WorldWideScience

Sample records for peptide vip treatment

  1. Behavioural actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R.; Cottrell, G.A.; Veldhuis, H.D.; Rostene, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied on fear-motivated behaviours, exploration of a novel environment and on novelty and ACTH-induced grooming. VIP was administered via a plastic cannula into the lateral ventricle. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task was

  2. Radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; Yin, D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, increasing biochemical and radiochemical research has been performed to develop radiolabelled peptides as specific ligands for tumour associated receptors. VIP, a 28-amino acid peptide containing two tyrosines and three lysines, has demonstrated that various tumour cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP-receptors and could be applied to the clinic diagnosis. For these purposes, radiohalogenation of VIP by direct and indirect method was studied. Direct labelling works well for radioiodine but is limited to dehalogenation of labelling products in vivo. Conjugate labelling methods including Boltonhunter and wood reagents were developed but introduction of such a molecule to peptides may lead to the decrease of biological activity in vivo. In order to resolve these problems, N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-nbutylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was elected for the radioiodination of VIP and already employed to radioiodination of IgG successfully. The in vitro stability and biological activity would be compared in these two methods. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and human immunoglobulin (IgG) were radioiodinated by direct and indirect methods. Iodogen was employed in direct method and N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was applied as a prosthetic group in the conjugation labelling. The subject of our study was optimizing the radiohalogenation of IgG and VIP followed by separation and analysis of reaction products. The advantages and disadvantages were illustrated by comparing the in vitro stability and biological activity in these two methods. Na 123 I was prepared by nuclear reaction of 124 Te(p, 2n) 123 I using cyclone-30. More than 95% of radiochemical purity, more than 95% of radionuclide purity and about 100 mCi/mL of radioactivity concentration were obtained. ATE was supplied by Dr. Pozzi and radioiodinated with iodogen and 96% of labelling efficiency was obtained. The stability of radioactive S 125 IB kept well in dark at 4

  3. Expression and characterization of preproVIP derived peptides in the human male urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Bredkjaer, H E; Ekblad, E

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the gene sequence encoding vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) leads to the synthesis of a 170 amino acid precursor molecule which can be processed to five fragments: preproVIP 22-79, peptide histidine methionine (PHM), or peptide histidine valine (PHV), preproVIP 111-122, VIP...

  4. PreproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract: expression and biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredkjoer, H E; Palle, C; Ekblad, E

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination with immunohistoc......The aim of the study was to elucidate the localization, distribution, colocalization and biological effect of preproVIP-derived peptides in the human female genital tract. Radioimmunoassays applying antisera against the five functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination...... with immunohistochemistry were used. The effect of preproVIP 22-79, preproVIP 111-122 and preproVIP 156-170 on genital smooth muscle activity in the Fallopian tube was investigated in vitro and compared to that of VIP. All the preproVIP-derived peptides were expressed throughout the genital tract in neuronal elements...

  5. Iodinated derivatives of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), PHI and PHM: purification, chemical characterization and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Rorstad, O.; Lederis, K.

    1987-01-01

    The iodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied, using a variety of enzymatic and chemical iodination methods. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to purify the reaction products. The lactoperoxidase-glucose oxidase method gave excellent results in terms of reproducibility, iodine incorporation, and yield of the non-oxidized products [Tyr(I)10]VIP and [Tyr(I)22]VIP, and was used to prepare both 125 I and 127 I labelled derivatives. In both cases, direct application to HPLC and a single column system were used. Although the oxidized peptides [Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17]VIP and [Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17]VIP could be generated to varying degrees directly by iodination of VIP, these were most conveniently prepared by iodination of [Met(O)17]VIP. Iodinated derivatives of the homologous peptides PHI and PHM were likewise prepared by rapid, one-step HPLC procedures. The site and degree of iodination were determined by HPLC peptide mapping of tryptic digests and amino acid analyses, and in the case of [Tyr(I)10]VIP also by sequencing. The vasorelaxant activities of the iodinated peptides in bovine cerebral artery preparations did not differ significantly from those of the corresponding noniodinated peptides, with the exception of [Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17]VIP and [Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17]VIP which, unlike [Met(O)17]VIP itself, had slightly lower potency than VIP

  6. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in pancreatitis by radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Soichiro; Nakamura, Takayuki; Ihara, Kenichi; Isogawa, Shin; Hirayama, Akio

    1987-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) concentrations of normal individuals and patients with pancreatitis were studied using a VIP RIA kit. The inter-assay and intra-assay variation of this kit were between 2.1 and 9.4 %. The VIP levels increased in the acute phase of acute pancreatitis and patients with chronic pancreatitis. The VIP concentration increased during the first 30 min of glucose tolerance test, but this increase was much smaller than that in insulin. These results suggest that this kit is useful for physiologic and pathologic changes in the VIP level. (author)

  7. Structure-activity studies of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): cyclic disulfide analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, D R; Cottrell, J; Garippa, R; O'Neill, N; Simko, B; O'Donnell, M

    1993-02-01

    Analogs of vasoactive intestinal peptide with cysteine residues incorporated at selected sites within the sequence were prepared by solid phase methods, oxidized to the corresponding cyclic disulfides and purified to homogeneity by preparative HPLC. The cyclic compounds were assayed as smooth muscle relaxants on isolated guinea pig trachea, as bronchodilators in vivo in guinea pigs, and for binding to VIP receptors in guinea pig lung membranes. Of the analogs prepared at the N-terminus, one compound, Ac-[D-Cys6,D-Cys11,Lys12,Nle17,Val26,Th r28]-VIP, was found to be a full agonist with slightly more than one tenth the potency of native VIP. Most other cyclic analogs in the N-terminal region were found to be inactive. A second analog, Ac-[Lys12,Cys17,Val26,Cys28]-VIP, was also found to be a full agonist with potency about one third that of native VIP. Furthermore, this compound was active as a bronchodilator in vivo in guinea pig, but with somewhat diminished potency as compared to native VIP. Strikingly, this cyclic compound was found to have significantly longer duration of action (> 40 min) when compared to an analogous acyclic compound (5 min). The conformational restrictions imposed by formation of the cyclic ring structures may have stabilized the molecule to degradation, thus enhancing the effective duration of action. Analysis of this series of cyclic analogs has also yielded information about the requirements for the receptor-active conformation of VIP.

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters

  10. Peptides PHI and VIP: comparison between vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effect in rabbit uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardrum, B.; Ottesen, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and effects of the two neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the urogenital tract of nonpregnant rabbit female, were investigated. Immunoreactive VIP and PHI were present in all regions except the ovary with the highest concentration in the uterin cervix. By using in vitro tension recordings of myometrial specimens, it was demonstrated that both peptides displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of the mechanical activity. The dose-response curves of VIP and PHI were superimposable with and ID 50 of 3 x 10 -8 mol/l, and their combined effect was additive. In addition, the influence of the two peptides on myometrial blood flow (MBF) was investigated by the xenon-133 washout technique. Both peptides were found to increase MBF with the same potency and efficacy. Their combined effect was additive. In conclusion VIP and PHI are present in the rabbit urogenital tract, and the two peptides are equipotent inhibitors of mechanical nonvascular and vascular smooth muscle activity in the uterus

  11. Labeling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP 10-28 fragment with radioiodine by direct method. Comparative study of the kinetics biodistribution and affinity for neuroendocrine tumor cells; Marcacao do peptideo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) e do fragmento VIP10-28 com radioiodo por metodo direto. Estudo comparativo da cinetica de biodistribuicao e da afinidade por celulas de tumor neuroendocrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2005-07-01

    In the progress of the Nuclear Medicine, many protein based radiopharmaceuticals have been developed in the last years using antibodies and, more recently, biologically active natural peptides or similar synthetic peptides. In the search for agents with specificity for the target tissue in tumors detection, it was verified that small sequences of amino acids may interact with selective sites, with homogenous distribution, fast accumulation in tissues and fast blood clearance when compared to the antibodies. Among the peptides used in the diagnosis of tumors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been studied. VIP labeled with iodine-123 is applied in the images of intestinal adenocarcinoma and endocrine tumors. The molecule of VIP contains two tyrosine residues, in the positions 10 and 22 that are, theoretically, equally susceptible to radioiodination for direct method. The objective of this work was to produce VIP labeled with radioiodine (iodine-123), in order to introduce to the brazilian medical class this radiopharmaceutical of interest for the diagnosis and recurrence of tumors that express specific receptors. In an unpublished way, the work studied the labeling and the kinetic distribution of the VIP fragment (VIP 10-28) and verified its potential as radiopharmaceutical applied in the identification of tumors that express VIP receptors. After the choice of the appropriated technique for labeling VIP and VIP 10-28 with radioiodine, using Ceremonial T as oxidant agent and sodium metabisulfite as reducing agent, the quality control procedures were accomplished (electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for radiochemical purity determination as well as the separation of the radiochemical species obtained. Labeling and quality control procedures applied were efficient and accurate. [{sup 131}I]VIP and [{sup 131}l]VIP 10-28 were obtained with high radiochemical purity (> 95%). The purification studies to remove free radioiodine in the

  12. Prolonged treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) modulates neuro-gastric motility and plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNearney, Terry A; Sallam, Hanaa S; Hunnicutt, Sonya E; Doshi, Dipti; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on neurogastric functioning in scleroderma patients. Seventeen SSc patients underwent 30 min TENS treatment >10Hz at GI acupuncture points PC6 and ST36, once (acute TENS) and then after two weeks of TENS sessions for 30 min twice daily (prolonged TENS). Data collected at Visits 1 and 2 included gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) by surface electrogastrography (EGG), heart rate variability (HRV) by surface electrocardiography (EKG), GI specific symptoms and health related SF-36 questionnaires. Plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels were determined. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman Rank and p-values TENS, the percentages of normal slow waves and average slow wave coupling (especially channels 1, 2 reflecting gastric pacemaker and corpus regions) were significantly increased; 2. the percentage of normal slow waves was significantly correlated to sympathovagal balance; 3. Mean plasma VIP and motilin levels were significantly decreased after acute TENS, (vs. baseline), generally maintained in the prolonged TENS intervals. Compared to baseline, mean plasma IL-6 levels were significantly increased after acute TENS, but significantly decreased after prolonged TENS. 4. After prolonged TENS, the frequency of awakening due to abdominal pain and abdominal bloating were significantly and modestly decreased, respectively. In SSc patients, two weeks of daily TENS improved patient GMA scores, lowered plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels and improved association between GMA and sympathovagal balance. This supports the therapeutic potential of prolonged TENS to enhance gastric myoelectrical functioning in SSc.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [ 131 I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 μL using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC 18 , 10 μm, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  14. Labeling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP 10-28 fragment with radioiodine by direct method. Comparative study of the kinetics biodistribution and affinity for neuroendocrine tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2005-01-01

    In the progress of the Nuclear Medicine, many protein based radiopharmaceuticals have been developed in the last years using antibodies and, more recently, biologically active natural peptides or similar synthetic peptides. In the search for agents with specificity for the target tissue in tumors detection, it was verified that small sequences of amino acids may interact with selective sites, with homogenous distribution, fast accumulation in tissues and fast blood clearance when compared to the antibodies. Among the peptides used in the diagnosis of tumors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been studied. VIP labeled with iodine-123 is applied in the images of intestinal adenocarcinoma and endocrine tumors. The molecule of VIP contains two tyrosine residues, in the positions 10 and 22 that are, theoretically, equally susceptible to radioiodination for direct method. The objective of this work was to produce VIP labeled with radioiodine (iodine-123), in order to introduce to the brazilian medical class this radiopharmaceutical of interest for the diagnosis and recurrence of tumors that express specific receptors. In an unpublished way, the work studied the labeling and the kinetic distribution of the VIP fragment (VIP 10-28) and verified its potential as radiopharmaceutical applied in the identification of tumors that express VIP receptors. After the choice of the appropriated technique for labeling VIP and VIP 10-28 with radioiodine, using Ceremonial T as oxidant agent and sodium metabisulfite as reducing agent, the quality control procedures were accomplished (electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for radiochemical purity determination as well as the separation of the radiochemical species obtained. Labeling and quality control procedures applied were efficient and accurate. [ 131 I]VIP and [ 131 l]VIP 10-28 were obtained with high radiochemical purity (> 95%). The purification studies to remove free radioiodine in the labeling

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) labelling with iodine-131 by direct method; Marcacao do peptideo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) com iodo-131 por metodo direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Araujo, E.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2002-07-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide with a great numbers of receptors in tumoral cells, including adenocarcinomas and pancreatic and colon carcinomas. The VIP molecule contains two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to iodination, The VIP was labeled with 131-iodine by direct method using Iodogen as oxidant agent: 15.03 mmol VIP + 0.10 nmol KI + [{sup 131} I]NaI + 13.9 mmol Iodogen; the final volume was adjust to 100 {mu}L using 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and the reaction proceed with stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined by electrophoresis (Whatman 1MM paper; 0.05 M barbital buffer; pH 8.6; 150 V; 40 minutes) that indicates low percent of free 131-iodine. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using RPC{sup 18}, 10 {mu}m, 4 x 250mm column, was able to separate the different radiochemical species, only when an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (27:73) was used, with 0.5 mL/min. flux. (author)

  16. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  17. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  18. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...... peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated. Triptans might...

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binds to guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils: A single class of binding sites with low affinity and high capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, H.; Shima, K.; Takamatsu, J.; Said, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    VIP binds to specific receptors on lymphocytes and mononuclear cells and exhibits antiinflammatory properties. Eosinophils (Eos) contribute to inflammatory reactions but the regulation of Eos function is incompletely understood. The authors examined the binding of monoradioiodinated VIP, [Tyr( 125 I) 10 ] VIP ( 125 I-VIP), to Eos in guinea pigs. The interaction of 125 i-VIP with Eos was rapid, reversible, saturable and linearly dependent on the number of cells. At equilibrium the binding was competitively inhibited by native peptide or by the related peptide helodermin. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of VIP binding sites with a low affinity and a high capacity. In the presence of isobutyl-methylxanthine, VIP, PHI or helodermin did not stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in intact Eos, while PGE 2 or 1-isoproterenol did. VIP also did not inhibit superoxide anion generation from Eos stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The authors conclude that: (1) VIP binds to low-affinity, specific sites on guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils; (2) this binding is not coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase; and (3) the possible function of these binding sites is at present unknown

  20. The anti-inflammatory peptide stearyl-norleucine-VIP delays disease onset and extends survival in a rat model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Schäfer, Sabrina; Dumont, Amélie O; Vergouts, Maxime; Gallo, Alessandro; Desmet, Nathalie; Deumens, Ronald; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has potent immune modulatory actions that may influence the course of neurodegenerative disorders associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we show the therapeutic benefits of a modified peptide agonist stearyl-norleucine-VIP (SNV) in a transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated superoxide dismutase 1, hSOD1(G93A)). When administered by systemic every-other-day intraperitoneal injections during a period of 80 days before disease, SNV delayed the onset of motor dysfunction by no less than three weeks, while survival was extended by nearly two months. SNV-treated rats showed reduced astro- and microgliosis in the lumbar ventral spinal cord and a significant degree of motor neuron preservation. Throughout the treatment, SNV promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 as well as neurotrophic factors commonly considered as beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis management (glial derived neuroptrophic factor, insulin like growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor). The peptide nearly totally suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and repressed the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β, nitric oxide and of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α likely accounted for the observed down-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B that modulates the transcription of genes specifically involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sod1 and the glutamate transporter slc1a2). In line with this, levels of human superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA and protein were decreased by SNV treatment, while the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 was promoted. Considering the large diversity of influences of this peptide on both clinical features of the disease and associated biochemical markers, we propose that SNV or related peptides may constitute promising candidates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  1. Long-term estradiol treatment improves VIP-mediated vasodilation in atherosclerotic proximal coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Larsen, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    arteries. Female ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were randomized to 16 weeks treatment with 17beta-estradiol or placebo. The diet was semisynthetic, thereby avoiding the influence of phytoestrogens. Artery ring segments were mounted for isometric tension recordings...... in myographs. Following precontraction, the dose-response relationships for VIP and PACAP were evaluated. Treatment with 17beta-estradiol significantly improved the maximum VIP-mediated vasodilation (E-max, percentage of precontraction) in proximal coronary arteries (45.8 +/- 9.6% vs. 24.1 +/- 3.7%, p ....05). In the same artery segment, 17β-estradiol induced a significant decrease in the relative ratio between the repeated contractile response to potassium 30 and 120 mM (100 +/- 7% vs. 132 +/- 11%, p

  2. VIP and VIP gene silencing modulation of differentiation marker N-cadherin and cell shape of corneal endothelium in human corneas ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shay-Whey M; Chandrasekara, Krish; Abbondandolo, Cara J; Coll, Timothy J; Rutzen, Allan R

    2008-08-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed by corneal endothelial (CE) cells and is present in the aqueous humor, which bathes CE cells in vivo. This study demonstrated the role of CE cell VIP in maintaining the expression level of a CE differentiation marker, N-cadherin, and the hexagonal cell shape. To determine the most effective VIP concentration, bovine corneoscleral explants were treated with 0 (control) and 10(-12) to 10(-6) M VIP. Paired human corneas (nine donors) from an eye bank were used as control; the other corneas were treated with VIP. To silence endogenous VIP, paired fresh human donor corneas (from seven cadavers) were transduced with VIP shRNA or the control lentiviral particles and then bisected/quartered for quantitative analysis by semiquantitative RT-PCR (for mRNA) and Western blot analysis/immunocytochemistry (for protein), whereas alizarin red S staining revealed CE cell shape. VIP concentration dependently increased bovine CE cell N-cadherin mRNA levels, with the maximal effect observed between 10(-10) (1.47 +/- 0.06-fold; P = 0.002) and 10(-8) M VIP (1.48 +/- 0.18-fold; P = 0.012). VIP (10(-8) M) treatment increased N-cadherin protein levels in bovine and human CE cells to 1.98 +/- 0.28-fold (P = 0.005) and 1.17 +/- 0.10 (range, 0.91-1.87)-fold (P = 0.050) of their respective controls. VIP antagonist (SN)VIPhyb diminished the VIP effect. VIP silencing resulted in deterioration of the hexagonal cell shape and decreased levels of VIP protein and mRNA, N-cadherin (but not connexin-43) mRNA and protein, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Through its autocrine VIP, CE cells play an active role in maintaining the differentiated state and suppressing apoptosis in the corneal endothelium in situ.

  3. VIP and PACAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2010-01-01

    amounts. Carboxyamidation of VIP and PHI is not critical and glycine-extended forms of both peptides have been demonstrated. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is derived from a 170 amino acid long precursor, which gives rise to PACAP 38, PACAP 27 and PACAP related peptide (PRP...

  4. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of 141 Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and thyroxine (T 4 ) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T 3 , and T 4 levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded

  5. In vitro autoradiographic localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Dussaillant, M.; Marie, J.C.; Rostene, W.; Rosselin, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the autoradiographic distribution of VIP binding sites in the rat central nervous system using monoiodinated 125I-labeled VIP. High densities of VIP binding sites are observed in the granular layer of the dorsal dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the dorsolateral and median geniculate nuclei of the thalamus as well as in the ventral part of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus

  6. VIP/PACAP receptors in cerebral arteries of rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, André; Sheykhzade, Majid; Maddahi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP)-containing nerves surround cerebral blood vessels. The peptides have potent vasodilator properties via smooth muscle cell receptors and activation of adenylate cyclase. The purpose of this s......BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP)-containing nerves surround cerebral blood vessels. The peptides have potent vasodilator properties via smooth muscle cell receptors and activation of adenylate cyclase. The purpose...

  7. Experimental research for tumor VIP receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianwei; Tan Tianzhi

    1998-01-01

    To study the possibility of radioactive labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for tumor VIP receptor imaging. 125 I-VIP was prepared by chloramine-T method, and purified by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The bioactivity and stability of 125 I-VIP were measured by silica 60 F 254 TLC and competition test to SGC7901 cell in vitro. The biodistribution of 125 I-VIP was studied in the nude mice bearing tumor. The results showed that labelled rate of 125 I was 73.8%, the specific activity was 18.2 PBq/mol, the radiochemical purity (RCP) was over 98% and remained 96.3% after 48 days stored at -80 degree C. The specific binding of 125 I-VIP to the SGC7901 cell was inhibited by VIP in dose dependence in the competition experiment. The radioactivity of tumor was higher than that of muscles in all phases (P<0.05-0.01), the peak activity of tumor occurred at 30 min (3.58 +- 0.48ID%/g) and the peak ratio of T/N occurred at 60 min after the injection. The activity of lungs was obviously higher than that of blood, the intestine was always in low level. Most of the activity in the body was mainly eliminated from kidney. The present study demonstrated that the radioactive labelled VIP is a promising agent for tumor VIP receptor scintigraphy

  8. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...

  9. PACAP and VIP inhibit the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia through the regulation of HIFs and EGFR expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia eMaugeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs, perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs. HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation is linked to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression. Previous studies have shown that VIP interferes with the invasive nature of gliomas by regulating cell migration. However, the role of VIP family members in GBM infiltration under low oxygen tension has not been clarified yet. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-invasive effect of PACAP or VIP in U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia induced by treatment with desferrioxamine (DFX. The results suggest that either PACAP or VIP exert an anti-infiltrative effect under low oxygen tension by modulating HIFs and EGFR expression, key elements involved in cell migration and angiogenesis. These peptides act through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, which are known to have a crucial role in HIFs regulation. In conclusion, the modulation of hypoxic event and the anti-invasive effect exerted by some VIP family members might open new insights in the therapeutic approach to GBM.

  10. VIP in human neonates and infants as measured by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptorassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, C.; Besson, J.; Laburthe, M.; Bataille, D.; Rosselin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) was assayed in the gut of human neonates and premature infants immediately after death or surgery. In these conditions, values ranged between 150 and 740ng/g of boiled tissue. The implication of VIP in Vermer-Morrison syndrome is further assessed by the correlation between clinical symptomatology and plasma VIP levels. The immunoassayable VIP (IA-VIP) extracted from normal gut or tumor is shown to fully interact with specific receptor for VIP in liver. This fact suggests the biological potency of IA-VIP [fr

  11. VIP and PACAP display different vasodilatory effects in rabbit coronary and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tórur; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2003-01-01

    on the vasodilatory effects of these two peptides in cerebral and coronary vessels from female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits.The localization and concentration of VIP and PACAP in cardiovascular tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassays. The vasodilatory effects of VIP and PACAP were...... investigated using myographs, allowing isometric tension recordings. In order to evaluate the influence of steroid hormones, the rabbits were ovariectomized and randomized to treatment for 4 weeks with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), Norethindrone Acetate (NETA), E(2)+NETA or placebo. Ring segments of the posterior...

  12. Antitumor effects of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotide mediated by VIP receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xiaohong; Tan Tianzhi; Li Yunchun; Kuang Anren

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: we had constructed a targeting delivery system based on intestinal peptide (VIP) for antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) transfer into VIP receptor-positive cells in previous study. The aims of present studies are to observe the antitumor effect of VIP-131I-ASON in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Methods: A 15-met phosphorothioate ASON, which was complementary to the translation start region of the C-myc oncogene mRNA, was labeled with 131I and the labelled compound was linked to the VIP bound covalently 'to a polylysine chain so as to deliver oligonucleotide into tumor cells. Distribution experiments for evaluating the radiolabeled antisense complexe uptake in tumor tissue were performed in BALB/c nude mice bearing with HT29 tumor xenografts. Nude mice beating HT29 tumor xenografts were adminstered VIP-131I-ASON (3.7,7.4 MBq) or 131I-ASON (3.7 MBq), 131I labeled control sense and nosense DNA (3.7 MBq), or saline. Antitumor effects were assessed using endpoints of tumor growth delay. C-myc-encoded protein expression of tumor was measured by immunocytohistochemical staining. Results: Distribution experiment performed with athymic mice bearing human colon tumor xenografts revealed maximal accumulation of conjugated ASON in the tumor tissue 2 h after administration and significantly higher than that in nude mice injected unconjngated ASON [(5.89±1.03)%ID/g and(1.56±0.31)%ID/g, respectively; t=7.7954 P<0.001]. The radioratio of tumor to muscle was peaked 4h after administration. VIP-131I-ASON exhibited strong antitumor effects against HT29 xenografts, decreasing their growth rate 7-fold compare with that in saline-treated mice(tumor growth delay, 25.4±0.89 day). The antitumor effects of unconjugated 131I-ASON were much less profound than VIP-131I-ASON (tumor growth delay, 3.2±1.3 and 25.4±0.89 day, respectively; q=51.4126 P<0.01). Sense, nosense control ON with VIP carder caused no therapeutic effect. There was no progressive weight loss or

  13. VIP as a potential therapeutic agent in gram negative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hiba; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2012-12-01

    Gram negative sepsis remains a high cause of mortality and places a great burden on public health finance in both the developed and developing world. Treatment of sepsis, using antibiotics, is often ineffective since pathology associated with the disease occurs due to dysregulation of the immune system (failure to return to steady state conditions) which continues after the bacteria, which induced the immune response, have been cleared. Immune modulation is therefore a rational approach to the treatment of sepsis but to date no drug has been developed which is highly effective, cheap and completely safe to use. One potential therapeutic agent is VIP, which is a natural peptide and is highly homologous in all vertebrates. In this review we will discuss the effect of VIP on components of the immune system, relevant to gram negative sepsis, and present data from animal models. Furthermore we will hypothesise on how these studies could be improved in future and speculate on the possible different ways in which VIP could be used in clinical medicine.

  14. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Morphological and functional correlates of VIP neurons in cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magistretti, P.J.; Morrison, J.H.; Shoemaker, W.J.; Bloom, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) promotes the hydrolysis of 3H-glycogen newly synthesized from 3H-glucose by mouse cortical slices. This effect occurs rapidly, approximately 50% of the maximal effect being reached within one minute. The maximal effect is achieved after 5 minutes and maintained for at least 25 minutes. Furthermore the glycogenolytic effect of VIP is reversible, and pharmacologically specific. Thus several neuropeptides present in cerebral cortex such as cholecystokinin-8, somatostatin-28, somatostatin-14, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, do not affect 3H-glycogen levels. VIP fragments 6-28, 16-28 and 21-28 are similarly inactive. Furthermore, among the peptides which share structural homologies with VIP, such as glucagon, secretin, PHI-27 and Gastric Inhibitory Peptide, only secretin and PHI-27 promote 3H-glycogen hydrolysis, with EC50 of 500 and 300 nM respectively, compared to an EC50 of 25 nM for VIP. Immunohistochemical observations indicate that each VIP-containing bipolar cell is identified with a unique radical cortical volume, which is generally between 15-60 micrograms in diameter and overlaps with the contiguous domains of neighbouring VIP-containing bipolar cells. Thus this set of biochemical and morphological observations support the notion that VIP neurons have the capacity to regulate the availability of energy substrates in cerebral cortex locally, within circumscribed, contiguous, radial domains

  16. VIP receptors from porcine liver: High yield solubilization in a GTP-insensitive form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, T.; Couvineau, A.; Guijarro, L.; Laburthe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were solubilized from porcine liver membranes using CHAPS. The binding of 125 I-VIP to solubilized receptors was reversible, saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of one binding site with a Kd of 6.5 ± 0.3 nM and a Bmax of 1.20 ± 0.15 pmol/mg protein. Solubilized and membrane-bound receptors displayed the same pharmacological profile since VIP and VIP-related peptides inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to both receptor preparations with the same rank order of potency e.g. VIP>helodermin>rat GRF>rat PHI>secretin>human GRF. GTP inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to membrane-bound receptors but not to solubilized receptors supporting functional uncoupling of VIP receptor and G protein during solubilization. Affinity labeling of solubilized and membrane-bound VIP receptors with 125 I-VIP revealed the presence of a single molecular component with Mr 55,000 in both cases. It is concluded that VIP receptors from porcine liver can be solubilized with a good yield, in a GTP-insensitive, G protein-free form. This represents a major advance towards the purification of VIP receptors

  17. Comparative biodistribution profile of [131I]VIP and [131I]VIP10-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Colturato

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various tumor cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP receptors (VIPR that provided the basis for the clinical use of radiolabeled VIP for the in vivo localization of tumors. This work studied the labeling of VIP and VIP10-28 with iodine-131 to compare the biological distribution of the labeled compounds in Nuce mice and the affinity for tumor cells. Both VIP and VIP10-28 peptides contain two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to radioiodination employing oxidative electrophilic substitution using oxidizing agents like Chloramine T. Radiochemical purity of the reaction mixture was determined by electrophoresis and HPLC. The VIP peptide and the fragment were labeled with radioiodine with good radiochemical yield (above 96%. Suitable, but important differences can be observed in biological distribution studies. Comparatively, blood clearance was faster for labeled VIP and perhaps because of this, the uptake in tumor was lower, especially during the first hour. These differences observed in the biological distribution of the compounds can be related to the lipophilicity of the labeled compounds.Várias células tumorais expressam significantemente uma alta quantidade de receptores VIP (VIPR que determinam a base para o uso clínico de VIP radiomarcado para localização de tumores in vivo. Foi estudado neste trabalho a marcação do VIP e do fragmento VIP10-28 com iodo-131 comparando a distribuição biológica dos compostos marcados em camundongos Nude e sua afinidade pelas células tumorais. Ambos os peptídeos, VIP e VIP10-28. contém dois resíduos de tirosina nas posições 10 e 22, que teoricamente são igualmente susceptíveis pela substituição eletrofílica oxidativa do radioiodo utilizando Cloramina T como agente oxidante. A pureza radioquímica da mistura de reação foi determinada por eletroforese e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O VIP e fragmento foram

  18. VIP Gene Deletion in Mice Causes Cardiomyopathy Associated with Upregulation of Heart Failure Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szema, Anthony M.; Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Smith, S. David; Benveniste, Helene; Katare, Rajesh Gopalrao

    2013-05-20

    Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, is absent in pulmonary arteries of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We previously determined that targeted deletion of the VIP gene in mice leads to PAH with pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dilatation. Whether the left ventricle is also affected by VIP gene deletion is unknown. In the current study, we examined if VIP knockout mice (VIP-/-) develop both right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) cardiomyopathy, manifested by LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, as well as overexpression of genes conducive to heart failure.

