were accurately identified as stutterers and nonstutterers, respectively, regardless of changes to conversational partner, location or context for the overall participant sample. Present findings were taken to suggest that during assessment, variations in stuttering frequency resulting from changes in conversational partner, location or context do not significantly influence the diagnosis of stuttering, especially for children not on the talker group classification borderline between CWS and CWNS. PMID:19167719
Beal, Deryk S; Cheyne, Douglas O; Gracco, Vincent L; Quraan, Maher A; Taylor, Margot J; De Nil, Luc F
We used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory evoked responses to speech vocalizations and non-speech tones in adults who do and do not stutter. Neuromagnetic field patterns were recorded as participants listened to a 1 kHz tone, playback of their own productions of the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words, and actively generated the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words. Activation of the auditory cortex at approximately 50 and 100 ms was observed during all tasks. A reduction in the peak amplitudes of the M50 and M100 components was observed during the active generation versus passive listening tasks dependent on the stimuli. Adults who stutter did not differ in the amount of speech-induced auditory suppression relative to fluent speakers. Adults who stutter had shorter M100 latencies for the actively generated speaking tasks in the right hemisphere relative to the left hemisphere but the fluent speakers showed similar latencies across hemispheres. During passive listening tasks, adults who stutter had longer M50 and M100 latencies than fluent speakers. The results suggest that there are timing, rather than amplitude, differences in auditory processing during speech in adults who stutter and are discussed in relation to hypotheses of auditory-motor integration breakdown in stuttering. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walden, Tedra A; Frankel, Carl B; Buhr, Anthony P; Johnson, Kia N; Conture, Edward G; Karrass, Jan M
This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills. The emotion diathesis consists of proclivities to emotional reactivity and regulation of emotion, and the emotion stressor consists of experimentally manipulated emotional inductions prior to narrative speaking tasks. Preschool-age children who do and do not stutter were exposed to three emotion-producing overheard conversations-neutral, positive, and angry. Emotion and emotion-regulatory behaviors were coded while participants listened to each conversation and while telling a story after each overheard conversation. Instances of stuttering during each story were counted. Although there was no main effect of conversation type, results indicated that stuttering in preschool-age children is influenced by emotion and language diatheses, as well as coping strategies and situational emotional stressors. Findings support the dual diathesis-stressor model of stuttering.
Zhang, Jianliang; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hough, Monica; Kalinowski, Joseph
This study assessed the impact of stuttering via a questionnaire in which fluent individuals were asked to assume the mindset of persons who stutter (PWS) in various life aspects, including vocation, romance, daily activities, friends/social life, family and general lifestyle. The perceived impact of stuttering through the mind's eyes of nonstutterers is supposed to reflect respondents' abilities to impart 'theory of mind' in addressing social penalties related to stuttering. Ninety-one university students answered a questionnaire containing 56 statements on a 7-point Likert scale. Forty-four participants (mean age = 20.4, SD = 4.4) were randomly selected to assume a stuttering identity and 47 respondents (mean age = 20.5, SD = 3.1) to assume their normally fluent identity. Significant differences between groups were found in more than two thirds of items regarding employment, romance, and daily activities, and in fewer than half of items regarding family, friend/social life, and general life style (p role of PWS, are capable of at least temporarily feeling the negative impact of stuttering. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a disorder that can cause serious personal, emotional and social problems. Based on its pathophysiology, different treatment approaches to stuttering are controversial. Behavioral treatment has been shown to be effective for stuttering. In this study were mentioned to effectiveness of Simplified Habit-reversal as a behavioral approach for treatment of stuttering in Iranian children. Materials & Methods: Twelve students participated in this study was selected from 350 stuttered children in schools. After baseline assessment in three setting, simplified Habit -reversal was done for the children. Assessment (baseline , treatment and booster sessions were done in the subject’s home, school and clinic Assessment sessions were done at first -2nd-3th-4th-6th-12th-13th months after treatment. Post hoc tests were done by using paired t-test. Level of significance were considered equal on lest their 0.03 Results: Stuttering frequency was decreased in multiple assessment at home (P<0.03.these changes was observed in two other setting (P<0.02 in school, P0.05. Conclusion: Future researches about effectiveness of this method, especially in older cases and cases with co-morbidity in both sexes, are recommended.
