Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.
Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we
Muris, P; Meesters, C; Merckelbach, H; Hülsenbeck, P
In a sample of 159 primary school children, the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and self-reported attachment style, on the one hand, and worry, on the other hand, was investigated. Children completed (a) the EMBU, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviours, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C), an index of severity of worrying. Results showed that parental rearing behaviours, in particular rejection and anxious rearing, were positively associated with worry. Thus, children who perceived their parents as more rejective and anxious reported higher levels of worry. Furthermore, self-reported attachment style appeared to be related to worry. More specifically, children who classified themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. These findings are consistent with the notion that family environment factors such as parental rearing and attachment style contribute to the severity of anxiety symptoms in children.
Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P
The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.
Lopes, Fábio; Espirito-Santo, Helena; Vicente, Henrique
Introduction The transmission of perceived parental rearing styles through generations has been proved in several studies, mostly in studies with two generations samples. Objectives/aims The main aim of this study is to investigate the intergenerational transmission of the perception of parental rearing styles in families composed by three generations. Methodology A convenience sample of 143 participants was collected, belonging to a female lineage subsystem, divided in three...
Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas
This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine
To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.
Someya, T; Kitamura, H; Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Kaiya, H; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S
Although recent studies have found dysfunctional parental rearing behaviour is associated with certain aspects of psychopathology of panic disorder (PD), the results are not in complete agreement. By using a translated Japanese version of the EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran), we investigated the parental rearing behavior perceived by 103 normal subjects, 71 PD patients with agoraphobia, and 32 PD patients without agoraphobia. The PD patients scored both parents as more rejecting and overprotective than did the controls. However, subgroup analysis showed that the patients with agoraphobia reported significantly more rejection from both parents and less emotional warmth from mothers, while the patients without agoraphobia, by contrast, reported more overprotection from both parents and more favouring subject from fathers than did the controls. Interestingly, these results were consistent with those documented in the Western literature, which reported "affectionless control" as a parenting style in PD, and, furthermore, indicated a cross-cultural similarity of parental rearing factor. In addition, it was suggested that a lack of care might be associated with the development of agoraphobia in Japan.
Meesters, C.M.G.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Dibbets, P.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11-18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11–18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.
Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J
The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.
Nishikawa, Saori; Sundbom, Elisabet; Hagglof, Bruno
We examined the associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment style, self-concept, and mental health problems among Japanese adolescents. About 193 high school students (143 boys and 50 girls, mean = 16.4) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including EMBU-C (My Memories of Child Upbringing for Children), AQC (Attachment…
Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M; Magaz, Ana M; Santed, Miguel A; Sandin, Bonifacio
The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, parental overcontrol was found to account for unique variance in anxiety whereas communication/warmth accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in depression. A relevant finding was that fearful/preoccupied attachment was found to mediate the association between parental rearing behaviors and both anxiety and depression. Parental rearing behaviors and attachment to peers may act as risk factors to the development and/or maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in children. Findings may contribute to outline preventive and/or treatment programs to prevent or reduce both clinical anxiety and depression during childhood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R
A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.
Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo
This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…
Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray
It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.
Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R
Penelo, Eva; Viladrich, Carme; Domènech, Josep M
We provide the first validation data of the Spanish version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran--Child Version (EMBU-C) in a clinical context. The EMBU-C is a 41-item self-report questionnaire that assesses perceived parental rearing style in children, comprising 4 subscales (rejection, emotional warmth, control attempts/overprotection, and favoring subjects). The test was administered to a clinical sample of 174 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 8 to 12. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed, analyzing the children's reports about their parents' rearing style. The results were almost equivalent for father's and mother's ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model when removing the items of the favoring subjects scale (root mean squared error of approximation .73), whereas control attempts scale showed lower values, as in previous studies. The influence of sex (of children and parents) on scale scores was inappreciable and children tended to perceive their parents as progressively less warm as they grew older. As predicted, the scores for rejection and emotional warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision. The Spanish version of EMBU-C can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients because evidences of quality in this setting match those obtained in community samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…
Richter, J; Eisemann, M
With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Lau, Sing; And Others
Results of a study of 925 educated Chinese who recalled child-rearing patterns of their parents indicated that greater perceived parental dominating control was related to less perceived parental warmth and that greater parental warmth and less parental control were related to greater perceived family harmony. (RH)
Dekovic, M; ten Have, M; Vollebergh, WAM; Pels, T; Oosterwegel, A; Wissink, IB; De Winter, AF; Verhulst, FC; Ormel, J
We examined the cross-cultural equivalence of a widely used instrument that assesses perceived parental rearing, the EMBU-C, among native Dutch and immigrant adolescents living in The Netherlands. The results of a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of the
Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.
Zimmermann, Jacques J; Eisemann, Martin R; Fleck, Marcelo P
To examine the hypothesis that favorable parental rearing is associated with better quality of life in adulthood. Two hundred and ninety seven university students answered questions on quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), parenting style (s-EMBU), coping strategies (Coping Strategies Inventory), life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Data was analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression. The remote variable of perceived child rearing practices was significantly associated with the quality of life of the students. Maternal emotional warmth was associated with two quality of life domains, psychological and social relationships, in addition to global quality of life. These results strengthen the empirical notion that favorable parental care may be associated with better quality of life in adulthood.
Kokkevi, A; Stefanis, C
Results from a controlled study on a sample of 91 imprisoned drug dependents on perceived parental rearing practices using the EMBU and on parental family characteristics are presented. While few differences were observed between drug dependents and imprisoned controls-father less warm and mother more permissive in drug dependent group--comparisons of drug dependents with a general population sample revealed more differences between the two populations: drug dependents perceive both parents compared to the general population group as less rejective, very permissive, their mother as warmer and more overprotective and their father more inconsistent and less favouring them than siblings. Supportive evidence on the dependents' family psychopathology is provided by studying family characteristics. While our findings seem to support the prevailing view in the literature on the role of the mother of the drug dependent characterised by strong emotional bonds and overprotection as well as of the rather emotionally distant father, the question is raised on the contribution of other factors, such as psychopathic personality, on the above findings.
Xing, Zhouxiong; Hou, Xiaohua; Zhou, Kan; Qin, Diyuan; Pan, Wen
A strong association between family function and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been observed. Parental rearing styles, as a comprehensive mark for family function, may provide new clues to the etiology of IBS. This study aimed to explore which dimensions of parental rearing styles were risk factors or protective factors for IBS in adolescents. Two thousand three hundred twenty adolescents were recruited from one middle school and one high school randomly selected from Jiangan District (an urban district in Wuhan City). Data were collected using two Chinese versions of validated self-report questionnaires including the Rome III diagnostic criteria for pediatric IBS and the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran: One's Memories of Upbringing for perceived parental rearing styles. Ninety-six subjects diagnosed as pediatric IBS were compared with 1618 controls. The IBS patients reported less both paternal and maternal emotional warmth (all P paternal and maternal punishment, overinterference, rejection, and overprotection (only for father) (all P parental rearing styles (all P parental rearing variables were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that paternal rejection (P = 0.001) and maternal overinterference (P = 0.002) were independent risk factors for IBS in adolescents. Parental emotional warmth is a protective factor for IBS in adolescents and parental punishment, overinterference, rejection, and overprotection are risk factors for IBS in adolescents. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU（Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori
Attachment theory contends that insecure working models of the self and other built through negative attachment experiences are predisposing factors for depression and anxiety disorders. Meanwhile, patients with these psychiatric disorders tend to perceive that they received the affectionless control parenting, which is a combination of lack of care and overprotection. To test the hypothesis that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models, we examined the effects of perceived parenting styles on qualities of working models. The subjects were 691 healthy Japanese volunteers. Working models of the self and other were assessed by the Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into one of the four types defined by combinations of levels of care and protection. In all combinations of recipient sexes and parental sexes, the subjects with the affectionless control parenting (low care/high protection) had lower scores of the self-model and other-model than those with the optimal parenting (high care/low protection). The present study suggests that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models of the self and other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kitamura, T; Sugawara, M; Shima, S; Toda, M A
Despite the increasingly recognized link between perceived parenting behavior and the onset of psychopathology in adults, studies of the possible determinants of perceptions of parenting behavior are rare. In a sample of 1,145 pregnant Japanese women, correlations were examined between the numbers and sexes of siblings and perceived rearing practices, as rated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979). The participants with more elder sisters viewed their parents' attitudes as less caring, whereas those with more brothers, particularly younger brothers, viewed their parents' attitudes as less overprotective. However, the proportion of the variance of all the PBI scores explained by different types of siblings was very small.
von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G
The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc
Parental monitoring, assessed as (perceived) parental knowledge of the child's behavior, has been established as a consistent predictor of problem behavior. However, recent research indicates that parental knowledge has more to do with adolescents' self-disclosure than with parents' active monitoring. Although these findings may suggest that parents exert little influence on adolescents' problem behavior, the authors argue that this conclusion is premature, because self-disclosure may in itself be influenced by parents' rearing style. This study (a) examined relations between parenting dimensions and self-disclosure and (b) compared 3 models describing the relations among parenting, self-disclosure, perceived parental knowledge, and problem behavior. Results in a sample of 10th- to 12th-grade students, their parents, and their peers demonstrated that high responsiveness, high behavioral control, and low psychological control are independent predictors of self-disclosure. In addition, structural equation modeling analyses demonstrated that parenting is both indirectly (through self-disclosure) and directly associated with perceived parental knowledge but is not directly related to problem behavior or affiliation with peers engaging in problem behavior. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth
A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…
Oliver, J M; Paull, J C
This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.
Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.
AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using
Krikken, J B; van Wijk, A J; ten Cate, J M; Veerkamp, J S J
Treating children can be difficult for both dentist and child. In some cases treatment fails and those children are referred to a specialist paediatric dentist. Different factors can be put forward for referral of children, such as factors relating to the child, dentist and parent. Possible child-related factors can be dental anxiety and the child's temperament. A possible parental factor is the parental rearing style. The objective of this study was to assess the possible associations between dental anxiety, parental rearing style and referral status of children. Parents of 120 non-referred and 335 referred paediatric dental patients were asked to fill out the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) and the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their children. The questionnaires were filled out by 115 (96%) parents of primary schoolchildren and by 331 (99%) parents of referred children. Referred children were younger than non-referred children, t(442) = 6.9, p authoritarian parenting style were more anxious than the other non-referred children. In the present study, referral status and dental anxiety of 4-12 year old children were not associated with parental rearing style.
Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ibarra, P; Alemany, S; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Córdova-Palomera, A; Goldberg, X; Arias, B; González-Ortega, I; González-Pinto, A; Nenadic, I; Fañanás, L
To test whether firstly, different parental rearing components were associated with different dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, secondly BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism moderated this association and thirdly, this association was due to genetic confounding. Perceived parental rearing according to Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), psychiatric symptoms evaluated with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism were analyzed in a sample of 232 adult twins from the general population. In the whole sample, paternal care was negatively associated with depression. Maternal overprotection was positively associated with paranoid ideation, obsession-compulsion and somatization. Gene-environment interaction effects were detected between the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and maternal care on phobic anxiety, paternal care on hostility, maternal overprotection on somatization and paternal overprotection also in somatization. In the subsample of MZ twins, intrapair differences in maternal care were associated with anxiety, paranoid ideation and somatization. Met carriers were, in general, more sensitive to the effects of parental rearing compared to Val/Val carriers in relation to anxiety and somatization. Contra-intuitively, our findings suggest that high rates of maternal care might be of risk for Met carriers regarding anxiety. Results from analyses controlling for genetic confounding were in line with this finding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Long, Kristin A; Keeley, Lauren; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B
Elevated distress has been well documented among parents of children with cancer. Family systems theories suggest that cancer-related stressors and parental distress have the potential to affect child-rearing practices, but this topic has received limited empirical attention. The present work examined self-reported child-rearing practices among mothers and fathers of children with cancer and matched comparisons. Medical and psychosocial professionals with expertise in pediatric oncology selected items from the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) likely to differentiate parents of children with cancer from matched comparison parents. Then, responses on these targeted items were compared between parents of children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and matched comparisons (98 mothers, 75 fathers). Effect sizes of between-group differences were compared for mothers versus fathers. Pediatric oncology healthcare providers predicted that 14 items would differentiate child-rearing practices of parents of children with cancer from parents of typically developing children. Differences emerged on six of the 14 CRPR items. Parents of children with cancer reported higher levels of spoiling and concern about their child's health and development than comparison parents. Items assessing overprotection and emotional responsiveness did not distinguish the two groups of parents. The effect size for the group difference between mothers in the cancer versus comparison groups was significantly greater than that for fathers on one item related to worry about the child's health. Parents of children with cancer report differences in some, but not all, domains of child-rearing, as predicted by healthcare professionals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schumacher, Jörg; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar
The present study concerns the impact of recalled parental rearing behaviour on both the intensity of the wish to have a child and on different motives to have a child. Until now there are no empirical studies as to this objective. Our study is based on a representative sample of 1509 persons aged 18 to 50 years. The statistical analyses were restricted to those subjects who lived in partnership and reported an actual wish to have a child (n = 331). The data were assessed by self-reporting scales: The Questionnaire of Recalled Parental Rearing Behaviour "Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten, FEE", the Partnership Questionnaire "Partnerschaftsfragebogen, PFB", and the Leipzig Questionnaire of Motives to Have a Child "Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven, LKM". A recalled parental rearing behaviour, which was characterized as having been rejective, overprotective and less emotionally warm was associated with such motives which do not promote the wish to have own children (fear of personal restrictions and a low degree of social support). Simultaneously, a negative parental rearing behaviour was correlated with a stronger desire for social recognition by an own child. The recalled maternal rearing behaviour was altogether stronger associated with motives to have a child than the paternal. On the other hand, no relevant associations could be found between the recalled parental rearing behaviour and the intensity of the wish to have a child.
Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits
Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.
Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl
This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.
Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.
Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…
Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai
The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.
Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.
Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710
Behavioural problems, parental rejection scores and child abuse ... evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist (parental version), the Memories of Parental Rearing ... However, mental illness had no moderating effect on these relationships.
Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa
The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori
There have been few studies which examined the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability of depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on sociotropy and autonomy, the personality vulnerability factors in the cognitive theory of depression. The subjects were 416 healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which has care and protection factors, and sociotropy and autonomy were assessed by the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale. In males, neither sociotropy nor autonomy was affected by paternal rearing or maternal rearing. In females, higher levels of sociotropy were related to higher maternal protection (β=0.308, poverprotection increases sociotropy with gender specificity in parents and recipients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ju Ryoung Moon
Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.
Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.
Differences and similarities in child rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian American parents were investigated. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 138 kindergarteners and first and second graders in Taiwan and the U.S. The child rearing variables of parental control, encouragement of independence, expression of…
Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip
: Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.
González, Brenda; Cabrera, Francisco; Martínez, Kalina
The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a positive child rearing program with parents for reducing bullying and incrementing pro-social behavior of their children. Participants were eight couples and two single parents of 10 children identified as bullies. Half of the parents were assigned to a control group and the other half were trained to identify aggressive and pro-social behaviors of their children, as well as their antecedents and consequences. During eight weekly sessions pa...
Huang, Lei; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yao, Yuhong; Shan, Chang; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Mengyi; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Zhao, Xudong
Critical thinking is an essential ability for medical students. However, the relationship between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental rearing styles were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition among Chinese medical students. 1,075 medical students from the first year to the fifth year attending one of three medical schools in China were recruited via multistage stratified cluster sampling. The Chinese Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory(CTDI-CV) and The Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) questionnaire were applied to collect data and to conduct descriptive analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The critical thinking disposition average mean score was 287.44 with 632 participants (58.79%) demonstrating positive critical thinking disposition. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the rearing styles of fathers, including "overprotection", "emotional warmth and understanding", "rejection" and "over-interference" were significant predictors of medical students' critical thinking disposition that explained 79.0% of the variance in critical thinking ability. Rearing styles of mothers including "emotional warmth and understanding", "punishing" and "rejection" were also found to be significant predictors, and explained 77.0% of the variance. Meaningful association has been evidenced between parental rearing styles and Chinese medical students' critical thinking disposition. Parental rearing styles should be considered as one of the many potential determinant factors that contribute to the cultivation of medical students' critical thinking capability. Positive parental rearing styles should be encouraged in the cultivation of children's critical thinking skills.
Bögels, S.M.; Bamelis, L.; van der Bruggen, C.
Parents of children with anxiety disorders are found to be over controlling and more rejecting in parent-child interactions than parents of control children. However, most studies included mothers, and the rearing behaviour of fathers of anxious children is largely unknown. Also, it remains unclear
Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.
Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared in ... Economic importance of morphometric parameters such as live weight and body ... (R2) value of 60.30 included forecast indices such as BL, WS, WL, TL, BG and SL.
Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.
Investigated differences and similarities in child-rearing practices among three groups of parents. Chinese and immigrant Chinese parents rated higher than Caucasian-American parents on parental control, encouragement of independence, and emphasis on achievement. (PCB)
Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S
To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.
Gerlsma, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Arrindell, W.A.
Reviewed the literature on perceived parental rearing practices in depressed and anxious patients by meta-analysis. The psychometric and validational properties of questionnaires measuring perceptions of parental rearing styles were investigated, and only studies using satisfactory measures were
Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur
This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period that bears a particular risk for the occurrence of difficulties in psychosocial adaptation. This research was aimed at investigating the predictive power of father’s and mother’s rearing styles for the level of internalised (more specifically, anxiety as a trait and externalised problems on the sample of adolescents (212, aged 12 to 18. The following instruments were used in data collection: the Parental Rearing Style Scale, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y. The obtained results indicate that an emotionally cold father’s style of rearing and the restricting style of rearing of both parents are significant predictors of the level of general anxiety. When it comes to externalisation, it is shown that cold father’s style of rearing is the only significant predictor. The results may contribute to a better understanding of the adaptive capacities of a child and the family in coping with the critical phases in the development of children and youth. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179002: Indikatori i modeli usklađivanja porodičnih i poslovnih uloga
Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters
Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…
Donoso, Miguir Terezinha Vieccelli; Ricas, Janete
To describe parents' current perception of corporal punishment associated to child rearing and its practices. There were studied 31 family members whose children were warded due to child abuse complaints (12) and not warded (19) at a health care unit and a local social service unit in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil) in 2006. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and speech analysis was performed grouped by subjects and categories. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSE: There was limitation of the respondents' speeches based on their production means. There was a diversity of conceptions on child rearing and its practices and corporal punishment was reported by all parents, even among those who expressed strong disapproval of this practice. Speeches were characterized by heterogeneity and polyphony with emphasis on the tradition speech, the religious speech and the popular scientific speech. Respondents did not express concepts of legal interdiction of corporal punishment or its excesses. The culture of corporal punishment of children is changing; tradition approving it has weakened and prohibition has been slowly adopted. Reinforcing legal actions against this practice can contribute to speed up the process to end corporal punishment of children.
Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi
There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p care (β = 0.195, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.
ten Berge, M; Veerkamp, J S J; Hoogstraten, J; Prins, P J M
The aim of this study was to assess the relation between parental self-reported child-rearing attitudes and dental fear in children. The parents of 51 children with high dental fear and of 56 children with low dental fear, of different age groups, completed the Amsterdam version of the Parental Attitude Research Instrument. In addition, parents were asked to rate their own dental fear. Multivariate analysis of variance (child fear x parental fear x child age) showed a significant main effect only of child dental fear on parental self-complaints (p = .03). For parental dental fear, main effects were found on overprotection and on promotion of autonomy (p fear and parental dental fear was found. Based on the present findings, it was concluded that parents may play a more secondary, mediating role in the etiological process of dental fear in children.
Kumar, S; Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Kroon, J; Lalloo, R; Johnson, N W
To evaluate the direct and indirect (via oral health-related behaviour) effects of parental rearing practices on children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) within a family-focused, comprehensive predictive model. Participants were 11- to 14-year-old children and their parents living in Telangana State, India (N = 1130). Children were clinically assessed for dental caries, gingivitis, oral hygiene status, fluorosis, and malocclusion, and completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health-related behaviour and OHRQoL. Parents answered questions related to their socioeconomic status (SES), family circumstances, parent's perceptions of child's OHRQoL, and child rearing practices. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the pathways through which parenting practices were associated with children's OHRQoL. Parents with higher positive (β = -0.106) and lower power assertion rearing practices (β = 0.103) had children with better OHRQoL. Parental rearing practices did not have any effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour. Children who had malocclusion (β = 0.076) and fluorosis (β = 0.38) had lower OHRQoL. Family SES had a significant effect on children's oral hygiene behaviour and oral hygiene status with children of higher SES demonstrating better oral hygiene behaviour and status. Children living in single-parent families reported poorer oral hygiene behaviour (β = -0.048) than those living in other types of families. Parental rearing practices had direct effects on OHRQoL. However, the hypothesised indirect effects of these practices on OHRQoL via poor oral health behaviour were not supported.
In the years following German reunification, East and West German parents (282 mothers and 207 fathers) were interviewed about attitudes to the rearing of their 7- to 13-year-old children and about their social networks. Path analyses show that East German parents engage in more protective and less permissive parenting, and that East German…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress
Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress
Vitolo, Ymara Lúcia Camargo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos
To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454) of first to third-graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%). Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male), parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L
We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.
Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…
McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M
A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.
Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.
This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…
Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul Mg; Nauta, Maaike H
A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients.
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao
The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.
Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S
The EMBU (Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran) is a self-report questionnaire for the assessment of one's memory of parental rearing experiences. We are interested in using this scale to determine the characteristics of perceived parenting styles in Japan. The study subjects consisted of 1320 healthy Japanese volunteers, comprising 687 males (52%) and 633 females (48%). We investigated the relationship between demographics and the EMBU scale. ANCOVA revealed that the subject's gender had a significant effect on paternal rejection scores (male > female), and both gender and birth-order position had significant effects on emotional warmth scores for both parents (female > male, and only-child > middle or last-born child). Birth-order position had significant effects on maternal over-protection, with the highest score being that of only children, and on the aspect of favouritism (favouring subjects), scores for both parents were highest from the last-born children. Rejection scores for the mother were significantly higher than those for the father from female subjects. Among both male and female subjects, emotional warmth scores and overprotection scores for the mother were significantly higher than those for the father. Among male subjects, scores for the mother on favouritism of the subject were significantly higher than those for the father. On the other hand, among female subjects, scores for the father on favouritism of the subject were higher than scores for the mother. Our results suggest that parenting styles have significant interrelationships with the gender and birth-order position of the subject.
Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül
The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which
Castro, J; Toro, J; Cruz, M
Studies of family relationships in anorexia nervosa have produced conflicting results. Some authors claim that family factors are related to short-term outcomes. Perceived rearing practices, as measured by the EMBU (Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran: 'My memories of Upbringing') were examined in a sample (N = 158) of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and compared with the perceptions of adolescents (N = 159) from the general population. A further comparison was made between the groups of patients with good and bad short-term outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of different variables on short-term outcome. Overall, small differences were observed in the perceptions of rearing practices as expressed by the controls and the anorexic patients. Patients with bad short-term outcome perceived more rejection and control-overprotection from both parents than those with good outcome. In the logistic regression analysis only Rejection from father and the EAT (Eating Attitudes Test) total score gave independent prediction of treatment response. Taken as a whole, these results do not support the idea of altered rearing practices in anorexic patients, at least in young patients with a short evolution of the disease. Perceived rearing practices, especially 'rejection', appear to have an appreciable effect on the short-term outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101 and a healthy control group (N = 44. Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD
van der Wal Gerrit
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.
Furnham, A; Cheng, H
This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effect of parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity was studied in 469 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which consists of the factors of care and protection, and interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In male subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of paternal protection (P < .01) and maternal protection (P < .05). In female subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of maternal protection (P < .001). The present study suggests that in both males and females, interpersonal sensitivity is increased by high protection of the same-sex parents and that in males there is an additional effect of high maternal protection.
This current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication…
Necessary, J R; Parish, T S
Research has generally supported the view that parents' attitudes and practices predispose children to act in certain ways. Bell (1968), however, proposed an alternate theory which suggested that children and adolescents often mold the way their parents act. Parish (1980) subsequently reported support for Bell's position in that parents were, indeed, found to parent like one another, possibly in response to their children's actions. The present study sought to further examine the Bell (1968) theory by seeking to determine if parents are consistent with each other or with themselves in their parenting attitudes and practices. Parents were perceived to act like one another (at least to a moderately significant degree), but fathers were much more likely to parent in particular ways (i.e., if they were restrictive they were also more likely to be warm, or if they were permissive they were also more likely to be hostile), independent of how their wives were perceived to act. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham
The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.
Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet
This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…
Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study examined parents’ normative perceptions of other college parents’ alcohol-specific communication, and how parents’ perceived communication norms and alcohol-specific communication relate to student drinking outcomes. A sample of 457 student-parent dyads were recruited from a mid-size university. Students completed web-based assessments of alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors. Parents completed alcohol-specific measures of communication norms and parent-child communication, including communication content (i.e., targeted communication) and frequency of communication. Results indicated that parents overestimated how much other parents talked to their college students about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, but underestimated how often parents initiated conversations about alcohol. In a path model, perceived communication norms positively predicted both targeted communication and frequency of communication. Perceived communication norms and targeted communication negatively predicted students’ attitude toward alcohol use. In contrast, more frequent communication predicted students holding more approving attitudes toward alcohol. The relationship between parents’ perceived communication norms and students’ drinking behaviors was mediated by the parental communication variables and student attitudes. Tests of indirect effects were undertaken to examine meditational processes. The findings underscore relations involving parental perceived communication norms and parents’ own alcohol communication and their children’s drinking outcomes. The complex relationships of different types of parental communication and student outcomes warrant further research. PMID:24128293
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko
The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.
Zheng, Yu; Liu, Xie-he
To explore the association of parental rearing style and family dynamic structure with male larcenists. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in 280 male imprisoned larcenists and 420 healthy controls with a General Information Questionnaire and EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträlffande Uppfostran). Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the following items: 'only child in the family', 'not lived with father before age 5', 'father died', 'mother died', 'both parents died', 'parents divorced', 'lived with father only (mother absence) before age 5', 'adult with father alive (mother died)' and 'adult with mother alive (father died)'. The two groups also experienced significant differences in 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection'. Men with single father (mother absence) before age 5 and those who have experienced death of any parents, 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection' are more likely to commit theft crime.
Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S
The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pchildren strongly experienced parenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.
Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.
Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan aspectos referidos al marco teórico del proyecto de investigación "Autoconcepto y percepción de pautas parentales de crianza por parte de los niños", enmarcado en el proyecto UBACyT P003 "Las prácticas parentales de crianza desde la perspectiva de los niños", dirigido por la profesora consulta María Julia García. El objetivo central de esta investigación es explorar las relaciones entre los modos en que los niños se perciben y autovaloran, y la percepción que poseen de las pautas de crianza de sus padres o cuidadores. Como instrumentos de indagación se emplearán: 1 la versión española del PEPPE ("Practiques Éducatives Parentales Perçues par I'Enfant" de Fortín, Cyr y Chénier (1997, adaptación a su vez del cuestionario PPI ("Parental Perception Inventory" de Hazzard, Christensen y Margolin (1983, a fin de indagar la percepción de los niños acerca de las pautas de crianza de sus padres; 2 la escala "Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale" de Piers (1984, adaptada y validada al castellano por Gorostegui (1992 en Chile, con el objetivo de abordar el autoconcepto.The objective of the present paper is to present aspects of the theoretical framework of the research project "Self concept and parents' rearing practices perceived by children", which is linked to the research project UBACyT P 003 "Parents' rearing practices from the children's perspective" under the direction of full professor María Julia García. The research discussed here has as main objective to explore the relations between children's self perception and self evaluation and children's perception of parents' rearing practices. The Spanish version of PEPPE ("Pratiques Éducatives Parentales Perçues par I'Enfant" by Fortin, Cyr y Chénier (1997, which is an adaptation of the PPI questionnaire ("Parental Perception Inventory" by Hazzard, Chsristensen y Margolin (1983 is employed to inquire about children's perception of parental
Ozturk, Candan; Kahraman, Seniha; Bektas, Murat
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's discernment of cigarettes. The study sample consisted of 250 children attending grades 6, 7 and 8. Data were collected via a socio-demographic survey questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Scale (PAS) and the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). Data analysis covered percentages, medians, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests using a statistical package. There were 250 participants; 117 were male, 133 were female. The mean age was 13.1 ± 0.98 for the females and 13.3 ± 0.88 for the males. A statistically significant difference was found in the children's mean scores for 'pros' subscale on the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS) according to perceived parental attitudes (F=3.172, p=0.025). There were no statistically significant differences in the DBS 'cons' subscale scores by perceived parental attitudes. It was determined that while perceived parental attitudes affect children's views on advantages of smoking, they have no effect on children's views on its disadvantages.
Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.
Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2] assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.
Takahashi,Nana; Suzuki,Akihito; Matsumoto,Yoshihiko; Shirata,Toshinori; Otani,Koichi
Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: Th...
Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure.
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan
This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…
Smith, S M; Hanson, R
The self-reported child-rearing practices of 214 parents of battered babies were characterized in a few but not all respects by demanding behaviour which exceeded that to be expected in relation to their social class and age. Inconsistency in child management was noted in the comparison between lack of demonstrativeness and emotional over-involvement, and between physical punishment and a tendency to be lax in the supervision of the child, and was reminiscent of parents of delinquents. Unhappiness and hostility in relationships with members of their families of origin, with unsupporting partners and with people in general were other important features. Generally, identified perpetrators were characterized by features significant for the sample as a whole.
Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K
This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The current study aimed at investigating the direct and moderating role of personal growth in a child's adjustment to first grade as perceived by the parents, drawing on Positive Psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, ) and the theory of families as systems (Cox & Paley, ). The sample consisted of 280 Israeli parents (213 mothers and 67 fathers) whose children were in first grade. The participants completed questionnaires relating to background variables of the parent and child, as well as parents' perceived stress, emotional intelligence, perceived child's adjustment to school and personal growth. The findings indicate that a child's entrance into the school system may lead to personal growth in the parents and that variables of both the parent (age and education) and the child (birth order) contribute to this process. Furthermore, among parents with a low level of personal growth, higher emotional intelligence was associated with a more positive assessment of the child's adjustment. The study thus demonstrates that the transition to first grade may serve as a lever for the parents' growth and development, which in turn may affect their perception of their child's adjustment to school. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Although the measurement of implicit (i.e., automatic evaluations is widespread, little is known about their origins. Some researchers have argued that implicit evaluations develop early in life through socialisation processes and are stable over time. In two studies this assumption was questioned for implicit anxiety by asking participants about their childhood fears and participants' mothers about their children's childhood fears (Study 1: 'N' = 230. Furthermore, pairs of siblings were asked about their parents rearing behaviour (Study 2: 'N' = 120 sibling pairs. Implicit anxiety (measured with the Implicit Association Test – IAT was not correlated with recalled anxiety in childhood, independent of whether the latter was self-assessed or rated by participants' mothers. Also, implicit anxiety (measured with the Single-Category-IAT was neither correlated with parents rearing behaviour nor had siblings similar implicit anxiety scores. These results suggest that implicit anxiety is either not built in childhood or not stable over time (or both. Possible explanations and implications for future research are discussed.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Shibuya, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effects of dysfunctional parenting styles on interpersonal sensitivity were studied in 640 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which is consisted of care and protection factors. Parental rearing was classified into 4 types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Males with paternal affectionless control showed higher total IPSM scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (p = 0.022). Females with maternal affectionate constraint (p = 0.001), neglectful parenting (p = 0.022), and affectionless control (p = 0.003) showed higher total IPSM scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. In males and females, dysfunctional parenting styles by the opposite-sex parents did not affected total IPSM scores. The present study suggests that in both males and females interpersonal sensitivity is increased by dysfunctional parenting styles by the same-sex parents.
Glidden, L M; Billings, F J; Jobe, B M
Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of different coping strategies. The current study explores parental personality and whether children with DD were adopted or born into the families and their influence on the coping strategies used by mothers and fathers. A total of 97 mother-father dyads rearing at least one child with DD were participants. They narrated stressful situations related to their child and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire twice. Data were also collected with regard to personality, depression and subjective well-being (SWB). Both adoptive and birth mothers and fathers used more problem-focused than emotion-focused strategies. Personality factors, Neuroticism especially, were predictive of coping strategy use. Higher levels of Positive Reappraisal were associated with higher levels of SWB, whereas higher levels of Escape-Avoidance were associated with lower levels of SWB, but only for mothers. Results were consistent with a dispositional model of strategy use in that frequency of use was associated with personality characteristics, was consistent over time, and for different children in the same families. Future research should focus on the persistence of the associations between strategy use and well-being and whether they hold true at different stages of the lifespan when coping contexts may change quite dramatically.
Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…
Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang
The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal study were 229 heterosexual bereaved Dutch couples who completed questionnaires 6, 13, and 20 months after the loss of their child. Average age of participants was 40.7 (SD = 9.5). Across 3 study waves, participants' perceived grief similarity and relationship satisfaction were assessed. To control for their effects, own grief level, child's gender, expectedness of loss, parent's age, parent's gender, and time were also included in the analyses. Consistent with the hypotheses, cross-sectional results revealed that bereaved parents who perceived dissimilar levels of grief (less or more grief) had lower relationship satisfaction than bereaved parents who perceived similar levels of grief. This effect remained significant controlling for the effects of possible confounding variables and actual similarity in grief between partners. We also found that perceived grief similarity at the first study wave was related to the highest level of relationship satisfaction at the second study wave. Moreover, results showed that perceived grief similarity was associated with a higher level in partner's relationship satisfaction. Results are discussed considering the comparison and similarity in grief across bereaved partners after child loss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.
Aim: This was to explore the relation between children's dental anxiety, their behaviour during treatment and their parent's rearing style. Also the parents' preparation of the child for dental treatment was related to behaviour and parental rearing style. Methods: The parents of 100 children,
Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and
Mindell, Jodi A; Leichman, Erin S; Walters, Russel M
Initial studies indicate more independent and consolidated sleep in the first few months in infants who sleep separately. Little is known, however, about the relationship of sleep location (separate room, room-sharing, bed-sharing) with sleep outcomes in older infants (ages 6-12 months). It was expected that those who sleep in a separate room would have better parent-perceived sleep outcomes and more positive sleep health behaviors. Parents of 6236 infants (6-12 months) in the United States (US) and 3798 in an international sample (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Great Britain, and New Zealand) completed a smartphone app-based expanded version of the validated Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. A total of 37.2% of the infants in the US and 48.4% in the international sample slept in a separate room. In both samples, infants who slept in a separate room as opposed to room-sharing or bed-sharing had parent-perceived sleep outcomes and sleep-related behaviors that reflected earlier bedtimes, shorter time to fall asleep, more nighttime and total sleep, and increased sleep consolidation. They were also more likely to have a consistent bedtime routine and to fall asleep independently, as well as less likely to feed to sleep at bedtime and during the night. In addition, parents of separate room sleepers perceived bedtime to be less difficult and sleep to be better overall. Overall, 6- to 12-month-old infants who slept in a separate room had better reported sleep outcomes and fewer parent-perceived disturbances at bedtime than infants who room-shared with their parents, as well compared to those who slept in their parents' bed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.
Ponnet, K.; Vermeiren, R; Jespers, I.; Mussche, B.; Ruchkin, V.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Deboutte, D.
Background: Because equivocal findings exist with regard to the relationship between adolescents' suicidal behaviour and parental marital status, the aim of this study was to investigate this relationship and in particular the effect of the perceived parent-adolescent relationship on this
Full Text Available Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were administered to a sample of 100 participants. Results indicated a perception of social support more pronounced in women, mainly on the dimension of social support derived from the partner. Furthermore, for women and not for men, an association between attachment models to the AAI and the different perceptions of social support was revealed. Data seems support the opportunity to assess parents during early rehabilitation interventions. Support groups could be used with insecure parents and has positive effects in reducing stress and promoting adjustment to the disability for children and their families.
Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi
The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori
It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.
Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls
Kippola-Pääkkönen, Anu; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jukka; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona
The study focuses on the parents of children who were affected by narcolepsy after a pandemic influenza and vaccination campaign in Finland. The main aim of the study was to clarify parents' expectations and perceived support from the intervention and to assess their need for additional support. The data were gathered using questionnaires. Fifty-eight parents answered the baseline questionnaire and 40 parents the final questionnaire. Parents' expectations of and perceived support from the intervention mainly related to peer support. The intervention offered an arena for sharing information and experiences and provided encouragement for coping in everyday life. Many expectations were not met, especially those concerning information about needed services, financial benefits and availability of local support. The results highlight that for persons with rare disorders and their families, an inpatient psychosocial intervention can offer an important arena to receive both informal and professionally led peer support. Comprehensive psychosocial and other support services are also needed in the community. Listening to parents' perspectives on the intervention and perceived support can help to establish multiform family-centred support for families with children affected by a rare chronic disabling condition. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B
Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ong, Min Yee; Eilander, Janna; Saw, Seang Mei; Xie, Yuhuan; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P
The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM). Nine years later, 700 out of 1052 subjects were followed up (67%). During childhood, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), while young adults completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Perceived optimal parental care resulted in less internalizing and externalizing problems in early adulthood in comparison to non-optimal parental care styles. Perceived optimal paternal parenting, but not maternal parenting, in interaction with childhood externalizing problems predicted externalizing symptoms in early adulthood. No significant interactions were found between perceived parenting styles and internalizing problems. In conclusion, perceived parental care associates with the quality of socio-emotional development, while optimal parenting by the father is especially important for children with more externalizing problems in childhood.
Montgomery, Catharine; Fisk, John E; Craig, Laura
Research in adolescents has shown that parental warmth and control are important factors in drug use. The present study focused upon investigating perceived parental warmth and control in a sample of post-adolescent ecstasy/polydrug users, and investigating their relationship to severity of drug use. A total of 128 (65 male) ecstasy/polydrug users, 51 (17 male), cannabis-only users and 54 (13 male) non-users were recruited from a university population. All participants completed the parenting styles and drug use questionnaires. Compared to non-users, a greater proportion of ecstasy/polydrug users characterised their parents' style as neglectful. The modal style endorsed by non-users was authoritative. Those who rated their parents' style as authoritative had significantly lower lifetime consumption and average dose of ecstasy relative to those describing their parents as neglectful. Again, relative to those describing their parents as neglectful, participants from authoritarian backgrounds had significantly smaller lifetime consumption of ecstasy and cocaine and significantly smaller average doses of cannabis, ecstasy and cocaine. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant association between perceived parental warmth and the severity of ecstasy use. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to quantify drug use, and relate it to perceived parental practices in a post-adolescent sample of ecstasy/polydrug users. The results provide further support for the relationship between perceived parental control and drug use.
Tam, Kim-Pong; Lee, Sau-Lai; Kim, Young-Hoon; Li, Yanmei; Chao, Melody Manchi
What values do parents want to transmit to children? The intersubjective model of value transmission posits that parents want to transmit not only the values they personally endorse but also the values they perceive to be normatively important in the society. The present research shows support to this premise. Furthermore, Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the use of perceived norms is moderated by families' social contexts and parents' personality: It was particularly pronounced among parents who were immigrants, who had a stronger need for closure, and who were more conforming. In addition, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that parents' perceived norms can explain actual value transmission: Values parents perceived to be normatively important were to some extent internalized by children. The intersubjective model paves some new directions for value transmission research, contributes to the understanding of cultural transmission and cultural change, and extends the intersubjective approach to culture.
Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A
To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed.
Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F
The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.
Banis, Hendrika; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; van Peer, D.R.
This study addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children who suffer from hemophilia. The variables were assessed in a Dutch sample of 108 zero-to-twelve-year-old boys with hemophilia and their
Rostad, Whitney L; Moreland, Angela D; Valle, Linda Anne; Chaffin, Mark J
Families experiencing child maltreatment or risk factors for child maltreatment often receive referrals to interventions focused on changing parenting practices. Compliance with specific parenting programs can be challenging as many of the stressors that place families at-risk may also interfere with program participation. Because families may receive limited benefit from programs they do not fully receive, it is critical to understand the relationship between parenting stress and barriers to program completion. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among parenting stress, perceived barriers to program participation, and program completion in two datasets involving low-income parents. Data were collected at two time points from a sample of parents involved with child welfare services and a sample of parents considered at-risk of future involvement (total study n = 803). Direct paths from parenting stress at time 1 to barriers to participation and parenting stress at time 2, and from parenting stress at time 2 to program completion were significant. Interestingly, increased barriers to participation were related to increased parenting stress at time 2, and greater parenting stress was related to increased program completion. Results suggest that with increasing levels of parenting stress, parents have an increased likelihood of completing the program. Assessing and addressing the influence of perceived barriers and parenting stress on program participation may decrease the likelihood of treatment attrition.
Full Text Available Text treats parent's experiences and perceives and the significant of their newborn premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Aim of health promotion, the significance of health education in health education counselling are presented. The purpose of this study was to introduction parent' s experiences and make an implementation in nursing practice. The advantage is represent by performing health education counselling for parents in intensive care unit permanently. Perceives of parents during living their newborn infant in neonatal intensive care unit are present on five concepts: perceive parents themselves, perceive their infant, perceive the staff and the intensive care setting and perceive their home setting. Results are showing statistic important differences between mothers and fathers at the time of deliver and at the time charging infant home. A questionare was used for collecting data. Process of development instrument is represent. Descriptive statistics and T-test was used for quantitative data analysed. Using method of internal consistent Chronbach alpha tested reliability of scales and mean differences in time are graf protrayed by 95% confident intervals. Results show statistical significant differences on all five concepts of parent's experiences. Methodological findings and reseaarch limitations are also present. Authoress positive evaluates the effect of health education counselling program and find out its positive effect on parent's critical thinking and contributes to quality assurance nursing.
Kam, Jennifer A; Pérez Torres, Debora
Utilizing primary socialization theory (PST) and longitudinal survey data from 381 Latina/o sixth- through eighth-grade students, we hypothesized that four types of parent anti-substance use messages (i.e., parents' own past substance use, religious beliefs, respect for family, and peer resistance) would discourage Latina/o students' substance use, particularly when the students perceived their parents' anti-substance use messages were legitimate. The results supported moderation. For Latina/o students who thought that their parents' anti-substance use messages were legitimate, many of the anti-substance use messages were negatively related to substance use, but the associations were positive or nonsignificant for Latina/o students who thought that their parents' anti-substance use messages were not legitimate. The findings extend past work on PST and anti-substance use parent-child communication, highlighting the importance of perceived legitimacy and message content.
Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui
Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…
Siti Fitria Ulfah
Full Text Available Background: The number of children with down syndrome in Surabaya has reached 924 children. Prevalence of gingivitis and dental caries (91% and 93.8%, respectively occurs in children with down syndrome aged 6 to 20 years. Oral and dental health problems are found in children with down syndrome because they have physical and motoric limitation in maintaining oral and dental hygiene, thus require parental care from mother. Perceived parenting style includes responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived parenting is crucial for mother whose children have Down syndrome in order to guide their health behavior, particularly to maintain oral and dental health. Purpose: The study aimed to analyze correlation between perceived parenting style and mother’s behavior in maintaining dental health of children with Down syndrome. Method: This cross sectional analytical study involved 40 mothers of children aged 7-13 years with Down syndrome enrolled in Special Education Elementary Schools Surabaya and Association of Parents of Children with Down syndrome Surabaya. Data of perceived parenting style (responsiveness and demandingness and mother’s behavior in maintaining dental health were obtained by questionnaire. Composition of each item in questionnaire of perceived parenting style and mother’s behavior in maintaining dental health of children with Down syndrome was passed through validity and reliability test. Data analysis was carried out using multiple linear regression correlation test. Result: This present study showed that perceived parenting style is significantly correlated with mother’s behavior in maintaining dental health of children with Down syndrome (R = 0.630, p = 0.000, with perceived parental responsiveness as a strong predictor. Mean score and standard deviation of perceived parental responsiveness and demandingness were 33.00±2.99 and 15.55±1.99, respectively. Conclusion: Perceived maternal parenting style in children with Down
Sümer, N; Güngör, Derya
The present study examined the interplay between the perceived parenting styles of the university students and attachment styles, basic self-dimensions, behavior patterns in close relationships, and relationship satisfaction. The findings indicated that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive/indulgent, and permissive/neglecting), which were constructed by crossing perceived parental acceptance/involment and strict control dimensions of parenting were consistently related w...
Goldberg, R L; Mann, L S; Wise, T N; Segall, E A
This study explores the contribution of parental qualities to the borderline personality disorder. The Parental Bonding Inventory is used to compare four parental qualities (caring mother, caring father, overprotective father, and overprotective mother) across three groups (borderline personality disorders, assorted psychiatric controls and normal controls). The major finding was that the borderline patients perceived their parents to be significantly less caring and more overprotective than both the psychiatric control or nonclinical control groups. This study was verified previous reports that patients diagnosed with an affective illness (in either the borderline group or psychiatric control group) reported no significant differences on the inventory. Pinpointing parental characteristics which antecede mental disorders may be an important first step in devising primary preventive interventions for adult disorders.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori
The affectionless control parenting has been associated with depression in recipients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this parenting style on dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. The subjects were 666 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. Males with paternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (P=.016). Similarly, females with maternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with maternal optimal parenting (P=.016). The present study suggests that affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli
The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Shek, Daniel T L
The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.