  19. Insights into the Structure of the Vip3Aa Insecticidal Protein by Protease Digestion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, w:w. If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with Agrotis ipsilon midgut juice equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed. However, when the proteolytic reaction was efficiently stopped, it was revealed that the protoxin was only cleaved at a primary cleavage site, regardless of the amount of trypsin used. The 66 kDa and the 19 kDa peptides generated by the proteases co-eluted after gel filtration chromatography, indicating that they remain together after cleavage. The 66 kDa fragment was found to be extremely resistant to proteases. The trypsin treatment of the protoxin in the presence of SDS revealed the presence of secondary cleavage sites at S-509, and presumably at T-466 and V-372, rendering C-terminal fragments of approximately 29, 32, and 42 kDa, respectively. The fact that the predicted secondary structure of the Vip3Aa protein shows a cluster of beta sheets in the C-terminal region of the protein might be the reason behind the higher stability to proteases compared to the rest of the protein, which is mainly composed of alpha helices.

  20. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific [125I]VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical activity influence neuronal survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, D.E.; Eiden, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blockage of electrical activity in dissociated spinal cord cultures results in a significant loss of neurons during a critical period in development. Decreases in neuronal cell numbers and 125 I-labeled tetanus toxin fixation produced by electrical blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX) were prevented by addition of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the nutrient medium. The most effective concentration of VIP was 0.1 nM. At higher concentrations, the survival-enhancing effect of VIP on TTX-treated cultures was attenuated. Addition of the peptide alone had no significant effect on neuronal cell counts or tetanus toxin fixation. With the same experimental conditions, two closely related peptides, PHI-27 (peptide, histidyl-isoleucine amide) and secretin, were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures. Interference with VIP action by VIP antiserum resulted in neuronal losses that were not significantly different from those observed after TTX treatment. These data indicate that under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated

  2. The VIP Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, D.L.; Sirghi, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. The recently approved VIP (VIolation of Pep) experiment, represents an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438). VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy. VIP is a Collaboration among four Institutions out of three countries (LNF-INFN, and INFN Trieste Italy; SMI-Vienna, Austria; IFIN-HH, Bucharest, Romania). It uses an apparatus with CCDs (Charge Coupled Device) as detectors of X rays - looking for PEP violating transitions in Copper: transitions from the 2p level to 1s with the 1s already occupied by 2 electrons. The characteristic of such transition is the energy - displaced with respect to the normal 2p → 1s one by about 300 eV. VIP will bring the limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons to 10 -30 , exploring so a region where new theories allow for a possible PEP violation. (authors)

  3. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries.......We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  4. Interaction of PHM, PHI and 24-glutamine PHI with human VIP receptors from colonic epithelium: comparison with rat intestinal receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laburthe, M.; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C.; Moroder, L.

    1985-01-01

    PHM, the human counterpart of porcine Peptide Histidine Isoleucine amide (PHI), is shown to be a VIP agonist with low potency on human VIP receptors located in colonic epithelial cell membranes. Its potency is identical to that of PHI but by 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of VIP itself in inhibiting 125 I-VIP binding and in stimulating adenylate cyclase activity. This contrasts markedly with the behavior of PHI on rat VIP receptors located in intestinal epithelial cell membranes where PHI is a potent agonist with a potency that is 1/5 that of VIP. In another connection, the authors show that 24-glutamine PHI has the same affinity as 24-glutamic acid PHI (the natural peptide) for rat or human VIP receptors. These results indicate that while PHI may exert some physiological function through its interaction with VIP receptors in rodents, its human counterpart PHM is a very poor agonist of VIP in human. Furthermore, they show that the drastic change in position 24 of PHI (neutral versus acid residue) does not affect the activity of PHI, at least on VIP receptors. 21 references, 1 figure

  5. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced neurite remodeling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells implicates the Cdc42 GTPase and is independent of Ras-ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, Celine; Eychene, Alain; Harnois, Thomas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Constantin, Bruno; Caigneaux, Evelyne; Muller, Jean-Marc; Philippe, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is known to regulate proliferation or differentiation in normal and tumoral cells. SH-SY5Y is a differentiated cell subclone derived from the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line and possess all the components for an autocrine action of VIP. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes and intracellular signaling pathways occurring upon VIP treatment of SH-SY5Y cells. VIP induced an early remodeling of cell projections: a branched neurite network spread out and prominent varicosities developed along neurites. Although activated by VIP, the Ras/ERK pathway was not required for the remodeling process. In contrast, pull-down experiments revealed a strong Cdc42 activation by VIP while expression of a dominant-negative Cdc42 prevented the VIP-induced neurite changes, suggesting an important role for this small GTPase in the process. These data provide the first evidence for a regulation of the activity of Rho family GTPases by VIP and bring new insights in the signaling pathways implicated in neurite remodeling process induced by VIP in neuroblastoma cells

  7. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  8. Increase of prolactin mRNA in the rat hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular injection of VIP or PACAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, S; Kacsóh, B; Obál, F; Fang, J; Krueger, J M

    1994-10-17

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), the structurally homologous pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and the pituitary hormone, prolactin (PRL) enhance rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). VIP and PACAP are both inducers of PRL gene expression and release in the pituitary gland. Little is known about PRL regulation in the brain although it is hypothesized that the REMS-promoting activity of i.c.v. administered VIP may be mediated via the activation of cerebral PRL. To test whether VIP or PACAP in fact increase intracerebral mRNA, the peptides (VIP: 30 or 300 pmol; PACAP: 220 pmol) were injected i.c.v. into rats at dark onset. 1 h later, cDNA was synthesized from purified hypothalamic mRNA. Standardized amounts were analysed for PRL using the polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blotting and hybridization. Compared with beta-actin mRNA levels, both VIP and PACAP increased PRL mRNA levels in a dose-dependent fashion though VIP was more effective on a molar basis. The previously reported alternatively spliced PRL mRNA (lacking exon 4) was not detected. The data support the hypothesis that the REMS-promoting activity of central VIP and PACAP might be mediated by cerebral PRL.

  9. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Xin Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  10. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenkrug, J.; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O.B.

    1977-06-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been developed, which can detect 3.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ of the peptide in plasma. Antisera to highly purified porcine VIP coupled to albumin were raised in eight rabbits. The final dilution, the avidity, and the specificity of each antiserum were determined. /sup 125/I-VIP served as label, and highly purified porcine VIP was used as standard. Separation of antibody-bound and free VIP was achieved by plasma-coated charcoal. Nonspecific interference with the assay system was excluded by extraction of plasm samples with ethanol. The reliability of the assay was investigated by recovery experiments, by serial dilution of plasma samples with high concentration of endogenous VIP, and by immunosorption. The within-and between assay reproducibility at a concentration of 18.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ was 1.6 and 2.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ (1 S.D.), respectively. Median fasting concentration of VIP in plasma from 74 normal subjects was 7.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ (range: 0 to 20.0 pmol x L/sup -1/).

  12. Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinly, A R; Spiegel, I; Patrizi, A; Centofante, E; Bazinet, J E; Tzeng, C P; Mandel-Brehm, C; Harmin, D A; Adesnik, H; Fagiolini, M; Greenberg, M E

    2016-03-17

    Inhibitory neurons regulate the adaptation of neural circuits to sensory experience, but the molecular mechanisms by which experience controls the connectivity between different types of inhibitory neuron to regulate cortical plasticity are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of dark-housed mice to light induces a gene program in cortical vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons that is markedly distinct from that induced in excitatory neurons and other subtypes of inhibitory neuron. We identify Igf1 as one of several activity-regulated genes that are specific to VIP neurons, and demonstrate that IGF1 functions cell-autonomously in VIP neurons to increase inhibitory synaptic input onto these neurons. Our findings further suggest that in cortical VIP neurons, experience-dependent gene transcription regulates visual acuity by activating the expression of IGF1, thus promoting the inhibition of disinhibitory neurons and affecting inhibition onto cortical pyramidal neurons.

  13. The VIP/VPACR system in the reproductive cycle of male lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Rosati, Luigi; Prisco, Marina; Coraggio, Francesca; Valiante, Salvatore; Scudiero, Rosaria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the knowledge that in the reproductive period the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is widely distributed in Podarcis sicula testis, we studied VIP expression and the localization of the neuropeptide and its receptors in the testis of the Italian wall lizard P. sicula in the other phases of its reproductive cycle (summer stasis, autumnal resumption, winter stasis, spring resumption). By Real Time-PCR, we demonstrated that testicular VIP mRNA levels change during the reproductive cycle, showing a cyclic trend with two peaks, one in the mid-autumnal resumption and the other in the reproductive period. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that both VIP mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the testis in almost all the phases of the cycle, except in the early autumnal resumption. As regards the receptors, the VPAC1R was localized mainly in Leydig cells, while the VPAC2R showed the same distribution of VIP. Our results demonstrate that, differently from mammals, where VIP is present only in nerve fibres innerving the testis, an endotesticular synthesis takes place in the lizard and the VIP synthesis changes throughout the reproductive cycle. Moreover, the VIP/VPAC receptor system distribution observed in germ and somatic cells in various phases of the cycle, and particularly in the autumnal resumption and the reproductive period, strongly suggests its involvement in both spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Finally, the wider distribution of VIP in lizards with respect to mammals leads us to hypothesize that during the evolution the synthesis sites have been transferred from the testis to other districts, such as the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical and thermal properties of VIP latrine sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... This study investigated the chemical and thermal properties of faecal sludge from 10 dry VIP latrines in Bester's Camp in the eThekwini Municipality, Durban, ... emptying and treatment equipment. A manual sorting of the pit .... (LaDePa) plant (Harrison and Wilson, 2012). Figure 3 illustrates the depths of the ...

  15. Radiolabeling and in vitro and in vivo characterization of [18F]FB-[R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP as a PET imaging agent for tumor overexpressed VIP receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Yin, Duanzhi; Li, Gucai; Wang, Mingwei; Li, Shiqiang; Zheng, Mingqiang; Cai, Hancheng; Wang, Yongxian

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to develop a peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of tumors overexpressed vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors with positron emission tomography, we have prepared a novel [R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP peptide for 18F-labeling. This peptide inhibited 125I-VIP binding to rats lung membranes with high affinity [half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 0.12 nm]. Additionally, [R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP showed higher stability than native vasoactive intestinal peptide in vivo of mice. With N-succinimidyl 4-[18F] fluorobenzoate as labeling prosthetic group, [18F]FB-[R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP was obtained in >99% radiochemical purity within 100 min in decay-for-corrected radiochemical yield of 33.6 +/- 3% (n = 5) and a specific radioactivity 255 GBq/micromol at the end of synthesis. Stability of [18F]FB-[R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Biodistribution of this trace was carried out in mice with induced C26 colorectal tumor. Fast clearance of [18F]FB-[R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP from non-target tissues and specific uptakes by tumors realized higher tumor-to-muscle ratio (3.55) and tumor-to-blood ratio (2.37) 60 min postinjection. Clear difference was observed between the blocking and unblocking experiments in biodistribution and whole body radioautography. [18F]FB-[R(8,15,21), L17]-VIP has demonstrated its potential for diagnosing tumors overexpressed vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Marketing plan of Vips Jeans

    OpenAIRE

    Marzá Mallol, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs: 2014/2015 The following work shows the Marketing Plan of Vips Jeans, this company is specialized in the commercialization of fashion-forward. His shop in the street ‘En medio’ in Castellón sells clothing, shoes and accessories of the best current brands. This company has been operating since 1988 and their main Competitive Advantage is the social prestige among Castellón consumers, acquired during these 26 ...

  17. Ontogeny of the VIP system in the gastro-intestinal tract of the Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum: successive appearance of co-existing PACAP and NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Gamal; Reinecke, Manfred

    2003-03-01

    Evidence for the presence and potential co-existence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in gastro-intestinal endocrine cells and/or nerve fibers is conflicting and very few results exist on development. This immunofluorescence study aims to clarify the appearance and localization of VIP, PACAP and NOS in the gastro-intestinal tract of the Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, during ontogeny. VIP-immunoreactivity appeared in nerve fibers as early as on day 3 after hatching likely indicating a particular role, such as a trophic action, of VIP in very early development. PACAP-immunoreactivity was observed 3 days later within the VIP-immunoreactive (-IR) fibers. From this time on, VIP- and PACAP-immunoreactivity exhibited complete co-existence. VIP/PACAP-IR fibers were found throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. They were most prominent in the myenteric plexus and the muscle layers and less frequent in the submucosa. NOS-immunoreactivity appeared as late as at the 1st (64 days) juvenile stage in a subpopulation of the VIP/PACAP-IR fibers that contacted submucosal arteries. We found only very few VIP/PACAP-IR perikarya, indicating that part of the VIP/PACAP-IR fibers is of extrinsic origin. On day 12 and in the 1st and 2nd (104 days) juvenile stage, infrequent PACAP-IR entero-endocrine cells were noted, while neither VIP- nor NOS-immunoreactivity occurred in endocrine cells at any stage of development. The complete coexistence of neuronal PACAP- and VIP-immunoreactivities and their very early appearance in ontogeny may suggest important and coordinated roles of both peptides in the control of Axolotl gastro-intestinal activity, while the VIP/ PACAP/NOS-IR fibers may be involved in the regulation of submucosal blood flow.

  18. Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-12-01

    BACKGROUND: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of "difficult" (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of "special" patients. METHOD: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. RESULTS: Three types of "special" patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. CONCLUSION: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are "special"-and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem.

  19. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  20. COMPOSITE PEPTIDE COMPOUNDS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY PRION PROTEINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to diseases caused by prion proteins, Novel composite peptide compounds are disclosed which comprise two or more peptides or peptide fragments optionally linked to a backbone and the peptides or peptide fragments are spatially positioned relative to each other so tha....... Other uses of the composite peptide compounds are also disclosed, such as use in diagnostic assays, production of antibodies and uses as vaccine immunogens for the prophylactic protection and therapeutic treatment of subjects against transmissible prion disease.......The present invention relates to diseases caused by prion proteins, Novel composite peptide compounds are disclosed which comprise two or more peptides or peptide fragments optionally linked to a backbone and the peptides or peptide fragments are spatially positioned relative to each other so...

  1. VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Krajewski, Yann Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project with Dr -.Ing. Tarek Kamel [Senior Advisor to the President for Government Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office] and Dr Nigel Hickson [VP, IGO Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office

  2. TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program are to conduct metallurgical examinations and mechanical-property tests on samples of material removed from the lower head of the TMI-2 nuclear reactor in order to deduce the temperatures, determine the mechanical properties, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Participants in the international project include the US, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Finland, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK). Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. Mechanical tests will be conducted on specimens cut from these lower head samples. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical-property determinations. The information obtained from these examinations and tests, supplemented by results obtained from parallel examinations of instrument nozzles, guide tubes, and core debris at Argonne National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory will be used to deduce a scenario for the loss-of-coolant accident and assess the integrity of the lower head during the accident

  3. VIP protection from CBRN hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, D.

    2009-01-01

    Protection of heads of state/government from CBRN threats requires flexibility and advanced planning. The best approach to CBRN countermeasures in a close protection context combine traditional close protection techniques, sound security practices, and a good understanding of the technical nature of the threat. Poor general security practices make for poor CBRN protection. This paper addresses a methodology for assessing the viability of threats to protected persons/VIPs and provides an overview of close protection in the CBRN environment. It is important to define the scope of CBRN response in the close protection context. Some threat agents are more applicable to a military environment than to the type of attack consistent with assassination. By focussing the scope of CBRN close protection more specifically on the more technically viable threats, appropriate concepts of operation can be developed. Concepts of operation, developed with an understanding of the threat, determine the requirement for advanced preparation and the training and equipping of protective details. Most of the responses required in CBRN incidents are well served by tactically sound close protection procedures. The fundamental principles are: rapid identification of hazard, speed, use of protective technology, and medical interventions, including rapid decontamination and basic and advanced life support measures. This paper does not contain confidential or classified information and represents only the opinion of its author. It does not represent any official policy or opinion of the authors present or previous employers.(author)

  4. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research...

  5. NFATc3 and VIP in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Szema

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are both debilitating lung diseases which can lead to hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension (PH. Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT is a transcription factor implicated in the etiology of vascular remodeling in hypoxic PH. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ability to generate Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP develop spontaneous PH, pulmonary arterial remodeling and lung inflammation. Inhibition of NFAT attenuated PH in these mice suggesting a connection between NFAT and VIP. To test the hypotheses that: 1 VIP inhibits NFAT isoform c3 (NFATc3 activity in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells; 2 lung NFATc3 activation is associated with disease severity in IPF and COPD patients, and 3 VIP and NFATc3 expression correlate in lung tissue from IPF and COPD patients. NFAT activity was determined in isolated pulmonary arteries from NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. The % of nuclei with NFAT nuclear accumulation was determined in primary human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC cultures; in lung airway epithelia and smooth muscle and pulmonary endothelia and smooth muscle from IPF and COPD patients; and in PASMC from mouse lung sections by fluorescence microscopy. Both NFAT and VIP mRNA levels were measured in lungs from IPF and COPD patients. Empirical strategies applied to test hypotheses regarding VIP, NFATc3 expression and activity, and disease type and severity. This study shows a significant negative correlation between NFAT isoform c3 protein expression levels in PASMC, activity of NFATc3 in pulmonary endothelial cells, expression and activity of NFATc3 in bronchial epithelial cells and lung function in IPF patients, supporting the concept that NFATc3 is activated in the early stages of IPF. We further show that there is a significant positive correlation between NFATc3 mRNA expression and VIP RNA expression only in lungs from IPF patients

  6. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in mice with intestinal dysbacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-zhong DONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and substance P (SP in mice with dysbacteriosis induced by antibiotics. Methods Forty-eight healthy SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (normal drink, the dysbacteriosis model group (induced by oral administration of 0.5 g/L ceftriaxone sodium, the natural recovery group (oral sterile water to replace antibiotic after reproduction of dysbacteriosis, and Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment group (treated by intragastric administration of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The feces were collected without contamination, and the change in intestinal bacterial number was observed with the plate dilution method. The volatile fatty acid was detected by chromatography. The serum VIP and SP contents were assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the normal control group, the numbers of probiotics, volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly decreased in the model group, while the serum SP markedly increased (P<0.01. Compared with the natural recovery group, the bacteria number, the quantities of volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly increased after the Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment, while the serum SP significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05. Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis mycelium may effectively adjust the proportion of the probiotics in the mice with dysbacteriosis, and the mechanism is apparently related to alteration in the VIP and SP. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.06

  7. Treatment of Oral Biofilms by a D-Enantiomeric Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Wang, Zhejun; Hancock, Robert E W; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Haapasalo, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Almost all dental diseases are caused by biofilms that consist of multispecies communities. DJK-5, which is a short D-enantiomeric, protease-resistant peptide with broad-spectrum anti-biofilm activity, was tested for its effect on oral multispecies biofilms. Peptide DJK-5 at 10 μg/mL effectively prevented the growth of these microbes in culture media in a time-dependent manner. In addition to the prevention of growth, peptide DJK-5 completely killed both Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis suspended from biofilms after 30 minutes of incubation in liquid culture media. DJK-5 also led to the effective killing of microbes in plaque biofilm. The proportion of bacterial cells killed by 10 μg/mL of DJK-5 was similar after 1 and 3 days, both exceeding 85%. DJK-5 was able to significantly prevent biofilm formation over 3 days (P = 0.000). After 72 hours of exposure, DJK-5 significantly reduced and almost completely prevented plaque biofilm production by more than 90% of biovolume compared to untreated controls (P = 0.000). The proportion of dead biofilm bacteria at the 10 μg/mL DJK-5 concentration was similar for 1- and 3-day-old biofilms, whereby >86% of the bacteria were killed. DJK-5 was also able to kill >79% and >85% of bacteria, respectively, after one-time and three brief treatments of 3-day-old biofilms. The combination of DJK-5 and chlorhexidine showed the best bacterial killing among all treatments, with ~83% and >88% of bacterial cells killed after 1 and 3 minutes, respectively. No significant difference was found in the percentage of biofilm killing amongst three donor plaque samples after DJK-5 treatment. In particular, DJK-5 showed strong performance in inhibiting biofilm development and eradicating pre-formed oral biofilms compared to L-enantiomeric peptide 1018. DJK-5 was very effective against oral biofilms when used alone or combined with chlorhexidine, and may be a promising agent for use in oral anti-biofilm strategies in the future.

  8. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Protects Salivary Glands against Structural Injury and Secretory Dysfunction via IL-17A and AQP5 Regulation in a Model of Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyin; Zhu, Fenglin; Wu, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2018-04-04

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease involving exocrine glands. Currently, drugs that can improve both abnormal immunity and exocrine gland function are needed. The study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the immune response and exocrine gland function in SS. We investigated the effects of VIP on the immune response and secretory function of submandibular glands using NOD mice, and analyzed the expression of IL-17A and AQP5 (aquaporin 5). The submandibular gland cells from healthy 8-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used to observe the influence of VIP on AQP5 expression. Our study shows that treatment with VIP in an SS mouse model could not only reduce the immune injury to exocrine glands but also improve the secretory function of these glands. Furthermore, VIP was shown to improve the abnormal immune status by downregulating IL-17A expression in the exocrine glands. It also enhanced the secretory function of exocrine glands by upregulating AQP5 expression. Using a model of SS, we found that VIP could not only modulate the immune response but also affect exocrine gland function, and that these therapeutic effects were associated with IL-17A and AQP5 regulation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. 48 CFR 804.1102 - Vendor Information Pages (VIP) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (VIP) Database. 804.1102 Section 804.1102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Execution 804.1102 Vendor Information Pages (VIP) Database. Prior to January 1, 2012, all VOSBs and SDVOSBs must be listed in the VIP database, available at http...

  11. PACAP and VIP inhibit the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia through the regulation of HIFs and EGFR expression

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia eMaugeri; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Rita eReitano; Gaetano eMagro; Sebastiano eCavallaro; Salvatore eSalomone; Velia eD'Agata

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation...

  12. Atypical nuclear localization of VIP receptors in glioma cell lines and patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, Alice; Séité, Paule [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Godet, Julie [Laboratoire d’anatomie et de cytologie pathologiques, CHU de Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, 86000 Poitiers (France); Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Chadéneau, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.chadeneau@univ-poitiers.fr [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • The VIP receptor VPAC1 contains a putative NLS signal. • VPAC1 is predominantly nuclear in GBM cell lines but not VPAC2. • Non-nuclear VPAC1/2 protein expression is correlated with glioma grade. • Nuclear VPAC1 is observed in 50% of stage IV glioma (GBM). - Abstract: An increasing number of G protein-coupled receptors, like receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), are found in cell nucleus. As VIP receptors are involved in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration, we investigated the expression and the nuclear localization of the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 in this cancer. First, by applying Western blot and immunofluorescence detection in three human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, we observed a strong nuclear staining for the VPAC1 receptor and a weak nuclear VPAC2 receptor staining. Second, immunohistochemical staining of VPAC1 and VPAC2 on tissue microarrays (TMA) showed that the two receptors were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues. Expression in the non-nuclear compartment of the two receptors significantly increased with the grade of the tumors. Analysis of nuclear staining revealed a significant increase of VPAC1 staining with glioma grade, with up to 50% of GBM displaying strong VPAC1 nuclear staining, whereas nuclear VPAC2 staining remained marginal. The increase in VPAC receptor expression with glioma grades and the enhanced nuclear localization of the VPAC1 receptors in GBM might be of importance for glioma progression.

  13. Distinct roles of SOM and VIP interneurons during cortical Up states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During cortical network activity, recurrent synaptic excitation among pyramidal neurons is approximately balanced by synaptic inhibition, which is provided by a vast diversity of inhibitory interneurons. The relative contributions of different interneuron subtypes to inhibitory tone during cortical network activity is not well understood. We previously showed that many of the major interneuron subtypes in mouse barrel cortex are highly active during Up states (Neske et al., 2015; while fast-spiking (FS, parvalbumin (PV-positive cells were the most active interneuron subtype, many non-fast-spiking (NFS, PV-negative interneurons were as active or more active than neighboring pyramidal cells. This suggests that the NFS cells could play a role in maintaining or modulating Up states. Here, using optogenetic techniques, we further dissected the functional roles during Up states of two major NFS, PV-negative interneuron subtypes: somatostatin (SOM-positive cells and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-positive cells. We found that while pyramidal cell excitability during Up states significantly increased when SOM cells were optogenetically silenced, VIP cells did not influence pyramidal cell excitability either upon optogenetic silencing or activation. VIP cells failed to contribute to Up states despite their ability to inhibit SOM cells strongly. We suggest that the contribution of VIP cells to the excitability of pyramidal cells may vary with cortical state.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicula...

  15. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  16. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  17. Treatment of early AIDS dementia in intravenous drug users : High versus low dose peptide T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, TR; Rosen, MI; McMahon, TL; Bridge, TP; OMalley, SS; Pearsall, R; OConnor, PG

    1997-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study tested the efficacy of two different doses of Peptide T in the treatment of nine intravenous drug users with early AIDS dementia who were also receiving methadone and AZT. Subjects received Peptide T doses of either 15 or 1.5 mg daily for four

  18. Direct demonstration of guanine nucleotide sensitive receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agui, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    1990-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were identified on the membranes from the rat anterior pituitary gland with [ 125 I]VIP. The dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) values were estimated from the competitive inhibition data. The Kd and Bmax values were 1.05 +/- 0.75 nM and 103 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The order of molar potency of related peptides to inhibit [ 125 I]VIP binding was VIP greater than peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) greater than secretin greater than glucagon. Glucagon was not effective to inhibit the binding. [ 125 I]VIP binding was effectively inhibited by the addition of guanine nucleotides. The order of molar potency to inhibit the binding was Gpp(NH)p greater than GTP greater than GDP greater than GMP greater than ATP. These results directly suggest the coupling of VIP receptors with guanine nucleotide binding proteins in the anterior pituitary gland

  19. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated [Tyr(125I)10]VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function

  20. Vacuum maintenance in vacuum insulation panels exemplified with a staggered beam VIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Jang, Choong Hyo; Jung, Haeyong; Song, Tae-Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong 373-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Thermal insulation performance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is highly dependent on the inner pressure of the VIP. Long-term vacuum maintenance characteristics are investigated in this study for a VIP with an example of polymer staggered beam structure as the core material. Various gas sources deteriorating the vacuum level in the VIP are investigated based on theoretical models and experiments. Gas permeation occurring through heat-sealed flanges and pinholes in the barrier envelope is the largest gas leakage source. The calculated gas permeation rate is in accordance with the experimental result. To reduce these permeations, a three-side sealing envelope and double enveloping are proposed. Outgassing from the core material and inner surface of the envelope is also critical. It is significantly reduced by a baking pre-treatment in vacuum. When the estimated total gas load exceeds the allowable limit within a few years, a getter material may be applied. Double enveloping structure with a getter is promising as it ensures a lifetime of more than 20 years. (author)

  1. Enhancing emotion recognition in VIPs with haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buimer, Hendrik; Bittner, Marian; Kostelijk, Tjerk; van der Geest, Thea; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Zhao, Yan; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    The rise of smart technologies has created new opportunities to support blind and visually impaired persons (VIPs). One of the biggest problems we identified in our previous research on problems VIPs face during activities of daily life concerned the recognition of persons and their facial

  2. Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents | Bakare | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated variations in the characteristics of the sludge content from different ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines and variation in these characteristics at specific depths within each pit. Faecal sludge from 16 VIP latrines within the eThekwini Municipality was collected and laboratory characterisation including ...

  3. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, V.; Popelová, A.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, J.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  4. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, Veronika; Popelová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  5. A novel peptide nanomedicine for treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatogenic diabetes (PD) is a potentially fatal disease that occurs secondary to pancreatic disorders. The current anti-diabetic therapy for PD is fraught with adverse effects that can increase morbidity. Here we investigated the efficacy of novel peptide nanomedicine: pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in sterically stabilized micelles (SSM) for management of PD. PP exhibits significant anti-diabetic efficacy but its short plasma half-life curtails its therapeutic application. To prolong and improve activity of PP in vivo, we evaluated the delivery of PP in SSM. PP-SSM administered to rats with PD, significantly improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic glycogen content compared to peptide in buffer. The studies established the importance of micellar nanocarriers in protecting enzyme-labile peptides in vivo and delivering them to target site, thereby enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In summary, this study demonstrated that PP-SSM is a promising novel anti-diabetic nanomedicine and therefore should be further developed for management of PD. Pancreatic peptide was earlier demonstrated to address pancreatogenic diabetes, but its short half-life represented major difficulties in further development for therapeutic use. PP-SSM (pancreatic polypeptide in sterically stabilized micelles) is a promising novel anti-diabetic nanomedicine that enables prolonged half-life and increased bioactivity of PP, as shown in this novel study, paving the way toward clinical studies in the near future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  7. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular....../l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities...