Aiswarya Liz Varghese
Full Text Available It is common in literature to relate stuttering with some other deficit that interferes with communicative functions. Working memory comprises the system of human memory dedicated to both temporary storages of phonological detail and allocation of cognitive resources necessary for forming lasting memories. In this study we have analyzed the performance of individuals with stuttering on various working memory tasks. The aim of study is to compare the working memory abilities in individuals with stuttering and individuals with normal fluency on various working memory tasks. A total of 30 individuals with stuttering and 30 individuals with normal fluency in the age range of 18 – 40 years participated in the study. The Working Memory domain will be assessed using The Manipal Manual for Cognitive Linguistic Abilities (MMCLA which consists of auditory word retrieval, auditory letter and number recall, auditory word list recall, auditory delayed sentence recall, visual practice recall, visual letter and number recall, visual word list recall and visual delayed sentence recall. Results revealed that the individuals with normal fluency had superior performance compared to the individuals with stuttering. Hence, it’s helpful to understand the involvement of working memory in stuttering and incorporate working memory training along with the conventional fluency therapy.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.
Panico, James; Healey, E Charles
To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1 stuttering frequency. After hearing the text samples, each listener performed a free recall task, answered cued recall questions, answered story comprehension questions, and rated their perceived mental effort. Free and cued recall as well as story comprehension scores were higher for narrative than for expository texts. Free and cued recall scores were better for familiar than for unfamiliar stories, although topic familiarity did not affect story comprehension scores. Samples with all levels of stuttering resulted in higher mental effort ratings for both text types and topic familiarities. Stuttering has a greater influence on listener recall and comprehension for narrative than for expository texts. Topic familiarity affects free and cued recall but has no influence on story comprehension. Regardless of the amount of stuttering, mental effort was high for both text types and levels of familiarity.
Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that disrupts the ability to produce speech fluently. While stuttering is typically diagnosed based on one's behavior during speech production, some models suggest that it involves more central representations of language, and thus may affect language perception as well. Here we tested the hypothesis that developmental stuttering implicates neural systems involved in language perception, in a task that manipulates comprehensibility without an overt speech production component. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals in adults who do and do not stutter, while they were engaged in an incidental speech perception task. We found that speech perception evokes stronger activation in adults who stutter (AWS compared to controls, specifically in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG and in left Heschl's gyrus (LHG. Significant differences were additionally found in the lateralization of response in the inferior frontal cortex: AWS showed bilateral inferior frontal activity, while controls showed a left lateralized pattern of activation. These findings suggest that developmental stuttering is associated with an imbalanced neural network for speech processing, which is not limited to speech production, but also affects cortical responses during speech perception.
Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel
Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish–English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method Spanish and English narratives (a retell and a tell in each language) were elicited and analyzed relative to the frequency and types of speech disfluencies produced. These data were compared with the monolingual English-speaking guidelines for differential diagnosis of stuttering. Results The mean frequency of stuttering-like speech behaviors in the bilingual SE participants ranged from 3% to 22%, exceeding the monolingual English standard of 3 per 100 words. There was no significant frequency difference in stuttering-like or non-stuttering-like speech disfluency produced relative to the child's language dominance. There was a significant difference relative to the language the child was speaking; all children produced significantly more stuttering-like speech disfluencies in Spanish than in English. Conclusion Results demonstrate that the disfluent speech of bilingual SE children should be carefully considered relative to the complex nature of bilingualism. PMID:25215876
Budde, Kristin S; Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T
Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as "neural signatures of stuttering" (Brown, Ingham, Ingham, Laird, & Fox, 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: (1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and (2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives: This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Method: Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Result: Only two participants (10% obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18 scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia of voice (35%, while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08 have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41. Conclusion: The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.
Full Text Available Introduction: Many researches have dealt with the relationship between stuttering and differentlinguistic factors. This study investigates the effect of syntactic complexity on the amount of speechdysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children, and comparing them with the non-stuttering ones. Theobtained results can pave the way to obtain a better knowledge of the nature of stuttering, as well asfinding more suitable ways in the process of its treatment.Materials and Methods: The participants were 10 stuttering and 10 non-stuttering Persian-speakingand monolingual children in the age range of 4-6 which were matched by age and gender. First 30minutes sample of child's spontaneous speech was provided and then utterances of each child studied forthe amount of dysfluency and syntactic complexity.Results: In both groups of stuttering and non-stuttering children, there was a significant difference forthe amount of dysfluency between simple and complex sentences.Conclusion: The results of this study show that by increase of syntactic complexity at the spontaneousspeech level, stuttering and non-stuttering children had more dysfluency amount. Also, by increase ofsyntactic complexity, stuttering children had more dysfluency amount than non-stuttering children.
Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R
The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings
Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine
In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9-5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (1) describe the current status of nonlinguistic and linguistic predictors for
Pang, Xiaomei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Tang, Di; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Yiming
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs). This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.