This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A
With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting.
Bednar, Dell Elaine; Fisher, Terri D
This study examined the relationship between parenting style and adolescent decision making. Two hundred sixty-two college students completed a decision-making scale as well as a parenting scale in an effort to determine if the child-rearing style of their parents was related to the tendency of these late adolescents to reference peers rather than parents or other adults in decision making. The results indicated that adolescents raised by authoritative parents tended to refer to their parents for moral and informational decisions, while adolescents raised by authoritarian, permissive, or neglecting-rejecting parents more often referenced their peers for moral and informational decisions. Adolescents referred to their peers for social decisions regardless of how they were raised. Parental responsiveness was a significant factor in determining the source of adolescent decision-making assistance, but parental demandingness was not. It was concluded that less orientation toward peers during late adolescence seems to be another advantage of authoritative parenting.
Fentz, Hanne N; Arendt, Mikkel; O'Toole, Mia S; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Hougaard, Esben
Despite a long tradition of research on the relationship between parenting style and anxiety disorders, few studies have taken the effect of comorbid depression into account. This study investigated perceived parenting in 504 outpatients with panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and in 210 psychology students. The anxiety group reported both parents as less caring and their fathers as more controlling than did the student group. However, these between-group differences disappeared when taking self-reported depressive symptoms into consideration. Also no differences in parental style were found between the three diagnostic anxiety groups, when depressive symptoms were taken into account. Self-reported depressive symptoms were more consistently associated with negatively perceived parenting style than with self-reported anxiety symptoms in both the anxiety group and the student group. Results do not support theories of parental control as a specific risk factor for anxiety disorders, but they are in accordance with prior findings showing an association between depression and perceived lack of parental care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leung, Patrick W. L.; Kwan, Kim S. F.
Surveyed Hong Kong high schoolers to test model stipulating motivational orientations as mediators between parenting styles and self-perceived academic competence: authoritarian parenting leading to extrinsic motivation, authoritative parenting to intrinsic motivation, and neglectful parenting to amotivation, and each motivation in turn related to…
Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.
Benoit Allen, Kristy; Silk, Jennifer S; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sheeber, Lisa B; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Siegle, Greg J; McMakin, Dana L; Ryan, Neal D
Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait-like characteristic that amplifies the relationship between parental autonomy granting and child negative emotion. The purpose of this study was to test mediation and moderation models linking parental autonomy granting and child perceived control with child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in anxious youth. Clinically anxious youth (N = 106) and their primary caregivers were assessed prior to beginning treatment. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and participated in a parent-child interaction task that was behaviorally coded for parental autonomy granting. Children completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on perceived control, emotional reactivity (anxiety and physiological arousal) and emotion regulation strategy use in response to daily negative life events. The relationship between parental autonomy granting and both child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategy use was moderated by child perceived control: the highest levels of self-reported physiological responding and the lowest levels of acceptance in response to negative events occurred in children low in perceived control with parents high in autonomy granting. Evidence for a mediational model was not found. In addition, child perceived control over negative life events was related to less anxious reactivity and greater use of both problem solving and cognitive restructuring as emotion regulation strategies. Both parental autonomy granting and child perceived control play important roles in the
Helland, Maren S; Kjeldsen, Anne; von Soest, Tilmann; Røysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Nilsen, Wendy
Research on longitudinal interparental conflict patterns and offspring development is scarce. The population-based TOPP study (N = 459) was used to investigate (1) child-rearing conflict trajectories through four time points during childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16), and (2) associations between conflict trajectories and child characteristics (i.e., birth order, gender, externalizing patterns from early childhood). Latent profile analysis identified six distinct trajectories. Conflict levels decreased for most respondents over the adolescent offspring period, but offspring's birth order and externalizing problems were related to less typical trajectories and higher levels of conflict. Onset of externalizing problems was of additional importance for the course of parental child-rearing conflicts. The results highlight the perception of the whole family as an interwoven system. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Pisinger, Veronica S C; Holst, Charlotte A; Bendtsen, Pernille
The aim of the study was to examine whether young people with parental alcohol problems have different drinking patterns than those without parental alcohol problems. Further, we examined whether the association between parental alcohol problems and young people's drinking patterns differed...... depending on the gender of the child and the parent, and whether more severe parental alcohol problems and cohabitation with the parent with alcohol problems was associated with earlier and heavier drinking patterns. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. 75......,025 high school and vocational school students (15-25years) participated. Drinking patterns were investigated by the following outcomes: non-drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, frequent binge drinking, and early intoxication debut age. The main predictor variables were perceived parental alcohol problems...
Merkel, W T; Pollard, C A; Wiener, R L; Staebler, C R
It has been hypothesized that parents of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder exhibit specific traits. 320 consecutive inpatient admissions who met criteria for OCD, depression, and panic disorder checked a list of adjectives to describe their parents. Patients with OCD were 1) less likely to perceive their mothers as disorganized than depressives, 2) more likely to perceive their mothers as overprotective than depressives and 3) less likely to perceive their fathers as demanding than patients with panic.
Full Text Available This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males. Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. Young Black males living with a parent or guardian (N = 324 were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of perceived parental monitoring. The obtained range was 10–45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd = 7.0. Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with perceived parental monitoring (all in a direction indicating a protective effect. Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile–vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15–23 years of age.
Ding, Qingwen; Li, Dongping; Zhou, Yueyue; Dong, Hongning; Luo, Jinjing
Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model focuses on the interrelation between different contexts and the interaction between individuals and their proximal contexts. Based on this theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of family, peer, and individual characteristics to investigate how they impact adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether deviant peer affiliation partially mediated the relation between perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction, and whether this indirect relation was moderated by effortful control. A total of 747 Chinese middle school students filled out anonymous questionnaires concerning perceived parental monitoring, deviant peer affiliation, effortful control, and Internet addiction. The findings indicated that while the impact of parental monitoring on Internet addiction was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation, effortful control moderated the first stage of the indirect relationship. For low effortful control adolescents, perceived parental monitoring negatively predicted deviant peer affiliation. Conversely, the indirect path was not significant for high effortful control adolescents. These findings highlight the need to consider family, peer and individual factors simultaneously when evaluating risks associated with adolescent Internet addiction and have important implications for the prevention and intervention of adolescent Internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Minal R; Brown, Randall W; Clark, Noreen M
The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics of low-income parents who perceive financial burden in managing their child's asthma and related associations with their children's asthma outcomes and clinical characteristics. We hypothesized that (1) identifiable differences between parents who do and do not report burden; (2) regardless of access to care, asthma outcomes would be worse for children whose parents perceive financial burden in obtaining care for their child's condition. Baseline data from a randomized trial evaluating the effect of a school-based asthma intervention were analyzed for this research. Eight hundred thirty-five parents were interviewed by telephone regarding their child's asthma management. Associations between demographic and clinical factors and perception of financial burden were examined using bivariate analysis. Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceptions of financial burden and asthma outcomes, including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Perceived financial burden was evident in 10% (n = 79) of parents. Female heads of household (χ2 (3) = 7.41; p financial burden. In models controlling for level of asthma control, income, and having a usual source of asthma care, parents who perceived financial burden were more likely to have children who had at least one emergency department visit (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.29), hospitalization (OR = 3.99; 95% CI = 2.03 to 7.82), or missed school days due to asthma (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.60 to 6.67) in the previous year. Our results supported our hypotheses. Among low-income parents of children with asthma, the majority do not perceive financial burden to obtaining care. However, among parents that do perceive burden, urgent care use and missed school days due to asthma for their child were significantly higher, regardless of family income and having a
Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.
A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-c...
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc
Parental monitoring, assessed as (perceived) parental knowledge of the child's behavior, has been established as a consistent predictor of problem behavior. However, recent research indicates that parental knowledge has more to do with adolescents' self-disclosure than with parents' active monitoring. Although these findings may suggest that…
Arrindell, W.A.; Gerlsma, C.; Vandereycken, W.; Hageman, W.J J M; Daeseleire, T
It has been suggested that the major dimensions of perceived parental rearing behaviour that underlie the EMBU (Emotional Warmth, Rejection and Protection) and the PBI (Care and Protection) may be considered parallel tests of the same constructs. Empirical findings however to back up this allegation
Stattin, Håkan; Kim, Yunhwan
How parents and adolescents perceive each other's life values is a key to understanding successful value transmission. In the value socializations literature, it has been proposed that parents' values become internalized when children correctly perceive their parents' values and decide to adopt them as their own. In the current study, we propose…
Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari
Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents ( N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being.
Gniewosz, Burkhard; Watt, Helen M G
This study examines whether and how student-perceived parents' and teachers' overestimation of students' own perceived mathematical ability can explain trajectories for adolescents' mathematical task values (intrinsic and utility) controlling for measured achievement, following expectancy-value and self-determination theories. Longitudinal data come from a 3-cohort (mean ages 13.25, 12.36, and 14.41 years; Grades 7-10), 4-wave data set of 1,271 Australian secondary school students. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed positive effects of student-perceived overestimation of math ability by parents and teachers on students' intrinsic and utility math task values development. Perceived parental overestimations predicted intrinsic task value changes between all measurement occasions, whereas utility task value changes only were predicted between Grades 9 and 10. Parental influences were stronger for intrinsic than utility task values. Teacher influences were similar for both forms of task values and commenced after the curricular school transition in Grade 8. Results support the assumptions that the perceived encouragement conveyed by student-perceived mathematical ability beliefs of parents and teachers, promote positive mathematics task values development. Moreover, results point to different mechanisms underlying parents' and teachers' support. Finally, the longitudinal changes indicate transition-related increases in the effects of student-perceived overestimations and stronger effects for intrinsic than utility values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun; Hafsteinsson, Leifur G.
An Icelandic study examined the relation between parenting style and adolescent substance use at age 14 and longitudinally from 14 to 17 years. Findings indicated that adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative were more protected against substance use than adolescents who perceived their parents as neglectful, both concurrently…
Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin
Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.
Law, G Urquhart; Walsh, Jennifer; Queralt, Victoria; Nouwen, Arie
To examine the association of adolescent and parent diabetes distress with perceived consequences, dietary self-efficacy, and discrepancies in diabetes family responsibility, in type 1 diabetes (T1D). 203 adolescents with T1D, aged 12-18, and their parents completed self-report questionnaires cross-sectionally. Higher HbA1c, greater perceived negative consequences of diabetes, and reduced self-efficacy predicted adolescent diabetes distress. Higher HbA1c predicted parental diabetes distress, as did diabetes family responsibility disagreements when both family members claimed responsibility, and parents' perception of reduced adolescent self-efficacy. Dietary self-efficacy and perceived negative consequences of diabetes are important factors to consider in assessing and managing adolescent diabetes distress. Perceptions of family responsibility for self-care tasks and parental confidence in adolescents' self-management have implications for parental diabetes distress. Clinical implications support long-held recommendations of taking a family-perspective of T1D care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.
A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226
Class, Quetzal A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Singh, Amber L; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, E L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.
CROSS-NATIONAL TRANSFERABILITY OF THE 2-FACTOR MODEL OF PARENTAL REARING BEHAVIOR - A CONTRAST OF DATA FROM CANADA, THE FEDERAL-REPUBLIC-OF-GERMANY, HUNGARY, JAPAN, SINGAPORE AND VENEZUELA WITH DUTCH TARGET RATINGS ON THE EMBU
ARRINDELL, WA; PERRIS, C; EISEMANN, M; DEALDAZ, EG; VANDERENDE, J; GUAN, DKS; RICHTER, J; GASZNER, P; IWAWAKI, S; BARON, P; JOUBERT, N; PRUDHOMME, L
In order to contribute to the cross-cultural study of child-rearing practices and psychopathology, this pilot study sought to examine the cross-national generalizability of parental rearing constructs by analyzing self-report data on the EMBU, an instrument designed to assess memories of parental
Sardogan, Mehmet Emin
The aim of this study is to investigate if perceived parenting styles have any influence on irrational belief in romantic relations among university students. To determine the students' irrational belief in romantic relations "Belief Inventory in Relations" by Kalkan and to determine their perception for parenting styles "Scale of…
Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen
Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…
Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...
Håkansson, Carita; Axmon, Anna; Eek, Frida
More knowledge about how recovery may promote health among parents with small children is needed. To explore whether insufficient time for leisure was associated with poorer perceived health and higher stress in working parents. A further aim was to explore potential gender differences in the association between insufficient time for leisure and poor perceived health. A postal survey including the perceived stress scale and three measures of subjective health - self-rated health (SF-36), work-related fatigue (Swedish occupational fatigue questionnaire), and Lund subjective health complaints - as well as questions about time for leisure was completed by 965 women and 597 men. Risk ratios for poor perceived health and stress were estimated using Poisson regression, in which also gender interaction was analysed. The results showed higher risk for perceived stress among parents reporting insufficient time for relaxation, and more subjective health complaints among those reporting insufficient time to spend with their children. Overall, effects were larger among women than among men. A good balance between work and leisure seems to be of importance for working parents' perceived health and stress.
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart
This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not…
Sideridis, Georgios D.; Kafetsios, Konstantinos
The purpose of the present studies was to test the hypothesis that students' perceptions of parental bonding may be predictive of how individuals approach achievement situations. It was hypothesized that reports of parental overprotection would be predictive of elevated fears and subsequent stress and low achievement compared to perceived parental…
Zha Blong Xiong
Full Text Available In their countries of origin, immigrant youth are unlikely to question the age-old child-rearing practices of their elders; however, the parenting of adolescents in an adopted country can become a major source of family conflict. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Southeast Asian adolescents growing up in the United States perceive their parents’ practices in six areas of parenting responsibility identified by the National Extension Parent Education Model: caring for self, understanding, guiding, nurturing, motivating, and advocating. Four focus groups were conducted with 37 Southeast Asian (Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 14 to 19 years to ascertain how they perceived parenting behaviors. An analytic induction procedure was used to analyze transcripts from in-depth focus group discussions. Results indicate wide divergence between the idealized practices of the model, the parents’ actual practices, and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices. The study has important implications for the growing number of immigrant families from diverse cultures who are parenting adolescents in unfamiliar cultural contexts and for the educators, human service providers, and others who work with them.
Full Text Available We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD. A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.
Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.
The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…
Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F
In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.
Hendriks, Alexander H. C.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Savelberg, Martine M. H. W.
Eighty-one Dutch mothers and 67 fathers completed a questionnaire developed to measure perceived changes in well-being of parents with a toddler with motor disabilities who participated in a therapeutic toddler class. Parents perceived a positive change in well-being 10 months after their child started participation. The impact was greater for…
Larzelere, R E; Klein, M; Schumm, W R; Alibrando, S A
Punishment has long been a controversial topic in psychology, perhaps partly because its effects are different under different circumstances. This study used retrospective reports from college students to examine the effects of spanking, a common aversive punishment, on self-esteem and perceived fairness of parental discipline, while taking the effects of other parental characteristics into account. No parental characteristic interacted with the slightly negative effect of spanking on self-esteem and fairness. However, controlling for positive communication or for a parent-oriented motivation for spanking eliminated the negative effects of spanking, suggesting that the negative effects reflected use of spanking as a replacement for positive communication with the child.
Pisinger, Veronica S C; Hawton, Keith; Tolstrup, Janne S
parental alcohol problems and self-injury, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt among young people differed depending on the gender of the child and the parent. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. A total of 75,853 high school and vocational school students......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that young people who perceive their parents to have alcohol problems are more likely to self-injure, have suicide ideation, and to attempt suicide than young people without parental alcohol problems. We also tested whether the association between...... participated. Self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were outcomes and the main exposure variables were perceived parental alcohol problems, gender of the parent with alcohol problems, cohabitation with a parent with alcohol problems, and severity of the parents' alcohol problems. Young people...
Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme
Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants’ self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants’ self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents’ self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pparenting styles and improve self-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested. PMID:25349847
Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme
Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents' self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants' self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants' self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents' self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pparenting styles and improve self-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested.
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart
This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not degree of prohibition related to overtime changes in internalization and oppositional defiance. Specifically, in line with self-determination theory, autonomy-supportive and controlling styles of prohibiting were found to relate differentially to quality of internalization and oppositional defiance. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that several of these associations were reciprocal. The discussion focuses on the critical role of perceived parental style for communicating prohibitions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.
Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Meyer, William H; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Mullins, Larry L
The current study sought to examine the relation of parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability to parent-reported health-related quality of life in parents of children with cancer. Parents (N = 89) of children who had been diagnosed with cancer completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parent-proxy report of health-related quality of life. After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability were both found to be significantly related to child health-related quality of life. Additional analyses revealed that perceived child vulnerability mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting behaviors and the child's health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the need to assess for these discrete parenting variables in parents of children with cancer and to develop interventions to target parental perceptions of vulnerability.
Deković, M; Meeus, W
In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.
Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background and aims This study developed and validated the Parents' Perceived Self-Efficacy to Manage Children's Internet Use Scale (PSMIS) in the parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In total, 231 parents of children with ADHD were invited to complete the PSMIS, followed by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and the short version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale - Chinese version for analyzing Internet addiction severity and ADHD symptoms, respectively. Results The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four-factor structure of the 18-item PSMIS. The significant difference in the levels of parents' perceived self-efficacy between the parents of children with and without Internet addiction supported the criterion-related validity of the PSMIS. The internal consistency and 1-month test-retest reliability were acceptable. Conclusion The results indicate that the PSMIS has acceptable validity and reliability and can be used for measuring parents' perceived self-efficacy to manage children's Internet use among parents of children with ADHD.
Creemers, Hanneke E.; Buil, J. Marieke; van Lier, Pot A. C.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; Huizink, Anja C.
Background The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and
Creemers, H.E.; Buil, J.M.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.; Koot, H.M.; Huizink, A.C.
Background: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and
Full Text Available Background: The present study aims to explore the perceived parenting style among the transgender. Methods: It was a cross-sectional comparative study. Purposive sampling was used for the transgender group and group-matched non-transgender were included in the non-transgender comparative group. A sample of 62 individuals (30 transgender consisting of 22 male to female or MTF transgender and eight female to male or FTM transgender, and 32 non-transgender consisting of 24 males and eight females, male and females, between the age range of 18-40 years, and minimum educational qualification till class eight were selected after a basic interview and screening. They were assessed using the Parental Authority Questionnaire and t-test analysis was computed to analyse the obtained data. Results: Authoritative parenting style was found to be significantly lower for both the parents of the participants in the transgender group. On the contrary, authoritarian parenting was found to be significantly higher for both the parents in the transgender group. Conclusions: The study indicated that among the transgender group, both the parents fail to provide safe and nurturing emotional climate which has been found to be contributory to healthy development and respectful of an individual. Hence, the findings highlight the need that interventions should also focus on family acceptance as it acts as protective factor and promote their well-being.
Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate
This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one’s child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193), in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination, revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190
Nicksic, Nicole E; Salahuddin, Meliha; Butte, Nancy F; Hoelscher, Deanna M
A growing body of research has examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and parental encouragement for child physical activity (PA), yet these potential predictors have not been studied together to predict child outdoor PA. The purpose of this study is to examine these predictors and parent- and child-reported child outdoor PA. The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study collected data from fifth-grade students attending 31 elementary schools across Austin and Houston and their parents (N = 748 parent-child dyads). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates assessed associations among parental-perceived neighborhood safety, parental encouragement for child's outdoor PA, and parent- and child-reported child's outdoor PA. Parental-perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with encouraging outdoor PA (P = .01) and child-reported child's outdoor PA in boys, but not in girls. Significant associations were found between parental encouragement and child-reported outdoor PA for girls (P < .05) and parent-reported outdoor PA (P < .01) for boys and girls. Parent encouragement of PA and neighborhood safety are potential predictors of child outdoor PA and could be targeted in youth PA interventions.
Allen, Kristy Benoit; Silk, Jennifer S.; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Siegle, Greg J.; McMakin, Dana L.; Ryan, Neal D.
© 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait...
Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.
In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…
Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo
The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (poverprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hidding, Lisan M; Altenburg, Teatske M; van Ekris, Evi; Chinapaw, Mai J M
Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children's sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11-13 years old children ( n = 38) and two online sessions with parents ( n = 21). Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children's sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… "it is the norm (I have to)", and "I can work/play better that way". In addition, children rated "there is nobody to play with" as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.
Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi
We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: “knowledge of the child’s characteristics,” “perceived social supports,” and “positive perceptions of parenting.” Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that “knowledge of the child’s characteristics” was associated with parenting behavior, whereas “perceived social supports” predicted depressive symptoms; “positive perceptions of parenting” influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions. PMID:26633810
Diamond, Gary M.; Didner, Hila; Waniel, Ariela; Priel, Beatriz; Asherov, Jack; Arbel, Shosh
Levels of perceived parental care and control among 24 female Israeli adolescents presenting at emergency rooms after a self-poisoning act of low lethality were compared to those found among 23 non-self-harming, community controls. Adolescents' perceived levels of parental care and control were measured via both adolescents' self-report and…
Maynard, M J; Harding, S
Warm, caring parenting with appropriate supervision and control is considered to contribute to the best mental health outcomes for young people. The extent to which this view on 'optimal' parenting and health applies across ethnicities, warrants further attention. We examined associations between perceived parental care and parental control and psychological well-being among ethnically diverse UK adolescents. In 2003 a sample of 4349 pupils aged 11-13 years completed eight self-reported parenting items. These items were used to derive the parental care and control scores. Higher score represents greater care and control, respectively. Psychological well-being was based on total psychological difficulties score from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, increasing score corresponding to increasing difficulties. All minority pupils had lower mean care and higher mean control scores compared with Whites. In models stratified by ethnicity, increasing parental care was associated with lower psychological difficulties score (better mental health) and increasing parental control with higher psychological difficulties score within each ethnic group, compared with reference categories. The difference in psychological difficulties between the highest and lowest tertiles of parental care, adjusted for age, sex, family type and socio-economic circumstances, was: White UK =-2.92 (95% confidence interval -3.72, -2.12); Black Caribbean =-2.08 (-2.94, -1.22); Nigerian/Ghanaian =-2.60 (-3.58, -1.62); Other African =-3.12 (-4.24, -2.01); Indian =-2.77 (-4.09, -1.45); Pakistani/ Bangladeshi =-3.15 (-4.27, -2.03). Between ethnic groups (i.e. in models including ethnicity), relatively better mental health of minority groups compared with Whites was apparent even in categories of low care and low autonomy. Adjusting for parenting scores, however, did not fully account for the protective effect of minority ethnicity. Perceived quality of parenting is a correlate of
Ahmad, Ikhlas; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart
Although the effects of important parenting dimensions, such as responsiveness and psychological control, are well documented among Western populations, research has only recently begun to systematically identify psychological processes that may account for the cross-cultural generalization of these effects. A first aim of this study was to examine whether perceived maternal responsiveness and psychological control would relate differentially to teacher ratings of adolescent adjustment in a vertical-collectivist society (i.e., Jordan). The most important aim of this study was to examine, on the basis of self-determination theory, whether these associations would be accounted for by perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results in a large sample of Jordanian adolescents (N = 545) showed that perceived maternal psychological control and responsiveness yielded, respectively, a positive and negative association with teacher-rated problems, whereas psychological control was negatively related to teacher-rated adjustment. Further, these 2 parenting dimensions related to adjustment and problems via perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence (but not relatedness). The findings are discussed in light of the ongoing debate between universalistic and relativistic perspectives on parenting and adolescent adjustment.