  8. Select cognitive deficits in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagopian Arkady

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP is widely distributed in the adult central nervous system where this peptide functions to regulate synaptic transmission and neural excitability. The expression of VIP and its receptors in brain regions implicated in learning and memory functions, including the hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala, raise the possibility that this peptide may function to modulate learned behaviors. Among other actions, the loss of VIP has a profound effect on circadian timing and may specifically influence the temporal regulation of learning and memory functions. Results In the present study, we utilized transgenic VIP-deficient mice and the contextual fear conditioning paradigm to explore the impact of the loss of this peptide on a learned behavior. We found that VIP-deficient mice exhibited normal shock-evoked freezing behavior and increases in corticosterone. Similarly, these mutant mice exhibited no deficits in the acquisition or recall of the fear-conditioned behavior when tested 24-hours after training. The VIP-deficient mice exhibited a significant reduction in recall when tested 48-hours or longer after training. Surprisingly, we found that the VIP-deficient mice continued to express circadian rhythms in the recall of the training even in those individual mice whose wheel running wheel activity was arrhythmic. One mechanistic explanation is suggested by the finding that daily rhythms in the expression of the clock gene Period2 continue in the hippocampus of VIP-deficient mice. Conclusion Together these data suggest that the neuropeptide VIP regulates the recall of at least one learned behavior but does not impact the circadian regulation of this behavior.

  9. Treatment of Oral Multispecies Biofilms by an Anti-Biofilm Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhejun; de la Fuente-Núñez, Cesar; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-01-01

    Human oral biofilms are multispecies microbial communities that exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Dental plaque gives rise to highly prevalent and costly biofilm-related oral infections, which lead to caries or other types of oral infections. We investigated the ability of the recently identified anti-biofilm peptide 1018 to induce killing of bacterial cells present within oral multispecies biofilms. At 10 μg/ml (6.5 μM), peptide 1018 was able to significantly (pbiofilm formation over 3 days. The activity of the peptide on preformed biofilms was found to be concentration-dependent since more than 60% of the total plaque biofilm cell population was killed by 10 μg/ml of peptide 1018 in 3 days, while at 5 μg/ml 50% of cells were dead and at 1 μg/ml the peptide triggered cell death in around 30% of the total bacterial population, as revealed by confocal microscopy. The presence of saliva did not affect peptide activity, since no statistically significant difference was found in the ability of peptide 1018 to kill oral biofilms using either saliva coated and non-saliva coated hydroxyapatite surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy experiments indicated that peptide 1018 induced cell lysis in plaque biofilms. Furthermore, combined treatment using peptide 1018 and chlorhexidine (CHX) increased the anti-biofilm activity of each compound compared to when these were used alone, resulting in >50% of the biofilm being killed and >35% being dispersed in only 3 minutes. Peptide 1018 may potentially be used by itself or in combination with CHX as a non-toxic and effective anti-biofilm agent for plaque disinfection in clinical dentistry.

  10. VIP/PACAP receptor mediation of cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2010-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is implicated in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans. VIP and the closely related pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) act through several receptor types: VIP through VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and PACAP through VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 receptors. We examined participation of VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptors in cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress by testing the effects of their specific blockade with PACAP6-38. PACAP6-38 dissolved in Ringer's was administered by intradermal microdialysis at one forearm site while a control site received Ringer's solution. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) calculated. A 5- to 10-min baseline period was followed by approximately 70 min of PACAP6-38 (100 microM) perfusion at one site in normothermia and a 3-min period of body cooling. Whole body heating was then performed to engage cutaneous active vasodilation and was maintained until CVC had plateaued at an elevated level at all sites for 5-10 min. Finally, 58 mM sodium nitroprusside was perfused through both microdialysis sites to effect maximal vasodilation. No CVC differences were found between control and PACAP6-38-treated sites during normothermia (19 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 20 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated; P > 0.05 between sites) or cold stress (11 +/- 2%max untreated vs. 10 +/- 2%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P > 0.05 between sites). PACAP6-38 attenuated the increase in CVC during whole body heating when compared with untreated sites (59 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 46 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P < 0.05). We conclude that VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptor activation is involved in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans.

  11. Profiles of VGF Peptides in the Rat Brain and Their Modulations after Phencyclidine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the VGF precursor protein originate several low molecular weight peptides, whose distribution in the brain and blood circulation is not entirely known. Among the VGF peptides, those containing the N-terminus portion were altered in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF and hypothalamus of schizophrenia patients. “Hence, we aimed to better investigate the involvement of the VGF peptides in schizophrenia by studying their localization in the brain regions relevant for the disease, and revealing their possible modulations in response to certain neuronal alterations occurring in schizophrenia”. We produced antibodies against different VGF peptides encompassing the N-terminus, but also C-terminus-, TLQP-, GGGE- peptide sequences, and the so named NERP-3 and -4. These antibodies were used to carry out specific ELISA and immunolocalization studies while mass spectrometry (MS analysis was also performed to recognize the intact brain VGF fragments. We used a schizophrenia rat model, in which alterations in the prepulse inhibition (PPI of the acoustic startle response occurred after PCP treatment. In normal rats, all the VGF peptides studied were distributed in the brain areas examined including hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, accumbens and amygdaloid nuclei and also in the plasma. By liquid chromatography-high resolution mass, we identified different intact VGF peptide fragments, including those encompassing the N-terminus and the NERPs. PCP treatment caused behavioral changes that closely mimic schizophrenia, estimated by us as a disruption of PPI of the acoustic startle response. The PCP treatment also induced selective changes in the VGF peptide levels within certain brain areas. Indeed, an increase in VGF C-terminus and TLQP peptides was revealed in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01 where they were localized within parvoalbumin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH containing neurons, respectively. Conversely, in the nucleus accumbens, PCP

  12. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin: effects of combined and separate intravenous infusions on bile secretion in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, B.; Sonnenfeld, T.; Einarsson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intravenously administered vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and secretin on bile secretion were studied in 12 patients with complete biliary fistulas. The two peptides were administered both simultaneously and separately. During VIP infusion, bile volume increased by 60%, and during the combined VIP and secretin infursion bile volume increased by another 70%. VIP increased bile bicarbonate concentration by some 30%. Although secretin did not increase the concentration, bicarbonate output increased threefold during secretin infusion but only twofold during VIP infusion. The outputs of bile acids were not significantly affected by the two peptides, whereas the concentration decreased by 40% and 70% after VIP and secretin, respectively. The canalicular bile flow, measured by [ 14 C]erythritol, was unaffected by VIP infusion, whereas secretin alone and the combination of the two peptides increased the canalicular clearance by 80%. The choleretic effect of VIP thus seems to occur only at the ductular level. Secretin exerts its effect at the ductular level and possibly also at the canalicular level. It is concluded that the two peptides have additive effects on the ductular bile flow.. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  13. VIP : A Visual Editor and Compiler for v-Promela

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Moataz; Leue, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    We describe the Visual Interface to Promela (VIP) tool that we have recently implemented. VIP supports the visual editing and maintenance of v-Promela models. v-Promela is a visual, object-oriented extension to Promela, the input language to the Spin model checker. We introduce the v-Promela notation as supported by the VIP editor, discuss Promela code generation, and describe the process of property validation for the resulting models. Our discussion centers around two case studies, a call p...

  14. Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors with Trombospondin-1 Derived Peptides: an In Vivo Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogdanov, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of synthetic D-reverse peptides derived from the type 1 repeats of thrombospondin (TSP1 [1,2] were studied in rodent C6 glioma and 9L gliosarcomas. To directly measure tumor size and vascular parameters, we employed in vivo magnetic resonance (MR imaging and corroborated results by traditional morphometric tissue analysis. Rats bearing either C6 or 9L tumors were treated with TSP1-derived peptide (D-reverse amKRFKQDGGWSHWSPWSSac, n=13 or a control peptide (D-reverse am KRAKQAGGASHASPASSac, n=12 at 10 mg/kg, administered either intravenously or through subcutaneous miniosmotic pumps starting 10 days after tumor implantation. Eleven days later, the effect of peptide treatment was evaluated. TSP1 peptide-treated 9L tumors (50.7±44.2 mm3, n=7 and C6 tumors (41.3±34.2 mm3, n=6 were significantly smaller than tumors treated with control peptide (9L: 215.7±67.8 mm3, n=6; C6:184.2±105.2 mm3, n=6. In contrast, the in vivo vascular volume fraction, the mean vascular area (determined by microscopy, and the microvascular density of tumors were not significantly different in any of the experimental groups. In cell culture, TSP1, and the amKRFKQDGGWSHWSPWSSac peptide showed antiproliferative effects against C6 with an IC of 45 nM for TSP1. These results indicate that TSP1derived peptides retard brain tumor growth presumably as a result of slower de novo blood vessel formation and synergistic direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cells. We also show that in vivo MR imaging can be used to assess treatment efficacy of novel antiangiogenic drugs non-invasively, which has obvious implications for clinical trials.

  15. Do Neuroendocrine Peptides and Their Receptors Qualify as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Grässel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint tissues like synovium, articular cartilage, meniscus and subchondral bone, are targets for neuropeptides. Resident cells of these tissues express receptors for various neuroendocrine-derived peptides including proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, i.e., α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and β-endorphin (β-ED, and sympathetic neuropeptides like vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and neuropeptide y (NPY. Melanocortins attained particular attention due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in several tissues and organs. In particular, α-MSH, ACTH and specific melanocortin-receptor (MCR agonists appear to have promising anti-inflammatory actions demonstrated in animal models of experimentally induced arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA. Sympathetic neuropeptides have obtained increasing attention as they have crucial trophic effects that are critical for joint tissue and bone homeostasis. VIP and NPY are implicated in direct and indirect activation of several anabolic signaling pathways in bone and synovial cells. Additionally, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP proved to be chondroprotective and, thus, might be a novel target in OA. Taken together, it appears more and more likely that the anabolic effects of these neuroendocrine peptides or their respective receptor agonists/antagonists may be exploited for the treatment of patients with inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases in the future.

  16. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (GLPP for the Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Rasjidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum mushroom (also known as Ling Zhi in China, Mannetake /Reishi in Japan has been widely used for thousands of years to prevent and treat various diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, viral infection, and cancer. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum has been extensively investigated for free radical scavenging activity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that G. lucidum have anti-tumor effects, which mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, and cytotoxic effects. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP which extracted from Ganoderma lucidum mycelium tissue culture, give the best quality of β-D-Glucans bioactive compounds. These biologically active glucans interact with receptors on the surface of immune cells such as macrophage and natural killer cell (NK cell to induce immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects. However, many studies still need to answer those mechanisms.

  17. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  18. Microglial responses to amyloid β peptide opsonization and indomethacin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Brian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that passive or active immunization with anti-amyloid β peptide (Aβ antibodies may enhance microglial clearance of Aβ deposits from the brain. However, in a human clinical trial, several patients developed secondary inflammatory responses in brain that were sufficient to halt the study. Methods We have used an in vitro culture system to model the responses of microglia, derived from rapid autopsies of Alzheimer's disease patients, to Aβ deposits. Results Opsonization of the deposits with anti-Aβ IgG 6E10 enhanced microglial chemotaxis to and phagocytosis of Aβ, as well as exacerbated microglial secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Indomethacin, a common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, had no effect on microglial chemotaxis or phagocytosis, but did significantly inhibit the enhanced production of IL-6 after Aβ opsonization. Conclusion These results are consistent with well known, differential NSAID actions on immune cell functions, and suggest that concurrent NSAID administration might serve as a useful adjunct to Aβ immunization, permitting unfettered clearance of Aβ while dampening secondary, inflammation-related adverse events.

  19. Preliminary data on Pemphigus vulgaris treatment by a proteomics-defined peptide: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelman Abraham

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although described by Hippocrates in 400 B.C., pemphigus disease still needs a safe therapeutical approach, given that the currently used therapies (i.e. corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs often provoke collateral effects. Here we present preliminary data on the possible use of a proteomics derived desmoglein peptide which appears promising in halting disease progression without adverse effects. Methods The low-similarity Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide was topically applied for 1 wk onto a lesion in a patient with a late-stage Pemphigus vulgaris (PV complicated by diabetes and cataract disease. The peptide was applied as an adjuvant in combination with the standard corticosteroid-based immunosuppressive treatment. Results After 1 wk, the treated PV eroded lesion appeared dimensionally reduced and with an increased rate of re-epithelization when compared to adjacent non-treated lesions. Short-term benefits were: decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer and reduction of the corticosteroid dosage. Long-term benefits: after two years following the unique 1-wk topical treatment, the decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer persists. The patient is still at the low cortisone dosage. Adverse effects: no adverse effect could be monitored. Conclusion With the limits inherent to any preliminary study, this case report indicates that topical treatment with Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide may represent a feasible first step in the search for a simple, effective and safe treatment of PV.

  20. Radiolabeled antibodies and RGD-peptides for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, preclinical studies on new treatment modalities for ovarian cancer are descibed, applying radiolabeled antibodies and radiolabeled RGD-peptides. In chapter 2 a study is described comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody HMFG1 radiolabeled with several beta-emitting

  1. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  2. Is VIP1 important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium genetically transforms plants by transferring and integrating T-(transferred) DNA into the host genome. This process requires both Agrobacterium and host proteins. VirE2 interacting protein 1 (VIP1), an Arabidopsis bZIP protein, has been suggested to mediate transformation through interaction with and targeting of VirE2 to nuclei. We examined the susceptibility of Arabidopsis vip1 mutant and VIP1 overexpressing plants to transformation by numerous Agrobacterium strains. In no instance could we detect altered transformation susceptibility. We also used confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of Venus-tagged VirE2 or Venus-tagged VIP1, in the presence or absence of the other untagged protein, in different plant cell systems. We found that VIP1-Venus localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Arabidopsis roots, agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, regardless of whether VirE2 was co-expressed. VirE2 localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts, whether in the absence or presence of VIP1 overexpression. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants and agroinfiltrated N. benthamina leaves we could occasionally detect small aggregates of the Venus signal in nuclei, but these were likely to be imagining artifacts. The vast majority of VirE2 remained in the cytoplasm. We conclude that VIP1 is not important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or VirE2 subcellular localization. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Structural characterization by NMR of a double phosphorylated chimeric peptide vaccine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Gualito, Karla; Richter, Monique; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Singer, David; Berger, Stefan

    2013-04-26

    Rational design of peptide vaccines becomes important for the treatment of some diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. In this study, as part of a larger effort to explore correlations of structure and activity, we attempt to characterize the doubly phosphorylated chimeric peptide vaccine targeting a hyperphosphorylated epitope of the Tau protein. The 28-mer linear chimeric peptide consists of the double phosphorylated B cell epitope Tau₂₂₉₋₂₃₇[pThr231/pSer235] and the immunomodulatory T cell epitope Ag85B₂₄₁₋₂₅₅ originating from the well-known antigen Ag85B of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, linked by a four amino acid sequence -GPSL-. NMR chemical shift analysis of our construct demonstrated that the synthesized peptide is essentially unfolded with a tendency to form a β-turn due to the linker. In conclusion, the -GPSL- unit presumably connects the two parts of the vaccine without transferring any structural information from one part to the other. Therefore, the double phosphorylated epitope of the Tau peptide is flexible and accessible.

  4. The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program: Providing meaningful volunteer activity to residents in assisted living with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program was developed to provide individualized meaningful volunteer activities matched to interests and capabilities for older adults with MCI in assisted living. The purposes of this single-site pre-test/post-test pilot study were to (1) establish feasibility of the VIP Program based on treatment fidelity (design, treatment, delivery, enactment); and (2) evaluate preliminary efficacy via improvement in psychological health (depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience, and life satisfaction) and decreased sedentary activity (survey and Fitbit) at 3 and 6 months. Ten residents participated. The majority was white, female and educated, and on average 88 years old. The VIP Program was feasible and most participants continued to volunteer at 6 months. There were non-significant improvements in depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience and recreational physical activity. The results of this study provide support for the feasibility of the VIP Program. Further study is necessary to examine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Circulating levels of vasoactive peptides in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Tofteng, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The underlying mechanisms for cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are largely unknown. Putative mediators include vasoactive peptides, e.g. calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), all...

  6. Lateralized hippocampal effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on learning and memory in rats in a model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Margarita; Belcheva, Stiliana; Belcheva, Iren; Negrev, Negrin; Tashev, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies revealed that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays a modulatory role in learning and memory. A role of the peptide in the neurobiological mechanisms of affective disorders was also suggested. The objectives are to study the involvement of VIP in learning and memory processes after unilateral and bilateral local application into hippocampal CA1 area in rats with a model of depression (bilateral olfactory bulbectomy--OBX) and to test whether VIP receptors could affect cognition. VIP (50 ng) and combination (VIP(6-28) 10 ng + VIP 50 ng) microinjected bilaterally or into the right CA1 area improved the learning and memory of OBX rats in shuttle-box and step-through behavioral tests as compared to the saline-treated OBX controls. Left-side VIP microinjections did not affect the number of avoidances (shuttle box) and learning criteria (step through) as compared to the left-side saline-treated OBX controls. The administration of the combination into left CA1 influenced positively the performance in the step-through task. VIP antagonist (VIP(6-28), 10 ng) did not affect learning and memory of OBX rats. These findings suggest asymmetric effect of VIP on cognitive processes in hippocampus of rats with OBX model of depression. Our results point to a lateralized modulatory effect of VIP injected in the hippocampal CA1 area on the avoidance deficits in OBX rats. The right CA1 area was predominantly involved in the positive effect of VIP on learning and memory. A possible role of the PAC1 receptors is suggested.

  7. Corpo e masculinidade na revista VIP Exame Body and masculinity in the magazine VIP Exame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Monteiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo elaboro comentários teóricos acerca de novas formas de se vivenciar a corporalidade presentes contemporaneamente, a partir da análise da revista masculina VIP Exame. O texto baseia-se numa pesquisa que incluiu uma observação dentro da redação da revista e análise de materiais impressos, centrando-se na forma como a revista aborda o corpo masculino e coloca a preocupação com a aparência como importante para uma masculinidade bem sucedida. Com base nestes dados busco avaliar, a partir de perspectivas feministas e sobre o corpo, a influência do valor dado ao corpo e ao seu monitoramento reflexivo na constituição de identidades de gênero.In this article I elaborate theoretical comments on the subject of corporeality and the new forms of experiencing the body that are present in contemporary times. On the basis of a research with a Brazilian men's magazine, VIP Exame, which involved the analysis of issues of the magazine as well as an observation of the working process of the reporters and journalists, I focus my comments on the way the masculine body is treated by the magazine and how a discourse emerges on masculinity where attention to "good looks" becomes an important feature of a successful masculinity. On the basis of these observations I go on to discuss feminist and other theories of the subject, in order to understand how the reflexive monitoring of the body is increasingly important in the constitution of gender identities.

  8. Expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in bladder afferent pathways in VIP-/- mice with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe G; Studeny, Simon; May, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with and without cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis (150 mg/kg, i.p; 48 h) was determined in VIP(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. p-CREB immunoreactivity (IR) was determined in bladder...... (Fast blue) afferent cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) bladder content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Basal expression of p-CREB-IR in DRG of VIP(-/-) mice was (p DRG compared to WT mice. CYP treatment in WT mice increased (p ...-CREB-IR in L1, L2, L5-S1 DRG. CYP treatment in VIP(-/-) mice (p DRG compared to WT with CYP. In WT mice, bladder afferent cells (20-38%) in DRG expressed p-CREB-IR under basal conditions. With CYP, p-CREB-IR increased in bladder afferent cells (60...

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  11. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: A New Approach for the Treatment of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan eYao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New treatments are needed for severe asthmatics to improve disease control and avoid severe toxicities associated with oral corticosteroids. We have used a murine model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma to identify steroid-unresponsive genes that might represent targets for new therapeutic approaches for severe asthma. This strategy identified apolipoprotein E as a steroid-unresponsive gene with increased mRNA expression in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E functioned as an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental HDM-induced asthma. The ability of apolipoprotein E, which is expressed by lung macrophages, to attenuate AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL receptors expressed by airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, administration of an apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 130 to 149 of the LDL receptor-binding domain of the holo-apoE protein, significantly reduced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia in HDM-challenged apoE-/- mice. These findings identified the apolipoprotein E - LDL receptor pathway as a new druggable target for asthma that can be activated by administration of apoE mimetic peptides. Similarly, apolipoprotein A-I may have therapeutic potential in asthma based upon its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic properties. Furthermore, administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides has attenuated airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in murine models of experimental asthma. Thus, site-directed delivery of inhaled apolipoprotein E or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides may represent novel treatment approaches that can be developed for asthma, including severe disease.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, allies or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Torres-Juarez, Flor

    2018-03-27

    Tuberculosis is an ancient disease that has become a serious public health issue in recent years, although increasing incidence has been controlled, deaths caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been accentuated due to the emerging of multi-drug resistant strains and the comorbidity with diabetes mellitus and HIV. This situation is threatening the goals of world health organization (WHO) to eradicate tuberculosis in 2035. WHO has called for the creation of new drugs as an alternative for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, among the plausible molecules that can be used are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These peptides have demonstrated remarkable efficacy to kill mycobacteria in vitro and in vivo in experimental models, nevertheless, these peptides not only have antimicrobial activity but also have a wide variety of functions such as angiogenesis, wound healing, immunomodulation and other well-described roles into the human physiology. Therapeutic strategies for tuberculosis using AMPs must be well thought prior to their clinical use; evaluating comorbidities, family history and risk factors to other diseases, since the wide function of AMPs, they could lead to collateral undesirable effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sarah W; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Brindle, Mary E; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Sigalet, David L

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8), SBS (n = 5), or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9). SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5) and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2), increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy of further study.

  14. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Lai

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2, with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats.GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS. However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear.Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB (n = 8, TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8, SBS (n = 5, or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9. SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5 and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS, plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition.Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss.Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy of further study.

  15. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E.; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Brindle, Mary E.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Sigalet, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. Background GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8), SBS (n = 5), or SBS + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 9). SBS groups underwent a 60% jejunoileal resection with cecectomy and jejunocolic anastomosis. All rats were maintained on parenteral nutrition for 7 d. Parameters measured included gut morphometry, qPCR for hexose transporter (SGLT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-5) and GLP-2 receptor mRNA, whole mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. Results Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2 therapy. Exogenous GLP-2 increased jejunal mucosal surface area without affecting enteric VIP or nNOS neuronal immunopositivity, attenuated resection-induced reductions in jejunal hexose transporter abundance (SGLT-1, GLUT-2), increased plasma amylin and decreased peptide YY concentrations. Exogenous GLP-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. Conclusions Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2 to modulate resection-induced changes in peripheral glucose and lipid reserves may be important in understanding the whole-body response following intestinal resection, and is worthy

  16. Design, Recombinant Fusion Expression and Biological Evaluation of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue as Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides represent an emerging category of therapeutic agents with remarkable structural and functional diversity. Modified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP (VIP analogue 8 with amino acid sequence “FTANYTRLRRQLAVRRYLAAILGRR” without haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity displayed enhanced antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922 than parent VIP even in the presence of 180 mM NaCl or 50 mM MgCl2, or in the range of pH 4–10. VIP analogue 8 was expressed as fusion protein thioredoxin (Trx-VIP8 in E. coli BL21(DE at a yield of 45.67 mg/L. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the recombinant VIP analogue 8 against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 were 2 μM. These findings suggest that VIP analogue 8 is a promising candidate for application as a new and safe antimicrobial agent.

  17. Testing the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in the topical treatment of induced osteomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melicherčík, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Jahoda, David; Landor, Ivan; Ballay, Rastislav; Fulín, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Joint replacement infections and osteomyelitis are among the most serious complications in orthopaedics and traumatology. The risk factors for these infections are often bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. One of the few solutions available to control bacterial resistance involves antimicrobials, which have a different mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) appear to be highly promising candidates in the treatment of resistant infections. We have identified several AMP in the venom of various wild bees and designed analogues that show potent antimicrobial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of one of those synthetic peptide analogues for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis invoked in laboratory rats. Femoral cavities of 20 laboratory Wistar rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. After 1 week, eight rats received an injectable calcium phosphate carrier alone, another eight rats were treated with a calcium phosphate mixed with AMP, and four rats were left without any further treatment. After another week, all rats were euthanized and radiographs were made of both the operated and healthy limbs. The animals with the carrier alone exhibited more severe acute osteomyelitis on radiographs in comparison to the recipients of the calcium phosphate carrier loaded AMP and untreated infected individuals. Based on the results of the above mentioned experiment, it was concluded that when injected directly into the site of femoral acute osteomyelitis, the calcium phosphate carrier mixed with AMP reduced osteomyelitis signs visible on radiographs.

  18. 99mTc labeled VIP analog: evaluation for imaging colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.; Patti, R.; Reddy, K.; Li, H.; Sharma, S.; Pham, H.L.; Diggles, L.; Minami, C.; Marcus, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Early and reliable diagnosis of colorectal cancer continues to be demanding and challenging. Colorectal cancer cells express Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors in high density. We have prepared a VIP analog (TP3654), labeled it with 99m Tc, and evaluated it in experimental animals as an agent for imaging colorectal cancer. The tissue distribution of 99m Tc-TP3654 has been compared with that of 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide and 99m Tc-anti-CEA scan in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Finally, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of 99m Tc-TP3654 have been performed in four normal human volunteers. Data suggest that 99m Tc-TP3654 can be prepared efficiently without loss of its receptor specificity and biological activity. Although the 24 hr tumor uptake of 99m Tc-TP3654 in the animal model used was modest (0.21 ± 0.07% I.D./g), the tissue distribution profile was more favorable than that of 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide or 99m Tc-anti-CEA scan. Human studies indicated that 99m Tc-TP3654 had no adverse effect in any subject. Within 24 hours, approximately 70% of the injected dose cleared through the kidneys, and approximately 20% through the hepatobiliary system. In these non-fasting volunteers hepatobiliary clearance was slow and in cancer patients tumor uptake was rapid. Data suggest that 99m Tc-TP3654 is a promising agent for imaging colorectal cancer

  19. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the Kyrgyz population from northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Zulfiya; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Le; Li, Xiaolan; Geng, Tingting; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2013-10-15

    Pharmacogenomic variant information is well known for major human populations; however, this information is less commonly studied in minorities. In the present study, we genotyped 85 very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants (selected from the PharmGKB database) in the Kyrgyz population and compared our data with other four major human populations including Han Chinese in Beijing, China (CHB), the Japanese in Tokyo, Japan (JPT), a northern and western Europe population (CEU), and the Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI). There were 13, 12 and 16 of the selected VIP variant genotype frequencies in the Kyrgyz which differed from those of the CHB, JPT and CEU, respectively (p<0.005). In the YRI, there were 32 different variants, compared to the Kyrgyz (p<0.005). Genotype frequencies of ADH1B, AHR, CYP3A5, PTGS2, VDR, and VKORC1 in the Kyrgyz differed widely from those in the four populations. Haplotype analyses also showed differences among the Kyrgyz and the other four populations. Our results complement the information provided by the database of pharmacogenomics on Kyrgyz. We provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration and individualized treatment plans for the Kyrgyz. We also provide a template for the study of pharmacogenomics in various ethnic minority groups in China. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of type 2 diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Knop, F K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    of hypoglycaemia with GLP-1 receptor agonists is low, the compounds have clinically relevant effects on body weight, and data are suggesting beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Exenatide was released in 2005 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and liraglutide is expected to be approved by the Food......The incretin system is an area of great interest for the development of new therapies for the management of type 2 diabetes. Existing antidiabetic drugs are often insufficient at getting patients to glycaemic goals. Furthermore, current treatment modalities are not able to prevent the continued...... ongoing decline in pancreatic beta-cell function and, lastly, they have a number of side effects including hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new class of pharmacological agents, which improve glucose homeostasis in a multifaceted way. Their effects...

  2. Oil migration through unsaturated soils and its effect on the Vadose Zone Interactive Processes (VIP) model output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A.T.; Grenney, W.J.; Stevens, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    The VIP model, which simulates the concentration profiles of the hazardous compounds in the soil, water, and the air phases, assumes a fixed oily phase. The purpose of this study was to measure oil migration in soil systems and to determine its effect on the VIP model output. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the mobility of an oil through the unsaturated zone of the soil. The studies were conducted in laboratory scale glass columns. A light petroleum oil and two types of soil were used. The experiments demonstrated that oil migrates down significantly through the soil columns. The extent of migration depended on the volume of oil applied and the type of soil. However, the applied oil was completely immobilized in the columns. The model was modified to incorporate oil migration. The modified model can be expected to produce more realistic contaminant concentration profiles during land treatment of oily wastes when compared to that produced by the present version of the VIP model. (Author)

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) tissue distribution in the rat as measured by radioimmunoassay and by radioreceptorassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Dupont, C.; Laburthe, M.; Bataille, D.; Rosselin, G.

    1977-01-01

    A new radioimmunoassay which allows the measurement of the rat vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, was performed. VIP is present in the whole digestive tract of rat, mainly between the duodenum and the colon. 1.5% of the total VIP is present in brain. The VIP-like immunoreactivity appears to correspond to biologically active molecule since a radioreceptorassay using liver plasma membranes as the target tissue, gives the same results as the radioimmunoassay [fr

  4. Antimicrobial peptides for topical treatment of osteomyelitis and prevention of implant related infections in orthopedics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Dudková, Vlasta; Melicherčík, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl S2 (2016), S157-S158 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /34./ and International Peptide Symposium /8./. 04.09.2016-09.09.2016, Leipzig] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * osteomyelitis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gastrointestinal hormone, secreted in response to ingestion of nutrients, and has important effects on several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effects include potentiation of insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion...... effects. This review gives an overview of the clinical data on GLP-1R agonists that have been compared in head-to-head studies and focuses on relevant differences between the compounds. Highlighting these similarities and differences could be beneficial for physicians in choosing the best treatment......, slowing of gastric emptying and suppression of appetite. In circulation, GLP-1 has a half-life of approximately 2min due to rapid degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Because of this short half-life GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, resistant to degradation by DPP-4 have been...