Full Text Available Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity.Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on the quality of life (QoL, we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES, respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES.Results: No resting state activity differences were identified in comparison to fluently speaking controls or in correlation with stuttering severity or QoL measures. Significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity were found, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e. a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45 and the contralateral premotor (BA 6 and motor (BA 4 areas. A positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL.Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is
Etchell, Andrew C; Civier, Oren; Ballard, Kirrie J; Sowman, Paul F
Stuttering is a disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Over the past two decades, there has been a great deal of interest in investigating the neural basis of the disorder. This systematic literature review is intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the neuroimaging literature on developmental stuttering. It is a resource for researchers to quickly and easily identify relevant studies for their areas of interest and enable them to determine the most appropriate methodology to utilize in their work. The review also highlights gaps in the literature in terms of methodology and areas of research. We conducted a systematic literature review on neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched for articles in the pubmed database containing "stuttering" OR "stammering" AND either "MRI", "PET", "EEG", "MEG", "TMS"or "brain" that were published between 1995/01/01 and 2016/01/01. The search returned a total of 359 items with an additional 26 identified from a manual search. Of these, there were a total of 111 full text articles that met criteria for inclusion in the systematic literature review. We also discuss neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering published throughout 2016. The discussion of the results is organized first by methodology and second by population (i.e., adults or children) and includes tables that contain all items returned by the search. There are widespread abnormalities in the structural architecture and functional organization of the brains of adults and children who stutter. These are evident not only in speech tasks, but also non-speech tasks. Future research should make greater use of functional neuroimaging and noninvasive brain stimulation, and employ structural methodologies that have greater sensitivity. Newly planned studies should also investigate sex differences, focus on augmenting treatment, examine moments of dysfluency and longitudinally or
Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Kalinowski, Joseph; Dayalu, Vikram N
The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of steady-state and dynamic visual gestures of vowels in stuttering inhibition. Eight adults who stuttered recited sentences from memory while watching video presentations of the following visual speech gestures: (a) a steady-state /u/, (b) dynamic production of /a-i-u/, (c) steady-state /u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone, and (d) dynamic production of /a-i-u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone. A 1 kHz pure tone and a no-external signal condition served as control conditions. Results revealed a significant main effect of auditory condition on stuttering frequency. Relative to the no-external signal condition, the combined visual plus pure tone conditions resulted in a statistically significant reduction in stuttering frequency. In addition, a significant difference in stuttering frequency was also observed when the visual plus pure tone conditions were compared to the visual only conditions. However, no significant differences were observed between the no-external signal condition and visual only conditions, or the no-external signal condition and pure tone condition. These findings are in contrast to previous findings demonstrated by similar vowel gestures presented via the auditory modality that resulted in high levels of stuttering inhibition. The differential role of sensory modalities in speech perception and production as well as their individual capacities to transfer gestural information for the purposes of stuttering inhibition is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humeniuk, Ewa; Tarkowski, Zbigniew
The aim of the research was to determine: (a) how parents react to their child's stuttering, (b) what stress coping strategies they utilise, as well as (c) whether stress coping style depends on parents' reaction to their child's stuttering. The research involved 23 mothers and 23 fathers of children who stutter (CWS) at the age of three to six years old. The Reaction to Speech Disfluency Scale (RSDS), developed by the authors, was used in the research. To determine the parents' coping the Coping Inventory in Stressful Situations (CISS) by N.S. Endler and D.A Parker was applied. The strongest reactions are observed on the cognitive level. Stronger cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions are observed in the mothers towards their disfluently speaking sons and in the fathers towards their daughters. Having analysed the profiles of coping styles, it can be noticed that the task-oriented coping is most frequently adapted by the fathers. The mothers most often use the avoidance-oriented coping. No relevant correlation was observed between the fathers' coping style and their reactions to the child's disfluent speech. As far as the mothers are concerned, it has been proved that an increase in behavioural reactions correlates with the avoidance-oriented coping. The cognitive reactions of the parents' towards their child's stuttering were most frequent, while the emotional ones were the least frequent. Confronted with a stressful situation, the fathers most often adapt the task-oriented coping, whereas the mothers use the avoidance-oriented coping. the reader will be able to (1) learn what the key reactions of parents to their children's stuttering are, (2) describe stuttering as a stress factor for the parents, (3) describe the factors which influence parents' reactions to their child's stuttering and their coping style. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven
Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is
Boey, Ronny A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Heylen, Louis; Stoop, Reinhard; De Bodt, Marc S.
Awareness has been an important factor in theories of onset and development of stuttering. So far it has been suggested that even young children might be aware of their speech difficulty. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the number of stuttering children aware of their speech difficulty, (b) the description of reported…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was developed to make available worldwide a standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering that is practical, reliable, valid, and translatable. Mean data from past field studies as comparisons for interpretation of "POSHA-S" results are reported. Method: Means…