Collier, A F; McClure, F H; Collier, J; Otto, C; Polloi, A
Providing culturally sensitive definitions of child abuse is difficult as perceptions of what constitutes abuse can vary around the world. This study was undertaken to assess how teachers in the Republic of Palau perceived the severity of potentially abusive incidents and what types of recommendations, if any, they would have for situations judged as severely abusive. Attitudes about child rearing practices were also evaluated. Teachers (n = 141 ) were given: (1) a questionnaire consisting of 25 vignettes describing parent/child interactions that were potentially abusive and asked to rate the severity of abuse and recommended interventions for each vignette; and (2) a 40-item parenting styles questionnaires to evaluate attitudes about child-rearing practices. Teachers identified and recommended interventions for more severe forms of abuse at rates similar to other international samples. For less severe parental misconduct, teachers were reluctant to involve nonfamily and outside agencies. Sexual abuse was rated as the most serious type of abuse and when identified, intervention was highly recommended. Some traditional Palauan parenting practices that might be considered maltreatment by other cultures were not considered abusive. For parenting styles, older individuals were more likely to use guilt induction and less likely to use methods of acceptance. Aggressive parenting styles were negatively correlated with all forms of abuse, suggesting that teachers who used aggressive disciplinary styles were less likely to perceive abusive situations as harmful. These results indicate that cultural values and practices play important roles in shaping the definition and interpretation of child maltreatment.
Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer
In the current study, we examined the genetic and environmental sources of the links between individual religiousness and individual personality traits, perceived parental religiousness, and perceived peer religiousness. Data from 870 individuals (incl. 394 twin pairs) were analyzed. Variance in individual religiousness was significantly influenced by genetic effects, environmental influences shared by twins reared together, and individual-specific environmental influences. Individual religiousness showed significant associations with age, sex, specific personality traits (e.g., agreeableness, openness to values), and perceived religiousness of important social interaction partners, such as parents, best friends, and spouses. The links to personality traits were relatively small and primarily genetically mediated. The associations between individual religiousness and parental religiousness were substantial and mediated by shared environmental effects. These links significantly decreased across age accompanying a significant decrease of shared environmental influences on individual religiousness. The correlations between individual religiousness and perceived religiousness of spouses and best friends were relatively moderate but increased with age. These associations were mediated by genetic as well as nonshared environmental sources accompanying an increase of nonshared environmental influences on individual religiousness with age. The results suggest that inter-individual differences in religiousness are due to multiple sources.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.
The current study examined the relationship between self-reported bullying, victimization, attachment styles and parenting in a nonclinical sample of 601 Greek preadolescents. Results showed that both bullying and victimization were related to perceived parenting (positively with rejection and negatively with emotional warmth). Insecurely attached…
Valkenburg, P.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Hermanns, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de
The aim of this study was to develop the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS). The PPMMS measures adolescents' perceptions about how frequently their parents restrict or actively discuss their media use, and in what style (i.e., autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent). In a
Valkenburg, P.M.; Piotrowski, J.; Hermanns, J.; de Leeuw, R.
The aim of this study was to develop the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS). The PPMMS measures adolescents' perceptions about how frequently their parents restrict or actively discuss their media use, and in what style (i.e., autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent). In a
Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine
Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.
Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Wood, Mark
The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of…
Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige
Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.
Full Text Available Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507. The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384. Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888. We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
To clarify the origins of parent-child resemblance for drug abuse (DA), using national Swedish data, we fit path models to information on DA in parents and children from six informative family types: i) not-lived-with father, ii) not-lived-with mother, iii) stepfather, iv) stepmother, v) triparental, and vi) adoptive. From these families, we estimated parent-offspring resemblance reflecting the effects of genes + rearing, genes only, and rearing only. The estimates of parent-offspring correlations were statistically homogenous across family types. The weighted estimate of the father-offspring correlation for DA for genes + rearing, genes-only, and rearing-only relationships were, respectively, +0.26, +0.19, and +0.06. Parallel figures for mother-offspring relationships were +0.19, +0.13, and +0.09. In both genes + rearing and genes-only parent-offspring relationships, DA correlations were stronger for fathers than for mothers. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent-offspring resemblance for DA and seem to be additive.
Lisan M. Hidding
Full Text Available Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children’s sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11–13 years old children (n = 38 and two online sessions with parents (n = 21. Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children’s sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… “it is the norm (I have to”, and “I can work/play better that way”. In addition, children rated “there is nobody to play with” as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.
Pimentel, Maria João; Vieira-Santos, Salomé; Santos, Vanessa; Vale, Maria Carmo
This study focuses on mothers of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sets out (1) to characterize dimensions of both parental functioning (parenting stress and parental practices) and child characteristics (behaviour) and (2) to determine predictors of parenting stress, namely parental rearing practices or perceived behaviour of the child, in order to plan intervention with the families. Fifty-two mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD and aged 6-12 years participated in the study. The Portuguese versions of the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin and Santos 2003), EMBU-P (Canavarro and Pereira 2007) and Child Behaviour Checklist (Albuquerque et al. 1999) were used. Results showed that mothers of children with ADHD experience higher levels of parenting stress (emerging essentially from the child's characteristics) and report more behavioural problems in their children (for girls and boys), but use parental practices similar to those of the mothers of the Portuguese validation sample. Results also indicate that child behaviour (both internalized and externalized) and parental practices dominated by rejection predict parenting stress. These findings have implications for intervention with children diagnosed with ADHD and their families.
Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...... using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. SETTING: DENMARK: PARTICIPANTS: 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables included...
K. van der Horst (Klazine); S. Kremers (Stef); A. Ferreira (Isabel); A. Singh (Amika); A. Oenema (Anke); J. Brug (Hans)
textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383,
Verrocchio, Maria C; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. RESULTS revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Maria Cristina eVerrocchio
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.
Kostić, Jelena; Nešić, Milkica; Stanković, Miodrag; Zikić, Olivera
Conduct disorder is characterized by repetitive and persistent presence of dissocial, aggressive and defiant behavioral patterns, thus represents important public issue with comprehensive and far-reaching consequences both for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic family characteristics and the prominence of parental acceptance/rejection dimensions in groups of adolescents with and without conduct disorder, as well as to examine the connection between parental acceptance/rejection dimensions and externalizing symptoms in the group of adolescents with conduct disorder. This research was conducted on 134 adolescents, aged 15 to 18, using the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ child), Youth Self-Report (YSR), and a questionnaire constructed for the purpose of this survey. The results showed that the number of adolescents with conduct disorder coming from divorced families was significandy higher than from complete families (44.8% vs 13.4%, respectively; p disorders compared to the controls (31.3% vs 8.9%; respectively; p = 0.001). The perceived rejection dimension and the total index of maternal acceptance/rejection were significantly higher in adolescents with conduct disorder than in those with no such disorder (132.30 ± 38.05 vs 93.91 ± 26.29 respectively; p conduct disorder and severe perceived maternal and paternal rejection showed a significantly higher average score on the subscale of externalizing symptoms (14.55 ± 4.45 and 13.27 + 5.05) compared to adolescents with conduct disorder and lower total index of parental acceptance/rejection (8.32 ± 5.05 and 8.28 ± 5.08). The results suggest that adolescents with conduct disorder perceive their parents as more rejecting and less warm and supportive compared to adolescents without conduct disorder. The perception of significant and severe parental rejection was associated with a significantly higher averaged score on the subscale
Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Gómez-Taibo, Mª L; Regueiro, Bibiana; Estévez, Iris; Valle, Antonio
Although numerous studies have tried to explain performance in maths very few have deeply explored the relationship between different variables and how they jointly explain mathematical performance. With a sample of 897 students in 5th and 6th grade in Primary Education and using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study analyzes how the perception of parents’ beliefs is related to children´s beliefs, their involvement in mathematical tasks and their performance. Perceived parental involvement contributes to the motivation of their children in mathematics. Direct supervision of students’ academic work by parents may increase students’ concerns about the image and rating of their children, but not their academic performance. In fact, maths achievement depends directly and positively on the parents’ expectations and children’s maths self-efficacy and negatively on the parents’ help in tasks and performance goal orientation. Perceived parental involvement contributes to children’s motivation in maths essentially conveying confidence in their abilities and showing interest in their progress and schoolwork.
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Weisel, Amatzia; Tzuk, Kineret
To better understand the work-family interface within the family domain, this study investigated crossover effects of two types of work-family conflict among 120 participants (60 married couples), these conflicts' relations with parental self-efficacy and perceived quality of parent-child interaction, and the contribution of attributions of…
Xiang, Xiaoping; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Hou, Ke
Previous research has indicated that perceived discrimination has harmful effects on migrant children's physical, mental and behavioral health. However, little is known as to whether these harmful effects cumulate to impact on migrant children's personalities. This study examines the effect of perceived discrimination on personality, as well as the moderating role of parental support in the discrimination-personality linkage. A purposeful convenience sample of 215 migrant children in Beijing, China, completed a standardized questionnaire. Migrant children experienced a moderate level of perceived discrimination, with Form 8 students experiencing greater discrimination than lower grades and those with lower family incomes also experiencing greater discrimination than those with higher family incomes. Perceived discrimination significantly predicted neuroticism; parental support significantly predicted extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but the moderating effect of parental support was only marginally significant for the relation between discrimination and conscientiousness. This study underlines the need for researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the impact of perceived discrimination on migrant children's personality development.
Hamlington, Barbara; Ivey, Lauren E; Brenna, Ethan; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B; Sapp, Julie C
A child's obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child's parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents. Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences. Parents of children with BBS reported the child's obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents. Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child's obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents' perceptions and causal attributions of their children's weight may improve communication about weight control.
Full Text Available A child's obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child's parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents.Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences.Parents of children with BBS reported the child's obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents.Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child's obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents' perceptions and causal attributions of their children's weight may improve communication about weight control.
White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M
This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes.
صادق تقی لو
Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male), who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Style...
Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pires, Mónica; Paz, Telma
Parenting styles (PS) are parents’ attitudes towards their child overall development and education. By setting family climate and parents’ behaviors, PS have been a focus on development psychology and family studies, namely, in relation to child outcomes. This cross-sectional study analyzes the impact of perceived PS by adolescents on their school achievement. 110 boys and 118 girls from the 5th to 9th school level, (M= 12.60, SD= 1.82) from a public school...
Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang
The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal
Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang
The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal
Hamlington, Barbara; Ivey, Lauren E.; Brenna, Ethan; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Sapp, Julie C.
Background A child’s obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child’s parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents. Methods Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences. Results Parents of children with BBS reported the child’s obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents. Conclusions Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child’s obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents’ perceptions and causal attributions of their children’s weight may improve communication about weight control. PMID:26473736
Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E
The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.
Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip
The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health.
Kevin R Fontaine
Full Text Available We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1 The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO, and (2 The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT. In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex the raw (unstandardized regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2 in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p = 0.01. Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p = .034 and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p≤.0001, and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p = .09. Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI.
Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William
This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.
Steinsbekk, Silje; Odegård, Rønnaug; Wichstrøm, Lars
Research supports the use of family-based interventions in the treatment of obesity in children, but there is a lack of knowledge about what factors affect parents' ability to carry out the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce their child's obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parents' self-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers, subjective norms, and attitudes could predict change in their children's body fat at 6 month and 2 year follow-ups after a family-based treatment of obesity. Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Scores (BMI SDS) were calculated and body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 99 treatment-seeking children with obesity (ages 7-12; 48 girls, 51 boys; mean BMI SDS = 2.99) at baseline, after 6 month and after 2 year follow-up. Parental cognitions regarding diet and physical activity were examined by parent-completed questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether the selected health cognitions could predict treatment outcome. Parental perceived emotional barriers was a significant predictor of change in body fat at 6 month (β = -.32, p = .001) and 2 year (β = -.38, p = .002) follow-up when the initial body fat values were controlled. Self-efficacy, subjective norms and attitudes did not improve the amount of variance explained. Parents' perceived emotional barriers significantly predict change in total body fat in children treated for obesity. In order to increase treatment-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers should be addressed. Â© 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William
Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.
José C. Núñez
Full Text Available This study investigated how students’ prior achievement is related to their homework behaviors (i.e., time spent on homework, homework time management, and amount of homework, and to their perceptions of parental involvement in homework (i.e., parental control and parental support. A total of 1250 secondary students from 7 to 10th grade participated in the study. Structural equation models were fitted to the data, compared, and a partial mediation model was chosen. The results indicated that students’ prior academic performance was significantly associated with both of the students’ homework variables, with direct and indirect results linking achievement and homework behaviors with perceived parental control and support behaviors about homework. Low-achieving students, in particular, perceived more parental control of homework in the secondary grades. These results, together with those of previous research, suggest a recursive relationship between secondary school students’ achievement and their perceptions of parental involvement in homework, which represents the process of student learning and family engagement over time. Study limitations and educational implications are discussed.
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students' general interest of science, their parents' occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.
van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…
Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping
Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children's well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents' mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent's social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father's rearing styles and mother's rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents' social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it.
رویا سادات علویان
Full Text Available Present study, aimed to assess the effect of parent-child play therapy on decreasing depression symptoms in children with cancer, decreasing perceived stress of their mothers and improving the parent-child relationship. A total of 14 children diagnosed with cancer were selected, among the patients of Dr. Sheikh Hospital in the city of Mashhad, and randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. Mothers completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS, the children completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI, both in pre-test and post-test. Eight sessions of parent-child play therapy were adminstered separately for every pair of mother-child from intervention group. Data were analyzed by using analysis of covariance. Compared to the control group, CDI scores of intervention group reduced significantly from pre to post test. Also scores of PCRS increased significantly for the intervention group. PSS Scores of intervention groups was not significantly different from control group. As a result, parent-child play therapy can be effective in reducing depression symptoms of children with cancer, and improving the parent-child relationship; while, it was not effective for reducing mothers' level of perceived stress.
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi
This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…
Chan, Kwok Wai; Chan, Siu Mui
Three hundred and seven teacher education students of a Hong Kong university were administered two questionnaires, one measuring emotional autonomy (EAS) and the other measuring perceived parenting styles (PAQ) of their parents. It was found that the Hong Kong teacher education students tended to be autonomous and they characterized their parents…
Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Santalahti, Päivi; Pekkanen, Juha
Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k). Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self- and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self- and parent administered questionnaires was generally indoor air quality. Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.
O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.
Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske
This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…
The present study examined the effect of the perceived parent-child relationship in childhood on resilience in youth. It recruited 268 university students majoring in education and college students majoring in welfare science to investigate the relationship between their perception of parent-child relationship in their childhood and their current resilience by their responses on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Children's Perceived Affiliation for Parents Scale. The results indicated that female's positive perception of their relationship with their mothers in childhood had a positive influence on their resilience. On the other hand, the positive influence was inconspicuous and limited with regard to the perception of female's relationship with their fathers in childhood. In contrast, this positive influence was not confirmed in male participants regardless of the perception of their relationship with mothers and fathers in childhood. Although limited to females, these results suggest that youth's perception of their parent-child relationships in childhood significantly affected the development of resilience. In addition, sex difference was observed in this effect. The findings have been discussed with respect to the process of the development of resilience.
Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda
The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.
Patock-Peckham, J A; Cheong, J; Balhorn, M E; Nagoshi, C T
This investigation sought to determine how different parenting styles are related to general self-regulatory processes that are linked to alcohol use and abuse. Self-regulation and, more specifically, thoughts of control over drinking are forms of positive self-control mechanisms. Parenting styles are known determinants of both negative and positive self-control mechanisms in offspring. According to social learning theory, stronger relationships between parenting style and self-regulatory processes would be expected from the parent who is the same sex as the respondent. A total of 144 female and 107 male college students currently using alcohol were administered a questionnaire on their alcohol use and problems, perceived style of parenting (authoritarian, permissive, or authoritative) of their parents, self-regulation, and perceived control of drinking. A model linking parenting styles, self-regulatory processes, and control over drinking with alcohol use and alcohol problems was tested across sex groups by using structural equation modeling. In general, the parenting style of the parent of the same sex as the respondent's was found to be significantly related to self-regulation, which is known to be protective against alcohol use and abuse. A permissive parent of the same sex as the respondent was negatively associated with good self-regulatory processes for both men and women. Having an authoritative mother was also shown to be related to higher levels of self-regulation for women. Self-regulation mediated the pathway from a permissive parenting style to perceived drinking control, which, in turn, mediated the pathway from self-regulation to alcohol use and problems. Finally, self-regulation mediated the positive pathway from an authoritative mother to perceived control over drinking for women.
Against the backdrop of a high proportion of mothers who take care of their children at home and the problem of child-rearing anxiety and social isolation among them, the Japanese government has currently expanded child-rearing support via the Community-based Child-rearing Support Centers (CCSCs). They are open spaces for infants and parents in the community, where they can gather freely, communicate with each other, and share their anxieties and worries related to child rearing. ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medical (CAM therapies are commonly used by pediatric patients with chronic medical conditions. Little is known about parents' perceptions of these therapies. This study describes the views of parents of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA regarding conventional and CAM therapies. Methods Parents of children with JIA seen at a pediatric rheumatology clinic were surveyed between June 1 and July 31, 2007. Questionnaires asked about patients' use of over 75 therapies in the past 30 days, their perceived helpfulness (0 = not helpful; 3 = very helpful, perceived side effects (0 = none; 3 = severe, and whether each therapy would be recommended to other patients with JIA (Yes, No, Not sure. Results Questionnaires were returned by 52/76 (68% parents; patients' average age was 10.9 years and 87% were Caucasian. Medications were used by 45 (88% patients; heat (67% and extra rest (54% were also commonly used. CAM therapies were used by 48 (92%, e.g., massage (54%, vitamins and other supplements (54%, avoiding foods that worsened pain (35% and stress management techniques (33%. Among the therapies rated by 3 or more parents, those that scored 2.5 or higher on helpfulness were: biologic medications, methotrexate, naproxen, wheelchairs, orthotics, heat, vitamins C and D, music, support groups and prayer. CAM therapies had 0 median side effects and parents would recommend many of them to other families. Conclusion JIA patients use diverse therapies. Parents report that many CAM therapies are helpful and would recommend them to other parents. These data can be used in counseling patients and guiding future research.
Bynion, Teah-Marie; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Bilsky, Sarah A; Cloutier, Renee M; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W
Social anxiety is the most common anxiety disorder among youth; theoretical and empirical work suggest specific parenting behaviors may be relevant. However, findings are inconsistent, particularly in terms of maternal as compared to paternal effects. In the current study, we evaluated the indirect effects of perceived psychological control on the relation between anxious rearing behaviors and child social anxiety among 112 community-recruited girls (ages 12-15 years). In addition to self-report, adolescent participants completed a laboratory-based social stress task. In line with hypotheses, results indicated indirect effects of psychological control on the relation between anxious rearing behaviors and child social anxiety in maternal but not paternal models. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and empirical implications for clarifying the role of parental relations in adolescent social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.
Van Petegem, Stijn; Brenning, Katrijn; Baudat, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (M age = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…
Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.
Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...
Fulgosi-Masnjak, Rea; And Others
This study compared the perceived personal competence of two groups of parents of primary grade children in Croatia with (N=86) and without (N=186) mild intellectual disability. The comparison was based on the parents' perceived competence in the areas of parental role, self-respect, locus of control, and social anxiousness. Children in the two…
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.
Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester
Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…
Faravelli, C; Panichi, C; Pallanti, S; Paterniti, S; Grecu, L M; Rivelli, S
Thirty-two patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of panic disorder (PD) were administered the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a 25-item self-report questionnaire devised to evaluate parental rearing practices. Compared with 32 matched healthy controls, PD patients scored both their parents as being significantly less caring and more overprotective. Moreover, the consistency of parental attitudes between the 2 parents was significantly lower, indicating lesser uniformity in the rearing patterns.
Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J
Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ong, Min Yee; Eilander, Janna; Saw, Seang Mei; Xie, Yuhuan; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F. P.
The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years...
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
Rosberg, Marilee A.
In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…
Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J
Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.
Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Lamb, Michael E.; Zhou, Nan
The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups. PMID:29276309
Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S L; Lamb, Michael E; Zhou, Nan
The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old ( M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers' reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers' reports of their children's EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.
Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H
Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.
The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…
Rajhvajn Bulat, Linda; Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dea
Previous research has confirmed peers and parents as significant agents of socialisation with respect to young people's sexuality. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to examine how parental and peer variables predict young women's sexual behaviour and sexuality-related thoughts and emotions, and whether perceived peer influences…
Woolfson, L; Grant, E
Rearing a child with a developmental disability is associated with increased parental stress. Theories of stress and adjustment and bi-directional theories of child development suggest that parenting could influence these negative outcomes. Relationships between parenting approaches and stress in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) (N = 53) were examined across two age groups, 3-5 years and 9-11 years and compared with a contrast group of typically developing children (TD) (N = 60). Measures used were the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and Rickel and Biasatti's modification of Block's Child Rearing Practices Report, classified into Baumrind's parenting styles using Reitman and Gross's method. Parents in the older DD group used Authoritative parenting less than parents in the younger DD group, while the opposite developmental pattern was seen in the TD group. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant group x parenting style interaction for Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child. Stress measures were higher for the DD group and seemed to be associated with Authoritative parenting approaches, an effect that was not observed in the TD group. Findings suggest that the well-established effect of group on stress may be moderated by parenting style. Authoritative parenting may be highly stressful for parents of children with DD to implement, resulting in a decrease in its use across the two age groups.
Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children’s well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent’s social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father’s rearing styles and mother’s rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents’ social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it.
Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping
Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children’s well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent’s social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father’s rearing styles and mother’s rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents’ social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it. PMID:28473798
Brenick, Alaina; Romano, Kelly
Cultural group identity and group norms are significantly related to social exclusion evaluations (Bennett, ). This study examined 241 Jewish-American mid (M = 14.18 years, SD = 0.42) to late (M = 17.21 years, SD = 0.43; MageTOTAL = 15.54 years, SD = 1.57) adolescents' cultural identities and contextually salient perceived group norms in relation to their evaluations of Arab-American inclusion and exclusion across two contexts (peers vs. family at home). Results suggest that perceived group norms are related to the context in which they are applied: parents in the home and peers in the peer context. Peers remained a significant source of perceived group norms in the home context. Significant interactions emerged between perceived parent group norms and cultural identity. Findings highlight the need to address group-specific norms by context to ensure maximum effectiveness for intergroup interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Criscuolo, Michela; Chianello, Ilenia; Mazzoni, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto
This study aims at examining whether adolescent girls diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and their parents differ in perceiving the different aspects of family functioning. Moreover, the discrepancy between adolescent girls and healthy controls on Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales dimensions, family communication, and family satisfaction is investigated. The study includes 36 female anorexia patients and their parents and 36 healthy controls. The results showed a different view between mothers and their daughters with regard to the dimension of rigidity. In addition, girls with anorexia nervosa were less satisfied about family environment and rated their families as less communicative, flexible, cohesive, and more disengaged, compared to controls.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Mounts, Nina S
The authors examined the moderating role of adolescent's gender and father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and self-efficacy in a socioeconomical diverse sample of Iranian ado-lescents (n = 382). Results revealed that paternal authoritative parenting was significantly and positively related to self-efficacy. Interestingly, a significant and positive relation was also found between paternal authoritarian parenting and self-efficacy. This finding might have been the result of the fact that this study was conducted as part of a collectivist culture. In addition, the results indicated that boys who perceived their fathers as highly authoritative indicated higher self-efficacy than girls did. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that higher educational levels attenuate the negative impact of the permissive parenting style on self-efficacy. The present findings underscore the need to focus on the role of gender and father's education when assessing the link between parenting style and adolescents' self-efficacy.
C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)
textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in
Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Pai, Ahna L Hoff; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Gillaspy, Stephen; Cheek, Jeff; Page, Melanie
To examine the relationship of parent-reported overprotection (OP), perceived child vulnerability (PCV), and parenting stress (PS) to youth-reported illness uncertainty, and to explore potential developmental differences. Eighty-two children and 82 adolescents (n = 164) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma, completed a measure of illness uncertainty, while their parents completed measures of OP, PCV, and PS. After controlling for demographic and illness parameters, both PCV and PS significantly predicted youth illness uncertainty in the combined sample. Within the child group, only PS significantly predicted illness uncertainty, whereas only PCV significantly predicted uncertainty for adolescents. Specific parenting variables are associated with youth-reported illness uncertainty; however, their relationship varies according to developmental level. Although OP has been identified as a predictor of child psychological outcomes in other studies, it does not appear to be associated with illness uncertainty in youth with DM1 or asthma.
Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien; Ottenkamp, Jaap; van Roozendaal, Matty; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Koopman, Hendrik M.
Parents of children with congenitally malformed hearts can suffer from stress as a result of the medical condition of their child. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to describe levels of parental stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children who underwent major cardiac surgery,
Andrew E. Springer
Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.
Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…
Heider, Dirk; Bernert, Sebastian; Matschinger, Herbert; Haro, Josep M; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C
The short-term effect of an adverse parental child rearing style on suicidality in adolescence has been extensively discussed. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term effect of adverse parental child rearing on lifetime suicidality in adulthood. So the present study aims to examine the relation between parental bonding on the one hand and suicidality in adulthood on the other. We used data from 7740 respondents of the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders project, a cross-sectional household survey carried out in six European countries. The data were assessed with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a comprehensive, fully structured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Suicidality was categorized as follows: 'no ideation', 'ideation', 'attempt'. Parental bonding was assessed by means of a three-factor ('care', 'overprotection', 'authoritarianism') short form of the Parental Bonding Instrument. Using a multinomial-logistic regression model to investigate the association between these two constructs, we also adjusted for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence and possible country effects. We found associations between low maternal and paternal care on the one hand and suicidality on the other. Country-specific differences proved negligible. Prevention programs can help better equip parents in their child-rearing role to create a more caring parenting environment. This can be a protective factor for suicidality in adulthood. Nevertheless, more efforts are necessary to better describe the paths that lead from child-rearing behaviour to suicidality in adulthood.
Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
We investigated fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of adolescent perceived parenting behavior. Data were used from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality and Development including 353 children. At Time 1 fathers rated their personality whereas
Anna Maria Jankowska
Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.
Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth
Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J
This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this.
Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R
This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities.
Le, Yunying; Fredman, Steffany J; Feinberg, Mark E
The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program. There were indirect actor effects of negative affect on a parent's own harsh parenting through both dimensions of parenting stress, with a stronger mediating effect for personal distress than child rearing stress. There were also indirect partner effects of negative affect on one's partner's harsh parenting through the partner's parenting stress, with a stronger indirect partner effect from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting than vice versa. Specifically, the mediating effect of personal distress was found for both mothers and fathers, whereas the mediating effect of child rearing stress was found from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting only. Findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach in examining the longitudinal association between negative affect and harsh parenting and suggest that reducing parenting stress in the first year postpartum may decrease the risk of future harsh parenting among couples in which one or both partners experience negative affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; ter Bogt, Tom; Pastore, Massimiliano; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina
Although substantial research has provided support for the association between parental practices and adolescent gambling, less is known about the role of adolescent attitudes in this relationship. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking perceived parental
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.
Khasakhala, L I; Ndetei, D M; Mutiso, V; Mbwayo, A W; Mathai, M
Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a comparison between day and boarding students; and identify associated factors in this population. A random sample of school going adolescents was taken from a stratified sample of 17 secondary schools out of the 49 public secondary schools in Nairobi province. The sample was stratified to take into account geographical distribution, day and boarding schools, boys only, girls only and mixed (co-education) schools in the capital city of Kenya. Self administered instruments (EMBU and CDI) were used to measure perceived parental behaviour and levels of depression in a total of 1,276 students excluding those who had no living parent. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 26.4%. The occurrence was higher in girls than it was in boys p<0.001. Students in boarding schools had more clinically significant depressive symptoms compared to day students (p=0.01). More girls exhibited suicidal behaviour than boys (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour (p<0.001). CDI scores correlated positively with age (p<0.001) with an increase in CDI score with unit increase in age among students 14-17 years old, perceived rejecting maternal parenting behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment paternal behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment maternal behaviour (p<0.001), and perceived under protective paternal behaviour (p=0.005). Perceived maladaptive parental behaviours are substantially associated with the development of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in children.
Uslu, Runa; Oztop, Didem; Ozcan, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Savaş; Berberoğlu, Merih; Adiyaman, Pelin; Cakmak, Murat; Kerimoğlu, Efser; Ocal, Gönül
The effect of parental rearing on gender identity development in children with ambiguous genitalia remains controversial. The present study aimed to address this issue by investigating the factors that may be associated with sex of rearing in children with male pseudohermaphroditism. The study included 56 children with male pseudohermaphroditism that were consecutively referred to a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. At the time of referral the age range of the sample was 6 months-14 years; 28 children had been raised as boys and 28 as girls. Demographic and biological information was obtained from patient charts. An intersex history interview was administered to the children and parents, whereas The Gender Identity Interview and the Draw-A-Person Test were administered only to the children. The children were observed during free play. Comparisons of biological, psychological and social variables were made with respect to gender of rearing. More children reared as boys were younger at time of referral, belonged to extended families, and had higher Prader scores. Although children's gender roles were appropriate for their gender of rearing, findings of the Gender Identity Interview and the Draw-A-Person Test suggested that some of the girls presented with a male or neutral gender self-perception. The relationships between age at the time of problem identification, age at the time of diagnosis, and gender of rearing indicate the importance of taking measures to ensure that the intersex condition is identified at birth and children are referred for early diagnosis, gender assignment, and treatment.
Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.
Gangaher, Arushi; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Chauhan, Vasundhera; John, Jomimol; Mehta, Manju
In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new) with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.
Objective: To explore the relationship between parental rearing pattern and adult attachment of college students. Methods: A total of 589 college students were administered the Relations Questionnaire (RQ), the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR) and the Chinese version of Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: Different attachment types of vocational students' parents rearing pattern was significantly different. Attachment avoidance and anxiety had significant negative correlation with parents' care and encouragement of autonomy, and positive correlation with parents' control. Conclution: The parental rearing pattern can greatly affect the children's attachment.%目的:探讨父母养育方式与成人依恋的关系.方法:采用关系问卷(RQ)和亲密关系经历调查表(ECR),以及父母养育方式量表(PBI)中译版,对589名高职院校学生进行测评.结果:不同依恋类型的高职学生父母养育方式差异显著(P＜0.05).依恋回避、依恋焦虑与父亲关爱、父亲鼓励自主、母亲关爱、母亲鼓励自主成显著负相关,与父亲控制、母亲控制的养育方式呈显著正相关.结论:父母养育方式对子女的成人依恋有显著影响.
Goussé, Véronique; Czernecki, Virginie; Denis, Pierre; Stilgenbauer, Jean-Louis; Deniau, Emmanuelle; Hartmann, Andreas
Previous reports have indicated that raising a child with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) could be considered a stressful experience. Thus our study aimed to assess the impact of perceived stress (i.e. parental cognitive perception of their child's disorder) and social support (number of people surrounding the subject providing support) on coping strategies-defined as processes of restoring balance between excessive demands and inadequate resources-of parents having a child with GTS. Twenty-eight parents of 21 patients with GTS (aged 6 to 16years) completed questionnaires on perceived stress (ALE Scale), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (WCC-R) and anxiety-depression (HAD). Principal component analysis showed a negative correlation between social support on one side and perceived stress and anxiety/depression on the other. Problem- and emotion-focused coping both correlated with social support, all of them being independent from perceived stress and anxiety/depression. Hierarchical ascendant classification showed three clusters of individuals in our parents' groups: i) those having high scores in perceived stress and anxiety-depression; ii) those having high scores in social support associated with low scores in perceived stress; iii) parents having lower than average scores on both problem- and emotion- focused coping and social support. Our results reinforce the need for developing training programs for parents with GTS children to better understand and tolerate the disorder to decrease their stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veenstra-van Schie, Monique Theodora Maria; Coenen, Kelly; Koopman, Hendrik Maria; Versteegh, Florens Gerard Adriaan
We explored the differences in the perceived HRQoL between children with asthma from Moroccan and Dutch descent and their parents. In total 33 children (aged 6-18 years) from Moroccan (16) and Dutch descent (17) and their parents participated. All children were currently under treatment in a general hospital in the Netherlands. Generic and asthma specific HRQoL were assessed (DUX-25, DISABKIDS, PAQLQ). Significant differences were found on the DUX-25 subscales physical, emotional and home functioning. Children and parents from Dutch descent reported a lower HRQoL. The findings of this study are contrary with previous research. Results can be explained by the individualistic-collectivistic dimension, socially desirability, language and the feeling of miscomprehension. If this explanation makes sense health care workers have to invest in a good relationship with especially immigrant children and their parents, so they will have enough confidence to talk more openly about their physical as well as their psycho-social complaints.
صادق تقی لو
Full Text Available Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male, who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire, using multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that the main effects of gender and age are significant at 0.01 level. Parents’ interaction with boys is more authoritarian and with girls more authoritative; also compared with adolescents less than 17 years, they interact with adolescents 17 years old more permissively. The interaction effects of gender and age were significant at 0.05 level only in the permissive parenting style. This means that unlike the girls, parents use more and more the permissive parenting style along with increasing age of adolescent teenage boys. It was concluded that the interaction patterns of parents with children are not fixed and these patterns vary according to gender and age of the children.
Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin
Parenting styles are critical for fostering children's empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven't been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children's empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children ( M age = 8.92 years) completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others). These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children's empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child's altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children's altruistic behavior via children's empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children's empathy, which in turn promote children's altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.
Kurman, Jenny; Rothschild-Yakar, Lily; Angel, Ruth; Katz, Miri
To investigate implicit and explicit self-esteem and academic self-evaluation among children with ADHD as a function of parenting styles, namely, authoritarian, authoritative and permissive parenting. Participants included 43 children with ADHD and 35 non-ADHD controls who filled out self-concept and perceived parenting style questionnaires. They also took an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that measured unacknowledged self-esteem. Lower self-esteem was found among children with ADHD than among controls, with stronger effect on the implicit level. Perceived authoritarian parenting was related to lower implicit self-esteem among children with ADHD. Higher self-esteem was found in the authoritative than in the permissive parenting groups in the non-ADHD control group but not among children with ADHD. The role of parental support versus authoritarian parenting in terms of implicit self-esteem points to the importance of promoting responsiveness strategies among parents in the treatment of children with ADHD. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
Ling, Jiying; B Robbins, Lorraine; Hines-Martin, Vicki
Despite the need for parents to support their children's healthy behaviors, knowledge of factors preventing parents from doing so is still rudimentary. This study primarily aimed to explore perceived parental barriers to and strategies for supporting physical activity and healthy eating among Head Start children. A semi-structured interview format was used with four focus groups conducted at two urban Head Start centers in the Midwestern U.S. A qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded sessions was facilitated using ATLAS.ti7. A convenience sample of 32 parents (Mage = 34.97 years) participated. Over half were female (78.1 %), African Americans (65.6 %), and single (65.6 %). About 61.3 % reported an annual family income parent): lack of time and cooking skills and a tight family budget; and (3) environmental: inaccessible programs, lack of age-appropriate education, electronic media use, and unsafe environment. Parents across all groups expressed high interest in enrolling in a program with their children. Recommendations included: parents' support team; family outings at parks; taking a walk or enrolling in a class with children; and planting a garden. Many parents showed their preference for face-to-face meetings and a support group, but repulsion of counseling. To promote parental support in future interventions with Head Start children, their perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers should be considered as intervention targets. Involving parents through a support group and face-to-face meetings is recommended.
Barlow, J H; Cullen, L A; Foster, N E; Harrison, K; Wade, M
The presence of a painful, disabling chronic disease may have implications for perceived ability to fulfill a parenting role. The purpose of this research was to examine the realities of parenting from the perspectives of mothers, fathers and grandparents with arthritis using a combination of methods: a cross sectional survey and in-depth focus group discussions. There was consensus that pain, fatigue and restricted physical functioning combined to interfere with the parenting role. Overall, approximately 35% of the sample had experienced difficulties attributed to arthritis. A gender difference emerged with women reporting more difficulties in relation to caring for babies and toddlers, whereas men reported more problems as children grew older. Key themes concerned: physical limitations; practical and caring issues; social factors; emotional response; hereditary risks and safety issues. Perceived inability to fulfill parenting roles resulted in feelings of frustration, guilt, anger and depression. A number of positive outcomes were mentioned including children's increased awareness of the needs of others. Limitations of the methodological approach adopted are discussed.
Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu
The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.
Sawano, Erika; Doi, Hirokazu; Nagai, Tomoko; Ikeda, Satoko; Shinohara, Kauyuki
Maternal positive attitude towards one's own infant is the cornerstone of effective parenting. Previous research has revealed an influence of both genetic and environmental factors on maternal parenting behavior, but little is known of the potential gene-environment interaction in shaping a mother's affective attitude. To address this gap, we investigated the effect of a mother's childhood rearing environment and a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on affective attitude towards her infant. Our analyses found an interactive effect between rearing environment and 5-HTTLPR genotype on maternal attitude. Specifically, a poor rearing environment (characterized by low maternal care and high paternal overprotection) decreased positive attitude towards one's own infant in mothers with homozygous short allele genotype. In contrast, this detrimental effect was almost eliminated in long allele carriers. Altogether, our results indicate that the 5-HTTLPR gene moderates the influence of experienced rearing environment on maternal parental behavior in a manner consistent with the notion that the short 5-HTTLPR allele amplifies environmental influence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruscio, A M
Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.
Bendikas, Emily A; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen
To investigate differences between mother's and father's perceptions of marital relationship quality, child rearing disagreements, and family functioning over the initial 18 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood relative to an orthopedic-injury comparison group. Participants included 147 parent-dyads of children with TBI (n = 53) and orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 94) who were between the ages of 3 and 7 years at injury. Family functioning, marital quality, and child-rearing disagreements were assessed shortly after injury and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-ups, with ratings at the initial assessment completed to reflect preinjury functioning. Mixed model analyses were used to examine mother and father's reports of family functioning, marital quality, and child-rearing disagreements over time as a function of injury severity and parent gender. We found a significant Group x Gender interaction for ratings of love and parenting disagreements. As hypothesized, mothers of children with severe TBI rated the relationship as significantly less loving than did their partners, and mothers of children with both moderate and severe TBI endorsed more parenting disagreements than did their partners. However, fathers reported higher levels of family dysfunction than their partners, regardless of injury type or severity. Implications for treatment based on differences in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of family and marital functioning, and future directions for research, are discussed.
Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.
To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children
Maja Coulthard Hampson
Full Text Available Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, snow leopard (Uncia uncia, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113, snow leopards (p<0.01, male cheetahs (p<0.01 and female clouded leopards (p<0.01 produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404. Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01. Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107. Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01 and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395 in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349 in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs. Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the
Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Chaviaris, Petros; Kafoussi, Sonia
In this quantitative study we investigated the primary school students' perceived parental involvement in mathematics with respect to different school socio-cultural identity as identified by the students' ethnicity. 493 students attending the two last grades of three primary schools participated in the study. The role of the students' grade and…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…
Full Text Available Parenting styles are critical for fostering children’s empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven’t been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children’s empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children (Mage = 8.92 years completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others. These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children’s empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child’s altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children’s altruistic behavior via children’s empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children’s empathy, which in turn promote children’s altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.
Vuorenmaa, Maaret; Halme, Nina; Perälä, Marja-Leena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi
Parental empowerment is known to increase parents' resources and to reduce stress, and therefore to improve family well-being. Professionals working in family services (child health clinics, school health care, day care, preschool and primary school) encounter families in various everyday settings and can significantly support parental empowerment. This study aimed (i) to identify associations between parental empowerment and demographic and family service characteristics (i.e. parents' participation and perceived influence, decision-making and access to information) and (ii) to identify predictors of maternal and paternal empowerment. Study design was cross-sectional. Participants were mothers (n = 571) and fathers (n = 384) of children aged 0-9 who were selected by stratified random sampling in 2009. Associations were analysed by t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis. Sufficient perceived influence and joint decision-making by family and professionals on family service appointments emerged as significant variables of increased parental empowerment. Access to adequate information about municipal services was also associated with high empowerment. These family service characteristics were associated with parents' sense that they were able to manage in everyday life and had influence on specific service situations and family services in general. Mothers with a child aged under 3 or a child in home care or primary school, and fathers with a lower education feel less empowered in family services than other parents. Knowledge about the factors associated with parental empowerment can contribute to further reinforce parental empowerment, help identify parents who need special attention and contribute to the development of family services. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Penelo, Eva; Viladrich, Carme; Domènech, Josep M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the short Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Adolescent version (S-EMBU-A) in a clinical context. The S-EMBU-A is a 22-item self-report questionnaire, based on the original 64-item EMBU-A, that assesses perceived parental rearing style in adolescents, comprising 3 subscales (Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection). The questionnaire was administered to a clinical sample of 281 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 18 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed, analyzing the adolescents' reports about their parents' rearing style. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model (comparative fit index = 0.90; root mean squared error of approximation = 0.054) and parameters were equivalent for the ratings assigned to fathers and mothers. Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was obtained for the 3 scales (Cronbach α ≥ .74). The influence of gender (of adolescents and parents) and age on scale scores was inappreciable. High scores for Rejection and low scores for Emotional Warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, presence of rejection, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision. The Spanish version of S-EMBU-A can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients, because evidence of quality in clinical setting matches that obtained in community samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.
López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan
Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.
Walker, Tavi R.; Ehrenberg, Marion F.
Explored relationship between undergraduate students' perceptions of the reasons for their parents' divorces and their own feelings of security in romantic relationships. Found that 73% described insecure attachment styles. Perceived reasons for divorce involving expressions of overt anger, involvement of children, and extramarital affairs were…
Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita
Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.
Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; Paterson, Amelia; McClure, Georgia
Bipolar II disorder (BP II) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share common features and can be difficult to differentiate, contributing to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Research contrasting phenomenological features of both conditions is limited. The current study sought to identify differences in emotion regulation strategies in BP II and BPD in addition to examining relationships with perceived parental style. Participants were recruited from a variety of outpatient and community settings. Eligible participants required a clinical diagnosis of BP II or BPD, subsequently confirmed via structured diagnostic interviews assessing DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed a series of self-reported questionnaires assessing emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style. The sample comprised 48 (n=24 BP II and n=24 BPD) age and gender-matched participants. Those with BPD were significantly more likely to use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, less likely to use adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and scored significantly higher on the majority of (perceived) dysfunctional parenting sub-scales than participants with BP II. Dysfunctional parenting experiences were related to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in participants with BP II and BPD, however differential associations were observed across groups. Relatively small sample sizes; lack of a healthy control comparator group; lack of statistical control for differing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication and psychological treatments; no assessment of state or trait anxiety; over-representation of females in both groups limiting generalisability of results; and reliance on self-report measures. Differences in emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style provide some support for the validity of distinguishing BP II and BPD. Development of intervention strategies targeting the differing forms of emotion regulatory pathology in these groups
Noll, R B; McKellop, J M; Vannatta, K; Kalinyak, K
To obtain caregiver and medical professional opinions regarding the child-rearing practices of caregivers of children with sickle cell diseases (SCD). We obtained self-reports of parenting practices from 48 caregivers of children with SCD and 48 caregivers of matched classroom comparison peers using the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). CRPR ratings were also obtained from 12 experts in pediatric SCD regarding their predictions of how a parent of a child with SCD would respond. The experts predicted differences in protectiveness, discipline, and excessive worry. Objective interim and lifetime illness severity scores were obtained for the children with SCD. Caregivers showed similarity between the two groups, disagreement with the experts, and minimal relationship to illness severity. Experts who work with children with chronic illnesses such as SCD seem to have stereotyped ideas that do not correspond with parental reports of their child-rearing practices, suggesting the need for careful clinical evaluations.
Olofsdotter, Susanne; Åslund, Cecilia; Furmark, Tomas; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W
Social anxiety is one of the most commonly reported mental health problems among adolescents, and it has been suggested that parenting style influences an adolescent's level of anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been proposed; however, research on the oxytocin gene (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors. This study investigated the interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (n = 1,359). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to OXT, rs4813625 and rs2770378, were genotyped. Social anxiety and perceived parenting style were assessed by behavioral questionnaires. In interaction models adjusted for sex, significant interaction effects with parenting style were observed for both variants in relation to social anxiety. The nature of the interactions was in line with the differential susceptibility framework for rs4813625, whereas for rs2770378 the results indicated a diathesis-stress type of interaction. The findings may be interpreted from the perspective of the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, with rs4813625 affecting social anxiety levels along a perceived unsafe-safe social context dimension.
Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.
Bowen, Gary L.; Hopson, Laura M.; Rose, Roderick A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.
Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel…
Ehnvall, A; Parker, G; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Malhi, G
To examine the hypothesis that lifetime suicide attempts in a sample of depressed individuals is greater among those who remember their parents as rejecting or neglecting in childhood. Database analyses of patients referred to a public hospital Mood Disorders Unit in Sydney, over a consecutive 10-year period. Patients met DSM-IV criteria for depression, had completed a self-report questionnaire regarding perception of parental rearing, and had responded to a probe question assessing lifetime suicide attempts (n = 343). Female patients who perceived themselves as rejected/neglected by either parent in childhood had a greater chance of making at least one lifetime suicide attempt. No such associations were found for males. Perception of rejecting/neglectful parents was associated with lifetime suicide attempts in females only, inviting research explicating any such gender specificity.
Koh, Myung-Sook; Shin, Sunwoo; Reeves, Kay C.
The purpose of this study is to investigate attitudes and perspectives of Korean immigrant parents in rearing and educating their children in the United States. One hundred nineteen Korean parents from three cities in the United States were surveyed using the Korean Parent Questionnaire. The responses of the questionnaire were analyzed using…
Walters, Glenn D
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a child's perception of adult tolerance of violence interfaced with peer associations and violent offending. It was hypothesized that a child's perception of his or her parents' tolerance for violence would predict the peer influence effect for aggressive behavior in boys but not girls. Control variables included the parent's stated tolerance of violence, the child's personal attitude toward violence, recent parental divorce or separation, and child maltreatment within the past 12 months. Using the first three waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS), the relationships between perceived parental tolerance of violence and the peer influence and selection effects were examined. A negative binomial path analysis of the male subsample ( n = 736) revealed that perceived parental tolerance of violence predicted the peer influence effect (peer violence leading to participant violent offending) but not the peer selection effect (participant violent offending leading to peer violence) in boys. In girls ( n = 679), neither pathway was significant. The current findings indicate that in boys, perceived parental attitudes toward violence help account for the cycle of violence, perhaps by encouraging the child's association with violent peers. Programs designed to change these perceptions and the parental/community attitudes these perceptions may reflect could be an effective means of intervention for violent youth.
Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling
Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…
Hamilton, Jada G; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Genetic testing for BRCA genes, associated with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer risk, is an accepted cancer control strategy. BRCA genetic testing has both medical and psychosocial implications for individuals seeking testing and their family members. However, promoting open and adaptive communication about cancer risk in the family is challenging for parents of minor children. Using prospective data collected from mothers undergoing BRCA genetic testing and their untested co-parents (N = 102 parenting dyads), we examined how maternal and co-parent characteristics independently and conjointly influenced the overall quality of parent-child communication with minor children. Statistical associations were tested in accordance with the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Significant Actor effects were observed among mothers, such that open parent-child communication prior to genetic testing was positively associated with open communication 6 months following receipt of genetic test results; and among co-parents, more open parent-child communication at baseline and greater perceived quality of the parenting relationship were associated with more open parent-child communication at follow-up. Partner effects were also observed: co-parents' baseline communication and confidence in their ability to communicate with their minor children about genetic testing was positively associated with open maternal parent-child communication at follow-up. These results demonstrate that for families facing the prospect of cancer genetic testing, perceptions and behaviors of both members of child-rearing couples have important implications for the overall quality of communication with their minor children, including communication about cancer risk.
It has been claimed that there are universal goals of child-rearing, such as survival of the child or the promotion of their capacity to contribute to economic and social reproduction. Yet in certain circumstances parents appear to pursue child-rearing practices that actively harm children, threaten their survival and inhibit their ability to grow…
Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Sumter, Sindy R.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social support from parents and friends was similar across…
Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.
This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739
Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L
This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Chen, David; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Krasnow, Janice; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A.; Cullen, Bernadette; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Fyer, Abby J.; Knowles, James A.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John; Geller, Dan; Pauls, David L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Murphy, Dennis L.; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Riddle, Mark A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack
Background Hoarding behavior may indicate a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Empirical evidence supports a relationship between hoarding and emotional over-attachment to objects. However, little is known about the relationship between hoarding and parental attachment in OCD. Method The study sample included 894 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD who had participated in family and genetic studies of OCD. Participants were assessed for Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and general personality dimensions. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to assess dimensions of perceived parental rearing (care, overprotection, and control). We compared parental PBI scores in the 334 hoarding and 560 non-hoarding participants, separately in men and women. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between parenting scores and hoarding in women, adjusting for other clinical features associated with hoarding. Results In men, there were no significant differences between hoarding and non-hoarding groups in maternal or paternal parenting scores. In women, the hoarding group had a lower mean score on maternal care (23.4 vs. 25.7, poverprotection, and maternal overcontrol are associated with hoarding in women with OCD. Parenting dimensions are not related to hoarding in men. These findings provide further support for a hoarding subtype of OCD and for sex-specific differences in etiologic pathways for hoarding in OCD. PMID:27915218
Paul R Ward
Full Text Available In terms of public health, childhood vaccination programs have benefits that far outweigh risks. However, some parents decide not to vaccinate their children. This paper explores the ways in which such parents talked about the perceived risks and benefits incurred by vaccinating (or not vaccinating their children. Between 2013-2016 we undertook 29 in-depth interviews with non-vaccinating and/or 'vaccine hesitant' parents in Australia. Interviews were conducted in an open and non-judgmental manner, akin to empathic neutrality. Interviews focused on parents talking about the factors that shaped their decisions not to (or partially vaccinate their children. All interviews were transcribed and analysed using both inductive and deductive processes. The main themes focus on parental perceptions of: 1. their capacity to reason; 2. their rejection of Western medical epistemology; and 3. their participation in labour intensive parenting practices (which we term salutogenic parenting. Parents engaged in an ongoing search for information about how best to parent their children (capacity to reason, which for many led to questioning/distrust of traditional scientific knowledge (rejection of Western medical epistemology. Salutogenic parenting spontaneously arose in interviews, whereby parents practised health promoting activities which they saw as boosting the natural immunity of their children and protecting them from illness (reducing or negating the perceived need for vaccinations. Salutogenic parenting practices included breastfeeding, eating organic and/or home-grown food, cooking from scratch to reduce preservative consumption and reducing exposure to toxins. We interpret our data as a 'logic of care', which is seen by parents as internally consistent, logically inter-related and inter-dependent. Whilst not necessarily sharing the parents' reasoning, we argue that an understanding of their attitudes towards health and well-being is imperative for any
Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.
The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…
Bang, Kyung-Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Hye Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Park, Kwang-Hee
To report a correlational study of the relation of body mass index to children's perceptions of physical appearance and global self-worth and depression, as mediated by their perceptions of parental teasing. The relation between depression and self-perception in children with obesity has been reported. Recently, parental factors were found to be related to childhood obesity. Little is known about the effects of perceived parental teasing on depression and self-perception in children. A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 455 children in the fifth and sixth grades in four provinces of South Korea using self-report questionnaires for measuring self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, depression and perceived parental teasing between October-December in 2009. The children's weight and height information from school health records was used. Multiple regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to identify the mediating effect of perceived parental teasing. Among the children, 20% were overweight or obese. Although children with obesity did not differ in the level of depression from their normal weight counterparts, they demonstrated lower perceived physical appearance and higher perceived parental teasing. The mediating effects of perceived parental teasing were found for the relations between body mass index and self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, and body mass index and depression, respectively. Obese children at risk of parental teasing should be identified to prevent their psychological problems. A well-designed intervention study is necessary to examine the effects of psycho-emotional interventions for obese children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
مهسا اکبریان فیروزآبادی
Full Text Available Various studies on attachment show that child-caregiver interaction and caregiver’s reaction to child have momentous role in formation of child’s attachment. The aim of this study was to explain the intergenerational transmission cycle of attachment styles. In this regard the effect of parenting styles and childhood traumas on children’s attachment styles was investigated. This study is an ex post facto with causal design, and 175 Iranian available students were selected from Kharazmi University, Tehran University and Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, mediation analysis, and path analysis. The results indicated that different parenting styles lead to different attachment styles in children. Our results supported the relationship between parent’s care and over-protection factors with avoidance index of attachment, while no significant relationship was observed between these two factors with anxiety index. Moreover, perceived emotional abuse had a mediator roll in the relationship between parenting components and avoidance index of attachment. Finally, we achieved a model of simultaneous effects of two care and control factors on avoidance index, which is mediated by the perceived childhood trauma.
Hwang, Yoori; Choi, Inho; Yum, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Se-Hoon
Parental mediation is a type of behavior that could protect children against the negative uses and effects of smartphones. Based on protection motivation theory, this research (a) predicted parental mediation based on parents' threat and efficacy perceptions and (b) predicted threat and efficacy perceptions based on parenting styles and parents' addiction to smartphone use. An online survey of 448 parents of fourth to sixth graders was conducted. Results showed that both restrictive and active parental mediation were predicted by perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. With regard to parenting styles, (a) authoritative parenting was positively related to perceived severity as well as response- and self-efficacy, whereas (b) permissive parenting was negatively related to self-efficacy. In addition, parents' addiction was a negative predictor of perceived severity, but a positive predictor of perceived susceptibility.
Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus
Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age......We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt...... at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p¿=¿0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both...
Francine de Montigny
Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.
Walker, J R
This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.
Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J
The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e. = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e. = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e. = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.
Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.
The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…
Full Text Available One of the factors that predict perfectionism in children education is reported to be families and the way their expectation of children. The aim of the present research is to investigate the role of perceived parenting styles in perfectionism of third grade female students in high school. Using a correlational method, 161 students through a multi stage cluster method were selected. Scales of perception of parenting styles (POPS, and dimensions of perfectionism (MPS were applied to evaluate the research variables. The results of the regression analysis showed that among parenting styles, mother's involvement and warmth have a significant negative relationship with socially prescribed perfectionism. As a result of warmer relations of mother and child and mother's involvement in children's various activities may reduce socially prescribed perfectionism. It seems that the involvement style and warmth of the mothers would play an important role in prediction of socially prescribed perfectionism.
Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A.
Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips…
Benau, Erik M; Jenkins, Abigail L; Conner, Bradley T
Being non-heterosexual, particularly bisexual, is associated with high rates of engagement in NSSI amongst young adults. The goal of the present study was to determine if parenting practices, specifically parental monitoring, and sexual orientation moderate engagement with NSSI. Undergraduates (N = 1,353) completed a survey on sexual orientation, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts, and multiple aspects of perceived parental monitoring during high school. Moderation analyses revealed that most facets of parental monitoring were similarly negatively correlated with NSSI for both individuals whose sexual orientation where nearly, or entirely, gay and heterosexual youth. Youth who were neither exclusively heterosexual nor exclusively gay (mixed sexual orientation) reported the most NSSI acts, and no facet of parental monitoring predicted reduced NSSI acts for this group. While previous literature shows that many aspects of parental monitoring may be protective against engagement in health risk behaviors, the present study adds to these findings that similar aspects are negatively associated with self-injurious behavior for some, but not all, individuals. More research is needed to better understand the causes of increased NSSI for individuals with a mixed sexual orientation.
Hawk, Skyler T; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim
Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster invasion perceptions. This longitudinal study assessed relations between privacy invasion and conflict frequency among adolescents, mothers, and fathers (N = 309). Bidirectional relations were present; all reports showed that invasion provoked conflict in later adolescence, but the timing and direction of conflict-to-invasion relations differed between respondents and measurement waves. The findings suggest a functional role for conflict in adolescent-parent privacy negotiations, in that it both draws attention to discrepant expectations and provides youths with a means of directly managing perceived boundary violations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The findings of the research into the perceived parental behavior provide contrasting data as to the existence and the nature of differences in the perception of parental behavior based on parents’ gender and respondents’ gender. The purpose of the present study is to examine the differences in the perceived parental behavior in adolescents with regard to parents’ gender and respondents’ age and gender. The study included 466 respondents (262 girls and 204 boys, in middle to late adolescence, divided into four sub-groups according to their age. The respondents were asked to fill in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI questionnaire which measures the care and overprotection in mothers and fathers respectively. The obtained findings show the existence of significant difference based on the parents’ gender for both subscales: both maternal care and maternal overprotection were estimated as higher. Observing the differences by respondents’ gender on the whole sample, only one significant difference is found: paternal overprotection was estimated as higher by girls. The differences by age as observed within gender groups are completely disparate for girl and boy groups. The best insight into the differences is obtained through analysis by gender, for groups relatively homogenous in terms of their age (for the first three groups the only significant difference appears in the paternal overprotection subscale; the difference disappears in the subgroup of the oldest respondents’, while the differences between the perception of maternal and paternal care are of significance here. One particularly important finding for future research into rearing behavior is the fact that the perception of parental behavior changes over the period of adolescence differently for boys and girls; therefore, the analysis including perceived parental behavior should be performed for subgroups by gender, which are as homogenous as possible in terms of their age.
Toftegaard-Stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo
The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor...... ability test "Korperkoordinationstest fur Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient ...
Núñez, J. C.; Suárez, N.; Rosário, P.; Vallejo, G.; Valle, A.; Epstein, J. L.
This study aims to produce a deeper understanding of the relationship between perceived parental homework involvement (i.e., parental homework control and parental homework support), student homework behaviors (i.e., time spend on homework completion, time management, and amount of homework completed), and student academic achievement. Using…
Vargas Lascano, Dayuma I.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.; Lachman, Margie E.
This study examined trajectories of perceived control and their association with parents' education and personal educational experience (educational attainment and years of full-time postsecondary education) in 971 Canadian high school seniors tracked 7 times across 25 years. Latent growth models showed that, on average, perceived control…
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
DeFrain, John D.
Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)
de la Iglesia G
Full Text Available Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET, 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years and most of them (83.3% were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. Keywords: academic achievement, parenting, social support, college
Shin, Nayeon; Jang, Youha; Kang, Younhee
The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among perceived parental bonding, illness perception, and anxiety and to determine the influences of perceived parental bonding and illness perception on anxiety in adult patients with congenital heart diseases. In this study a descriptive correlational design with survey method was utilized. The participants were 143 adult patients with congenital heart disease being cared for in the cardiology out-patient clinic of A medical center. Data were collected using the Parental Bonding Instrument, Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised Scale, and Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchial regression analyses. There showed significant positive relationships of anxiety with maternal overprotection, consequences, and personal control respectively. Among predictors, maternal overprotection (β=.45), consequence (β=.26), and personal control (β=-.03) had statistically significant influence on anxiety. Nursing interventions to decrease maternal overprotection and negative consequence, and to enhance personal control are essential to decrease the anxiety of adult patients with congenital heart diseases. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Full Text Available Abstract Adolescence is an important developmental period that is characterised by heightened problems of adjustment. The aim of this study is to analyse adolescents’ adjustment, and to explore the typologies and dimensions of parenting, and thus to determine the relationships between these factors. The sample comprised 1285 adolescent students aged 12 to 16 from the Basque Country (Spain. The students filled out the self-report of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC and the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire, (PARQ/Control. Differences by age were found in the adolescents’ school maladjustment and parenting style perception. Moreover, perceptions of little parental warmth were related to higher levels of clinical and school maladjustment, and the lower the parental control, the greater the clinical maladjustment. Finally, the results obtained revealed that the interaction between the mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles was significant only for clinical maladjustment; those students with neglectful mothers and authoritative fathers presented the highest level of clinical maladjustment, followed by other combinations of neglectful mothers. Furthermore, the students from neglectful and authoritarian families presented the highest levels of school maladjustment, without differences between neglectful and authoritarian or between indulgent and authoritative families.
Delhaye, M.; Beyers, W.; Klimstra, T.A.; Linkowski, P.; Goossens, L.
The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS), an instrument initially developed for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium, in French-speaking adolescents living in that same country. The instrument was administered to a
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay
Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from reasonably diverse backgrounds were followed from 1 month to 11 years with repeated observational assessments of parenting and child care quality, as well as teacher report and standardized assessments of children's cognitive-academic and social functioning, to determine whether those with histories of difficult temperament proved more susceptible to early rearing effects at ages 10 and 11. Evidence for such differential susceptibility emerges in the case of both parenting and child care quality and with respect to both cognitive-academic and social functioning. Differential susceptibility to parenting and child care quality extends to late middle childhood. J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, et al.'s (2007) failure to consider such temperament-moderated rearing effects in their evaluation of long-term child care effects misestimates effects of child care quality on social adjustment.
Jiang, Ying Hong; Yau, Jenny; Bonner, Patricia; Chiang, Linda
Introduction: Driven by an overarching conceptual framework adapted from Self-Determination Theory, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of perceived parental academia autonomy support vs. academic planning control on the interrelated variables of adolescents' self-esteem, academic motivation, and academic achievement, using…
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). "Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation." "Advances in Personal Construct…
The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic
مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری
The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...
Laquale, Michele Giovanni; Coppola, Gabrielle; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Pasceri, Maria; Pietralunga, Susanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Semeraro, Cristina; Grattagliano, Ignazio
The study aimed at investigating the role of confidence in attachment relationships and marital status as protective factors for incarcerated fathers' self-perceived parental role and in-person contacts with their children. Participants included 150 inmate fathers and 145 nonincarcerated control fathers who provided background sociodemographic information and completed two self-reports, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Self-Perception of Parental Role. A two-phased cluster analytic plan allowed us to highlight two profiles of self-perceived parental roles, with incarceration and low confidence in attachment relationships increasing the risk of the less optimal of the two profiles. Higher confidence in attachment relationships and having a stable romantic relationship increased the likelihood of incarcerated fathers engaging in frequent contacts with their children, while the profile of self-perceived parental role had no effect. Implications for practice are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating relations between maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and social competence indicators of thirty-month-old children. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads. In the child's thirtieth month after birth, an observation of mother-child interaction was performed in order to evaluate maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence. The results support the literature about social development that relates child-rearing practices such as guidance, assertive control and positive parental involvement to social competence, and coercive and permissive practices to externalizing behavior problems. The work discusses the relevance of parental child-rearing practices for the comprehension of the social development, emphasizing the importance of child-rearing practices, such as autonomy authorization, intrusiveness and ambiguous control.
Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.
This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…
Derebaşı, Muhammet Burak
Worldwide, there is an increasing interest to study social media dependency. Currently, most of the researches compare social media dependency with other dependencies such as substance abuse and gambling. Although, there is limited research to investigate the effect of personality on social media dependency. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to examine the predictor roles of narcissism, perceived parenting styles and delay of gratification on social media dependency. A total of...
Susukida, Ryoko; Wilcox, Holly C; Mendelson, Tamar
While perceived support from caregivers in the early stages of life is an aspect of family environment that is increasingly recognized as important for understanding lifetime suicidal behaviors, it is not well understood whether the relationship between perceived support from caregivers during childhood and lifetime suicidal behaviors holds regardless of family structure. This study examined the association between perceived love from caregivers in childhood and lifetime suicidal ideation in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5,692, 2001-2003). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between lifetime suicidal ideation and retrospectively ascertained data on perceived love from caregivers during childhood as well as clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of study participants. Regression analyses were stratified by family structure, namely, whether or not study participants lived with two biological parents during childhood. Regardless of whether or not they lived with two biological parents during childhood, individuals who perceived love from caregivers during childhood had significantly 42-43% lower odds of lifetime suicide ideation as compared with those who did not perceive love from caregivers. Results suggest that perceived support from caregivers during childhood is an important correlate of lifetime suicidal ideation, regardless of family structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J
Although drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, with important genetic influences, we need to know more about the role of rearing environment in the risk for DA. To address this question, we utilized a high-risk adopted and non-adopted co-sibling control design. High-risk offspring had one or more biological parents registered for DA, alcohol use disorders or criminal behavior. Using Swedish registries, we identified 1161 high-risk full-sibships and 3085 high-risk half-sibships containing at least one member who was adopted-away and one member who was not. Registration for DA was via national criminal, medical and pharmacy registers. In Sweden, adoptive families are screened to provide high-quality rearing environment for adoptees. Controlling for parental age at birth and gender (and, in half-siblings, high-risk status of the other parent), risk for DA was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v. not adopted [hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.55 (0.45-0·69) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.48-0.63), respectively]. The protective effect of adoption on risk for DA was significantly stronger in the full- and half-sibling pairs with very high familial liability (two high-risk parents) and significantly weaker when the adoptive family was broken by death or divorce, or contained a high-risk parent. In both full- and half-sibling pairs, we found replicated evidence that rearing environment strongly impacts on risk for DA. High-quality rearing environments can substantively reduce risk for DA in those at high genetic risk.
Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J
While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n = 2,111,074), 'not-lived-with' (n = 165,315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and 'step' (n = 124,800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes + rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in 'not-lived-with' and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than 'not-lived-with' child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent-offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent-offspring resemblance.
Festen, Helma; Hartman, Catharina A; Hogendoorn, Sanne; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J M; Reichart, Catrien G; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H
A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Participants were 145 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders who received a 12-session CBT program and were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment and three months follow-up. Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the following pretreatment and posttreatment variables as potential predictors of treatment response at follow-up: baseline level of anxiety symptoms, child reported maternal and paternal rearing style (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection), parent reported child temperament traits (negative affect, effortful control, and extraversion), and mothers' and fathers' self-report temperament traits. More maternal negative affect and less emotional warmth as perceived by the child before treatment were related to less favorable treatment outcome (accounting for 29% of the variance in anxiety at follow-up). Furthermore, maternal negative affect and children's extraversion measured after treatment also predicted anxiety at follow-up (together accounting for 19% of the variance). Paternal temperament and parenting style were unrelated to treatment outcome, as were children's pretreatment temperament traits. The results suggest that tailoring intervention to include strategies to reduce maternal negative affect and promote an emotional warm rearing style may improve treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H
Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.
Aimee M. Rolston
Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child’s condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child’s age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.
Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.
This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…
Roberts, Jennifer D; Rodkey, Lindsey; Grisham, Cortney; Ray, Rashawn
Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are significant contributors to youth obesity in the United States. Neighborhood dog walking is an outlet for physical activity (PA). Therefore, understanding the relationship between built environment, dog ownership, and youth PA is essential. This study examined the influence of dog ownership and parental built environment perceptions on children's PA in the Washington, D.C. area. In 2014, questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents to assess family dog ownership; children's outdoor dog walking or playing; and parental perceived built environment measures. Chi-square analyses examined differences in parental perceived built environment measures between children with and without family dogs. The sample included 144 children (50% female; average-age 9.7 years; 56.3% White; 23.7% African-American; 10.4% Asian-American; 29.9% owned dog). Only 13% and 5.6% of the children walked or played outdoors with the dog daily, respectively. A significantly greater proportion ( p -value supports children's outdoor PA through dog walking and playing.
Stewart, Ida Santos; Stone, Norma K.