  6. Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus based on glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    1999-01-01

    inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and secretion in the presence of nutrients in the lower small intestine). However, because of these same actions, the hormone can normalise the blood glucose of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, in contradistinction to insulin and sulphonylurea, it does...... not cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, treatment of Type 2 diabetes based on GLP-1 is currently being investigated. As a peptide, it must be administered parenterally, and, in addition, it is metabolised extremely rapidly. However, several methods to circumvent these problems have already been developed. A GLP......-1- based therapy of diabetes mellitus and perhaps also obesity is therefore likely to become a realistic alternative to current therapies of these disorders....

  7. Combination Treatment of C16 Peptide and Angiopoietin-1 Alleviates Neuromyelitis Optica in an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC, leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an αvβ3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1, a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model. Our results demonstrated that this combination therapy significantly decreased disease severity, inflammatory cell infiltration, secondary demyelination, and axonal loss, thus reducing neural death. In conclusion, our study suggests a possible treatment that can relieve progressive blindness and paralysis in an animal model of NMO through improvement of the inflammatory milieu.

  8. Wound-Healing Peptides for Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Other Infected Skin Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As the incidence of diabetes continues to increase in the western world, the prevalence of chronic wounds related to this condition continues to be a major focus of wound care research. Additionally, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized bacterial biofilms underlying severe infections that contribute to tissue destruction, delayed wound-healing and other serious complications. Most current biomedical approaches for advanced wound care aim at providing antimicrobial protection to the open wound together with a matrix scaffold (often collagen-based to boost reestablishment of the skin tissue. Therefore, the present review is focused on the efforts that have been made over the past years to find peptides possessing wound-healing properties, towards the development of new and effective wound care treatments for diabetic foot ulcers and other skin and soft tissue infections.

  9. Wound-Healing Peptides for Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Other Infected Skin Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana; Teixeira, Cátia; Ferraz, Ricardo; Prudêncio, Cristina; Gomes, Paula

    2017-10-18

    As the incidence of diabetes continues to increase in the western world, the prevalence of chronic wounds related to this condition continues to be a major focus of wound care research. Additionally, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized bacterial biofilms underlying severe infections that contribute to tissue destruction, delayed wound-healing and other serious complications. Most current biomedical approaches for advanced wound care aim at providing antimicrobial protection to the open wound together with a matrix scaffold (often collagen-based) to boost reestablishment of the skin tissue. Therefore, the present review is focused on the efforts that have been made over the past years to find peptides possessing wound-healing properties, towards the development of new and effective wound care treatments for diabetic foot ulcers and other skin and soft tissue infections.

  10. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Carpio, Yamila; Secombes, Christopher J; Taylor, Nick G H; Lugo, Juana María; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) are structurally similar peptides encoded in the same transcripts. Their transcription has been detected not only in the brain but also in a wide range of peripheral tissues, even including organs of the immune system. PACAP exerts pleiotropic activities through G-protein coupled membrane receptors: the PACAP-specific PAC-1 and the VPAC-1 and VPAC-2 receptors that exhibit similar affinities for the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and PACAP. Recent findings added PACAP and its receptors to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in fish. In this study the expression of genes encoding for PACAP and PRP, as well as VIP/PACAP receptors was studied in laboratory-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) after septicaemic infections. Respectively Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV-Ia) or the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri (ser. O1 - biot. 2) were used in infection challenges. Kidney and spleen, the teleost main lymphopoietic organs, were sampled during the first two weeks post-infection. RT-qPCR analysis assessed specific pathogens burden and gene expression levels. PACAP and PRP transcription in each organ was positively correlated to the respective pathogen burden, assessed targeting the VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA. Results showed as the transcription of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors is modulated in these organs during an acute viral and bacterial septicaemic infections in brown trout. These gene expression results provide clues as to how the PACAP system is modulated in fish, confirming an involvement during active immune responses elicited by both viral and bacterial aetiological agents. However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. Copyright © 2015

  11. Acupuncture as Treatment of Hot Flashes and the Possible Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara E. Spetz Holm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context.

  12. Heat shock protein-peptide complex-96 (Vitespen for the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Amato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are the most abundant and ubiquitous soluble intracellular proteins. Members of the HSP family bind peptides, they include antigenic peptides generated within cells. HSPs also interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs through CD91 and other receptors, eliciting a cascade of events that includes re-presentation of HSP-chaperoned peptides by major histocompatability complex (MHC, translocation of nuclear factorkappaB (NFkB into the nuclei, and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs. These consequences point to a key role of heat shock proteins in fundamental immunological phenomena such as activation of APCs, indirect presentation (or crosspriming of antigenic peptides, and chaperoning of peptides during antigen presentation. The properties of HSPs also allow them to be used for immunotherapy of cancers and infections in novel ways. This paper reviews the development and clinical trial progress of vitespen, an HSP peptide complex vaccine based on tumor-derived glycoprotein 96.

  13. Lipidized prolactin-releasing peptide analogs: A new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Pražienková, Veronika; Zemenová, Jana; Popelová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl S2 (2016), S179-S180 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /34./ and International Peptide Symposium /8./. 04.09.2016-09.09.2016, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * food intake * obesity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  14. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  15. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  16. mGluR1 receptors contribute to non-purinergic slow excitatory transmission to submucosal VIP neurons of guinea-pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pei Pei Foong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation, together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The group I mGluR receptor antagonist, PHCCC reduced the amplitude of purinergic and non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Blocking mGluR1 receptors depressed the overall response to 3 and 15 pulse trains, but this effect was inconsistent, while blockade of mGluR5 receptors had no effect on the non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Thus, although other receptors are almost certainly involved, our data indicate that there are at least two pharmacologically distinct types of slow EPSPs in the VIP secretomotor neurons: one mediated by P2Y receptors and the other in part by mGluR1 receptors.

  17. A Voltage Instability Predictor Using Local Area Measurements. VIP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warland, Leif

    2002-07-01

    There has been a pressure to operate power systems closer to their security limits. This has partially been due to financial imperatives following the deregulating of markets. Other practical difficulties have been obtaining authorization from regulatory bodies to build power plants and transmission lines. In this situation it is essential to monitor the system and to have tools that can predict the distance to the point of collapse (PoC). Much effort has been put into research of the phenomenon voltage collapse, and many approaches have been explored. Both dynamic and steady-state behavior have been studied thoroughly, though very few protection and control schemes have been implemented. In this dissertation the possibility of an index based on local area measurements have been explored. Voltage stability can be classified as either a transient or a long-term stability problem, and the index proposed in this dissertation is based on long-term dynamics. The VIP algorithm is a method that uses the maximum load ability of a transmission network as the PoC, thus by estimating a Thevenin equivalent the method can track the distance to the PoC as this occurs when the two impedances are equal in absolute value. The problem of the VIP algorithm is that it is based on a system with two equations and four unknowns, thus it is not observable. In order to make it observable the assumption of constant Thevenin equivalent between two sets of measurements is made. When this is not the case the method will estimate a Thevenin impedance of the same size as the measured load impedance, but with a negative sign. Changes in the Thevenin equivalent can be traced to both angle variation in a remote generator area or to variations in load impedances on nearby buses. The problem of angle variations can be mitigated by the selection of an appropriate reference bus. A method to solve the second problem, of variation in load admittances, has been proposed in this dissertation and given the

  18. Structural Characterization by NMR of a Double Phosphorylated Chimeric Peptide Vaccine for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of peptide vaccines becomes important for the treatment of some diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related disorders. In this study, as part of a larger effort to explore correlations of structure and activity, we attempt to characterize the doubly phosphorylated chimeric peptide vaccine targeting a hyperphosphorylated epitope of the Tau protein. The 28-mer linear chimeric peptide consists of the double phosphorylated B cell epitope Tau229-237[pThr231/pSer235] and the immunomodulatory T cell epitope Ag85B241-255 originating from the well-known antigen Ag85B of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, linked by a four amino acid sequence -GPSL-. NMR chemical shift analysis of our construct demonstrated that the synthesized peptide is essentially unfolded with a tendency to form a β-turn due to the linker. In conclusion, the -GPSL- unit presumably connects the two parts of the vaccine without transferring any structural information from one part to the other. Therefore, the double phosphorylated epitope of the Tau peptide is flexible and accessible.

  19. Partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide constructs: a potential neuroimmune-based treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Loftis

    Full Text Available Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40-60%, and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-A(b/mMOG-35-55, in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments.

  20. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract using the tussian X-ray contrast substance BAR-VIPS based on barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratobyl'skij, G.V.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of X-ray studies of gastrointestinal tract using domestic X-ray contrast preparation based on barium sulfate BAR-VIPS developed by VIPS-MED company (t. Fryazino, Moscow region). Testing of the preparation has shown that BAR-VIPS permits to diagnose every pathological changes in esophagus, stomach, rectum, small intestine as well as to diagnose successfully large intestine diseases

  1. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  2. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of PACAP Fragments and Related Peptides in Chronic Retinal Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werling, Dora; Reglodi, Dora; Kiss, Peter; Toth, Gabor; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Tamas, Andrea; Biro, Zsolt; Atlasz, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective effects in different neuronal and retinal injuries. Retinal ischemia can be effectively modelled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), which causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The retinoprotective effect of PACAP 1-38 and VIP is well-established in ischemic retinopathy. However, little is known about the effects of related peptides and PACAP fragments in ischemic retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of different PACAP fragments (PACAP 4-13, 4-22, 6-10, 6-15, 11-15, and 20-31) and related peptides (secretin, glucagon) in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy. Wistar rats (3-4 months old) were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eyes of the animals were treated with PACAP fragments or related peptides intravitreal (100 pM), while the left eyes were injected with saline serving as control eyes. Sham-operated (without BCCAO) rats received the same treatment. Routine histology was performed 2 weeks after the surgery; cells were counted and the thickness of retinal layers was compared. Our results revealed significant neuroprotection by PACAP 1-38 but did not reveal retinoprotective effect of the PACAP fragments or related peptides. These results suggest that PACAP 1-38 has the greatest efficacy in ischemic retinopathy.

  4. Investigation of PACAP Fragments and Related Peptides in Chronic Retinal Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Werling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP has neuroprotective effects in different neuronal and retinal injuries. Retinal ischemia can be effectively modelled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO, which causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The retinoprotective effect of PACAP 1-38 and VIP is well-established in ischemic retinopathy. However, little is known about the effects of related peptides and PACAP fragments in ischemic retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of different PACAP fragments (PACAP 4-13, 4-22, 6-10, 6-15, 11-15, and 20-31 and related peptides (secretin, glucagon in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy. Wistar rats (3-4 months old were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eyes of the animals were treated with PACAP fragments or related peptides intravitreal (100 pM, while the left eyes were injected with saline serving as control eyes. Sham-operated (without BCCAO rats received the same treatment. Routine histology was performed 2 weeks after the surgery; cells were counted and the thickness of retinal layers was compared. Our results revealed significant neuroprotection by PACAP 1-38 but did not reveal retinoprotective effect of the PACAP fragments or related peptides. These results suggest that PACAP 1-38 has the greatest efficacy in ischemic retinopathy.

  5. Watery diarrhea syndrome in an adult with ganglioneuroma-pheochromocytoma: identification of vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin, and catecholamines and assessment of their biologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, D L; Livingston, J N; Baylin, S B

    1977-10-01

    A case of adult ganglioneuroma-pheochromocytoma with an associated watery diarrhea syndrome is reported. High levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were found in preoperative serum and in tumor tissue. The serum VIP levels fell to normal, and the watery diarrhae syndrome completely ceased following removal of the tumor. In addition to containing VIP, the tumor was rich in catecholamines, and calcitonin. Peptide hormone-containing extracts and catecholamine extracts from the tumor both activated the adenyl cyclase system and increased lipolytic activity in a preparation of isolated rat fat cells. The findings in this patient further link VIP with neural crest tissues, and suggest the importance of determining catecholamine levels in patients with the watery diarrhea syndrome.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment for heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Julie; Heneghan, Carl J; Perera, Rafael; Clements, Alison M; Glasziou, Paul P; Kearley, Karen E; Pidduck, Nicola; Roberts, Nia W; Tyndel, Sally; Wright, F Lucy; Bankhead, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet all the needs of the body. Symptoms of heart failure include breathlessness, fatigue and fluid retention. Outcomes for patients with heart failure are highly variable; however on average, these patients have a poor prognosis. Prognosis can be improved with early diagnosis and appropriate use of medical treatment, use of devices and transplantation. Patients with heart failure are high users of healthcare resources, not only due to drug and device treatments, but due to high costs of hospitalisation care. B-type natriuretic peptide levels are already used as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure, but could offer to clinicians a possible tool to guide drug treatment. This could optimise drug management in heart failure patients whilst allaying concerns over potential side effects due to drug intolerance. Objectives To assess whether treatment guided by serial BNP or NT-proBNP (collectively referred to as NP) monitoring improves outcomes compared with treatment guided by clinical assessment alone. Search methods Searches were conducted up to 15 March 2016 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database in the Cochrane Library. Searches were also conducted in the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov. We applied no date or language restrictions. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of NP-guided treatment of heart failure versus treatment guided by clinical assessment alone with no restriction on follow-up. Adults treated for heart failure, in both in-hospital and out-of-hospital settings, and trials reporting a

  7. VIP - A Framework-Based Approach to Robot Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Mayer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For robot perception, video cameras are very valuable sensors, but the computer vision methods applied to extract information from camera images are usually computationally expensive. Integrating computer vision methods into a robot control architecture requires to balance exploitation of camera images with the need to preserve reactivity and robustness. We claim that better software support is needed in order to facilitate and simplify the application of computer vision and image processing methods on autonomous mobile robots. In particular, such support must address a simplified specification of image processing architectures, control and synchronization issues of image processing steps, and the integration of the image processing machinery into the overall robot control architecture. This paper introduces the video image processing (VIP framework, a software framework for multithreaded control flow modeling in robot vision.

  8. VIP - A Framework-Based Approach to Robot Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Utz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For robot perception, video cameras are very valuable sensors, but the computer vision methods applied to extract information from camera images are usually computationally expensive. Integrating computer vision methods into a robot control architecture requires to balance exploitation of camera images with the need to preserve reactivity and robustness. We claim that better software support is needed in order to facilitate and simplify the application of computer vision and image processing methods on autonomous mobile robots. In particular, such support must address a simplified specification of image processing architectures, control and synchronization issues of image processing steps, and the integration of the image processing machinery into the overall robot control architecture. This paper introduces the video image processing (VIP framework, a software framework for multithreaded control flow modeling in robot vision.

  9. Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) for building construction industry - A review of the contemporary developments and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Singh, H.; Limbachiya, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP), a high thermal resistance building insulation. → Review of research into VIPs for building applications. → High cost and uncertainty of service life are two barriers for VIP use in buildings. → SiO 2 /SiN x coated PET laminate- candidate for high barrier VIP envelope. → The optimum combination of VIP core and envelope yet to be determined. -- Abstract: Demand for energy efficient buildings has increased drastically in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. Insulating building elements will play a key role in meeting this demand by reducing heat losses through the building fabric. Due to their higher thermal resistance, Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) would be a more energy efficient alternative to conventional building insulation materials. Thus, efforts to develop VIPs with characteristics suitable for applications to new and existing buildings are underway. This paper provides a review of important contemporary developments towards producing VIPs using various materials such as glass fibre, foams, perlite and fibre/powder composites. The limitations of the materials currently used to fabricate VIPs have not been emphasised in detail in previous review papers published. Selection criteria, methods to measure important properties of VIPs and analytical and numerical models presented in the past have been detailed. Limitations of currently employed design tools along with potential future materials such as Nano/microcellular foams and SiO x /SiN x coatings for use in VIPs are also described.

  10. Antimicrobial and Biophysical Properties of Surfactant Supplemented with an Antimicrobial Peptide for Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been

  11. Therapeutic Efficacy with Treatment-related Toxicities of 177Lu-labeled Bombesin Derivative for the Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Lee, So Young

    2015-01-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many human tumours, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancers, endometrial cancers, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In particular, GRPR expression is high in 83 % of invasive primary prostatic carcinomas. These results suggest that 177 Lu-labeled bombesin derivative has promising characteristics as a novel nuclear medicine, especially for the treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors

  12. Delayed Treatment with a Small Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF Peptide Prevents the Progression of Diabetic Renal Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa S Awad

    Full Text Available Our recent publication showed that a small bioactive pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF peptide (P78-PEDF prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN. However, its effects on the progression of established DN were not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of P78-PEDF in the progression of DN and to compare the effects of P78-PEDF and an ACE inhibitor (ACEi, a standard of care in DN. Experiments were conducted in Ins2(Akita mice treated with P78-PEDF or captopril starting at 6 wks of age for 12 wks (early treatment or starting at 12 wks of age for 6 wks (late treatment. We first established the optimal dose of the P78-PEDF peptide to ameliorate DN in Ins2(Akita mouse for a 6 wk study period and found that the peptide was effective at 0.1- 0.5 µg/g/day. We next showed that early or late treatment with P78-PEDF resulted in protection from DN as indicated by reduced albuminuria, kidney macrophage recruitment, histological changes, inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic markers (kidney TNF-α, fibronectin, VEGFA and EGFR, and restored nephrin expression compared with vehicle-treated Ins2(Akita mice. Interestingly, only early but not late treatment with captopril was as effective as P78-PEDF in reducing most DN complications, despite its lack of effect on nephrin, VEGFA and EGFR expression. These findings highlight the importance of P78-PEDF peptide as a potential therapeutic modality in both the development and progression of diabetic renal injury.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves

  14. Human atrial natriuretic peptide treatment for acute heart failure: a systematic review of efficacy and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Takahashi, Osamu; Deshpande, Gautam A; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) treatment on physiological parameters and mortality in acute heart failure. The MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (1980-2009), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991-2009), American College of Physicians Journal Club (1991), Ichushi (Japana Centra Revuo Medicina) (1983-2009), Cinni (NII Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator) (1959-2009), National Diet Library Online Public Access Catalog (1969-2009), Webcat Plus (Japanese National Institute of Informatics) (1986-2009), Medical Online (1947-2009), and JST China (1981-2009) databases were searched for studies that compared the efficacy of hANP and the mortality in patients with acute heart failure with placebo controls. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the study. Out of 347 articles, a total of 4 studies involving 220 patients with acute heart failure fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in the hemodynamic parameters between the hANP and placebo groups, especially in the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) reduction (standard mean difference [SMD] 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-3.81) and the cardiac index (SMD 1.79; 95% CI, 0.12-3.47). No statistically significant differences in mortality rates were found (relative risk 1.03; 95% CI, 0.27-3.92). In a limited number of studies, hANP appears to improve several hemodynamic parameters, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and cardiac index, but not mortality. Further high-quality studies are needed to corroborate these results. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase I study of combination vaccine treatment of five therapeutic epitope-peptides for metastatic colorectal cancer; safety, immunological response, and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Shoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Takenouchi, Hiroko; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Inoue, Yuka; Tokuhisa, Yoshihiro; Iizuka, Norio; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Shinozaki, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akira; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Oka, Masaaki

    2014-03-10

    To evaluate the safety of combination vaccine treatment of multiple peptides, phase I clinical trial was conducted for patients with advanced colorectal cancer using five novel HLA-A*2402-restricted peptides, three peptides derived from oncoantigens, ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), 34 kDa-translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM34), and insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA binding protein 3 (KOC1), and the remaining two from angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2. Eighteen HLA- A*2402-positive colorectal cancer patients who had failed to standard therapy were enrolled in this study. 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg or 3.0 mg each of the peptides was mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and then subcutaneously injected at five separated sites once a week. We also examined possible effect of a single site injection of "the cocktail of 5 peptides" on the immunological responses. ELISPOT assay was performed before and after vaccinations in the schedule of every 4 weeks. The vaccine treatment using multiple peptides was well tolerated without any severe treatment-associated systemic adverse events. Dose-dependent induction of peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes was observed. The single injection of "peptides cocktail" did not diminish the immunological responses. Regarding the clinical outcome, one patient achieved complete response and 6 patients revealed stable disease for 4 to 7 months. The median overall survival time (MST) was 13.5 months. Patients, in which we detected induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific to 3 or more peptides, revealed significantly better prognosis (MST; 27.8 months) than those with poorer immune responses (MST; 3.7 months) (p = 0.032). Our cancer vaccine treatment using multiple peptides is a promising approach for advanced colorectal cancer with the minimum risk of systemic adverse reactions. UMIN-CTR number UMIN000004948.

  16. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Monthly Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using...

  17. Venus Interior Probe Using In-situ Power and Propulsion (VIP-INSPR), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We envision a novel architecture for Venus Interior Probes based on in-situ resources for power generation (VIP-INSPR). Proposed Venus probe is based on the...

  18. High sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle with VIP2

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Clozza, A; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pichler, A; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle is one of the most fundamental rules of nature and represents a pillar of modern physics. According to many observations the Pauli Exclusion Principle must be extremely well fulfilled. Nevertheless, numerous experimental investigations were performed to search for a small violation of this principle. The VIP experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory searched for Pauli-forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms using the Ramberg-Snow method and obtained the best limit so far. The follow-up experiment VIP2 is designed to reach even higher sensitivity. It aims to improve the limit by VIP by orders of magnitude. The experimental method, comparison of different PEP tests based on different assumptions and the developments for VIP2 are presented.

  19. Searches for the Violation of Pauli Exclusion Principle at LNGS in VIP(-2) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Marton, J; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A.Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    The VIP (Violation of Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and its follow-up experiment VIP-2 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) search for X-rays from Cu atomic states that are prohibited by the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP). The candidate events, if they exist, will originate from the transition of a $2p$ orbit electron to the ground state which is already occupied by two electrons. The present limit on the probability for PEP violation for electron is 4.7 $\\times10^{-29}$ set by the VIP experiment. With upgraded detectors for high precision X-ray spectroscopy, the VIP-2 experiment will improve the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Treatment of Oral Multispecies Biofilms by an Anti-Biofilm Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Wang

    Full Text Available Human oral biofilms are multispecies microbial communities that exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Dental plaque gives rise to highly prevalent and costly biofilm-related oral infections, which lead to caries or other types of oral infections. We investigated the ability of the recently identified anti-biofilm peptide 1018 to induce killing of bacterial cells present within oral multispecies biofilms. At 10 μg/ml (6.5 μM, peptide 1018 was able to significantly (p50% of the biofilm being killed and >35% being dispersed in only 3 minutes. Peptide 1018 may potentially be used by itself or in combination with CHX as a non-toxic and effective anti-biofilm agent for plaque disinfection in clinical dentistry.

  1. VIP: Vortex Image Processing Package for High-contrast Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Absil, Pierre-Antoine; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc; Cantalloube, Faustine; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Karlsson, Mikael; Surdej, Jean

    2017-07-01

    We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to provide a flexible framework for high-contrast data and image processing. In this paper, we describe the capabilities of VIP related to processing image sequences acquired using the angular differential imaging (ADI) observing technique. VIP implements functionalities for building high-contrast data processing pipelines, encompassing pre- and post-processing algorithms, potential source position and flux estimation, and sensitivity curve generation. Among the reference point-spread function subtraction techniques for ADI post-processing, VIP includes several flavors of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms, such as annular PCA and incremental PCA algorithms capable of processing big datacubes (of several gigabytes) on a computer with limited memory. Also, we present a novel ADI algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization, which comes from the same family of low-rank matrix approximations as PCA and provides fairly similar results. We showcase the ADI capabilities of the VIP library using a deep sequence on HR 8799 taken with the LBTI/LMIRCam and its recently commissioned L-band vortex coronagraph. Using VIP, we investigated the presence of additional companions around HR 8799 and did not find any significant additional point source beyond the four known planets. VIP is available at http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP and is accompanied with Jupyter notebook tutorials illustrating the main functionalities of the library.

  2. Peptide degradation and the role of DPP-4 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F

    2018-01-01

    -1 is an intestinal hormone with potent insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects and can normalise blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the native peptide is not therapeutically useful because of its inherent metabolic instability. Using the GLP-1/DPP-4 system and type 2...... diabetes as an example, this review summarises how knowledge of a peptide's biological effects coupled with an understanding of the pathways involved in its metabolic clearance can be exploited in a rational, step-by-step manner to develop a therapeutic agent, which is effective and well tolerated, and any...

  3. Expression of receptors for gut peptides in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumour-free pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, C.; Biemond, I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Verspaget, W.; Lamers, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Gut hormones that modulate the growth of normal pancreas may also modulate the growth of cancers originating from pancreas. This study visualized and compared the receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin (BBS), secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in tumour-free tissue sections of

  4. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage Resistance to HIV-1 Infection Is Enhanced by the Neuropeptides VIP and PACAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temerozo, Jairo R.; Joaquim, Rafael; Regis, Eduardo G.; Savino, Wilson; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that host factors can modulate HIV-1 replication in macrophages, critical cells in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection due to their ability to continuously produce virus. The neuropeptides VIP and PACAP induce well-characterized effects on macrophages through binding to the G protein-coupled receptors VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1, but their influence on HIV-1 production by these cells has not been established. Here, we describe that VIP and PACAP reduce macrophage production of HIV-1, acting in a synergistic or additive manner to decrease viral growth. Using receptor antagonists, we detected that the HIV-1 inhibition promoted by VIP is dependent on its ligation to VPAC1/2, whereas PACAP decreases HIV-1 growth via activation of the VPAC1/2 and PAC1 receptors. Specific agonists of VPAC2 or PAC1 decrease macrophage production of HIV-1, whereas sole activation of VPAC1 enhances viral growth. However, the combination of specific agonists mimicking the receptor preference of the natural neuropeptides reproduces the ability of VIP and PACAP to increase macrophage resistance to HIV-1 replication. VIP and PACAP up-regulated macrophage secretion of the β-chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and the cytokine IL-10, whose neutralization reversed the neuropeptide-induced inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Our results suggest that VIP and PACAP and the receptors VPAC2 and PAC1 could be used as targets for developing alternative therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:23818986

  6. The role of patient-based treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardiansyah, Deni; Attarwala, Ali Asgar [Heidelberg University, Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany); Maass, Christian; Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg University, Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Mueller, Berthold [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Aachen (Germany); Kletting, Peter [Universitaet Ulm, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ulm (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Accurate treatment planning is recommended in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) to minimize the toxicity to organs at risk while maximizing tumor cell sterilization. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of different degrees of individualization on the prediction accuracy of individual therapeutic biodistributions in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). A recently developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was fitted to the biokinetic data of 15 patients with NETs after pre-therapeutic injection of {sup 111}In-DTPAOC. Mathematical phantom patients (MPP) were defined using the assumed true (true MPP), mean (MPP 1A) and median (MPP 1B) parameter values of the patient group. Alterations of the degree of individualization were introduced to both mean and median patients by including patient-specific information as a priori knowledge: physical parameters and hematocrit (MPP 2A/2B). Successively, measurable individual biokinetic parameters were added: tumor volume V{sub tu} (MPP 3A/3B), glomerular filtration rate GFR (MPP 4A/4B), and tumor perfusion f{sub tu} (MPP 5A/5B). Furthermore, parameters of MPP 5A/5B and a simulated {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE PET measurement 60 min p.i. were used together with the population values used as Bayesian parameters (MPP 6A/6B). Therapeutic biodistributions were simulated assuming an infusion of {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE (3.3 GBq) over 30 min to all MPPs. Time-integrated activity coefficients were predicted for all MPPs and compared to the true MPPs for each patient in tumor, kidneys, spleen, liver, remainder, and whole body to obtain the relative differences RD. The large RD values of MPP 1A [RD{sub tumor} = (625 ± 1266)%, RD{sub kidneys} = (11 ± 38)% ], and MPP 1B [RD{sub tumor} = (197 ± 505)%, RD{sub kidneys} = (11 ± 39)% ] demonstrate that individual treatment planning is needed due to large physiological differences between patients. Although addition of individual patient parameters reduced the

  7. Testing the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in the topical treatment of induced osteomyelitis in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melicherčík, P.; Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Jahoda, D.; Landor, I.; Ballay, R.; Fulín, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2018), s. 97-104 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27726A; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04010638 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : osteomyelitis * antimicrobial peptides * Wistar rats Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 treatment may improve intestinal adaptation during weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Le Huërou-Luron, I; Petersen, Y M

    2014-01-01

    Transition from sow’s milk to solid feed is associated with intestinal atrophy and diarrhea. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) would induce a dose- and health status-dependent effect on gut adaptation. In Exp. 1, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 4...

  9. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP......) (95% CI 3-14), P = 0.007) and an increase in levels of BNP (median (ranges) 7 (0.58-286) vs. 20 (1-489) pg/mL, P = 0.033) and of NT-proBNP (63 (20-1004) vs. 80 (20-3391) pg/mL, P = 0.027). Assessed by the highly sensitive and precise CMRI method, 3 months treatment of acromegaly resulted...

  10. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-06-01

    The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducting jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which comprises a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  11. Virtual phantom magnetic resonance imaging (ViP MRI) on a clinical MRI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Bordelois, Alejandro; Gambarota, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI), a technique that allows for generating reference signals in MR images using radiofrequency (RF) signals, on a clinical MR system and to test newly designed virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were conducted on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Electromagnetic modelling of the ViP system was done using the principle of reciprocity. The ViP RF signals were generated using a compact waveform generator (dimensions of 26 cm × 18 cm × 16 cm), connected to a homebuilt 25 mm-diameter RF coil. The ViP RF signals were transmitted to the MRI scanner bore, simultaneously with the acquisition of the signal from the object of interest. Different types of MRI data acquisition (2D and 3D gradient-echo) as well as different phantoms, including the Shepp-Logan phantom, were tested. Furthermore, a uniquely designed virtual phantom - in the shape of a grid - was generated; this newly proposed phantom allows for the investigations of the vendor distortion correction field. High quality MR images of virtual phantoms were obtained. An excellent agreement was found between the experimental data and the inverse cube law, which was the expected functional dependence obtained from the electromagnetic modelling of the ViP system. Short-term time stability measurements yielded a coefficient of variation in the signal intensity over time equal to 0.23% and 0.13% for virtual and physical phantom, respectively. MR images of the virtual grid-shaped phantom were reconstructed with the vendor distortion correction; this allowed for a direct visualization of the vendor distortion correction field. Furthermore, as expected from the electromagnetic modelling of the ViP system, a very compact coil (diameter ~ cm) and very small currents (intensity ~ mA) were sufficient to generate a signal comparable to that of physical phantoms in MRI experiments. The ViP MRI technique was successfully implemented on a clinical MR

  12. Selection and characterization of resistance to the Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato J; Okuma, Daniela M; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda Cl; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2016-09-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is one the main target pests of maize events expressing Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Brazil. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda on Bt maize expressing Vip3Aa20 protein and characterized the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. The resistance ratio of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain of S. frugiperda was >3200-fold. Neonates of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain were able to survive and emerge as fertile adults on Vip3Aa20 maize, while larvae from susceptible and heterozygous strains did not survive. The inheritance of Vip3Aa20 resistance was autosomal recessive and monogenic. Life history studies to investigate fitness cost revealed an 11% reduction in the survival rate until adult stage and a ∼50% lower reproductive rate of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain compared with susceptible and heterozygous strains. This is the first characterization of S. frugiperda resistance to Vip3Aa protein. Our results provide useful information for resistance management programs designed to prevent or delay resistance evolution to Vip3Aa proteins in S. frugiperda. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long-term......The FGL peptide is a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FGL has both neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. Neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to result in long-lasting behavioral abnormalities......, including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL...

  14. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  15. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kimihiko [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-03-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  16. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimihiko

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  17. MENTOR-VIP: Piloting a global mentoring program for injury and violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Meddings, David; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occur as the result of a confluence of factors: environmental, social, biological, economic, and behavioral. To effectively address the burden of injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, a focus is needed on developing the human resource capacity for injury prevention. MENTOR-VIP is a global mentoring program that the authors developed with this need in mind. MENTOR-VIP approaches developing human resources in injury prevention by providing mentoring opportunities for junior professionals involved in its practice, research, and/or programs. MENTOR-VIP entails a 12-month working relationship between junior injury prevention practitioners (mentees) and more experienced individuals in the field (mentors). Its general objective is to improve global human resource capacity to effectively prevent and control injury and violence through the enhanced development of relevant skills. The program is currently in its pilot phase and is nearing the end of its second formal mentoring cycle, which began on September 1, 2008. This article discusses mentoring professionals as a key strategy to developing the human resource component of capacity, and one which complements existing approaches to capacity development. The authors also provide an overview of the rationale, modalities, objectives, and evaluation of MENTOR-VIP. This article highlights the importance of capacity building in the injury prevention field and situates MENTOR-VIP within the larger context of capacity building for global public health.

  18. The Utility of Ovotransferrin and Ovotransferrin-Derived Peptides as Possible Candidates in the Clinical Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most prevalent etiological factors which contribute towards global death rates are associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, which include a range of conditions such as angina, rheumatic heart disease, and venous thrombosis. Extensive research has been conducted into the role played by oxidative stress and inflammation in the functional transformations associated with the progression of CVDs, while the research findings from these investigations have been both fruitful and informative. In view of the adverse secondary effects that result from the clinical administration of many synthetic medications, research which explored the treatment of severe and long-lasting conditions, including CVDs, has primarily centered on the potential benefits displayed by natural agents, one of which is food protein-based bioactive peptides. Most importantly, previous research has revealed the possible benefits associated with these products’ anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. In light of these considerations, this paper aims to review the degree to which ovotransferrin (otrf, also referred to as conalbumin and otrf-derived peptides, including IRW, IQW, and KVREGT, are, by virtue of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics, viable treatment agents for endothelial dysfunction and the prevention of CVD.

  19. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovas Sandor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254, we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2. In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 μM concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin. Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2 in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide

  20. Effect of B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment of chronic heart failure on total mortality and hospitalization: an individual patient meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troughton, Richard W.; Frampton, Christopher M.; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Pfisterer, Matthias; Eurlings, Luc W. M.; Erntell, Hans; Persson, Hans; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Moertl, Deddo; Karlström, Patric; Dahlström, Ulf; Gaggin, Hanna K.; Januzzi, James L.; Berger, Rudolf; Richards, A. Mark; Pinto, Yigal M.; Nicholls, M. Gary

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptide-guided (NP-guided) treatment of heart failure has been tested against standard clinically guided care in multiple studies, but findings have been limited by study size. We sought to perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of NP-guided treatment of

  1. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  2. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T.; Randall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta‐amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ‐overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2–5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1–42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ‐(500 nM) and vehicle‐(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub‐threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated “sag”. Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra‐threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after‐hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25515596

  3. Clostridium difficile suppresses colonic vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with altered motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassif

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether Clostridium difficile toxin alters colonic tissue levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP at the expense of changes in colonic motility in the isolated perfused rabbit left colon. Colonic inflammation was induced by the intracolonic administration of 10−8 M C. difflcile toxin. Strain gauge transducers were sewn onto the serosal surface of the colon to evaluate colonic motility. C. difflcile administration produced histologic changes consistent with epithelial damage. This was associated with an increased production of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2. Tissue levels of VIP but not substance P were significantly reduced. This was associated with an increased number of contractions per minute and an average force of each colonic contraction. These results suggest that tissue levels of VIP are suppressed by C. difflcile and may participate in colonic dysmotility during active inflammation.

  4. Vital area identification software VIP for the physical protection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Park, Chang Kue; Yang, Joon Eon

    2004-01-01

    There are two major factors to be considered for the physical protection of nuclear power plants. They are a design basis threat (DBT) and the vital area identification (VAI). The DBT has been considered as 'the maximum credible threat.' The vital area is defined as 'an area inside a protected area containing equipment, systems or devices, or nuclear materials, the sabotage of which could directly or indirectly lead to unacceptable radiological consequences.' For the VAI of nuclear power plants, a software VIP (Vital area Identification Package based on PSA method) is being developed. The VIP is based on the current probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. The PSA method, including internal as well as external events, is known as the most complete and consistent method for identifying various accident sequences that might result in a core melt and radioactive material release to the environment. Thus, the VIP employs a fault tree analysis method in the PSA and utilizes the PSA results

  5. The Fermi LAT Very Important Project (VIP) List of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Using nine years of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations, we have identified 30 projects for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that appear to provide strong prospects for significant scientific advances. This Very Important Project (VIP) AGN list includes AGNs that have good multiwavelength coverage, are regularly detected by the Fermi LAT, and offer scientifically interesting timing or spectral properties. Each project has one or more LAT scientists identified who are actively monitoring the source. They will be regularly updating the LAT results for these VIP AGNs, working together with multiwavelength observers and theorists to maximize the scientific return during the coming years of the Fermi mission. See https://confluence.slac.stanford.edu/display/GLAMCOG/VIP+List+of+AGNs+for+Continued+Study

  6. Comparison of Performance of the VIP and WMT in a Criminal Forensic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Denney, Robert L

    2018-01-24

    To compare the efficacy of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and Word Memory Test (WMT) in a criminal forensic population. Potential participants included 225 male evaluees from a maximum-security Federal prison referred for neuropsychological evaluation for either forensic purposes or for suspected neurocognitive dysfunction as part of a medical evaluation. Examinees were included in the analysis if administered the VIP (Verbal, Nonverbal, or both tests) and WMT along with at least two other freestanding PVTs; 74 satisfied these criteria. Participants were then categorized as having probable Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction (+MND) if they failed at least two freestanding validity indicators, negative for MND (-MND) if they passed all indicators, and Possible MND (pMND) if they failed one indicator. Groups were very demographically similar. There were significant differences in WMT scores and distribution of VIP profiles across groups. Whether using traditional or investigative cut scores, and whether using the WMT with or without consideration of a GMIP profile, the WMT demonstrated superior sensitivity and specificity on nearly every comparison. The VIP, when interpreted in the traditional fashion, and the WMT with GMIP, both had more than adequate psychometric properties when used with criminal forensic evaluees, strengthening the body of literature supporting their use for these types of evaluations. Counting a positive on either of the VIP subtests as an indication of +MND improves the psychometric properties of the VIP slightly, although the WMT had the better overall classification accuracy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Encoding of movement in near extrapersonal space in primate area VIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eBremmer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many neurons in the macaque ventral intraparietal area (VIP are multimodal, i.e., they respond not only to visual but also to tactile, auditory and vestibular stimulation. Anatomical studies have shown distinct projections between area VIP and a region of premotor cortex controlling head movements. A specific function of area VIP could be to guide movements in order to head for and/or to avoid objects in near extra-personal space. This behavioral role would require a consistent representation of visual motion within 3-D space and enhanced activity for nearby motion signals. Accordingly, in our present study we investigated whether neurons in area VIP are sensitive to moving visual stimuli containing depth signals from horizontal disparity. We recorded single unit activity from area VIP of two awake behaving monkeys (M. mulatta fixating a central target on a projection screen. Sensitivity of neurons to horizontal disparity was assessed by presenting large field moving images (random dot fields stereoscopically to the two eyes by means of LCD shutter goggles synchronized with the stimulus computer. During an individual trial, stimuli had one of seven different disparity values ranging from 3 degrees uncrossed- (far to 3 degrees crossed- (near disparity in 1 degree steps. Stimuli moved at constant speed in all simulated depth planes. Different disparity values were presented across trials in pseudo-randomized order. 61% percent of the motion sensitive cells had a statistically significant selectivity for the horizontal disparity of the stimulus (p<0.05, distribution free ANOVA. 75% of them preferred crossed-disparity values, i.e. moving stimuli in near space, with the highest mean activity for the nearest stimulus. At the population level, preferred direction of visual stimulus motion was not affected by horizontal disparity. Thus, our findings are in agreement with the behavioral role of area VIP in the representation of movement in near extra

  8. Improving the frequency of visual infusion phlebitis (VIP) scoring on an oncology ward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzolos, Evangelos; Salawu, Abdulazeez

    2014-01-01

    Phlebitis from peripheral intravenous infusions is an important potential source of oncology patient morbidity. Important factors found to determine phlebitis incidence include the kind of infusion and dwell time of intravenous cannula. Early studies showed incidence rates of between 25–70% worldwide, and association with up to 10% of S. aureus bacteraemia. The introduction of the visual infusion phlebitis (VIP) score tool for assessment of the early signs of phlebitis, along with prompt removal of peripheral intravenous cannulas, has been very successful in reducing the incidence below the acceptable rate of 5%. However, achieving this goal depends on strict compliance with guidelines for cannula insertion, documentation, and assessment using the VIP tool. This study aimed to increase the use of VIP scoring tool to 100% on an oncology ward during a four to six month period in order to maximise its utility in phlebitis prevention. Three plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were carried out, during which two major interventions were introduced. The first cycle aimed to improve junior doctors’ awareness of VIP scoring using presentations in induction meetings and posters. The second cycle ensured that ready access to the VIP tool was provided in the form of bedside intentional rounding charts. Proportions of intravenous cannulas with proper documentation and VIP assessment were measured before intervention and at nine subsequent bi-weekly time points. Pre-intervention, under 30% of cannulas were properly documented and assessed. This proportion rose to around 80% by the end of the second PDSA cycle and achieved 100% by the end of the third cycle. PMID:26734282

  9. Structural basis for the recruitment and activation of the Legionella phospholipase VipD by the host GTPase Rab5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, María; Gaspar, Andrew H.; Pallara, Chiara; Rojas, Adriana Lucely; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Machner, Matthias P.; Hierro, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for microbial pathogens is to assure that their translocated effector proteins target only the correct host cell compartment during infection. The Legionella pneumophila effector vacuolar protein sorting inhibitor protein D (VipD) localizes to early endosomal membranes and alters their lipid and protein composition, thereby protecting the pathogen from endosomal fusion. This process requires the phospholipase A1 (PLA1) activity of VipD that is triggered specifically on VipD binding to the host cell GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endosomes. Here, we present the crystal structure of VipD in complex with constitutively active Rab5 and reveal the molecular mechanism underlying PLA1 activation. An active site-obstructing loop that originates from the C-terminal domain of VipD is repositioned on Rab5 binding, thereby exposing the catalytic pocket within the N-terminal PLA1 domain. Substitution of amino acid residues located within the VipD–Rab5 interface prevented Rab5 binding and PLA1 activation and caused a failure of VipD mutant proteins to target to Rab5-enriched endosomal structures within cells. Experimental and computational analyses confirmed an extended VipD-binding interface on Rab5, explaining why this L. pneumophila effector can compete with cellular ligands for Rab5 binding. Together, our data explain how the catalytic activity of a microbial effector can be precisely linked to its subcellular localization. PMID:25114243

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in cirrhosis: arteriovenous extraction in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Fahrenkrug, J

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was determined in peripheral venous plasma from 136 patients with liver cirrhosis without gastrointestinal bleeding or coma and from 112 controls. In eight patients (cirrhosis, six; fibrosis, one; steatosis, one) arteriovenous extraction...... is significantly elevated in peripheral plasma from patients with cirrhosis, probably due to porto-systemic shunting and/or compromised hepatic elimination. Hepatic elimination is still likely to account for the inactivation of most of the VIP escaping from the neurosynapses throughout the body in patients...

  11. Pharmacologic Effects in vivo in Brain by Vector-Mediated Peptide Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Ulrich; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Landaw, Elliot M.; Faull, Kym F.; Pardridge, William M.

    1993-04-01

    Pharmacologic effects in brain caused by systemic administration of neuropeptides are prevented by poor transport of the peptide through the brain vascular endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier in vivo. In the present study, successful application of a chimeric peptide approach to enhance drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier for the purpose of achieving a central nervous system pharmacologic effect is described. The chimeric peptide was formed by linkage of a potent vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue, which had been monobiotinylated, to a drug transport vector. The vector consisted of a covalent conjugate of avidin and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor. Owing to the high concentration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelia, OX26 targets brain and undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier. Systemic infusion of low doses (12 μg/kg) of the VIP chimeric peptide in rats resulted in an in vivo central nervous system pharmacologic effect: a 65% increase in cerebral blood flow. Biotinylated VIP analogue without the brain transport vector was ineffective.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ru; Wang Fuxian

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role and clinical significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin(SS) in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the VIP and SS in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group and the IBS group. The VIP concentration in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa of the IBS patients with constipation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01), while that of the IBS patients with diarrhea was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The SS concentration in two sites was significantly elevated in IBS patients of both types and was significantly higher in IBS with constipation than in IBS with diarrhea (P<0.05). Conclusion: The VIP and SS in IBS are abnormal, which might play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS. The plasma and mucosa concenration of VIP and SS in two kinds of IBS patients are significantly different, which indicates that there might be different pathophysiological basis involved in the pathogenesis of the two kinds of IBS patients. (authors)

  13. Antimicrobial and biophysical properties of surfactant supplemented with an antimicrobial peptide for treatment of bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been suggested as future therapeutics for these drug-resistant bacteria, since they have potent broad-spectrum activity, with little development of resistance. Due to the unique structure of the lung, bacterial pneumonia has the additional problem of delivering antimicrobials to the site of infection. One potential solution is coadministration of AMPs with exogenous surfactant, allowing for distribution of the peptides to distal airways and opening of collapsed lung regions. The objective of this study was to test various surfactant-AMP mixtures with regard to maintaining pulmonary surfactant biophysical properties and bactericidal functions. We compared the properties of four AMPs (CATH-1, CATH-2, CRAMP, and LL-37) suspended in bovine lipid-extract surfactant (BLES) by assessing surfactant-AMP mixture biophysical and antimicrobial functions. Antimicrobial activity was tested against methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All AMP/surfactant mixtures exhibited an increase of spreading compared to a BLES control. BLES+CATH-2 mixtures had no significantly different minimum surface tension versus the BLES control. Compared to the other cathelicidins, CATH-2 retained the most bactericidal activity in the presence of BLES. The BLES+CATH-2 mixture appears to be an optimal surfactant-AMP mixture based on in vitro assays. Future directions involve investigating the potential of this mixture in animal models of bacterial pneumonia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut and Characterization of Binding Sites by 125I Radiolabeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire apical surface. The presence of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells seems to suggest internalization of Vip3Aa or a fragment of it. Successful radiolabeling and optimization of the binding protocol for the 125I-Vip3Aa to S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) allowed the determination of binding parameters of Vip3A proteins for the first time. Heterologous competition using Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af as competitor proteins showed that they share the same binding site with Vip3Aa. In contrast, when using Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac as competitors, no competitive binding was observed, which makes them appropriate candidates to be used in combination with Vip3A proteins in transgenic crops. PMID:25002420

  15. Enhanced striatial 3H-spiroperidol binding induced by chronic haloperidol treatment inhibited by peptides administered during the withdrawal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Chronic intragastric administration of haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 21 days followed by a 3-day withdrawal period resulted in the development of enhanced locomotor activity response to apomorphine, and an increase in the number of binding sites for 3 H-spiroperidol in the striatal membranes of the rat brain. Subcutaneous administration of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH 2 or cyclo-(Leu-Gly) in doses of 2 mg/kg/day given for 3-days after termination of haloperidol treatment inhibited the enhanced response to apomorphine, as well as the increases in the number of 3 H-spiroperidol binding sites in the striatum. If indeed, the supersensitivity of striatal dopamine receptors is one of the mechanisms in the development of tardive dyskinesia symptoms, the present results suggest that the above peptides may be helpful in ameliorating some of the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia induced by neuroleptic drugs. 31 references, 3 figures

  16. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  17. G3-C12 Peptide Reverses Galectin-3 from Foe to Friend for Active Targeting Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Lian; Yang, Qingqing; Shan, Wei; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-11-02

    Galectin-3 is overexpressed by numerous carcinomas and is a potential target for active tumor treatments. On the other hand, galectin-3 also plays a key role in cancer progression and prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis, thereby offsetting the benefits of active targeting drugs. However, the relative contribution of the protective antiapoptotic effects of galectin-3 and the proapoptotic effects of galectin-3-targeted therapies has remained yet unrevealed. Here, we show that a galectin-3-binding peptide G3-C12 could reverse galectin-3 from foe to friend for active targeting delivery system. Results showed G3-C12 modified N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer doxorubicin conjugates (G3-C12-HPMA-Dox) could internalize into galectin-3 overexpressed PC-3 cells via a highly specific ligand-receptor pathway (2.2 times higher cellular internalization than HPMA-Dox). The internalized Dox stimulated the translocation of galectin-3 to the mitochondria to prevent from apoptosis. In turn, this caused G3-C12-HPMA-Dox to concentrate into the mitochondria after binding to galectin-3 intracellularly. Initially, mitochondrial galectin-3 weakened Dox-induced mitochondrial damage; however, as time progressed, G3-C12 active-mediation allowed increasing amounts of Dox to be delivered to the mitochondria, which eventually induced higher level of apoptosis than nontargeted copolymers. In addition, G3-C12 downregulates galectin-3 expression, 0.43 times lower than control cells, which could possibly be responsible for the suppressed cell migration. Thus, G3-C12 peptide exerts sequential targeting to both cell membrane and mitochondria via regulating galectin-3, and eventually reverses and overcomes the protective effects of galectin-3; therefore, it could be a promising agent for the treatment of galectin-3-overexpressing cancers.

  18. expVIP: a Customizable RNA-seq Data Analysis and Visualization Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-04-01

    The majority of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) expression studies in plants remain underutilized and inaccessible due to the use of disparate transcriptome references and the lack of skills and resources to analyze and visualize these data. We have developed expVIP, an expression visualization and integration platform, which allows easy analysis of RNA-seq data combined with an intuitive and interactive interface. Users can analyze public and user-specified data sets with minimal bioinformatics knowledge using the expVIP virtual machine. This generates a custom Web browser to visualize, sort, and filter the RNA-seq data and provides outputs for differential gene expression analysis. We demonstrate expVIP's suitability for polyploid crops and evaluate its performance across a range of biologically relevant scenarios. To exemplify its use in crop research, we developed a flexible wheat (Triticum aestivum) expression browser (www.wheat-expression.com) that can be expanded with user-generated data in a local virtual machine environment. The open-access expVIP platform will facilitate the analysis of gene expression data from a wide variety of species by enabling the easy integration, visualization, and comparison of RNA-seq data across experiments. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  1. Caracterização do gene vip3A e toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 à lagarta-do-cartucho e à lagarta-da-soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Soares Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o gene vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis e verificar a toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 a larvas da lagarta-do-cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda e da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis. O gene vip3A foi amplificado por PCR, com iniciadores específicos, e gerou um fragmento de 2.370 pb. Esse fragmento foi clonado em vetor pGEM-T Easy e, em seguida, sequenciado, subclonado em vetor de expressão pET-28a (+ e inserido em células de Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. A expressão da proteína Vip3Aa50 foi induzida por isopropil-β-D-1-tiogalactopiranosídeo (IPTG, visualizada em SDS-PAGE e detectada por "Western blot". Os ensaios de toxicidade revelaram alta atividade da proteína Vip3Aa50 contra as larvas neonatas da lagarta-da-soja e da lagarta-do-cartucho, com CL50 de 20,3 e 79,6 ng cm-2, respectivamente. O gene vip3Aa50 é um novo gene da classe vip3A.

  2. The investigation of antimicrobial peptides expression and its related interaction with methotrexate treatment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlu, Emin; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Ozkanli, Seyma; Oguztuzun, Serpil; Akbulak, Ozge; Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Demirkan, Serkan; Akdeniz, Necmettin

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory and immune-mediated disease. Recently, the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as human beta defensins (hBDs) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the expression profiles of hBD-1 and hBD-2 in psoriatic skin before and after methotrexate (MTX) therapy and to compare healthy controls. Immunohistochemical expressions of hBD-1 and hBD-2 were assessed in 16 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 20 normal skin biopsies from healthy controls. The patients were administered a 12 week of MTX and skin biopsy samples were obtained from the lesional skin of the patients pre-/posttreatment and normal body of the healthy controls. The median (range) Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) value was 21.6 (8.2-27.7) before the treatment whereas; 3.05 (1-23.4) after the treatment. hBD-1 expression in psoriasis patients was significantly higher as compared to the healthy controls before treatment (p psoriasis patients and healthy controls in terms of hBD-2 expression before treatment (p > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between before-after MTX treatment in terms of hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression levels in psoriasis patients (p > 0.05). These findings suggest a role for hBD-1 in psoriasis pathogenesis. But MTX treatment does not affect on hBD-1 and hBD-2 expressions. Further studies are needed to assess the roles of these AMPs in psoriasis etiopathogenesis.

  3. VIP A B C. Vacuum Insulation Panels Applied in Building Constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenpierik, M.J.

    2010-02-01

    Due to sustainability and due to international treaties, it is desired and required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. One contributor to these emissions is the burning of fossil fuels for generating power and electricity to be used in and for buildings. Buildings and building-related processes are responsible for about 40% of the primary energy consumption in the European Union. More than half of this energy is applied for heating systems in dwellings and commercial buildings. The European Union therefore has laid down new energy performance requirements for buildings in the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. Moreover, a reduction of energy losses of buildings during their occupational phase is important for facilitating the implementation of sustainable energy sources in the built environment. Increasing the insulation value of the envelope of buildings may contribute to this reduction of primary energy use. Two strategies can be followed. The first strategy is to increase the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Until recently, this strategy has primarily been adopted. If, however, German or Swiss Passivhaus standard is applied, the thickness of this insulation layer would increase to beyond 30 cm, resulting in very thick building enclosures. The second, more innovative, strategy for reducing energy losses through the building skin would be the application of more effective thermal insulators. One such more effective thermal insulator is a vacuum insulation panel, abbreviated as VIP. A VIP consists of an open-celled core material which is evacuated and then tightly sealed into a barrier envelope to maintain this vacuum. The vacuum inside the pores of the core material reduces the thermal conductivity of the product significantly, as a result of which the thickness of the insulation layer can be reduced to obtain a certain performance. This reduction of thickness is among the most promising features for large

  4. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  5. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  6. LONG-TERM OUTCOMES OF RETINAL DEGENERATIVE DISORDER TREATMENT WITH PEPTIDE BIOREGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze long-term outcomes and efficacy of retinal degeneration treatment with Retinalamin.Patients and methods. Group I included 20 patients (40 eyes with pigmentary retinal dystrophy (15 patients, 30 eyes and retinal abiotrophy (5 patients, 10 eyes who received treatment with Retinalamin for 5‑7 years. Group II included 11 patients (22 eyes with pigmentary retinal dystrophy (9 patients, 18 eyes and retinal abiotrophy (2 patients, 4 eyes who received treatment with Retinalamin for 23‑25 years. Group III (controls included 15 patients (30 eyes with pigmentary retinal dystrophy (11 patients, 22 eyes and retinal abiotrophy (4 patients, 8 eyes who received traditional treatment (vasodilators, angioprotectors, antisclerotic agents, vitamins for 25 years. Standard ophthalmological examination, i.e., visual acuity measurement, visual field test, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, was performed.Results. First course of treatment with Retinalamin improved vision in 58.1 % of retinal degeneration patients. Visual fields improved in 64.5 % of cases. Repeated treatment courses (1‑2 times a year for 23‑25 years preserved residual vision in 55.6 % of patients and object vision in 11.1 % of cases. In retinal abiotrophy patients, residual vision preserved in 100 % of cases.Conclusions. In retinal degenerations, Retinalamin improves vision and visual fields and decreases total area of absolute scotomas even after the first treatment course as well as preserves vision in prolonged use. 

  7. Transgenic cotton coexpressing Vip3A and Cry1Ac has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Lu, Guo-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Liu, Chen-Xi; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Xu, Chao; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Although farmers in China have grown transgenic Bt-Cry1Ac cotton to resist the major pest Helicoverpa armigera since 1997 with great success, many secondary lepidopteran pests that are tolerant to Cry1Ac are now reported to cause considerable economic damage. Vip3AcAa, a chimeric protein with the N-terminal part of Vip3Ac and the C-terminal part of Vip3Aa, has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests and has no cross resistance to Cry1Ac. In the present study, we tested insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, and Agrotis ipsilon, which are relatively tolerant to Cry1Ac proteins. The bioassay results showed that insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against these three pests are superior to Cry1Ac, and after an activation pretreatment, Vip3AcAa retained insecticidal activity against S. litura, S. exigua and A. ipsilon that was similar to the unprocessed protein. The putative receptor for this chimeric protein in the brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) in the three pests was also identified using biotinylated Vip3AcAa toxin. To broaden Bt cotton activity against a wider spectrum of pests, we introduced the vip3AcAa and cry1Ac genes into cotton. Larval mortality rates for S. litura, A. ipsilon and S. exigua that had fed on this new cotton increased significantly compared with larvae fed on non-Bt cotton and Bt-Cry1Ac cotton in a laboratory experiment. These results suggested that the Vip3AcAa protein is an excellent option for a "pyramid" strategy for integrated pest management in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Multifunctional Peptide Conjugated Au Nanorods for Monitoring β-amyloid Aggregation and Chemo-Photothermal Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Guan, Yijia; Zhao, Andong; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    Development of sensitive detectors of Aβ aggregates and effective inhibitors of Aβ aggregation are of diagnostic importance and therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. Herein, a novel strategy has been presented by self-assembly of peptide conjugated Au nanorods (AuP) as multifunctional Aβ fibrillization detectors and inhibitors. Our design combines the unique high NIR absorption property of AuNRs with two known Aβ inhibitors, Aβ15-20 and polyoxometalates (POMs). The synthesized AuP can effectively inhibit Aβ aggregation and dissociate amyloid deposits with NIR irradiation both in buffer and in mice cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and protect cells from Aβ-related toxicity upon NIR irradiation. In addition, with the shape and size-dependent optical properties, the nanorods can also act as effective diagnostic probes to sensitively detect the Aβ aggregates. This is the first report to integrate 3 segments, an Aβ-targeting element, a reporter and inhibitors, in one drug delivery system for AD treatment.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a local mediator in a gut-brain neural axis activating intestinal gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, F; Plessier, F; Gautier-Stein, A; Mithieux, G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) promotes metabolic benefits through activation of a gut-brain neural axis. However, the local mediator activating gluconeogenic genes in the enterocytes remains unknown. We show that (i) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling through VPAC1 receptor activates the intestinal glucose-6-phosphatase gene in vivo, (ii) the activation of IGN by propionate is counteracted by VPAC1 antagonism, and (iii) VIP-positive intrinsic neurons in the submucosal plexus are increased under the action of propionate. These data support the role of VIP as a local neuromodulator released by intrinsic enteric neurons and responsible for the induction of IGN through a VPAC1 receptor-dependent mechanism in enterocytes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists on Weight Loss in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Potts

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo and other anti-diabetic agents on weight loss in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Electronic searches were conducted for randomised controlled trials that compared a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy at a clinically relevant dose with a comparator treatment (other type 2 diabetes treatment or placebo in adults with type 2 diabetes and a mean body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Pair-wise meta-analyses and mixed treatment comparisons were conducted to examine the difference in weight change at six months between the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and each comparator.In the mixed treatment comparison (27 trials, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists were the most successful in terms of weight loss; exenatide 2 mg/week: -1.62 kg (95% CrI: -2.95 kg, -0.30 kg, exenatide 20 μg: -1.37 kg (95% CI: -222 kg, -0.52 kg, liraglutide 1.2 mg: -1.01 kg (95%CrI: -2.41 kg, 0.38 kg and liraglutide 1.8 mg: -1.51 kg (95% CI: -2.67 kg, -0.37 kg compared with placebo. There were no differences between the GLP-1 receptor agonists in terms of weight loss.This review provides evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapies are associated with weight loss in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes with no difference in weight loss seen between the different types of GLP-1 receptor agonists assessed.