To identify cultural factors in both child rearing and child care practices which may influence training of preschool day care personnel, the study ascertained cultural differences in Anglo, Black, and Chicano child rearing practices in Texas and differences in how parents, center personnel, and early childhood professionals viewed appropriate…
Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine
To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Bouris, Alida, M.
A communication framework of persuasion and attitude change was utilized to analyze parent-adolescent communication about adolescent risk behavior. Three parent dimensions were deemed important: (a) perceived expertise, (b) perceived trustworthiness, and (c) perceived accessibility. Data were collected in surveys from 668 mother-adolescent dyads…
Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
Examining family stress and parenting efficacy in relation to child externalizing problems in immigrant families. In this study, we compared the levels of family stress, parenting efficacy, and toddler externalizing behaviors in Dutch (n = 175) and second-generation Turkish immigrant families (n = 175) living in the Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Turkish mothers' acculturation on toddler externalizing behaviors and its association with perceived stress and efficacy were examined. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of daily stress and marital discord than Dutch mothers, but did not differ in perceptions of parenting efficacy and children's externalizing behaviors. The associations between child and family variables were similar in the Dutch and the Turkish groups, as more family stress was related to more externalizing behaviors in toddlers. Low parenting efficacy was the most important predictor of child externalizing behaviors in both groups. Acculturation of Turkish mothers was not associated with family and child variables, and did not moderate the association between family variables and child externalizing behaviors. However, emotional connectedness to the Turkish culture was related to less daily stress and fewer marital problems. The results support the no-group differences hypothesis and also imply that cultural maintenance may be adaptive for parental well-being.
Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.
Surveyed 123 college students to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of parents' parenting styles. Student self-concept varied directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as function of parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were rated more highly if they were perceived as warm…
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah; Mounts, Nina S
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale for Children). Results revealed that there were significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p parenting style (r = -.130, p parenting and locus of control (b = -0.147, p parents' education when assessing the links between parenting styles and adolescents' locus of control.
Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Lifjeld, J.T.; Mehlum, F.
Understanding differences in male and female care in biparental care systems can help interpret the selective pressures that shape parental strategies. We examined Little Auk Alle alle parental care at a breeding colony during the chick-rearing and fledging periods by conducting observations on marked, known-sex pairs, and by examining the sex ratio of birds carrying food to the colony. Little Auks transitioned from biparental to mostly paternal-only care during late chick-rearing. Males delivered more meals and spent more time at the colony than females during late chick-rearing. Very few females were present at the colony by the end of chick-rearing and through the fledging period, and all marked parents observed accompanying their chick to sea were male. Chick mass loss prior to fledging was associated with the lack of provisioning by the female parent, rather than a reduction in feeding frequency by both parents. The occurrence of paternal-only care during and after fledging is discussed in relation to physiological, ecological and phylogenetic constraints.
Frank J. Schwebel
Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.
Fraser, J. A. H.; Gurney, P. W.
Studies the perceived source of self-esteem among 300 children aged three to five. Results indicate that peers are the predominant source of self-esteem in the low intensity ("like") condition and parents are the predominant source of self-esteem in the high intensity ("love") condition. (RJC)
This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy) during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18) aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old) provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing]), and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task), and a gene × environment (G×E) interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links. PMID:26418317
Full Text Available This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18 aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing], and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task, and a gene × environment (G × E interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links.
Minbaeva, Dana; Rabbiosi, Larissa; Stahl, Guenter K.
Use of the parent country nationals as work group leaders is an important tool for creating alignment within the MNC network. We argue that the parent country expatriates have a key role in mitigating the adverse effects of perceived values’ inconsistency on affective commitment of employees...
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a number of publications which concern the modern socio-cultural situation and its consequences on contemporary parenthood. The constructs "parenthood" and "parenting" are presented:. the first one refers to a social role of an adult with a child in relation to other social roles and the latter with the process of child rearing. The major social trends are presented: Contemporary parenthood is analyzed and problematized due to the nature of modern challenges faced by educated parents. The following trends are discussed: erosion of understandable, clearly presented stereotypes and patterns of child rearing in the family, increase of variability of practices of child-parent interaction, growth of supply on the market of goods and services. All these major social trends bring to the sunset of "natural" parenthood and the decision to have a child turns to be a consciously planned strategy. The article shows that the appeal to expert knowledge in child rearing which is characteristic of postmodern era leads to new uncertainties due to the variety of inconsistent advice and expertise. Discussion of the transformations experienced by the family shows the transition from child-centered to adult-centered pattern. Thus, the conclusion is that contemporary parenting takes place against many (conscious and unconscious contradictions, particularly between the growing importance of the values of self-realization and commitment and the value of parenthood. This contradiction brings to stress and anxiety which in turn damages the perception of oneself as a parent. The growth of interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy is considered to be a promising direction of research
Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study assessed the direct relation between young adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and mothers’ democratic childrearing practices as well as the potential mediating role of mothers’ perceived influence during the transition to adolescence. Design Three years of self-reported adolescent noncompliance, perceived influence, and parenting democracy were gathered from 166 mothers and their firstborn children (55% female), ages 9 – 11 years at time 1. Results Longitudinal path analysis indicated a total effect between adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and higher maternal democracy. In addition, the total effect was mediated by mothers’ perceived influence, such that adolescents’ regulated noncompliance at time 1 was associated with greater perceptions of influence at time 2, which, in turn, was associated with greater maternal democracy at time 3. Conclusions Mothers with young adolescents who resist in a relatively mature, regulated manner tend to have more positive perceptions of their influence on their emerging adolescents’ behavior. In turn, mothers expecting to maintain their influence despite normative adolescent resistance are more likely to use democratic parenting strategies, granting their adolescents more input in decisions. PMID:22844228
Icick, Romain; Lauer, Sophie; Romo, Lucia; Dupuy, Gaël; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Vorspan, Florence
People who suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs) frequently report to have undergone childhood adversity that is often associated with father or mother dysfunction, or both. Yet that issue has been barely addressed in opiate dependent patients. Therefore we sought to evaluate parent-specific dysfunctional styles perceived during childhood in a clinical sample from an outpatient addiction treatment program using the Measure Of Parental Styles (MOPS) questionnaire. DSM-IV diagnoses of substance use disorders and history of suicide attempts, family structure and changes of caregiver during childhood were obtained from 159 consecutive outpatients, along with their perception of parental bonding with the MOPS, in which mother and father scores are separate. Mother neglect dimension was significantly correlated with an earlier age at onset of several substances' use, the number of prior hospitalizations and of lifetime suicide attempts. Most of these associations remained significant in multivariate models. This was the first assessment of a representative sample of outpatients with SUDs by the MOPS questionnaire. Given its excellent acceptance and its association with several key correlates of SUDs, it should be used to design specific interventions targeted at attachment and familial management as well as in research models on gene × environment interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina
Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Polaha, Jodi; Williams, Stacey L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R
To examine parents' perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Parents endorsed low levels of stigma around services. Greater perceived stigma was related to less willingness to seek services in a mental/behavioral health center or schools but not in other settings, even when other barriers were considered. Having a younger child and a history of prior services was associated with greater willingness to seek services. Stigma does appear to present as a barrier, but only for some parents. Providing mental health services to young children and their parents in some nontraditional settings may increase access. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and…
Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei
Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Bavolek, Stephen J.
Describes four constructs of patterns of abusive and neglectful parenting and child rearing and the development of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory. The inventory is discussed in terms of discriminant analysis, diagnostic and discriminatory capabilities of the inventory with adults, and practical applications. (RJC)
Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922
Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process.
Soo Youn, Lee
Full Text Available Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010 data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPSconducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school studentsperceived their parents’parenting style positively, thelevelof their self-esteem andself-directedlearningattitudewere high,and this,in turn,had positive effects on their school lifeadjustment. Especially, self-esteem andlearning attitudemediated the effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parenting style on school life adjustment. Theseresults demonstrate that the mothers’ affectionate,monitoryandrationalparentingstyle will contribute greatly to the successfulstudents’school lifewith a sense ofself-esteem andself-directedlearningattitude.
Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.
Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.
Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N; Lucas, Hannah M; Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Breece, Carolyn R
In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments manipulating the nutritional status of one day old larvae by depriving them of brood food for a four-hour period, and then allowing workers to choose larvae for rearing queens from nutritionally deprived and non-deprived larvae. We simultaneously investigated the role of genetic relatedness in selection of larvae for queen rearing. In all the experiments, significantly greater numbers of non-deprived larvae than deprived larvae were selected for queen rearing irrespective of genetic relatedness. Our results demonstrate that honey bees perceive the nutritional state of larvae and use that information when selecting larvae for rearing queens in the natural emergency queen replacement process.
Aram-Fichman, Reut; Davidson-Arad, Bilha
The present study is anchored in the view that hope is a resource that fosters better coping and parenting. It examines the self-perceived hope and parental role of parents whom the welfare services in Israel have assessed as maltreating their children. The parents were recruited in 2010 through facilities for maltreated children. The study sample consisted of 262 parents (68.4% response rate), divided into those who had at least one child removed from home and those whose children were all at home. Both groups of parents reported moderately high basic and family hope and sense of pathways and agency, and moderate perceived parental role, with no significant group differences. Differences were found, however, in the role of hope in mediating between parents' sociodemographic features and their perceived parental role. The mediation was more substantial among the parents whose children were at home and differed in content. Only among parents whose children were at home did religiosity (β = 0.20, P hope, which increased the perceived parental role. Moreover, the findings underscore the lack of role of family hope and sense of agency among parents whose children were not at home. In both the groups, higher income led to greater hope (β = 0.18, P hope as a resource to help them improve their parenting, especially where the child was removed from home. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and…
Bokhorst, C.L.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.
Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social
Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p mental health problem (although only a trend was observable for internalizing problems). The large impact of children's mental health conditions on themselves and their families might be reduced by adapting the provision of health care and by increasing parents' health literacy.
Türkel, Yeşim Deniz; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness yielded a significant main effect for parenting style groups. Neither the main effect for gender nor the gender and parenting style interaction effect was significant. The findings suggest that those who perceived their parents as authoritative had a relatively high level of learned resourcefulness as compared to those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian. Findings also indicated that those who perceived their parents as indulgent had a higher level of learned resourcefulness than those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian.
Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.
Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…
White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.
To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519
Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie
The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875
Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.
Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent–child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Alto...
Taylor, Catherine A; McKasson, Sarah; Hoy, Guenevere; DeJong, William
Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main "predictors" were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice.
Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Cinamon, Rachel Gali
The current study examined the contribution of different types of parental support to career self-efficacy among 11th and 12th grade students (N = 160): 66 students with hearing loss (23 hard of hearing and 43 deaf) and 94 hearing students. Participants completed the Career-Related Parent Support Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict questionnaire. Different aspects of parental support predicted different types of career self-efficacies across the 3 groups. Differences among groups were also found when levels of parental support were compared. The deaf group perceived lower levels of parental career-related modeling and verbal encouragement in comparison with the hard-of-hearing students and higher levels of parental emotional support compared with the hearing participants. No significant differences were found among the research groups in career decision-making self-efficacy and self-efficacy in managing work-family conflict. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen
The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new
Lillo-Navarro, Carmen; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Gomez-Arnaldos, Francisco; Oliveira-Sousa, Silvana L
What are the perceptions of parents of children with physical disabilities about the home exercise programs that physiotherapists prescribe? How do these perceptions affect adherence to home exercise programs? Qualitative study using focus groups and a modified grounded theory approach. Parents of children with physical disabilities who have been prescribed a home exercise program by physiotherapists. Twenty-eight parents participated in the focus groups. Two key themes that related to adherence to home exercise programs in young children with physical disabilities were identified: the characteristics of the home exercise program; and the characteristics of the physiotherapist's teaching style. In the first theme, the participants described their experiences regarding their preference for exercises, which was related to the perceived effects of the exercises, their complexity, and the number of exercises undertaken. These factors determined the amount of time spent performing the exercises, the effect of the exercises on the family's relationships, and any sense of related burden. In the second theme, participants revealed that they adhered better to prescribed exercises when their physiotherapist made an effort to build their confidence in the exercises, helped the parents to incorporate the home exercise program into their daily routine, provided incentives and increased motivation. Parents perceive that their children's adherence to home-based exercises, which are supervised by the parents, is more successful when the physiotherapist's style and the content of the exercise program are positively experienced. These findings reveal which issues should be considered when prescribing home exercise programs to children with physical disabilities. [Lillo-Navarro C, Medina-Mirapeix F, Escolar-Reina P, Montilla-Herrador J, Gomez-Arnaldos F, Oliveira-Sousa SL (2015) Parents of children with physical disabilities perceive that characteristics of home exercise programs and
Xie, Peng; Wang, Xue-Ping; Bu, Zhu; Zou, Xiao-Ting
1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons. Lipid content of crop milk from both parent pigeons gradually decreased to the crude fat level in the formulated diet after 10 d (R10) of chick rearing. 3. The gene expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (EFABP) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) in male pigeon crop tissue were the greatest at 17 d (I17) of incubation. In female pigeons, FAT/CD36 expression was the highest at I14, and both EFABP and ACBP expression peaked at I14 and R7. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in male pigeons reached the maximum level at R1, while they peaked at I14 and I17, respectively in female pigeons. The gene expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) was the greatest at I17 in the male, while it was at I14 in the female. However, no regular changing pattern was found in PPARα gene expression in male pigeons. 4. These results indicated that male and female pigeons may make different contributions in rearing squabs. The gene expression study suggested that fatty acids used in lipid biosynthesis of crop milk probably originated from both exogenous supply and de novo synthesis. The sex of the parent pigeon affected the lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes involved in fatty acid transportation and lipogenesis.
Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
to evaluate the test-retest reliability of children's perceptions of their own competence in performing daily tasks and of their choice of goals for intervention using the Swedish version of the perceived efficacy and goal setting system (PEGS). A second aim was to evaluate agreement between children's and parents' perceptions of the child's competence and choices of intervention goals. Forty-four children with disabilities and their parents completed the Swedish version of the PEGS. Thirty-six of the children completed a retest session allocated into one of two groups: (A) for evaluation of perceived competence and (B) for evaluation of choice of goals. Cohen's kappa, weighted kappa and absolute agreement were calculated. Test-retest reliability for children's perceived competence showed good agreement for the dichotomized scale of competent/non-competent performance; however, using the four-point scale the agreement varied. The children's own goals were relatively stable over time; 78% had an absolute agreement ranging from 50% to 100%. There was poor agreement between the children's and their parents' ratings. Goals identified by the children differed from those identified by their parents, with 48% of the children having no goals identical to those chosen by their parents. These results indicate that the Swedish version of the PEGS produces reliable outcomes comparable to the original version.
Meppelink, Renee; de Bruin, Esther I.; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H.; Vennik, Corinne J.; Bogels, Susan M.
Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful
Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.
Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to
Koenig, Laura B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Religiousness is widely considered to be a culturally transmitted trait. However, twin studies suggest that religiousness is genetically influenced in adulthood, although largely environmentally influenced in childhood/adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a self-report measure of religiousness in a sample consisting of 284 adoptive families (two adopted adolescent siblings and their rearing parents); 208 biological families (two full biological adolescent siblings and their parents); and 124 mixed families (one adopted and one biological adolescent sibling and their parents). A sibling-family model was fit to the data to estimate genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on religiousness, as well as cultural transmission and assortative mating effects. Religiousness showed little evidence of heritability and large environmental effects, which did not vary significantly by gender. This finding is consistent with the results of twin studies of religiousness in adolescent and preadolescent samples.
Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi
The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…
Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V
A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Chiocca, Ellen M
Research on American parents' beliefs about the use of corporal punishment (CP) shows widespread approval of this child-rearing practice. This review integrated 25 research articles to gain a better understanding of what American parents believe about the use of CP as a method of child-rearing, where they get their information about CP, and if American parents' beliefs about CP translate to the actual use of CP. The results showed that the main factors that influence a parent's endorsement of CP is the belief that CP is normative and expected when raising a child; is a necessary part of parenting, even for infants; and that certain stressors involving interactions between the parent, child, and environment can elicit the use of CP. Further research is needed to determine what methods are effective in changing parents' attitudes and beliefs about the use of CP. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Schwing, Alison E.; Cao, Lien H.; Ho, Phoenix Phung-Hoang; Nguyen, Quynh-Tram
The main goal of this mixed-methods study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of a brief, community-based parenting intervention for Vietnamese American immigrant parents. A key component of the intervention involved participants listening to Vietnamese American adolescents' discussions about their relationships with their parents utilizing…
White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W
To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Stormont-Spurgin, Melissa; Zentall, Sydney S.
This study assessed child-rearing practices and attitudes of Australian parents of 27 children (ages 7-11) with hyperactivity, hyperactivity-aggression, or no disability. Results found that the mothers of children with hyperactivity were using more consequences (time-out, reasoning, etc.) than comparison mothers, whereas the fathers reported…
Parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality among Turkish college students / Türk üniversite öğrencileri arasında cinsellikle ilgili konularda anne ve babayla iletişim ve algılanan anne baba tutumları
ABSTRACTThis current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication about sexuality scale and parental attitudes about sexuality scale were administered to 366 (217 female and 148 male) college students, aged 18 ...
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J.; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S.
This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations. PMID:29062285
Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S
This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers' endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA, Hong Kong (HK, and Beijing (BJ. HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.
Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective Examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and non-anxious youth. Method Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and non-anxiety-disordered (56: PNAD) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: half were told the child was anxious and half were given a neutral description. Participants completed measures of anxiety and emotional responding before and after the audio vignette, and signaled when the mother on the vignette should accommodate the child. Results Whereas PNAD responded significantly faster when provided with neutral information about the child than when told the child was anxious, PAD did not differ in response latency. However, PAD exhibited a significant increase in state anxiety and negative affect and a decrease in positive affect after the vignette, whereas PNAD did not. Conclusions Results suggest that PNAD are more flexible and adaptable in their parenting behavior than PAD and that the greater anxiety and emotional lability of PAD may influence their parenting. Suggestions for research are discussed. PMID:22309473
O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…
Alonso-Geta, Petra María
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.
Marie Delhaye; Wim Beyers; Theo A Klimstra; Paul Linkowski; Luc Goossens
The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS), an instrument initially developed for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium, in French-speaking adolescents living in that same country. The instrument was administered to a sample of French-speaking adolescents ('N' = 625) and a carefully matched sample of Dutch-speaking adolescents ('N' = 630). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), factor structure, and mean scores...
Chao, Ruth K.
This study investigated whether certain broad cultural notions, such as "chiao shun" (training children in appropriate behavior or morals) and "guan" (a positive notion expressing parental concern, caring, or involvement) better distinguish the Chinese parent from the European-American than do the concepts of…
Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Garofano, L; Ciusa, F; Moi, G; Avanzini, P; Talarico, E; Gardini, F; Brambilla, F; Manfredini, M; Donnini, C
Low parental care during childhood, a pattern characteristic of an "affectionless control" rearing style was frequently reported in the history of addicted individuals. Parents' childrearing regimes and children's genetic predispositions, with their own behavioral characteristics, have been seen to be closely interwoven, probably affecting children's development and addictive behavior susceptibility. In the present study, parents care perception, aggressive personality traits, and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter gene--5-HTTLPR) have been investigated in cocaine users and healthy control subjects. PBI scores (maternal and paternal care) were lower and BDHI scores (aggressiveness) higher in cocaine users in comparison with controls and significant differences in the perception of either paternal or maternal care were observed between cocaine users and non-users. The short-short (SS) genotype frequency was significantly higher among cocaine users compared with control subjects (P = 0.04). Logistic regression proves that persons bearing the SS genotype have a risk of becoming cocaine user almost three times higher than those having the LL genotype. Estimations of the effects of other factors potentially affecting the risk of being cocaine addicted clearly prove the significant impact of aggressiveness: the highest the score, the highest the risk of becoming cocaine user. Moreover, paternal and maternal care perception significantly improve the fit of the model (the log likelihood decreases passing from -105.9 to -89.8, LR test = 32.17, P-value = 0.0000). Each unit increase in the PBI score yields a significant 12% and 10% decrease of the risk of becoming cocaine user, respectively for paternal and maternal care. Interestingly, once controlled for the PBI score, the relative risk associated to the SS genotype drops strikingly and becomes no longer statistically significant. On the whole, our preliminary data suggest that the association between 5-HT transporter
van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan
Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus
Miró, Jordi; de la Vega, Rocío; Gertz, Kevin J; Jensen, Mark P; Engel, Joyce M
Family social support and parental solicitous responses have been hypothesised to play an important role in paediatric pain. However, research testing the hypothesised associations between these social domains and measures of adjustment to pain in youths with disabilities and chronic pain is non-existent. About 111 youths with physical disabilities and bothersome pain were interviewed and asked to complete measures of average pain intensity, pain interference, family social support, parent solicitous responding, and catastrophising. Children's perceptions of pain-related solicitous responses from their parent/guardian were associated both with more pain interference and greater pain-related catastrophising; perceived social support was negatively associated with pain interference. The findings provide new information regarding the role that psychosocial factors have in predicting function and adjustment, and have important implications as to how youth with physical disabilities with pain might be most effectively treated. Implications for rehabilitation Little is known about the role of perceived family social support or parental solicitous responses in the adjustment to chronic pain in young people with physical disabilities. This study provides new and important findings that have significant theoretical and practical implications that could help to understand and manage function in these patients. Results show that it matters how parents respond to their children with disabilities who have pain, and raise the possibility that interventions which target these responses may result in significant benefits for the children.
Full Text Available Background: Because of the increasing usage of waterpipe globally, we need to know more about the different factors related to waterpipe and cigarette smoking. Therefore, the present study aims at gaining more insight on waterpipe and cigarette smoking based on perceived parental reaction and appeal and repellent of smoking among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey entitled "Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program" (ITUPP was conducted among 5,500 adolescents in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2010 using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Demographic factors, cigarette and waterpipe smoking status, appeal and repellent of smoking, perceived parental reactions, and the main reasons behind the increase in waterpipe smoking were measured. Chi-square, univariate logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression were used. For all analyses, we defined statistical significance a priori with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15. Results: 50% of the sample was female and 89% lived in urban areas. The average age of the respondents was 14.37 ± 1. 70 years. While a majority of cigarette smokers (70.9% were waterpipe smokers, only 35.7% of waterpipe smokers smoked cigarettes. The incidence of smoking was high in those who expected less extensive parental reaction with odds ratio (OR = 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.35-2.63] (P < 0.001 among cigarette smokers and OR = 2.75 (95% CI: 2.16-3.50 (P < 0.001 among waterpipe smokers. "Taste" was rated the most attractive feature by waterpipe and cigarette smokers 2.83-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 3.90 (P < 0.001. Most waterpipe smokers compared to nonsmokers believed that the main reason behind waterpipe popularity was habit. Conclusion: The factors related to waterpipe smoking were different from those in cigarette smoking; so we need to implement different interventions to overcome the
Klunklin, Pimpaporn; Harrigan, Rosanne C
The number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased because of the HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Yet little is known about the child-rearing practices of these children's primary caregivers. The purpose of this article is to describe what is known about the child-rearing practices of primary caregivers of HIV-infected children. The review covers a 10-year period from 1990 to 2000. Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and AIDSLINE) were explored. Key words used were HIV-positive children, caregivers, and child-rearing. A total of 50 papers were examined. Using the Matrix Method, each paper was evaluated according to five frames of reference: journal, purpose, sample, method, and findings. Content analysis was used to identity salient themes. Themes that emerged were: caregiver, child, and interactions or child-rearing practices. These findings affirm the parent-child interaction model generated by Kathryn E. Barnard and support this framework as a tool for investigating the relationships between these children and their caregivers. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Adverse parenting is associated with blunted salivary cortisol awakening response and altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor β and β2-adrenergic receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in Japanese medical students.