  11. Improvement in psoriasis after treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Knop, F K; Thyssen, J P

    2011-01-01

    psoriasis immediately after the start of liraglutide treatment. Itching stopped within days, scaling was reduced and spots of normal skin emerged. After 3 months, psoriasis was still improving. Excellent glycaemic control and a weight loss of approximately 8 kg over 3 months were moreover obtained...

  12. Fast voxel-level dosimetry for 177Lu labelled peptide treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippeläinen, E; Tenhunen, M; Sohlberg, A

    2015-01-01

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), voxel-level radiation absorbed dose calculations can be performed using several different methods. Each method has it strengths and weaknesses; however, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is presently considered the most accurate method at providing absorbed dose distributions. Unfortunately MC simulation is time-consuming and often impractical to carry out in a clinical practice. In this work, a fast semi-Monte Carlo (sMC) absorbed dose calculation method for 177 Lu PRRT dosimetry is presented. The sMC method is based on a local electron absorption assumption and fast photon MC simulations. The sMC method is compared against full MC simulation code built on PENELOPE (vxlPen) using digital phantoms to assess the accuracy of these assumptions.Due to the local electron absorption assumption of sMC, the potential errors in cross-fire dose from electrons and photons emitted by 177 Lu were first evaluated using an ellipsoidal kidney model by comparing vxlPen and sMC. The photon cross-fire dose from background to kidney and kidney to background with varying kidney-to-background activity concentration ratios were calculated. In addition, kidney to kidney photon and electron cross-dose with different kidney to kidney distances were studied. Second, extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were created with liver lesions and with realistic activity distributions and tissue densities. The XCAT phantoms were used to simulate SPECT projections and 3D activity distribution images were reconstructed using an OSEM algorithm. Image-based dose rate distributions were calculated using vxlPen and sMC. Total doses and dose rate volume histograms (DrVH) produced by the two methods were compared.The photon cross-fire dose from the kidney increased the background’s absorbed dose by 5% or more up to 5.8 cm distance with 20 : 1 kidney to background activity concentration ratio. On the other hand, the photon cross-fire dose from the background to

  13. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT): clinical significance of re-treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, Irene [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Collaboration: The Innsbruck Team

    2015-12-15

    PRRT appears to be the most effective therapeutic option in the management of inoperable or metastasized NET patients with limited side effects if dose limits are respected. In patients with relapse after a first treatment period with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC, multiple re-treatment cycles with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE are feasible, safe and efficacious. Quantitative imaging by dosimetry adds to formulate personalized and evidence-based treatment protocols. However, despite the large body of evidence regarding efficacy and safety of PRRT, the absence of prospective randomized controlled trials questions the utility of PRRT in the community. Furthermore, the growing number of pharmacological or liver-directed therapeutic options competes with the confusion based on the variety of somatostatin analogues to determine the optimal choice and sequencing of PRRT in the individual patient. However, the efficacy of PRRT should not be questioned rather than it should be explored as to when PRRT might be optimally applied in the sequence of available therapy modalities. The results of the present study by the Italian group [5] emphasizes that radiopharmaceuticals are still underused. Despite the huge potential of PRRT the non-availability of PRRT in many countries still limits its widespread use. After acquiring the exclusive rights for {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE with granted orphan designation, the company Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) is currently running a phase III study comparing treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE to Octreotide LAR in patients with inoperable, progressive, somatostatin receptor-positive, midgut carcinoid tumours with the aim of registering the radiopharmaceutical under the commercial name of Lutathera. Together with orphan designation also to other somatostatin-based radiopharmaceuticals, such as {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC, {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC and the {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin antagonist OPS202, these developments promote the advancement of PRRT and PET imaging

  14. Serum peptide expression and treatment responses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Juan; Tang, Chuan-Hao; Wang, Na; Liu, Yi; Lv, Jin; Xu, Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Wan-Feng; Gao, Hong-Jun; He, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is an important predictor for response to personalized treatments of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However its usage is limited due to the difficult of obtaining tissue specimens. A novel prediction system using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been reported to be a perspective tool in European countries to identify patients who are likely to benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was used on pretreatment serum samples of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer to discriminate the spectra between disease control and disease progression groups in one cohort of Chinese patients. The candidate features for classification were subsequently validated in a blinded fashion in another set of patients. The correlation between plasma EGFR mutation status and the intensities of representative spectra for classification was evaluated. A total of 103 patients that were treated with EGFR-TKIs were included. It was determined that 8 polypeptides peaks were significant different between the disease control and disease progression group. A total of 6 polypeptides were established in the classification algorithm. The sensitivity of the algorithm to predict treatment responses was 76.2% (16/21) and the specificity was 81.8% (18/22). The accuracy rate of the algorithm was 79.1% (34/43). A total of 3 polypeptides were significantly correlated with EGFR mutations (P=0.04, P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). The present study confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS analysis can be used to predict responses to EGFR-TKI treatment of the Asian population where the EGFR mutation status differs from the European population. Furthermore, the expression intensities of the three polypeptides in the classification model were associated with EGFR mutation. PMID:29844828

  15. Combination of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with fractionated external beam radiotherapy for treatment of advanced symptomatic meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreissl, Michael C; Flentje, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A; Hänscheid, Heribert; Löhr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A; Schiller, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph; Samnick, Samuel S; Buck, Andreas K

    2012-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the treatment of choice for irresectable meningioma. Due to the strong expression of somatostatin receptors, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been used in advanced cases. We assessed the feasibility and tolerability of a combination of both treatment modalities in advanced symptomatic meningioma. 10 patients with irresectable meningioma were treated with PRRT ( 177 Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3 octreotate or - DOTA0,Tyr3 octreotide) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). EBRT performed after PRRT was continued over 5–6 weeks in IMRT technique (median dose: 53.0 Gy). All patients were assessed morphologically and by positron emission tomography (PET) before therapy and were restaged after 3–6 months. Side effects were evaluated according to CTCAE 4.0. Median tumor dose achieved by PRRT was 7.2 Gy. During PRRT and EBRT, no side effects > CTCAE grade 2 were noted. All patients reported stabilization or improvement of tumor-associated symptoms, no morphologic tumor progression was observed in MR-imaging (median follow-up: 13.4 months). The median pre-therapeutic SUV max in the meningiomas was 14.2 (range: 4.3–68.7). All patients with a second PET after combined PRRT + EBRT showed an increase in SUV max (median: 37%; range: 15%–46%) to a median value of 23.7 (range: 8.0–119.0; 7 patients) while PET-estimated volume generally decreased to 81 ± 21% of the initial volume. The combination of PRRT and EBRT is feasible and well tolerated. This approach represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of recurring or progressive symptomatic meningioma, which should be further evaluated

  16. Changes in brain peptides associated with reproduction and energy homeostasis in photosensitive and photorefractory migratory redheaded buntings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, Ashutosh; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Present study examined the expression of brain peptides associated with the reproduction and energy homeostasis (GnRH/GnIH, NPY/VIP), and assessed their possible functional association in the photosensitive (non-breeding, pre-breeding), photostimulated (breeding) and photorefractory (post-breeding) migratory redheaded buntings (Emberiza bruniceps), using double-labeled immunohistochemistry. Particularly, we measured immunoreactive (-ir) cell numbers, per cent cell area and cell optical density (OD) in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, DMH and infundibular complex, INc (NPY and VIP), and lateral septal organ (VIP) of buntings kept under natural photoperiods at the wintering latitude (26°55'N). There was a significant seasonal difference in GnRH-I, not GnRH-II, with reduced -ir cells in the photosensitive and photorefractory buntings, and notably with increased cell OD between the refractory and non-breeding states with no increase in testis size. Also, increased cell OD of GnIH neurons in non-breeding state indicated its role in the maintenance of small testes during the post-refractory period. Overall, seasonal changes in GnRH-I and GnIH were found consistent with their suggested roles in reproductive regulation of absolute photorefractory birds. Further, there was a significant seasonal change in cell OD of NPY neurons in DMH, not the INc. In contrast, VIP immunoreactivity was seasonally altered, with a significantly higher VIP-ir cells in breeding than the pre-breeding state. Finally, close proximity between perikarya with fibres suggested functional interactions between the GnRH and GnIH, and NPY and VIP. Thus, seasonal plasticity of brain peptides is perhaps the part of neural regulation of seasonal reproduction and associated energy homeostasis in migratory songbirds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radio peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, Jonh

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The concept of the magic bullet retains its attraction to us. If only we could take a drug or radioisotope and inject this intravenously and then will attach to the target cancer. This may allow imaging if labelled with a radio pharmaceutical or possibly even effective therapy. Initially work was started using antibodies of mouse origin. These have shown some utility in targeting tumors but there are problems in that these are essentially non-human proteins, often derived from mice. This leads to the formation of antibodies against that antibody so that repeat administrations lead to reduced efficacy and possibly may carry a risk anaphylaxis for the patient. Two different methods have evolved to deal with this situation. Either make antibodies more human or use smaller fragments, so that they are less likely to cause allergic reactions. The second method is to try and use a synthetic peptide. This will contain a series of amino acids which recognize a certain cell receptor. For example the somatostatin analogue Octreotide is an 8 amino acid peptide which has the same biological actions as natural somatostatin but an increased plasma half life. To this is added a linker a good example being DTPA and then radioisotope for example In-111. There we can have the complex In-111-DTPA-Octreotide which can be used to image somatostatin receptors in vivo. The main advantage over antibodies is that the cost production is less and many different variation of peptides for a particular receptor can be manufactured and assessed to find which is the optimal agent tumour imaging at a fraction of the cost of antibody production. There are two main approaches. Firstly to take a natural peptide hormone such as insulin or VIP and label by a simple method such as iodination with I-123. A group in Vienna have done it and shown good uptake of I-123 Insulin in primary hepatomas and of I-123 VIP in pancreatic cancers. Many natural peptide hormones however have a short plasma half

  18. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  19. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using...

  20. Amélioration des activités insecticides des protéines Vip3 de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh SELLAMI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins were considered as a second generation of biopesticides. They are synthesized and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase. Vip3 proteins, which are discovered in 1990, are of great interest for the control of Lepidopteran insects pests such as Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda. Many researches were conducted on the Vip3 proteins in order to enlarge their spectrum, improve their insecticidal activities and resolve the problems of resistance that appeared recently after the massive use of δ-endotoxins, considered as first generation of biopesticides. In this review, we tried to summarize research studies interested in the improvement of the insecticidal activities of Vip3 proteins.

  1. Mapping VIPS concepts for nursing interventions to the ISO reference terminology model for nursing actions: A collaborative Scandinavian analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly Marit; Berring, Lene

    2006-01-01

    analyzed the VIPS model's concepts for nursing interventions using prototypical examples of nursing actions, involving 233 units of analyses, and collaborated in mapping the two models. All nursing interventions in the VIPS model comprise actions and targets, but a few lack explicit expressions of means......The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian experts....... In most cases, the recipient of care is implicit. Expressions for the aim of an action are absent from the ISO model. By this mapping we identified areas for future development of the VIPS model and the experience from nursing terminology work in Scandinavia can contribute to the international...

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: Past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1–based therapy improves glycaemic control through multiple mechanisms, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and the additional benefit of clinically relevant weight loss. Since Starling and Bayliss first proposed the existence of intestinal secretions that stimulate the pancreas, tremendous progress has been made in the area of incretins. As a number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs continue to become available, physicians will soon face the challenge of selecting the right option customized to their patient's needs. The following discussion, derived from an extensive literature search using the PubMed database, applying the terms incretin, GLP-1, exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, and taspoglutide, provides a comprehensive review of existing and upcoming molecules in the GLP-1 RA class in terms of their structure, pharmacological profiles, efficacy, safety, and convenience. Search Methodology: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database, applying the terms incretin, GLP-1, exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, and taspoglutide. Relevant articles were those that discussed structural, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, classification, long-acting and short-acting GLP-1 RAs, phase 3 trials, and expert opinions. Additional targeted searches were conducted on diabetes treatment guidelines and reviews on safety, as well as the American Diabetes Association/European Society for Study of Diabetes (ADA/EASD statement on pancreatic safety.

  3. Effects of long-term treatment with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in the GHRH knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Maria; Fintini, Danilo; Bowers, Cyril Y; Parlow, A F; Salvatori, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretagogues (GHS) stimulate GH secretion in vivo in humans and in animals. They act on the ghrelin receptor, expressed in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. It is unknown whether GHSs act predominantly by increasing the release of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) or by acting directly on the somatotroph cells. We studied whether a potent GHS could stimulate growth in the absence of endogenous GHRH. To this end, we used GHRH knockout (GHRH-KO) mice. These animals have proportionate dwarfism due to severe GH deficiency (GHD) and pituitary hypoplasia due to reduced somatotroph cell mass. We treated male GHRH-KO mice for 6 wk (from week 1 to week 7 of age) with GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2, 10 microg s.c. twice a day). Chronic treatment with GHRP-2 failed to stimulate somatotroph cell proliferation and GH secretion and to promote longitudinal growth. GHRP-2-treated mice showed an increase in total body weight compared with placebo-treated animals, due to worsening of the body composition alterations typical of GHD animals. These data demonstrate that GHRP-2 failed to reverse the severe GHD caused by lack of GHRH.

  4. Extrinsic control of the release of galanin and VIP from intrinsic nerves of isolated, perfused, porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messell, T; Harling, H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry galanin-like immunoreactivity and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity were found in nerve cell bodies mostly in the submucous plexus and in nerve fibres in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis including the myenteric plexus of the porcine ileum an...... was not influenced by atropine. Our results suggest that the galanin- and VIP-producing intrinsic neurons receive inhibitory signals by noradrenergic nerve fibers and stimulatory signals mediated by cholinergic nerves, possibly via a cholinergic interneuron....

  5. New experimental limit on Pauli exclusion principle violation by electrons (VIP experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalucci, S [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Bertolucci, S [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Bragadireanu, M [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) represents one of the basic principles of modern physics and, even if there are no compelling reasons to doubt its validity, it still spurs a lively debate, because an intuitive, elementary explanation is still missing, and because of its unique stand among the basic symmetries of physics. A new limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons was estabilished by the VIP (Violation of the Pauli exclusion principle) Collaboration, using the method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper. The preliminary value, 1/2{beta}{sup 2} < 4.5 x 10{sup -28}, represents an improvement of about two orders of magnitude of the previous limit. The goal of VIP is to push this limit at the level of 10{sup -30}.

  6. A preliminary electron microscopic investigation into the interaction between Aβ1-42 peptide and a novel nanoliposome- coupled retro-inverso peptide inhibitor, developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, M.; Fullwood, N. J.; Taylor, M.; Allsop, D.

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that results in severe cognitive and functional decline in sufferers and for which there are currently no effective treatments to halt or reverse disease progression. AD is the most common form of dementia and age is the major risk factor for this disease. With worldwide population structures changing as increasing number of individuals survive into old age, there is urgent need for novel disease modifying treatments for this condition, which has profound effects upon sufferers in addition to those around them. Some of us have previously developed a peptide inhibitor of Aβ1-42 aggregation (RI-OR2-TAT) that has been shown to reduce Aβ1-42 pathology in vivo in mouse models of AD. ∼1690 copies of RI-OR2-TAT have been covalently attached to nanoliposome carrier particles forming Peptide Inhibitor NanoParticles (PINPs), and this study investigated the effect of PINPs upon Aβ1-42 aggregation at the molecular level. Our results show that PINPs are able to reduce Aβ1-42 aggregation and do so by binding early (oligomers) and late (fibrillar) stage aggregates. These results highlight the ability of PINPs to disrupt the formation of multiple Aβ1-42 aggregates capable of causing neurotoxicity and thus provide a strong case for PINPs to be carried forward into early stage clinical trials as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of AD.

  7. A preliminary electron microscopic investigation into the interaction between Aβ1-42 peptide and a novel nanoliposome- coupled retro-inverso peptide inhibitor, developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherer, M; Fullwood, N J; Taylor, M; Allsop, D

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that results in severe cognitive and functional decline in sufferers and for which there are currently no effective treatments to halt or reverse disease progression. AD is the most common form of dementia and age is the major risk factor for this disease. With worldwide population structures changing as increasing number of individuals survive into old age, there is urgent need for novel disease modifying treatments for this condition, which has profound effects upon sufferers in addition to those around them. Some of us have previously developed a peptide inhibitor of Aβ 1-42 aggregation (RI-OR2-TAT) that has been shown to reduce Aβ 1-42 pathology in vivo in mouse models of AD. ∼1690 copies of RI-OR2-TAT have been covalently attached to nanoliposome carrier particles forming Peptide Inhibitor NanoParticles (PINPs), and this study investigated the effect of PINPs upon Aβ 1-42 aggregation at the molecular level. Our results show that PINPs are able to reduce Aβ 1-42 aggregation and do so by binding early (oligomers) and late (fibrillar) stage aggregates. These results highlight the ability of PINPs to disrupt the formation of multiple Aβ 1-42 aggregates capable of causing neurotoxicity and thus provide a strong case for PINPs to be carried forward into early stage clinical trials as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of AD. (paper)

  8. Incretin-based treatment of type 2 diabetes: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F

    2007-01-01

    Incretins are gut peptides that potentiate nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion following meal ingestion. Activities of the dominant incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, include glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and, in preclin...... and liraglutide) and DPP-4 inhibitors that act to increase concentrations of endogenous intact incretins (e.g. sitagliptin and vildagliptin). Clinical trials of these incretin-based therapies have shown them to be effective in improving glycaemic control in patients with T2DM....

  9. VIP visit to CERN P5 CMS of Pakistan Science Members

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    VIP visit to CERN P5 CMS of PAEC & JCPC Science Members List of PAEC Visitors: Dr. Badar Suleman - Member Science PAEC & Member of JCPC Dr. Waqar M. Butt - Member Engineering (Head of HMC3) Dr. Maqsood Ahmad - Chief Scientist (Head of Accelerator Project) List of CMS participants: Prof. Joseph Incandela, CMS Spokesperson Dr. Austin Ball, CMS Technical Coordinator Mr Andrzej Charkiewicz, CMS Resources Manager Dr. Michael Hoch, CMS Outreach activities, CMS photographer and guide Dr. Achille Petrilli, CMS Team Leader

  10. Detector location selection based on VIP analysis in near-infrared detection of dural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuming Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of dural hematoma based on multi-channel near-infrared differential absorbance has the advantages of rapid and non-invasive detection. The location and number of detectors around the light source are critical for reducing the pathological characteristics of the prediction model on dural hematoma degree. Therefore, rational selection of detector numbers and their distances from the light source is very important. In this paper, a detector position screening method based on Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP analysis is proposed. A preliminary modeling based on Partial Least Squares method (PLS for the prediction of dural position μa was established using light absorbance information from 30 detectors located 2.0–5.0 cm from the light source with a 0.1 cm interval. The mean relative error (MRE of the dural position μa prediction model was 4.08%. After VIP analysis, the number of detectors was reduced from 30 to 4 and the MRE of the dural position μa prediction was reduced from 4.08% to 2.06% after the reduction in detector numbers. The prediction model after VIP detector screening still showed good prediction of the epidural position μa. This study provided a new approach and important reference on the selection of detector location in near-infrared dural hematoma detection. Keywords: Detector location screening, Epidural hematoma detection, Variable importance in the projection

  11. Underground test of quantum mechanics - the VIP2 experiment arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Johann; Bassi, A.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; Donadi, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pichler, A.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for anomalous X-ray transitions in copper atoms, produced by fresh electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the probability to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1 s level already occupied by two electrons and we describe the VIP2 (VIolation of PEP) experiment under data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. In this paper the new VIP2 setup installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory will be presented. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of...

  12. Fat ViP MRI: Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging of water-fat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Roberto; Hitti, Eric; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gambarota, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI) is a method to generate reference signals on MR images, using external radiofrequency (RF) signals. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ViP MRI to generate complex-data images of phantoms mimicking water-fat systems. Various numerical phantoms with a given fat fraction, T2* and field map were designed. The k-space of numerical phantoms was converted into RF signals to generate virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were performed at 4.7T using a multi-gradient-echo sequence on virtual and physical phantoms. The data acquisition of virtual and physical phantoms was simultaneous. Decomposition of the water and fat signals was performed using a complex-based water-fat separation algorithm. Overall, a good agreement was observed between the fat fraction, T2* and phase map values of the virtual and numerical phantoms. In particular, fat fractions of 10.5±0.1 (vs 10% of the numerical phantom), 20.3±0.1 (vs 20%) and 30.4±0.1 (vs 30%) were obtained in virtual phantoms. The ViP MRI method allows for generating imaging phantoms that i) mimic water-fat systems and ii) can be analyzed with water-fat separation algorithms based on complex data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Membrane-Permeable Breast-Targeting Pro-Apoptotic Peptide for Treatment of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Bin

    2005-01-01

    .... The BH3 peptide of Bid (EDIIRNIARHLAQVGDSMDR) was synthesized with eight d-arginine residues at the N-terminus with a glycine linker residue, followed by a breast-homing sequence (CPGPEGAGC) at the C-terminal...

  14. Development of a neuromedin U-human serum albumin conjugate as a long-acting candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Comparison with the PEGylated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Philippe; Peier, Andrea M; Talamo, Fabio; Ingallinella, Paolo; Lahm, Armin; Barbato, Gaetano; Di Marco, Annalise; Desai, Kunal; Zytko, Karolina; Qian, Ying; Du, Xiaobing; Ricci, Davide; Monteagudo, Edith; Laufer, Ralph; Pocai, Alessandro; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Marsh, Donald J; Pessi, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is an endogenous peptide implicated in the regulation of feeding, energy homeostasis, and glycemic control, which is being considered for the therapy of obesity and diabetes. A key liability of NMU as a therapeutic is its very short half-life in vivo. We show here that conjugation of NMU to human serum albumin (HSA) yields a compound with long circulatory half-life, which maintains full potency at both the peripheral and central NMU receptors. Initial attempts to conjugate NMU via the prevalent strategy of reacting a maleimide derivative of the peptide with the free thiol of Cys34 of HSA met with limited success, because the resulting conjugate was unstable in vivo. Use of a haloacetyl derivative of the peptide led instead to the formation of a metabolically stable conjugate. HSA-NMU displayed long-lasting, potent anorectic, and glucose-normalizing activity. When compared side by side with a previously described PEG conjugate, HSA-NMU proved superior on a molar basis. Collectively, our results reinforce the notion that NMU-based therapeutics are promising candidates for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Pharmacologic properties, metabolism, and disposition of linaclotide, a novel therapeutic peptide approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Robert W; Kessler, Marco M; Bartolini, Wilmin P; Bryant, Alexander P; Hannig, Gerhard; Higgins, Carolyn S; Solinga, Robert M; Tobin, Jenny V; Wakefield, James D; Kurtz, Caroline B; Currie, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Linaclotide, a potent guanylate cyclase C agonist, is a therapeutic peptide approved in the United States for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation. We present for the first time the metabolism, degradation, and disposition of linaclotide in animals and humans. We examined the metabolic stability of linaclotide in conditions that mimic the gastrointestinal tract and characterized the metabolite MM-419447 (CCEYCCNPACTGC), which contributes to the pharmacologic effects of linaclotide. Systemic exposure to these active peptides is low in rats and humans, and the low systemic and portal vein concentrations of linaclotide and MM-419447 observed in the rat confirmed both peptides are minimally absorbed after oral administration. Linaclotide is stable in the acidic environment of the stomach and is converted to MM-419447 in the small intestine. The disulfide bonds of both peptides are reduced in the small intestine, where they are subsequently proteolyzed and degraded. After oral administration of linaclotide, intestinal loops, increased intraluminal cGMP, and caused a dose-dependent acceleration in gastrointestinal transit. These results demonstrate the importance of the active metabolite in contributing to linaclotide's pharmacology.

  16. A simple bedside approach to therapeutic goals achievement during the management of deceased organ donors--An adapted version of the "VIP" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno

    2016-02-01

    The disproportion between the supply and demand of transplant organs could be alleviated by improving the quality of clinical management of deceased potential donors. As a large number of donor losses by cardiac arrest occur due to hemodynamic instability, without instituting all essential maintenance measures, it is likely that the application of simplified potential donor maintenance protocols will help to decrease potential donor losses and increase the supply of organs for transplantation. The Ventilation, Infusion and Pumping (VIP) strategy is a mnemonic method that brings together key aspects of the restoration of oxygen delivery to tissues during hemodynamic instability: adequate mechanical Ventilation, volume Infusion and evaluation of heart Pump effectiveness. The inclusion of the additional initials, "P" and "S," refers to Pharmacological treatment and Specificities involved in the etiology of shock. The use of simplified care standards can assist in adhering to essential potential donor management measures. Therefore, using a simplified method as the adapted VIP approach can contribute to improving management standards of potential organ donors and increasing the supply of organs for transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on Vip-ergic neurons in jejunum submucous plexus of diabetic rats Efeito da acetil-L-carnitina sobre neurônios Vip-érgicos do plexo submucoso do jejuno de ratos diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Aparecida Defani

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg. After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic, CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC, D (diabetic, DC (diabetes treated with ALC. We analyzed the immunoreactivity and the cellular profile of 126 cell bodies. The treatment with ALC improved some aspects of DM. However, it promoted a small increase in the area of neurons from group CC, suggesting a possible neurotrophic effect. Neurons from groups D and DC showed a large increase in their cellular profile and immunoreactivity when compared to C and CC, suggesting a larger concentration of this neurotransmitter within the neurons that produce it. This observation constitutes a recurrent finding in diabetic animals, suggesting that ALC doesnot interfere in the pathophysiological mechanisms that unchain a higher production and/or neurotransmitter accumulation and increase the profile of the VIP-ergic neurons.Investigamos o efeito da acetil-L-carnitina (ALC sobre os neurônios que expressam o peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP do plexo submucoso no jejuno de ratos diabéticos. O diabetes (DM foi induzido pela administração endovenosa de estreptozootocina (35mg/kg. Após o sacrifício dos animais, o jejuno foi coletado e processado para a detecção de VIP. Utilizou-se quatro grupos: C (não diabéticos, CC (não diabéticos suplementados com ALC, D (diabéticos e DC (diabéticos suplementados com ALC. Analisou-se a imunoreatividade e o perfil celular de 126 corpos celulares. O tratamento com ALC melhorou alguns aspectos do DM. Porém, promoveu pequeno aumento na área dos neurônios do grupo CC, indicando possível efeito neurotr

  18. Immunogold staining procedure for the localisation of regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varndell, I M; Tapia, F J; Probert, L; Buchan, A M; Gu, J; De Mey, J; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1982-01-01

    The use of protein A- and IgG-conjugated colloidal gold staining methods for the immuno-localisation of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters at light- and electron microscope level are described and discussed. Bright-field and dark-ground illumination modes have been used to visualise the gold-labelled antigenic sites at the light microscope level. Immunogold staining procedures at the ultrastructural level using region-specific antisera have been adopted to localise specific molecular forms of peptides including gastrin (G17 and G34), glucagon and pro-glucagon, insulin and pro-insulin, in normal tissue and in tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic system. Similar methods have been used to demonstrate the heterogeneity of p-type nerves in the enteric nervous system. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been localised to granular sites (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 98 +/- 19 nm) in nerve terminals of the enteric plexuses and in tumour cells of diarrhoeogenic VIP-producing neoplasias (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 126 +/- 37 nm) using immunogold procedures applied to ultraviolet-cured ultrathin sections. Co-localisation of amines and peptides in carotid body type I cells and in chromaffin cells of normal adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytomas has also been demonstrated. Advantages of the immunogold procedures over alternative immunocytochemical techniques are discussed.

  19. Colonic vascular conductance increased by Daikenchuto via calcitonin gene-related peptide and receptor-activity modifying protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Toru; Koseki, Takashi; Chiba, Shinichi; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Chisato, Naoyuki; Iwamoto, Jun; Kasai, Shinichi

    2008-11-01

    Daikencyuto (DKT) is a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) and is a mixture of extract powders from dried Japanese pepper, processed ginger, ginseng radix, and maltose powder and has been used as the treatment of paralytic ileus. DKT may increase gastrointestinal motility by an up-regulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP is also the most powerful vasoactive substance. In the present study, we investigated whether DKT has any effect on the colonic blood flow in rats. Experiments were performed on fasted anesthetized and artificially ventilated Wistar rats. Systemic mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Red blood cell flux in colonic blood flow was measured using noncontact laser tissue blood flowmetry, and colonic vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the ratio of flux to mean arterial blood pressure. We examined four key physiological mechanisms underlying the response using blocker drugs: CGRP1 receptor blocker (CGRP(8-37)), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receptor blocker ([4-Cl-DPhe6, Leu17]-VIP), and substance P receptor blocker (spantide). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of mRNA of calcitonin receptor-like receptor, receptor-activity modifying protein 1, the component of CGRP 1 receptor and CGRP. After laparotomy, a cannula was inserted into the proximal colon to administer the DKT and to measure CVC at the distal colon. Intracolonal administration of DKT (10, 100, and 300 mg/kg) increased CVC (basal CVC, 0.10 mL/mmHg) from the first 15-min observation period (0.14, 0.17, and 0.17 mL/mmHg, respectively) and with peak response at either 45 min (0.17 mL/mmHg by 10 mg/kg), or 75 and 60 min (0.23 and 0.21 mL/mmHg by 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). CGRP(8-37) completely abolished the DKT-induced hyperemia, whereas nitric oxide synthase inhibitor partially attenuated the DKT-induced hyperemia. [4-Cl-DPhe6, Leu17]-VIP and spantide

  20. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ( 141 Ce-MS/ 85 Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP

  1. F2 screen, inheritance and cross-resistance of field-derived Vip3A resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected from Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Morsello, Shannon; Head, Graham P; Sansone, Chris; Huang, Fangneng; Gilreath, Ryan T; Kerns, David L

    2017-11-28

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a target pest of the Vip3A protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton in the USA. In this study, we provide the first documentation of a resistance allele conferring Vip3A resistance in a field-derived population of S. frugiperda from the USA, and characterize its inheritance and cross-resistance. An F 2 screen with 104 two-parent families generated from a field collection of S. frugiperda in Louisiana, USA, resulted in one family carrying a Vip3A resistance allele. The Vip3A-resistant strain (RR) derived from the two-parent family showed a high level of resistance to Vip3A in both diet and whole-plant bioassays, with a resistance ratio of >632.0-fold relative to a susceptible population (SS) based on diet-overlay bioassays. The inheritance of Vip3A resistance was monogenic, autosomal and recessive. Furthermore, the Vip3A resistance conferred no cross-resistance to Cry1F, Cry2Ab2 or Cry2Ae purified proteins, with resistance ratios of 3.5, 5.0 and 1.1, respectively. These findings provide valuable information for characterizing Vip3A resistance, resistance monitoring, and developing effective resistance management strategies for the sustainable use of the Vip3A technology. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  3. High performance thermal insulation systems (HiPTI). Vacuum insulated products (VIP). Proceedings of the international conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.

    2001-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.

  4. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unite 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The objectives of the metallurgical program are to deduce the temperatures of, determine the mechanical properties of, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical property determinations. Evaluations of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-received archive material have been completed, and a series of heat treatment experiments has been conducted to develop standard microstructures to be compared with those present in the TMI-2 samples. Results have been obtained from examinations of two of the fifteen TMI-2 lower head samples. These results indicate that one of these two samples, which contained cracks in the weld cladding extending ∼3 mm into the underlying base metal, apparently reached temperatures on the order of 1000 to 1100C during the accident. A preliminary examination of the core debris deposited on this sample has been performed. The other sample, from an area away from the region of core relocation, did not exceed 727C during the accident

  5. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  6. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2004-01-01

    Proof-of-concept for the efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-based therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes was provided in 2002 by means of prolonged continuous subcutaneous infusion of native GLP-1. Since then, several long-acting analogues of GLP-1, as well as inhibitors of dipeptidyl...

  7. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  8. Treatment Strategy for Type 2 Diabetes with Obesity: Focus on Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-06-01

    The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain. The present review discusses the place of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in the treatment of obese patients with T2DM and the significance of these drugs in the prevention of future CV risk in patients with T2DM. A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted by using the search terms T2DM, GLP-1RAs, obesity, and cardiovascular complication. Randomized controlled trials measuring the effect of GLP-1RAs versus that of placebo on CV outcomes were included in the review. GLP-1RAs have emerged as a therapeutic alternative; these drugs exert their actions by providing glycemic control, improving insulin resistance and ö̇-cell function, and reducing weight. The risk of hypoglycemia with GLP-1RAs is minimal; however, GLP-1RAs are associated with gastrointestinal adverse events and raise concerns regarding pancreatitis. Combining GLP-1RAs with insulin analogues results in higher efficacy, a lowered insulin dose, and reduced insulin-related hypoglycemia and weight gain. Longer acting GLP-1RAs are also associated with improvement in medication adherence. Improvement in CV risk factors such as blood pressure and lipid profile further increases their usability for improving CV outcomes. Overall, the properties of GLP-1RAs make them suitable for combination with oral antidiabetic drugs in the early stages of T2DM and with insulins in the later stages for optimizing comprehensive management of the

  9. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Sarah W; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E

    2017-01-01

    mount immunohistochemistry for neurons (HuC/D, VIP, nNOS), plasma glucose, gut hormones, and body composition. RESULTS: Resection increased the proportion of nNOS immunopositive myenteric neurons, intestinal muscularis propria thickness and crypt cell proliferation, which were not recapitulated by GLP-2......-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa...

  10. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A; Steinke, G

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  11. 38 CFR 74.2 - What are the eligibility requirements a concern must meet for VetBiz VIP Verification Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loans or other Federally assisted financing, is eligible for VetBiz VIP Verification. (e) U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Protest Decisions. Any firm registered in the VetBiz VIP database that is found to be ineligible due to an SBA protest decision or other negative finding will be immediately...

  12. Peripheral axotomy of the rat mandibular trigeminal nerve leads to an increase in VIP and decrease of other primary afferent neuropeptides in the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, M E; Shehab, S A

    1986-12-01

    In the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-rich lumbosacral spinal cord, VIP increases at the expense of other neuropeptides after primary sensory nerve axotomy. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether similar changes occur in peripherally axotomised cranial sensory nerves. VIP immunoreactivity increased in the terminal region of the mandibular nerve in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis following unilateral section of the sensory root of the mandibular trigeminal nerve at the foramen orale. Other primary afferent neuropeptides (substance P, cholecystokinin and somatostatin) were depleted and fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase activity was abolished in the same circumscribed areas of the nucleus caudalis. The rise in VIP and depletion of other markers began 4 days postoperatively and was maximal by 10 days, these levels remaining unchanged up to 1 year postoperatively. VIP-immunoreactive cell bodies were absent from trigeminal ganglia from the unoperated side but small and medium cells stained intensely in the ganglia of the operated side after axotomy. These observations indicate that increase of VIP in sensory nerve terminals is a general phenomenon occurring in both cranial and spinal sensory terminal areas. The intense VIP immunoreactivity in axotomised trigeminal ganglia suggests that the increased levels of VIP in the nucleus caudalis are of peripheral origin, indicating a change in expression of neuropeptides within primary afferent neurons following peripheral axotomy.

  13. Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to 1s transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of $4.7 \\times 10^{-29}$. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violati...

  14. Effects of treatment with glucagon-like peptide-2 on bone resorption in colectomized patients with distal ileostomy or jejunostomy and short-bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalck, Ida B; Jeppesen, Palle B; Hartmann, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2) seems to be involved in the circadian pattern of bone resorption, whereas parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an established key hormone in bone turnover. Endogenous GLP-2 secretion is lacking in colectomized patients with short-bowel syndrome...... (SBS) and they have reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-resorptive effect (assessed by s-CTX) of 14 days of GLP-2 treatment in these patients and to determine whether 56 days of treatment would improve BMD. PTH secretion in response to GLP-2 was also...... in the SBS patients, and after 56 days of GLP-2 treatment there was no improvement in BMD. A significant reduction in PTH secretion in response to GLP-2 was observed only in patients with ileostomy. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased bone resorption in response to GLP-2 injections cannot be elicited in SBS patients...

  15. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  17. Visualization of the inferoposterior thoracic wall (VIP) and boomerang signs-novel sonographic signs of right pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, James Siu Ki; Yuen, Chi Kit; Mok, Ka Leung; Yan, Wing Wa; Kan, Pui Gay

    2017-11-15

    This study is to present the diagnostic values of the novel sonographic visualization of the inferoposterior thoracic wall (VIP) and boomerang signs in detecting right pleural effusion by sonologists with little to no experience in ultrasound. A prospective analysis of a convenience sample of patients who were assessed by junior intensive care physicians was performed. The patients all underwent computed tomography (CT) of the chest or abdomen with lung bases as part of their care regardless of indication; the results were interpreted by radiologists and were considered the gold standard. Sonography was performed to assess for the presence of the VIP and boomerang signs. Sonographic and chest radiographic findings were compared against CT results. 73 patients were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity for the VIP sign were 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.94) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95). The sensitivity and specificity for the boomerang sign were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-0.90) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95). However, the sensitivity and specificity for the traditional approach of detecting an anechoic collection above the diaphragm to indicate pleural effusion were only 0.54 (95% CI, 0.37-0.71) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99). Despite inexperience in sonography, the novel VIP and boomerang signs show high diagnostic values in detecting right pleural effusion compared to the traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. First report of detection of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3Aa from black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal H. Osman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Black cutworm (BCW Agrotis ipsilon, an economically important lepidopteran insect, has attracted a great attention. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt is spore forming soil bacteria and is an excellent environment-friendly approach for the control of phytophagous and disease-transmitting insects. In fact, bio-pesticide formulations and insect resistant transgenic plants based on the bacterium Bt delta-endotoxin have attracted worldwide attention as a safer alternative to harmful chemical pesticides. The major objective of the current study was to understand the mechanism of interaction of Bt toxin with its receptor molecule(s. The investigation involved the isolation, identification, and characterization of a putative receptor – vip3Aa. In addition, the kinetics of vip toxin binding to its receptor molecule was also studied. The present data suggest that Vip3Aa toxin bound specifically with high affinity to a 48-kDa protein present at the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV prepared from the midgut epithelial cells of BCW larvae. Keywords: Receptor, vip3Aa, Bacillus thuringiensis, BBMV

  19. The Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pöhlmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MTs are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates.

  20. Mapping VIPS Concepts for Nursing Interventions to the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions: A Collaborative Scandinavian Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian experts...

  1. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    ) , which promotes intestinal growth and is used to treat bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases and short bowel syndrome, and the 32 amino acid salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium and is employed in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. The two...... peptides are similar in size and structure, but oppositely charged at physiological pH. Both peptides were acylated with linear acyl chains of systematically increasing length, where sCT was furthermore acylated at two different positions on the peptide backbone. For GLP-2, we found that increasing acyl...... remained optimal overall. The results indicate that rational acylation of GLP-2 can increase its in vitro intestinal absorption, alone or in combination with permeation enhancers, and are consistent with the initial project hypothesis. For sCT, an unpredicted effect of acylation largely superseded...

  2. Heightened circulating levels of antimicrobial peptides in tuberculosis-Diabetes co-morbidity and reversal upon treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathella Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM is not well understood.To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37, human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3 and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB or no TB infection (NTB.Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the levels of cathelicidin and/or HBD2 were significantly higher in PTB-DM or PTB individuals with bilateral and cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burden. Cathelidin, HBD2 and HNP1-3 levels exhibited a positive relationship with HbA1c and/or fasting blood glucose levels. Finally, anti-tuberculosis therapy resulted in significantly diminished levels of cathelicidin, HBD2, granulysin and significantly enhanced levels of HNP1-3 and granulysin in PTB-DM and/or PTB individuals.Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB-DM is associated with markedly enhanced levels of AMPs and diminished levels of granulysin.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First Lady Hillary Clinton gets ready to speak to group at VIP viewing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the VIP Lounge, Apollo/Saturn V Center, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton gets ready to speak to the group gathered there before the launch of STS-93. At right is NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  5. First Lady Hillary Clinton waits for launch at VIP viewing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Among those gathered at the VIP viewing site for the launch of STS-93 are First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton (center) and Donna Shalala, secretary , Department of Health and Human Services (far right). Also present is Chelsea Clinton. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20.

  6. EISCAT observation on plasma drifts connected with the Aureld-VIP rocket and the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Sandahl, I.; Wannberg, G.; Opgenoorth, H.; Soeraas, F.; Murphree, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Coordinated simultaneous measurements with the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, Aureld-VIP sounding rocket, and Viking satellite are described. Background measurements from EISCAT provide us with the development of global plasma convection during the rocket night. The observed convection pattern is very distorted, with the eveningside reversal occurring at unusually low latitudes. On the morningside it withdraws back poleward from the measurement area. Viking particle measurements over the oval indicate a very complicated auroral topology with two sectors of boundary plasma sheet (BPS) and central plasma sheet (CPS) particles. The situation is interpreted as an intrusion of the evening side BPS into the morningside, which is also consistent with the convection pattern measured by EISCAT. Local measurements with the sounding rocket and radar indicate that the rocket flew in the northern part of the evening BPS area, approaching the inner transition region from BPS to CPS in its northward motion, thus confirming the existence of such a boundary

  7. OntoVIP: an ontology for the annotation of object models used for medical image simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Bernard; Forestier, Germain; Benoit-Cattin, Hugues; Cervenansky, Frédéric; Clarysse, Patrick; Friboulet, Denis; Gaignard, Alban; Hugonnard, Patrick; Lartizien, Carole; Liebgott, Hervé; Montagnat, Johan; Tabary, Joachim; Glatard, Tristan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive conceptualization of object models used in medical image simulation, suitable for major imaging modalities and simulators. The goal is to create an application ontology that can be used to annotate the models in a repository integrated in the Virtual Imaging Platform (VIP), to facilitate their sharing and reuse. Annotations make the anatomical, physiological and pathophysiological content of the object models explicit. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology, that facilitates the consistent integration of the various modules extracted from several existing ontologies, i.e. FMA, PATO, MPATH, RadLex and ChEBI. Emphasis is put on methodology for achieving this extraction and integration. The most salient aspects of the ontology are presented, especially the organization in model layers, as well as its use to browse and query the model repository. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization, evaluation, and comparison of standard algorithms for image reconstruction with the VIP-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, E; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G; Chmeissani, M

    2014-07-01

    A novel positron emission tomography (PET) scanner design based on a room-temperature pixelated CdTe solid-state detector is being developed within the framework of the Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project [1]. The simulation results show a great potential of the VIP to produce high-resolution images even in extremely challenging conditions such as the screening of a human head [2]. With unprecedented high channel density (450 channels/cm 3 ) image reconstruction is a challenge. Therefore optimization is needed to find the best algorithm in order to exploit correctly the promising detector potential. The following reconstruction algorithms are evaluated: 2-D Filtered Backprojection (FBP), Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM), List-Mode OSEM (LM-OSEM), and the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm. The evaluation is based on the comparison of a true image phantom with a set of reconstructed images obtained by each algorithm. This is achieved by calculation of image quality merit parameters such as the bias, the variance and the mean square error (MSE). A systematic optimization of each algorithm is performed by varying the reconstruction parameters, such as the cutoff frequency of the noise filters and the number of iterations. The region of interest (ROI) analysis of the reconstructed phantom is also performed for each algorithm and the results are compared. Additionally, the performance of the image reconstruction methods is compared by calculating the modulation transfer function (MTF). The reconstruction time is also taken into account to choose the optimal algorithm. The analysis is based on GAMOS [3] simulation including the expected CdTe and electronic specifics.

  9. Neutral endopeptidase-resistant C-type natriuretic peptide variant represents a new therapeutic approach for treatment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-related dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Daniel J; Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Bullens, Sherry; Lorget, Florence; Bell, Sean M; Peng, Jeff; Castillo, Sianna; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; O'Neill, Charles A; Krejci, Pavel; Wilcox, William R; Rimoin, David L; Bunting, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase, that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B. The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants (BMN 111) resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  11. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  12. The applications of VIP 397/418 bulbs in free radical white pigmented coatings: UV curing evaluation for different free radical white pigmented formulations (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Bao; McCartney, R.

    1999-01-01

    White pigmented coatings have gained commercial success using a Gallium doped microwave F600-V bulb. A novel VIP 397/418 bulb has been made recently, by Fusion UV Systems, to increase UV curing efficiency of white pigmented coatings. Previous research work has shown that the VIP 397/418 bulb can cure cationic white pigmented coatings 40-60% faster than a F600-V bulb. Further evaluations of free radical white pigmented coatings have produced significant data indicating that better physical properties (40-50%) or higher cure speeds (50%) can be obtained by using the VIP 397/418 bulb than a F600-V bulb

  13. Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) levels in patients with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism: effects of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erem, Cihangir; Civan, Nadim; Coskun, Hulya; Mentese, Ahmet; Suleyman, Akile Karacin; Altay, Diler Us; Akgul, Zeynep; Deger, Orhan

    2016-06-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) has been shown to increase in parallel with platelet activation in acute ischaemic and thrombotic diseases. There has been no study evaluating SCUBE1 levels in patients with overt hyperthyroidism (OHyper) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper), conditions which are known to show impairment of both endothelial and platelet function. This study sought to evaluate SCUBE1 concentrations in patients with SHyper and OHyper, and assessed the effects of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy on circulating SCUBE1 levels. Forty-five untreated patients with OHyper, 20 untreated patients with SHyper and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were prospectively included in the study. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in all patients before and after treatment. Compared with the control subjects, SCUBE1 levels were significantly increased in patients with SHyper and OHyper (P hyperthyroidism, especially in the subclinical period. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonists in the Treatment of Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Karras, Spyridon N; Katsiki, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females and is often associated with a number of cardiometabolic disorders such as central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone secreted after a meal, enhances glucosestimulated insulin secretion and additionally suppresses appetite and gastric motility. Most studies found impaired GLP-1 kinetics in obese individuals, whereas small studies in PCOS reported reduced, normal or even elevated GLP-1 levels. Apart from their efficacy in patients with T2DM, some GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been successfully tested in terms of both efficiency and safety in obese individuals without diabetes and liraglutide 3 mg once daily has been approved as an antiobesity drug in the USA and the European Union. Recently, some small trials of short duration using GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or combined with metformin in obese PCOS women showed positive results regarding weight reduction and a decrease in testosterone levels but without significant effects on insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and menstrual patterns. Longer term studies with more patients and higher doses of liraglutide (as this drug is already approved for obese individuals) are required to determine the precise indications of GLP-1 RAs in PCOS and to evaluate safety issues. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Disturbed release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, B; Radzikowska, M; Wasilewska-Dziubinska, E; Roguski, K; Borowiec, M

    2000-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that some neuropeptides play an important role in the control of appetite and hormonal secretion. Several gastrointestinal peptides may affect on central control of appetite via vagal and spinal nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and in obesity, because in these diseases the disturbances in the control of appetite and hormonal secretion were found. Material consisted of 30 women with anorexia nervosa aged 16-29 years (mean 22 years) and 23 women with obesity aged 19-33 years (mean 29 years) and 25 lean women of control group. In women with anorexia nervosa as compared with control group we observed a significant increase of plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels (p anorexia nervosa. These findings suggests that dysfunction of brain-gut axis may be also an important factor in the abnormal control of appetite axcept of hypothalamic dysfunction.

  17. [Substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in patients with progressive scleroderma. Determination of plasma level before and after autogenic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, U F; Weber, B; Seikowski, K

    1995-02-01

    In 12 patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc) the influence of autogenic training on the plasma level of the neuropeptides substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied. Compared with healthy controls the SSc patients exhibited significantly elevated levels of substance P (mean +/- SD: 7.1 +/- 3.2 pmol/l vs 1.6 +/- 1.6 pmol/l). Apart from variations the VIP plasma concentration did not significantly differ from that in healthy controls (mean +/- SD 10.7 +/- 7.1 pmol/l versus 12.0 +/- 5.3 pmol/l). Autogenic training did not bring about any significant changes in the plasma levels of neuropeptides.

  18. Phorbol esters alter adenylate cyclase responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide and forskolin in the GH cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, S.; Florio, T.; Cronin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester modifies cyclic AMP production in several anterior pituitary cell systems. In the GH cell line from a rat pituitary tumor, exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA: 100 nM) for 30 minutes significantly reduces vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP: 100 nM) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in subsequent membrane preparations to 62 + 4% of control (n = 6 independent studies). In contrast, these same membrane preparations respond to forskolin (1 ..mu..M) with significantly more activity, 130 +/- 6% of controls (n = 6 independent studies). Finally, phorbol ester does not block an inhibitory hormone input into the AC system; somatostatin (100 nM) reduction of VIP-stimulated AC activity is not significantly different in membrane preparations from PMA treated and control cells (n = 3 independent studies). These other findings lead the authors to propose that protein kinase C can modify several sites in the AC complex in anterior pituitary cells.

  19. Secretion of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7-related peptides and catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modification by changes in cyclic AMP and by treatment with reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Boarder, M R

    1987-07-01

    Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, the release of [Met]enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline is increased by 72-h pretreatment with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whether release is stimulated by nicotine or elevated potassium. In each case the molecular form of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity that is released approximately reflects the cell content. Pretreatment with reserpine has no effect on the total [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity released, but does result in an increased release of the heptapeptide and a decrease in release of peptide B-like immunoreactivity. The studies suggest that the levels of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 and peptide B available for release are controlled both at the level of proenkephalin synthesis and at the level of double-basic residue proteolysis.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the Yi population from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mengdan; Li, Dianzhen; Zhao, Guige; Li, Jing; Niu, Fanglin; Li, Bin; Chen, Peng; Jin, Tianbo

    2018-03-30

    Drug response and target therapeutic dosage are different among individuals. The variability is largely genetically determined. With the development of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, widespread research have provided us a wealth of information on drug-related genetic polymorphisms, and the very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants have been identified for the major populations around the world whereas less is known regarding minorities in China, including the Yi ethnic group. Our research aims to screen the potential genetic variants in Yi population on pharmacogenomics and provide a theoretical basis for future medication guidance. In the present study, 80 VIP variants (selected from the PharmGKB database) were genotyped in 100 unrelated and healthy Yi adults recruited for our research. Through statistical analysis, we made a comparison between the Yi and other 11 populations listed in the HapMap database for significant SNPs detection. Two specific SNPs were subsequently enrolled in an observation on global allele distribution with the frequencies downloaded from ALlele FREquency Database. Moreover, F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses were conducted for determination of genetic similarity between the 12 ethnic groups. Using the χ2 tests, rs1128503 (ABCB1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs9934438 (VKORC1), rs1540339 (VDR) and rs689466 (PTGS2) were identified as the significantly different loci for further analysis. The global allele distribution revealed that the allele "A" of rs1540339 and rs9934438 were more frequent in Yi people, which was consistent with the most populations in East Asia. F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated that the Yi and CHD shared a closest relationship on their genetic backgrounds. Additionally, Yi was considered similar to the Han people from Shaanxi province among the domestic ethnic populations in China. Our results demonstrated significant differences on

  1. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  2. Interação de proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis para controle de lepidópteros-praga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi-Legori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade das lagartas Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae e Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae às proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A, bem como determinar se há a interação entre essas proteínas no controle das duas espécies. Bioensaios com as proteínas isoladas e em combinações foram realizados, e as concentrações letais CL50 e CL90 foram estimadas para cada condição. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac e Vip3Af foram as mais efetivas no controle de A. gemmatalis, enquanto Cry1Ac, Vip3Aa e Vip3Af foram mais efetivas no de C. includens. As proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca causaram maior inibição do desenvolvimento das larvas sobreviventes à CL50, em ambas as espécies. Combinações entre Vip3A e Cry1 apresentam efeito sinérgico no controle das espécies e a combinação Vip3Aa+Cry1Ea destaca-se no controle de A. gemmatalis e C. includens. Essas proteínas combinadas são promissoras na construção de plantas piramidadas, para o controle simultâneo das pragas.

  3. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner...... transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, adenosine, and purinergic P2 receptors; and this human model has a good potential for studies of physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic duct ion transport....

  4. Update in Cardiovascular Safety of Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. A Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yami, Majed S; Alfayez, Osamah M; Alsheikh, Razan

    2018-03-29

    The aim of this mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis was to determine glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists' effects on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A comprehensive, systematic review was conducted using EMBASE and Medline databases. All included trials were large CV outcome trials of GLP-1 agonists versus placebo in T2DM. The primary outcomes of this MTC meta-analysis were death from CV causes, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke. Hospitalisation for heart failure (HF) was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. A total of four trials, including 33,457 patients, met eligibility criteria and were retained for the meta-analysis. Our pairwise meta-analysis results showed a 13% reduction in death from cardiovascular causes in patients who received GLP-1 agonists versus placebo (RR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.96). However, no statistically significant reduction was observed with GLP-1 agonists in terms of reducing non-fatal MI (RR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.86-1.04), non-fatal stroke events (RR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.76-1.03), and rates of HF hospitalisation (RR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.84-1.04). The network meta-analysis (NMA) showed no significant differences among all the interventions. Glucagon like peptide-1 therapy was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular (CV) death. However, GLP-1 agonists seem to have a safety profile comparable to placebo in terms of reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke events, and rates of HF hospitalisation. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of Spodoptera frugiperda neonate pretreatment conditions on Vip3Aa19 insecticidal protein activity and laboratory bioassay variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Karen F; Spencer, Terence A; Camargo Gil, Carolina; Siegfried, Blair D; Walters, Frederick S

    2016-04-01

    Variation in response to insecticidal proteins is common upon repetition of insect bioassays. Understanding this variation is a prerequisite to detecting biologically important differences. We tracked neonate Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) susceptibility to Vip3Aa19 over 17 generations using standardized bioassay methods. Five larval pretreatment conditions and one bioassay condition were tested to determine whether susceptibility was affected. These included: storage time; prefeeding; storage at reduced temperature; storage at reduced humidity; colony introgression of field-collected individuals. Extremes of photoperiod during the bioassay itself were also examined. LC50 values for two strains of S. frugiperda varied 6.6-fold or 8.8-fold over 17 generations. Storage time and humidity had no impact on Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, whereas prefeeding significantly reduced subsequent mortality (by 27%). Storage at reduced temperature increased mortality for one colony (from 45.6 to 73.0%) but not for the other. Introgression of field-collected individuals affected susceptibility at the first generation but not for subsequent generations. A 24 h bioassay photophase significantly reduced susceptibility (by 26%) for both colonies. Certain pretreatment and bioassay conditions were identified that can affect S. frugiperda Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, but innate larval heterogeneity was also present. Our observations should help to increase the consistency of insecticidal protein bioassay results. © 2015 Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Vip3Ag4 Insecticidal Protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Adopts A Tetrameric Configuration That Is Maintained on Proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Palma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more detailed structural analysis using cryo-electron microscopy.

  8. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  9. Kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolleman, E.J.; Melis, M.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the present status of kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This treatment modality for somatostatin receptor-positive tumours is limited by renal reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides

  10. Teduglutide, a novel glucagon-like peptide 2 analog, in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle Bekker

    2012-01-01

    is to maximize intestinal absorption, minimize the inconvenience of diarrhea, and avoid, reduce or eliminate the need for PS to achieve the best possible quality of life for the patient. Conventional treatments include dietary manipulations, oral rehydration solutions, and antidiarrheal and antisecretory...

  11. Inefficient exogenous loading of a tapasin-dependent peptide onto HLA-B*44:02 can be improved by acid treatment or fixation of target cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroobant, Vincent; Demotte, Nathalie; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Cresswell, Peter; Bonehill, Aude; Michaux, Alexandre; Ma, Wenbin; Mulder, Arend; van den Eynde, Benoît J.; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Vigneron, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize peptides derived from cellular proteins and presented on MHC class I. One category of peptides recognized by these CTLs is derived from proteins encoded by cancer-germline genes, which are specifically expressed in tumors, and therefore represent

  12. Treatment of type 1 diabetic patients with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1R agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielgast, Urd; Holst, Jens Juul; Madsbad, Sten

    2009-01-01

    for a beta-cell preserving effect. This review summarizes the present knowledge of GLP-1 and its analogues regarding its role as a possible treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes. The studies that address the effect of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogues on beta-cell mass in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes......, as well as the potential of GLP-1 as an adjuvant therapy in islet cell transplantation, will be reviewed. Suggestions for future studies of GLP-1 treatment in type 1 diabetes may include early treatment in order to preserve beta-cell mass and prolong the remission period, but should also take a potential...... appetite and bodyweight in obese subjects. In vivo studies using animal models of type 2 diabetes and in vitro studies using human islet cells have suggested that GLP-1 or GLP-1 analogues are also able to increase beta-cell mass, but in animal models of type 1 diabetes, there is much less evidence...