Kawai, Tomoko; Kuwano, Yuki; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Kinuyo; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Nishida, Kensei
Adverse parenting is associated with an increased risk for the development of mood and behavioral disorders. In this study, we assessed the perceived parental bonding of 232 medical students using the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and extracted 22 students who reported their parents' rearing attitudes as affectionless control (LOW; low care, high overprotection). Using the 28-item general health questionnaire, the Zung self-rating depression scale (Zung-SDS), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and the Spielberger state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI), physical and mental state of the LOW students were compared with those of 30 students who reported their parental bonding as optimal (OPT; high care and low overprotection). These questionnaire measurements demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and depressive mood in the LOW students versus the OPT students. Compared with the OPT students, the LOW students also exhibited a significantly reduced salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) without changes across the rest of the diurnal salivary cortisol profile. Among glucocorticoid-related genes examined (GR, ADRB2, IκBα, IL10, IL1R2, IL1RN, MR, MC2R, TGFB1, TGFB2 and FASLG), real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that the LOW students significantly increased expression of a dominant negative glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) mRNA and decreased β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) mRNA levels in circulating leukocytes. These results suggest that negative perception of parents' child-rearing attitudes may be associated with anxiety and depressive mood and altered glucocorticoid signaling even in healthy young adults.
Bruce, Elisabeth; Dorell, Åsa; Lindh, Viveca; Erlingsson, Christen; Lindkvist, Marie; Sundin, Karin
There is a need for a suitable instrument for the Swedish context that could measure family members' perceptions of cognitive and emotional support received from nurses. The purpose of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Iceland-Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ) and, further, to report perceptions of support from nurses by family members of children with congenital heart defects (CHDs). A sample of 97 parents of children with CHD, living in Sweden, completed the Swedish translation of ICE-FPSQ. The Swedish version of ICE-FPSQ was found to be reliable and valid in this context. Parents scored perceived family support provided by nurses working in pediatric outpatient clinics as low, which suggests that nurses in these outpatient contexts in Sweden offered family nursing only sparingly. © The Author(s) 2016.
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying
Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…
Huang, CY; Cheah, CSL; Lamb, Michael Ernest; Zhou, N
The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful\\ud control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese\\ud immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States,\\ud and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54\\ud girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported\\ud authoritarian pare...
BACKGROUND: Embryo donation produces a family structure where neither rearing parent is genetically related to the child, as in adoption. It is not known how embryo donation parents view the donors compared with how adoptive parents view the birth parents. \\ud METHODS: 21 couples with an embryo donation child aged 2–5 years were compared with 28 couples with an adopted child. Parents were administered a semi-structured interview, assessing knowledge of the donors/birth parents, frequency of t...
Found significant differences across generations in perceptions of child rearing practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Found a decreasing emphasis on authoritarian control and an increasing emphasis on encouraging independence, open expression, and expression of affect. (PCB)
George, Neethu; Shanbhag, Deepthi N; George, Meera; Shaju, Ann Christy; Johnson, Reuben C; Mathew, P Thomas; Golapalli, Chaitanya Prasad; Goud, Ramakrishna
Adolescence is the time which is crucial for the overall development of a person both mentally and physically. In this period, along with academic intelligence, emotional intelligence (EI) also plays an equal or strong role in student life. This study was to assess EI, parental bonding, and their association among adolescents in high schools under Sarjapur PHC area. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students under Sarjapur PHC area. The EI was assessed using EI scale which measured self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The parental bonding instrument was utilized to determine the parental styles of both the parents and was interpreted in terms of care and protection as neglectful parenting, affectionless control, optimal parenting, and affectionate control. A total of 300 adolescents were interviewed. It was seen that most of them had low EI in self-awareness, i.e., 92 (30.7%), motivation 99 (33%), and social skills 101 (33.7%). It was also observed that most of them had high EI in self-regulation, i.e., 98 (32.7%) and moderately high EI in empathy 117 (39%). The study group perceived that 147 (49%) of the fathers and 109 (36.3%) of the mothers had affectionless control. Along with poor parenting, most of the respondents also have low EI in self-awareness, motivation, and social skills which has to be addressed for the future of the country.
Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is the time which is crucial for the overall development of a person both mentally and physically. In this period, along with academic intelligence, emotional intelligence (EI also plays an equal or strong role in student life. Aims: This study was to assess EI, parental bonding, and their association among adolescents in high schools under Sarjapur PHC area. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students under Sarjapur PHC area. The EI was assessed using EI scale which measured self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The parental bonding instrument was utilized to determine the parental styles of both the parents and was interpreted in terms of care and protection as neglectful parenting, affectionless control, optimal parenting, and affectionate control. Results: A total of 300 adolescents were interviewed. It was seen that most of them had low EI in self-awareness, i.e., 92 (30.7%, motivation 99 (33%, and social skills 101 (33.7%. It was also observed that most of them had high EI in self-regulation, i.e., 98 (32.7% and moderately high EI in empathy 117 (39%. The study group perceived that 147 (49% of the fathers and 109 (36.3% of the mothers had affectionless control. Conclusion: Along with poor parenting, most of the respondents also have low EI in self-awareness, motivation, and social skills which has to be addressed for the future of the country.
Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Berry, Nina
Reductions in underage drinking will only come about from changes in the social and cultural environment. Despite decades of messages discouraging parental supply, parents perceive social norms supportive of allowing children to consume alcohol in 'safe' environments. Twelve focus groups conducted in a regional community in NSW, Australia; four with parents of teenagers (n = 27; 70 % female) and eight with adolescents (n = 47; 55 % female). Participants were recruited using local media. Groups explored knowledge and attitudes and around alcohol consumption by, and parental supply of alcohol to, underage teenagers; and discussed materials from previous campaigns targeting adolescents and parents. Parents and adolescents perceived teen drinking to be a common behaviour within the community, but applied moral judgements to these behaviours. Younger adolescents expressed more negative views of teen drinkers and parents who supply alcohol than older adolescents. Adolescents and parents perceived those who 'provide alcohol' (other families) as bad parents, and those who 'teach responsible drinking' (themselves) as good people. Both groups expressed a preference for high-fear, victim-blaming messages that targeted 'those people' whose behaviours are problematic. In developing and testing interventions to address underage drinking, it is essential to ensure the target audience perceive themselves to be the target audience. If we do not have a shared understanding of underage 'drinking' and parental 'provision', such messages will continue to be perceived by parents who are trying to do the 'right' thing as targeting a different behaviour and tacitly supporting their decision to provide their children with alcohol.
Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail
The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being.
Solomon, C. Ruth; Serres, Francoise
A study of 144 children (age 10) investigated whether parental verbal violence had negative effects on self-esteem and academic achievement. Results found parental verbal aggression alone, as separate and distinct from physical punishment, contributed to low self-esteem and school achievement. The need for parent education on child rearing is…
Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Ok-Joo; Kim, Joon-Ho
Children who have experienced negative rearing behaviors show a lack of self-confidence due to emotional instability and are reserved in interpersonal relationships. This can lead to failure in social adaptation and a high risk of depression, suicide, criminal acts, and anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of experiencing negative parental rearing behaviors, such as neglect and abuse, on adolescents' social withdrawal and aggression, by utilizing multivariate latent growth models. Data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS), a survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute targeting a cohort of three different age groups (grade 1, grade 4, and grade 7), from 2010 to 2016 was used. Multi-stage stratified sampling methods were used in the KCYPS, which surveyed the students and parents of the selected grade levels. This study analyzed the data for grade 7, from second year (grade 8) to fourth year (grade 10). Negative rearing experiences had a significant effect on social withdrawal and aggression, and this influence was shown to persist over the long term. This study examined the long-term developmental trajectory in the relationship between risk factors for adolescent development. Furthermore, the relationship between risk factors was shown to have not only short term but long-term effects as well, which reinforces the limitations of previous studies.
Abuqamar, Maram; Arabiat, Diana H; Holmes, Sandra
This study aims to identify parental perceptions on pediatric intensive care-related satisfaction within three domains: environment, child's care provided and communication. In addition, it aims to identify whether parent's socio-demographics and child's clinical variables predict parents' perceived satisfaction. In this study, a total of 123 parents whose child received care in the PICU of a tertiary children's hospital in Amman completed the Arabic version of the parents satisfaction survey (PSS). A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to collect data. All data were collected between June and October of 2013. Central tendency measures and percentages of replies for each domain revealed that at least 7 items were rated poorly satisfied. More than half of the parents were not satisfied with the noise level of the PICU, the time nurses spent at the child's bedside, as well as the way the healthcare team prepare them for the child's admission. Almost 90% of the parents believed that the nurses ignored their child's needs by not listening to parents and by responding slowly to child's needs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that that the number of hospital admissions, health insurance and the severity of illness was the main predictor of parents' satisfaction. In conclusion, the availability of health care professionals, the support and the information they share with the child's parents are all significant to parent's satisfaction and hence to better quality of care. Targeting the domains of low satisfaction reported by the parents could increase parent's satisfaction and achieve quality improvement required for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parental meaning systems (ethnotheories) constitute a very important part of the context in which children live and develop. Parental ethnotheories are in turn shaped by implicit cultural ideals that organize parental beliefs and actions and frame child-rearing practices. The article presents a qualitative research into Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom, which illustrates both the rich cultural meanings that orientate parental action and also demonstrates how parents generate new meanings following migration and culture change. Professional understandings about children's developmental needs, of child rearing and parenting, are not culture free and an examination of the cultural frames of professional theories is important as parenting is often taught as a universal technique that takes little account of the cultural context and of what parents think. An engagement with other cultural theories about child development can enhance critical reflexivity in clinical practice by provoking reflection on the cultural constructions of professional theories. Creating a context for the expression of parental ethnotheories is necessary for developing cross-cultural collaborations in clinical practice as it empowers families and redresses the power relationship between the therapist and the parent. © The Author(s) 2014.
Choksey, Linda L.
This paper primarily considers the effects of parental and sibling deaths on preadolescent children, including the relationship of child rearing styles to the process of mourning. Through a review of the literature and an integration of several psychological factors, the author shows that familial death places children at risk. However, she…
James, Richard; Etheridge, George
In an effort to examine the effectiveness of commercially produced parent education programs, a child management and communication class given for Memphis, Tennessee, inner city parents is evaluated in this paper. The program, sponsored by the Mid-South Teacher Corps Project, utilized two models: (1) Becker's 1971 "Parents Are Teachers: A…
مریم جهان بخش
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.
Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H; Dunsmore, Julie C; Greene, Ross W
Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children's perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children's behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 - 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children's conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children's perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors.
Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R; Kelly, Megan M; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L
The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n=72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n=69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more "optimal" bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of "affectionless control" (pparenting), "affectionate constraint" (p=.025 for maternal parenting and p=.004 for paternal parenting), or "weak or absent" bonding (pparenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p=.015) and current level of depressive symptoms (pparental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention.
Mulaudzi, Fhumulani M; Peu, Mmapheko D
Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school. This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu - solidarity and sense of community - as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services. An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model. The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children. Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Bernet, William; Gregory, Nilgun; Reay, Kathleen M; Rohner, Ronald P
Both clinicians and forensic practitioners should distinguish parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) from other reasons for contact refusal. Alienated children-who were not abused-often engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to the rejected parent; children who were maltreated usually perceive the abusive parent in an ambivalent manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) in identifying and quantifying the degree of splitting, which may assist in diagnosing parental alienation. Results showed that severely alienated children engaged in a high level of splitting, by perceiving the preferred parent in extremely positive terms and the rejected parent in extremely negative terms. Splitting was not manifested by the children in other family groups. The PARQ may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Hopf, Kathleen Pillsbury; Madren, Eric; Santianni, Kirsten A
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often try a variety of treatments for their children, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the frequency of CAM use by parents for their children with autism and to quantify the parents' perceived effectiveness of various CAM therapies in mitigating the health and functioning problems associated with autism. Parents in southeastern Virginia were recruited for study participation from local autism organizations and a clinical practice where a large proportion of the patients are children with autism. Parents completed an online survey and answered questions about CAM use for their children with autism, and they rated the perceived effectiveness of each therapy. Of 194 parents surveyed, 80.9% reported that they had tried some form of CAM for their child with autism. Among CAM users, the most frequently used therapies were multivitamins (58.6%), the gluten-free casein-free diet (54.8%), and methyl B-12 injections (54.1%). The CAM therapies that received the highest average rating of effectiveness were sensory integration therapy, melatonin, and off-label use of prescription antifungal medications. CAM therapies were frequently used in this population, and many were perceived to be effective in helping to ease some of the health challenges associated with autism. CAM therapies for the autism population should be further studied in well-controlled clinical research settings to provide safety and efficacy data on treatments, as well as validated treatment options for those with ASD.
Bögels, S M; van Oosten, A; Muris, P; Smulders, D
Retrospective studies suggest a relationship between parental rearing practices and social phobia. The present study investigated whether socially anxious children perceive their current parental rearing as rejecting, overprotective, and lacking emotional warmth, and as emphasizing the importance of other's opinion, and de-emphasizing social initiatives and family sociability. Furthermore, we examined whether parents of socially anxious children report to rely on such rearing practices, and suffer themselves from social fears. A regression analysis as well as extreme group comparisons were applied. Little support was found for the presumed role of the assessed family rearing aspects in the development of social anxiety in children. Solely family sociability (children's and mothers' report) and children's perception of overprotection of the mother predicted social anxiety in the regression analysis. Given the influence of the mentioned rearing practices, social anxiety of the mother still significantly predicted social anxiety of the child. In the extreme group comparisons, differences in the expected direction were found between socially anxious and normal children on parental rejection, emotional warmth, and family sociability. However, the lack of differences between socially anxious and clinical control children suggests that these variables do not form a specific pathway to social fears.
Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N
This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
Miller, Kelly F; Borelli, Jessica L; Margolin, Gayla
Parental overcontrol (OC), behavior that intrusively or dominantly restricts child autonomy, has been identified as a transdiagnostic risk factor for youth. However, it is as yet unknown whether the association between parental OC and child maladjustment remains even when OC is exerted infrequently or by attuned parents. Rather, the selective use of OC might steer children away from danger. Taking a developmental psychopathology approach, this study focuses on the larger parent-child relationship context, testing whether either the dose at which parents demonstrate OC or the degree to which children perceive their parents as attuned determines whether OC is risky or protective for adolescents' adjustment. Among a community sample of 114 families of children followed from the ages of 12-18, we examine whether OC, behaviorally coded from triadic mother-father-child discussions in middle childhood, is associated with later risky behavior and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Overcontrol exerted by either mothers or fathers had a curvilinear effect on adolescent risky behaviors, and this effect was moderated by children's perceived attunement. Although OC generally was associated with increased risky behaviors, low doses of OC or OC exerted by highly attuned parents protected against engagement in risky behaviors. No main effect of OC was observed on adolescent anxiety; however, mothers' OC interacted with perceived parental attunement, such that OC exerted by less attuned parents predicted greater anxiety. Results underscore that the effect of parenting behaviors depends on the larger parent-child relationship context. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Denise D. Guastello; Stephen J. Guastello; Jeralee M. Briggs
The logical consistency between generativity and the authoritative parenting style led to the hypothesis that the two behavior patterns or orientations were related. Survey measurements of perceived parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and generativity in 559 university students and their respective parents were compared. The authoritative parenting style correlated positively with generativit...
Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David
This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna
We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...
Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M
To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.
Antonopoulou, Katerina; Hadjikakou, Kika; Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Nicolaou, Nicoletta
The present study aims to determine whether rearing a deaf or hard-of-hearing (d/hh) child would differentiate the parenting and disciplinary preference of parents between the d/hh and the hearing child. The parenting styles of 30 hearing mothers from Cyprus were assessed using the Greek version of the Parenting Styles & Dimensions…
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J
We examined the perceived effects of leave from work among employed parents of children with special health care needs. Telephone interviews were conducted from November 2003 to January 2004 with 585 parents who had missed 1 or more workdays for their child's illness in the previous year. Most parents reported positive effects of leave on their child's physical (81%) and emotional (85%) health; 57% reported a positive effect on their own emotional health, although 24% reported a negative effect. Most parents reported no effect (44%) or a negative effect (42%) on job performance; 73% reported leave-related financial problems. In multivariate analyses, parents receiving full pay during leave were more likely than were parents receiving no pay to report positive effects on child physical (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and emotional (OR = 1.68) health and parent emotional health (OR = 1.70), and were less likely to report financial problems (OR = 0.20). Employed parents believed that leave-taking benefited the health of their children with special health care needs and their own emotional health, but compromised their job performance and finances. Parents who received full pay reported better consequences across the board. Access to paid leave, particularly with full pay, may improve parent and child outcomes.
Tinbergen, J.M.; Verhulst, S.
1. To elucidate the links between avian brood size, parental effort and parental investment, we measured daily energy expenditure (DEEfem), condition (residuals of mass on tarsus) and feeding rate in female great tits Parus major L. rearing broods in which the number of young was either reduced,
Tinbergen, J.M.; Verhulst, S.
1. To elucidate the links between avian brood size, parental effort and parental investment, we measured daily energy expenditure (DEEfem), condition (residuals of mass on tarsus) and feeding rate in female great tits Parus major L. rearing broods in which the number of young was either reduced,
Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying
The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Schnabl-Dickey, Elizabeth A.
Permissive, indulgent home environments (characterized by low disciplinarian, high indulgent, and high protective child-rearing attitudes) were positively associated with superior throwing skill, while increased jumping skill was associated with higher maternal discipline. (MB)
Wang, Yiji; Deng, Ciping; Yang, Xiangdong
Parental involvement in children's education is a critical factor associated with children's socio-emotional and educational outcomes. However, low parental involvement occurs more often among economically disadvantaged families. It is unclear what mechanisms may explain the association between family economic status and parents' educational…
Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H
Individuals who believe that intelligence can be improved with effort (an incremental theory of intelligence) and who approach challenges with the goal of improving their understanding (a learning goal) tend to have higher academic achievement. Furthermore, parent praise is associated with children's incremental theories and learning goals. However, the influences of parental criticism, as well as different forms of praise and criticism (e.g., process vs. person), have received less attention. We examine these associations by analyzing two existing datasets (Study 1: N = 317 first to eighth graders; Study 2: N = 282 fifth and eighth graders). In both studies, older children held more incremental theories of intelligence, but lower learning goals, than younger children. Unexpectedly, the relation between theories of intelligence and learning goals was nonsignificant and did not vary with children's grade level. In both studies, overall perceived parent praise positively related to children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent criticism negatively related to incremental theories of intelligence. In Study 2, perceived parent process praise was the only significant (positive) predictor of children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent person criticism was the only significant (negative) predictor of incremental theories of intelligence. Finally, Study 2 provided some support for our hypothesis that age-related differences in perceived parent praise and criticism can explain age-related differences in children's learning goals. Results suggest that incremental theories of intelligence and learning goals might not be strongly related during childhood and that perceived parent praise and criticism have important, but distinct, relations with each motivational construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodwin, Sarah Christine
This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…
De Los Reyes, Andres; Thomas, Sarah A; Swan, Anna J; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Suarez, Liza; Dougherty, Lea R; MacPherson, Laura; Pabón, Shairy C
We examined a new structured interview of parent-child conflict that assesses parent and child perceptions of behavioral conflict about daily life topics (e.g., doing chores, homework), and whether discrepancies exist on beliefs about these topics. In a sample of 100 parents and children ages 10 to 17 years ( M =13.5 years, 52 males, 57 % African-American), informants could reliably distinguish between perceived behavioral conflicts and perceived discrepant beliefs about topics. These scores were also significantly related to questionnaire reports of parent-child conflict. Parent and child questionnaire reports did not significantly differ, yet on the structured interview, parents reported significantly greater levels of perceived conflict and discrepant beliefs relative to child reports. Additionally, structured interview reports of conflict demonstrated incremental validity by relating to child self-reports of delinquent behaviors, when accounting for questionnaire conflict reports. The findings have implications for increasing understanding of the links between parent-child conflict and psychosocial outcomes.
Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna
We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Mlynarczyk, Susan M
This study investigated whether perceived parental support and different parenting styles were related to adherence to diabetes management, metabolic control, and perceived quality of life of adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (N = 102) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for at least one year participated. Parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful) based on their adolescents' surveyed perceptions of their general support and their overall responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived parental support was significantly correlated with adherence. Adolescents who perceived their parents to have authoritative parenting styles also had better adherence to their prescribed treatment plan as well as better perceived quality of life. Adolescents experience better management outcomes when adolescents and parents become interdependent by working together to achieve these outcomes.
Huansuriya, Thipnapa; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D
The authors combined the 2-step flow of communication model and the theory of planned behavior to create a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of a set of advertisements from the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign promoting parent-child drug communication. The sample consisted of 1,349 pairs of parents and children who responded to the first and second annual rounds of the National Survey of Parents and Youth, and 1,276 pairs from Rounds 3 and 4. Parents' exposure to the campaign reported at Round 1 was indirectly associated with youth's lowered intentions to use marijuana at Round 2. Ad exposure was associated with positive changes in parental attitudes toward drug communication and perceived social approval of antidrug communications. These two beliefs, along with perceived behavioral control, predicted parents' intentions to discuss drugs with their children. Parental intentions to discuss drugs reported at Round 1 were associated with youth's report of actual drug communication with their parents at Round 2. Frequency and breadth of the topics in parent-child drug communication were associated with less positive attitudes toward marijuana use among youth who spoke with their parents. Together, the child's attitudes toward marijuana use and perceived ability to refuse marijuana use predicted youth's intentions to use marijuana. The proposed model fit well with the data and was replicated in a parallel analysis of the data from Rounds 3 and 4. Implications for future antidrug media campaign efforts are discussed.
Harrington, Daniel W; Jarvis, Jocelyn W; Manson, Heather
Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children's health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents' perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived), the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity.
As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)
Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A
Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.
Swenson, R.R.; Prelow, H.M.
The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both…