  13. Age-related changes in the hippocampus (loss of synaptophysin and glial-synaptic interaction) are modified by systemic treatment with an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Bunmi; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L; Davies, Heather; Colyer, Frances; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina; Stewart, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Altered synaptic morphology, progressive loss of synapses and glial (astrocyte and microglial) cell activation are considered as characteristic hallmarks of aging. Recent evidence suggests that there is a concomitant age-related decrease in expression of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, and the neuronal glycoprotein CD200, which, by interacting with its receptor, plays a role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state. These age-related changes may be indicative of reduced neuroglial support of synapses. FG Loop (FGL) peptide synthesized from the second fibronectin type III module of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has previously been shown to attenuate age-related glial cell activation, and to 'restore' cognitive function in aged rats. The mechanisms by which FGL exerts these neuroprotective effects remain unclear, but could involve regulation of CD200, modifying glial-synaptic interactions (affecting neuroglial 'support' at synapses), or impacting directly on synaptic function. Light and electron microscopic (EM) analyses were undertaken to investigate whether systemic treatment with FGL (i) alters CD200, synaptophysin (presynaptic) and PSD-95 (postsynaptic) immunohistochemical expression levels, (ii) affects synaptic number, or (iii) exerts any effects on glial-synaptic interactions within young (4 month-old) and aged (22 month-old) rat hippocampus. Treatment with FGL attenuated the age-related loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity (-ir) within CA3 and hilus (with no major effect on PSD-95-ir), and of CD200-ir specifically in the CA3 region. Ultrastructural morphometric analyses showed that FGL treatment (i) prevented age-related loss in astrocyte-synaptic contacts, (ii) reduced microglia-synaptic contacts in the CA3 stratum radiatum, but (iii) had no effect on the mean number of synapses in this region. These data suggest that FGL mediates its neuroprotective effects by regulating glial-synaptic interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-pro-BNP) levels predict for clinical benefit to sunitinib treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazisis, Konstantinos T; Kortsaris, Alexandros H; Kontovinis, Lukas F; Papandreou, Christos N; Kouvatseas, George; Lafaras, Christos; Antonakis, Evangelos; Christopoulou, Maria; Andreadis, Charalambos; Mouratidou, Despoina

    2010-01-01

    Sunitinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although the majority of sunitinib-treated patients receive a clinical benefit, almost a third of the patients will not respond. Currently there is no available marker that can predict for response in these patients. We estimated the plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP (the N-terminal precursor of brain natriuretic peptide) in 36 patients that were treated with sunitinib for metastatic clear-cell renal carcinoma. From the 36 patients, 9 had progressive disease and 27 obtained a clinical benefit (objective response or disease stabilization). Increases in plasma NT-pro-BNP were strongly correlated to clinical outcome. Patients with disease progression increased plasma BNP at statistically significant higher levels than patients that obtained a clinical benefit, and this was evident from the first 15 days of treatment (a three-fold increase in patients with progressive disease compared to stable NT-pro-BNP levels in patients with clinical benefit, p < 0.0001). Median progression-free survival was 12.0 months in patients with less than 1.5 fold increases (n = 22) and 3.9 months in patients with more than 1.5 fold increases in plasma NT-pro-BNP (n = 13) (log-rank test, p = 0.001). This is the first time that a potential 'surrogate marker' has been reported with such a clear correlation to clinical benefit at an early time of treatment. Due to the relative small number of accessed patients, this observation needs to be further addressed on larger cohorts. More analyses, including multivariate analyses are needed before such an observation can be used in clinical practice

  15. Resistance Risk Assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 Insecticidal Protein Expressed in Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda C L; Conville, Jared; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic Agrisure Viptera 3 corn that expresses Cry1Ab, Vip3Aa20, and EPSPS proteins and Agrisure Viptera expressing Vip3Aa20 are used for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support a resistance management program, resistance risk assessment studies were conducted to characterize the dose expression of Vip3Aa20 protein and level of control against these species. The Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera decreased from V6 to V10 stage of growth. However, Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 at V6 and V10 stages was 13- and 16-fold greater than Cry1Ab, respectively. The Vip3Aa20 expression in lyophilized tissue of Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera diluted 25-fold in an artificial diet caused complete larval mortality of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. In contrast, lyophilized tissue of Bt11 at the same dilution does not provide complete mortality of these species. Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera also caused a high level of mortality against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Moreover, 100% mortality was observed for S. frugiperda larvae (neonates through fifth-instar larvae) when fed in corn with the Vip trait technology. Viptera corn achieves a high level of control against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis providing a high dose, which is an important determination to support the refuge strategy for an effective resistance management program. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested. PMID:25275646

  17. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma using 177lutetium-labeled somatostatin analogs in combination with radiosensitizing chemotherapy. A potential novel treatment based on molecular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati, A.; Prasad, V.; Baum, R.P.; Schneider, C.P.; Herbst, R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the safety and feasibility of synchronous use of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT), as source of internal radiation therapy, in combination with chemotherapy. In this study we reported a 53-year-old man with stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), who underwent synchronous internal radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Based on presumable poor prognosis with chemotherapy only, functional similarities of MCC with other neuroendocrine tumors and available evidence of effectiveness and safety of synchronous use of external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy in treatment of high-risk MCC patients, our interdisciplinary neuroendocrine tumor board recommended him to add PRRNT to his ongoing chemotherapy. He received 2 courses of 177 Lu-DOTATATE(1, 4, 7, 10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-1-D-Phe1-Tyr3-Thr8-octreotide) in combination with ongoing 8 cycles of liposomal doxorubicin based on standard protocols. Response to therapy was evaluated by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) and 68 gallium-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT. There was an impressive improvement of the clinical symptoms. However, follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)/CT studies showed mixed pattern of response. Synchronous use of PRRNT and radiosensitizing chemotherapy seems safe and feasible in high risk MCC patients, however, further prospective studies and clinical trials are warranted to provide reliable evidence of possible pitfalls and effectiveness of PRRNT and 68 Ga-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT in the management of MCC. (author)

  18. The Use of an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Peptide to Control Inflammation in the Treatment of Corneal Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD may be treated using ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs derived from cadaveric donor tissue. However, continuing challenges exist around tissue availability, inflammation, and transplant rejection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS or recombinant human IL-1β stimulated primary human keratocyte and LESC models were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of a short chain, IL-1 receptor antagonist peptide for use in LESC sheet growth to control inflammation. The peptide was characterized using mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Peptide cytotoxicity, patterns of cell cytokine expression in response to LPS or IL-1β stimulation, and peptide suppression of this response were investigated by MTS/LDH assays, ELISA, and q-PCR. Cell differences in LPS stimulated toll-like receptor 4 expression were investigated using immunocytochemistry. A significant reduction in rIL-1β stimulated inflammatory cytokine production occurred following LESC and keratocyte incubation with anti-inflammatory peptide and in LPS stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production following keratocyte incubation with peptide (1 mg/mL P<0.05. LESCs produced no cytokine response to LPS stimulation and showed no TLR4 expression. The peptide supported LESC growth when adhered to a silicone hydrogel contact lens indicating potential use in improved LESC grafting through suppression of inflammation.

  19. Utilization and acceptance of virtual patients in veterinary basic sciences - the vetVIP-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorgen, Christin; Kankofer, Marta; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Mandoki, Mira; Bartha, Tibor; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y; Beyerbach, Martin; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2017-01-01

    Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project "vetVIP", to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin. Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire. Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70%) using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations. Conclusion: Veterinary

  20. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakata, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, Tomoaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second (Cardiology) Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  2. Changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with chronic heart failure: an intervention study of long-term treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.Q. [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China); Hong, H.S. [Department of Geriatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Lin, X.H. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Chen, L.L. [Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Y.H. [Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2014-07-11

    The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis.

  3. Increasing proportions of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive interneurons colocalize with choline acetyltransferase or vasoactive intestinal peptide in the developing rat cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Stephen E.; Cocanougher, Benjamin T.; Allen, Donald L.; Boone, John B.; Brooks, Elizabeth A.; Hawkins, Sarah M.; Hench, Laura A.; Ijaz, Talha; Mayfield, Meredith N.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical interneurons are critical for information processing, and their dysfunction has been implicated in neurological disorders. One subset of this diverse cell population expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) during postnatal rat development. Cortical TH-immunoreactive neurons appear at postnatal day (P) 16. The number of TH cells sharply increases between P16 and P20 and subsequently decreases to adult values. The absence of apoptotic markers in these cells suggests that the reduction in cell number is not due to cell death but is due to a decline in TH production. Cortical TH cells lack all additional catecholaminergic enzymes, and many coexpress GABA and calretinin, but little else is known about their phenotype or function. Because interneurons containing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) share characteristics with cortical TH neurons, the coexpression of TH with ChAT or VIP was examined throughout the neocortex at P16, P20, and P30. The proportions of TH cell profiles double-labeled for ChAT or VIP significantly increased between P16 and P30. Based on their proximity to blood vessels, intrinsic cholinergic and VIPergic cells have been hypothesized to regulate cortical microcirculation. Labeling with the gliovascular marker aquaporin-4 revealed that at least half of the TH cells were apposed to microvessels at these ages, and many of these cells contained ChAT or VIP. Cortical TH neurons did not coproduce nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that increasing proportions of cortical TH neurons express ChAT or VIP developmentally and that a subset of these TH neurons may regulate local blood flow. PMID:21295554

  4. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  5. Differentiation of PC12 Cells Results in Enhanced VIP Expression and Prolonged Rhythmic Expression of Clock Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretzmann, C.P.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Georg, B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine for circadian rhythmicity, the messenger RNA (mRNA) amount of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 was measured in undifferentiated and nerve-growth-factor-differentiated PC12 cells harvested every fourth hour. Serum shock was needed to induce circadian oscillations, which in undifferentiated...... PC12 cultures lasted only one 24-h period, while in differentiated cultures, the rhythms continued for at least 3 days. Thus, neuronal differentiation provided PC12 cells the ability to maintain rhythmicity for an extended period. Both vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor VPAC(2...

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP participates in adipogenesis by activating ERK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Arsenijevic

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes: PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these receptors by cAMP accumulation upon induction by PACAP. Together with insulin and dexamethasone, PACAP induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line. PACAP increased cAMP production within 15 min upon stimulation and targeted the expression and phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, strengthened by the ERK1/2 phosphorylation being partially or completely abolished by different combinations of PACAP receptors antagonists. We therefore speculate that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for the activation of CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation Mice with Lactobacillus fermentum Suo on Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research mice. ICR mice were orally administered with lactic acid bacteria for 9 days. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, defecation status, gastrointestinal transit and defecation time, and the serum levels of MTL (motilin, Gas (gastrin, ET (endothelin, SS (somatostatin, AChE (acetylcholinesterase, SP (substance P, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide were used to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Suo on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The normal, control, 100 mg/kg bisacodyl treatment, LB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus-, LF-Suo (L- and LF-Suo (H-treated mice showed the time to the first black stool defecation at 90, 218, 117, 180, 155 and 137 min, respectively. By the oral administration of LB-, LF-Suo (L, LF-Suo (H or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg, the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 55.2%, 72.3%, 85.5% and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. In contrast to the control mice, the serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Suo (p < 0.05. By the RT-PCR (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays, LF-Suo increased the c-Kit, SCF (stem cell factor, GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and decreased TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, NOS (nitric oxide synthase expressions of small intestine tissue in mice. These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria has preventive effects on mouse constipation and LF-Suo demonstrated the best functional activity.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists compared with basal insulins for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal; Wright, Eugene E; Kwan, Anita Y M; Thompson, Juliette C; Syed, Iqra A; Korol, Ellen E; Waser, Nathalie A; Yu, Maria B; Juneja, Rattan

    2017-02-01

    Since 2005, several glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been approved to treat people with type 2 diabetes. These agents are considered for use at the same point in the treatment paradigm as basal insulins. A comprehensive comparison of these drug classes, therefore, can help inform treatment decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of GLP-1 RAs compared with basal insulins. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PubMed databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ≥16 weeks' duration comparing GLP-1 RAs vs basal insulins in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antihyperglycemic drugs were included. Data on the change from baseline to 26 weeks (±10 weeks) of treatment in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and weight, as well as the proportion of patients experiencing hypoglycaemia, were extracted. Fixed-effect pairwise meta-analyses were conducted where data were available from ≥2 studies. Fifteen RCTs were identified and 11 were meta-analysed. The once-weekly GLP-1 RAs, exenatide long acting release (LAR) and dulaglutide, led to greater, statistically significant mean HbA1c reductions vs basal insulins (exenatide: -0.31% [95% confidence interval -0.42, -0.19], dulaglutide: -0.39% [-0.49, -0.29]) whilst once-daily liraglutide and twice-daily exenatide did not (liraglutide: 0.06% [-0.06, 0.18], exenatide: 0.01% [-0.11, 0.13]). Mean weight reduction was seen with all GLP-1 RAs while mean weight gain was seen with basal insulins. Interpretation of the analysis of hypoglycaemia was limited by inconsistent definitions and reporting. Because of the limited number of available studies sensitivity analyses to explore heterogeneity could not be conducted. Although weight reduction is seen with all GLP-1 RA's, only the once-weekly agents, exenatide LAR and dulaglutide, demonstrate significant HbA1c reductions when compared to basal insulins. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes

  9. The New Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H Rice Poses No Unexpected Ecological Risks to Arthropod Communities in Rice Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbin; Dang, Cong; Han, Naishun; Shen, Zhicheng; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-04-01

    The ecological risks to nontarget organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across 3 yr. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. The abundance and proportion of each guild as well as community-level parameters were determined in Cry1Ab/Vip3H and control rice fields. Changes in arthropod species assemblage over sampling dates were investigated by principal response curves (PRCs). Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice did not exert significant impacts on the seasonal density and proportion of each guild, except parasitoids. Detritivore seasonal density, but not its relative abundance, was significantly affected by Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice. Four community indices (species richness S, Shannon-Wiener index H', Simpson index D, and evenness index J') were similar between rice types. PRCs revealed a slight community difference between rice types in the past two tested years, with rice types accounting for 1.0-3.5% of the variance among arthropod communities. However, sampling dates explain 32.1-67.6% for these community differences. Of the 46 taxa with higher species weights, 26.1% of the taxa were significantly different, including seven taxa with higher abundance and five with lower density in Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice fields. These differences may be attributed to change in abundance of prey or hosts but not to direct effects of Bt proteins. We infer that this new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line poses no unintended ecological risks to the arthropod community. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  11. Vasodilatory effect of the stable vasoactive intestinal peptide analog RO 25-1553 in murine and rat lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    Full Text Available Stable analogs of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have been proposed as novel line of therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on their bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We speculated that VIP analogs may provide additional benefits in that they exert vasodilatory properties in the lung, and tested this hypothesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models.In isolated perfused mouse lungs and in an in vivo rat model, pulmonary blood vessels were preconstricted by hypoxia and hemodynamic changes in response to systemic (ex vivo or inhaled (in vivo administration of the cyclic VIP analog RO 25-1553 were determined.In mouse lungs, RO 25-1553 reduced intrinsic vascular resistance at normoxia, and attenuated the increase in pulmonary artery pressure in response to acute hypoxia. Consistently, inhalation of RO 25-1553 (1 mg · mL(-1 for 3 min caused an extensive and sustained (> 60 min inhibition of the pulmonary arterial pressure increase in response to hypoxia in vivo that was comparable to the effects of inhaled sildenafil. This effect was not attributable to systemic cardiovascular effects of RO 25-1553, but to a lung specific reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance, while cardiac output and systemic arterial hemodynamics remained unaffected. No adverse effects of RO 25-1553 inhalation on pulmonary gas exchange, ventilation-perfusion matching, or lung fluid content were detected.Our findings demonstrate that inhaled delivery of the stable VIP analog RO 25-1553 induces a potent and sustained vasodilatory effect in the pulmonary circulation with no detectable adverse effects. Therapeutic inhalation of RO 25-1553 may provide vascular benefits in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects in COPD, yet caution is warranted given the overall poor results of vasodilator therapies for pulmonary hypertension secondary to COPD in a series of recent clinical trials.

  12. Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, finding novel approaches for the treatment of infections has emerged as a key health issue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted interest in this context, and there is by now a considerable literature...... on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems...... are likely to play a key role in the development of potent and safe AMP-based therapeutics, e.g., through reducing chemical or biological degradation of AMPs either in the formulation or after administration, by reducing adverse side-effects, by controlling AMP release rate, by promoting biofilm penetration...

  13. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  14. Constructing bioactive peptides with pH-dependent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhigang; Volk, Melanie; Shah, Khushali; Clerkin, Kevin; Liang, Jun F

    2009-08-01

    Many bioactive peptides are featured by their arginine and lysine rich contents. In this study, lysine and arginine residues in lytic peptides were selectively replaced by histidines. Although resulting histidine-containing lytic peptides had decreased activity, they did show pH-dependent cytotoxicity. The activity of the constructed histidine-containing lytic peptides increased 2-8 times as the solution pH changed from 7.4 to 5.5. More importantly, these histidine-containing peptides maintain the same cell killing mechanism as their parent peptides by causing cell lysis. Both the activity and pH-sensitivity of histidine-containing peptides are tunable by adjusting histidine substitution numbers and positions. This study has presented a general strategy to create bioactive peptides with desired pH-sensitivity to meet the needs of various applications such as cancer treatments.

  15. Tumor-targeting peptides from combinatorial libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiwu; Li, Xiaocen; Xiao, Wenwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major and leading causes of death worldwide. Two of the greatest challenges infighting cancer are early detection and effective treatments with no or minimum side effects. Widespread use of targeted therapies and molecular imaging in clinics requires high affinity, tumor-specific agents as effective targeting vehicles to deliver therapeutics and imaging probes to the primary or metastatic tumor sites. Combinatorial libraries such as phage-display and one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries are powerful approaches in discovering tumor-targeting peptides. This review gives an overview of different combinatorial library technologies that have been used for the discovery of tumor-targeting peptides. Examples of tumor-targeting peptides identified from each combinatorial library method will be discussed. Published tumor-targeting peptide ligands and their applications will also be summarized by the combinatorial library methods and their corresponding binding receptors. PMID:27210583

  16. Development of novel ligands for peptide GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Brian M; McKillop, Aine M; O'Harte, Finbarr Pm

    2016-12-01

    Incretin based glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists which target a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) are currently used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on GPCRs from pancreatic β-cells, including GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin (OXM) and ghrelin receptors. In addition, fatty acids GPCRs are thought to have an increasing role in regulating peptide secretions namely short fatty acids GPCR (GPR41, GPR43), medium chain fatty acid GPCR (GPR84), long chain fatty acid GPCR (GPR40, GPR120) and cannabinoid-like GPCR (GPR55, GPR119). Several pre-clinical and clinical trials are currently ongoing in peptide GPCR based therapies, including dual and triple agonist peptides which activate two or more GPCRs simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracellular Signalling by C-Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available C-peptide, a cleavage product of the proinsulin molecule, has long been regarded as biologically inert, serving merely as a surrogate marker for insulin release. Recent findings demonstrate both a physiological and protective role of C-peptide when administered to individuals with type I diabetes. Data indicate that C-peptide appears to bind in nanomolar concentrations to a cell surface receptor which is most likely to be G-protein coupled. Binding of C-peptide initiates multiple cellular effects, evoking a rise in intracellular calcium, increased PI-3-kinase activity, stimulation of the Na+/K+ ATPase, increased eNOS transcription, and activation of the MAPK signalling pathway. These cell signalling effects have been studied in multiple cell types from multiple tissues. Overall these observations raise the possibility that C-peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes: a review of clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Krarup, Thure; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2008-01-01

    -acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists liraglutide and exenatide long-acting release reduce haemoglobin A1c by about 1.0-2.0% and have fewer gastrointestinal side-effects. The orally available dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, that is sitagliptin and vildagliptin reduce haemoglobin A1c by 0...

  19. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  20. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  6. PACAP-38 but not VIP induces release of CGRP from trigeminal nucleus caudalis via a receptor distinct from the PAC1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Baun, Michael; Amrutkar, Dipak V

    2014-01-01

    nucleus caudalis (TNC) was quantified by EIA. Regulation of NOS-enzymes caused by VIP and PACAP was investigated in dura mater, TG and TNC by measuring the conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline. Co-expression of PACAP, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and CGRP was explored...

  7. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  8. Novel PCA-VIP scheme for ranking MRI protocols and identifying computer-extracted MRI measurements associated with central gland and peripheral zone prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Viswanath, Satish E; Bloch, B Nicolas; Rofsky, Neil M; Genega, Elizabeth M; Lenkinski, Robert E; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-05-01

    To identify computer-extracted features for central gland and peripheral zone prostate cancer localization on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Preoperative T2-weighted (T2w), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI were acquired from 23 men with confirmed prostate cancer. Following radical prostatectomy, the cancer extent was delineated by a pathologist on ex vivo histology and mapped to MRI by nonlinear registration of histology and corresponding MRI slices. In all, 244 computer-extracted features were extracted from MRI, and principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reduce the data dimensionality so that a generalizable classifier could be constructed. A novel variable importance on projection (VIP) measure for PCA (PCA-VIP) was leveraged to identify computer-extracted MRI features that discriminate between cancer and normal prostate, and these features were used to construct classifiers for cancer localization. Classifiers using features selected by PCA-VIP yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 and 0.85 for peripheral zone and central gland tumors, respectively. For tumor localization in the central gland, T2w, DCE, and DWI MRI features contributed 71.6%, 18.1%, and 10.2%, respectively; for peripheral zone tumors T2w, DCE, and DWI MRI contributed 29.6%, 21.7%, and 48.7%, respectively. PCA-VIP identified relatively stable subsets of MRI features that performed well in localizing prostate cancer on MRI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differential roles of AVP and VIP signaling in the postnatal changes of neural networks for coherent circadian rhythms in the SCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the site of the master circadian clock in mammals. The SCN neural network plays a critical role in expressing the tissue-level circadian rhythm. Previously, we demonstrated postnatal changes in the SCN network in mice, in which the clock gene products CRYPTOCHROMES (CRYs) are involved. Here, we show that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling is essential for the tissue-level circadian PER2::LUC rhythm in the neonatal SCN of CRY double-deficient mice (Cry1,2−/−). VIP and arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling showed redundancy in expressing the tissue-level circadian rhythm in the SCN. AVP synthesis was significantly attenuated in the Cry1,2−/− SCN, which contributes to aperiodicity in the adult mice together with an attenuation of VIP signaling as a natural process of ontogeny. The SCN network consists of multiple clusters of cellular circadian rhythms that are differentially integrated by AVP and VIP signaling, depending on the postnatal period. PMID:27626074

  10. 40 CFR 174.501 - Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.501 Section 174.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  11. Surfactant treatment before first breath for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm lambs: comparison of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant with porcine-derived surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zyl JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Johann M van Zyl,1 Johan Smith2 1Division of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa Background: In a recent study utilizing a saline-lavaged adult rabbit model, we described a significant improvement in systemic oxygenation and pulmonary shunt after the instillation of a novel synthetic peptide-containing surfactant, Synsurf. Respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm lamb more closely resembles that of the human infant, as their blood gas, pH values, and lung mechanics deteriorate dramatically from birth despite ventilator support. Moreover, premature lambs have lungs which are mechanically unstable, with the advantage of being able to measure multiple variables over extended periods. Our objective in this study was to investigate if Synsurf leads to improved systemic oxygenation, lung mechanics, and histology in comparison to the commercially available porcine-derived lung surfactant Curosurf® when administered before first breath in a preterm lamb model. Materials and methods: A Cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia on 18 time-dated pregnant Dohne Merino ewes at 129–130 days gestation. The premature lambs were delivered and ventilated with an expiratory tidal volume of 6–8 mL/kg for the first 30 minutes and thereafter at 8–10 mL/kg. In a randomized controlled trial, the two surfactants tested were Synsurf and Curosurf®, both at a dose of 100 mg/kg phospholipids (1,2-dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine; 90% in Synsurf, 40% in Curosurf®. A control group of animals was treated with normal saline. Measurements of physiological variables, blood gases, and lung mechanics were made before and after surfactant and saline replacement and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180

  12. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD......) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity...... within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared...

  13. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex

    2003-01-01

    of VIP, NO donor, VIP antiserum, or NOS inhibitor. A marked loss of neurons was noted during culturing. VIP and NO significantly promoted neuronal survival. Corroborating this was the finding of an enhanced neuronal cell loss when cultures were grown in the presence of VIP antiserum or NOS inhibitor....... adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  15. Distinct Signaling Cascades Elicited by Different Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2 is a remarkably versatile transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family. FPR2 is activated by an array of ligands, which include structurally unrelated lipids and peptide/proteins agonists, resulting in different intracellular responses in a ligand-specific fashion. In addition to the anti-inflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, several other endogenous agonists also bind FPR2, including serum amyloid A, glucocorticoid-induced annexin 1, urokinase and its receptor, suggesting that the activation of FPR2 may result in potent pro- or anti-inflammatory responses. Other endogenous ligands, also present in biological samples, include resolvins, amyloidogenic proteins, such as beta amyloid (Aβ-42 and prion protein (Prp106–126, the neuroprotective peptide, humanin, antibacterial peptides, annexin 1-derived peptides, chemokine variants, the neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27, and mitochondrial peptides. Upon activation, intracellular domains of FPR2 mediate signaling to G-proteins, which trigger several agonist-dependent signal transduction pathways, including activation of phospholipase C (PLC, protein kinase C (PKC isoforms, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, p38MAPK, as well as the phosphorylation of cytosolic tyrosine kinases, tyrosine kinase receptor transactivation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of regulatory transcriptional factors, release of calcium and production of oxidants. FPR2 is an attractive therapeutic target, because of its involvement in a range of normal physiological processes and pathological diseases. Here, we review and discuss the most significant findings on the intracellular pathways and on the cross-communication between FPR2 and tyrosine kinase receptors triggered by different FPR2

  16. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  18. Left ventricular function at two-year follow-up in treatment-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients is associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Masic, D.; Laurbjerg, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the role of autoimmunity, especially anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) level, and the time-course of left ventricular (LV) function is unknown. The objective was to assess LV function and the amount of coronary calcium in relation...... assessed LV function by conventional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography. We estimated the amount and progression of coronary calcium by coronary computed tomography. Patients were examined at the time of diagnosis and after 2 years. Results: Patients with elevated anti-CCP at baseline...

  19. Peptides as Therapeutic Agents for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Miaw-Fang; Poh, Keat-Seong; Poh, Chit-Laa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is an important global threat caused by dengue virus (DENV) that records an estimated 390 million infections annually. Despite the availability of CYD-TDV as a commercial vaccine, its long-term efficacy against all four dengue virus serotypes remains unsatisfactory. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of antiviral drugs for the treatment of dengue. Peptide was once a neglected choice of medical treatment but it has lately regained interest from the pharmaceutical industry following pioneering advancements in technology. In this review, the design of peptide drugs, antiviral activities and mechanisms of peptides and peptidomimetics (modified peptides) action against dengue virus are discussed. The development of peptides as inhibitors for viral entry, replication and translation is also described, with a focus on the three main targets, namely, the host cell receptors, viral structural proteins and viral non-structural proteins. The antiviral peptides designed based on these approaches may lead to the discovery of novel anti-DENV therapeutics that can treat dengue patients.

  20. Preoperative weight loss with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment predicts greater weight loss achieved by the combination of medical weight management and bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tien; Abbott, Sally; le Roux, Carel W; Wilson, Violet; Singhal, Rishi; Bellary, Srikanth; Tahrani, Abd A

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between weight changes after preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) until 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 45 patients (64.4% women, median [interquartile range] age 49 [45-60] years) were included. The median (interquartile range) weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1RA treatment during MWM resulted in 5.0% (1.9%-7.7%) weight loss. Weight loss during GLP-1RA treatment predicted weight loss from the start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery, but not postoperative weight loss after adjustment. The proportion of weight loss from start of MWM to 12 months post-surgery attributed to GLP-1RA treatment was negatively associated with that attributed to surgery, after adjustment. In conclusion, weight change after GLP-1RA treatment predicted the weight loss achieved by a combination of MWM and bariatric surgery, but not weight loss induced by surgery only. Failure to lose weight after GLP-1RA treatment should not be considered a barrier to undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  2. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of apoptosis using histone H1-targeting peptide probe after anti-cancer treatment with cisplatin and cetuximab for early decision on tumor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyung Jung

    Full Text Available Early decision on tumor response after anti-cancer treatment is still an unmet medical need. Here we investigated whether in vivo imaging of apoptosis using linear and cyclic (disulfide-bonded form of ApoPep-1, a peptide that recognizes histone H1 exposed on apoptotic cells, at an early stage after treatment could predict tumor response to the treatment later. Treatment of stomach tumor cells with cistplatin or cetuximab alone induced apoptosis, while combination of cisplatin plus cetuximab more efficiently induced apoptosis, as detected by binding with linear and cyclic form of ApoPep-1. However, the differences between the single agent and combination treatment were more remarkable as detected with the cyclic form compared to the linear form. In tumor-bearing mice, apoptosis imaging was performed 1 week and 2 weeks after the initiation of treatment, while tumor volumes and weights were measured 3 weeks after the treatment. In vivo fluorescence imaging signals obtained by the uptake of ApoPep-1 to tumor was most remarkable in the group injected with cyclic form of ApoPep-1 at 1 week after combined treatment with cisplatin plus cetuximab. Correlation analysis revealed that imaging signals by cyclic ApoPep-1 at 1 week after treatment with cisplatin plus cetuximab in combination were most closely related with tumor volume changes (r2 = 0.934. These results demonstrate that in vivo apoptosis imaging using Apopep-1, especially cyclic ApoPep-1, is a sensitive and predictive tool for early decision on stomach tumor response after anti-cancer treatment.

  3. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory C. F. De Brito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  4. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  6. Detecting authorized and unauthorized genetically modified organisms containing vip3A by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Staats, Martijn; Prins, Theo W; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; da Silva, Andrea M; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave; den Dunnen, Johan T; Kok, Esther J

    2014-04-01

    The growing number of biotech crops with novel genetic elements increasingly complicates the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples using conventional screening methods. Unauthorized GMOs (UGMOs) in food and feed are currently identified through combining GMO element screening with sequencing the DNA flanking these elements. In this study, a specific and sensitive qPCR assay was developed for vip3A element detection based on the vip3Aa20 coding sequences of the recently marketed MIR162 maize and COT102 cotton. Furthermore, SiteFinding-PCR in combination with Sanger, Illumina or Pacific BioSciences (PacBio) sequencing was performed targeting the flanking DNA of the vip3Aa20 element in MIR162. De novo assembly and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches were used to mimic UGMO identification. PacBio data resulted in relatively long contigs in the upstream (1,326 nucleotides (nt); 95 % identity) and downstream (1,135 nt; 92 % identity) regions, whereas Illumina data resulted in two smaller contigs of 858 and 1,038 nt with higher sequence identity (>99 % identity). Both approaches outperformed Sanger sequencing, underlining the potential for next-generation sequencing in UGMO identification.

  7. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the nipple of the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of nerve fibres immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in nipples and mammary glands from lactating and non-lactating rats and compared to the immunoreactivity of other neuropeptides including substance P (SP), neuropepti...... in the nipples of the pregnant (day 10) rats exceeded almost ninefold the maximum concentration of SP (7.7 +/- 2.0 pmol/g).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)....... The location of SP-IR appeared to be comparable to CGRP-IR, but in fewer fibres. Dense NPY-IR networks of nerve fibres were closely associated with the fascicles of smooth musculature in the core of the nipple base. In contrast, VIP-IR fibres were only sparsely present, and SOM-IR was not detected...

  8. Anti-dengue virus serotype 2 activity and mode of action of a novel peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, M-F; Tham, H-W; Rajik, M; Sharifah, S H

    2015-10-01

    To identify a novel antiviral peptide against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) by screening a phage display peptide library and to evaluate its in vitro antiviral activity and mode of action. A phage display peptide library was biopanned against purified DENV-2 and resulted in the identification and selection of a peptide (peptide gg-ww) for further investigation. ELISA was performed, and peptide gg-ww was shown to possess the highest binding affinity against DENV-2. Thus, peptide gg-ww was synthesized for cytotoxicity and antiviral assays. Virus plaque reduction assay, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide gg-ww on DENV-2 infection in Vero cells. Three different assays (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments assays) were performed to investigate the peptide's mode of action. Results indicated that peptide gg-ww possessed strong antiviral activity with a ~96% inhibition rate, which was achieved at 250 μmol l(-1) . Viral replication was inhibited during a simultaneous treatment assay, indicating that the entry of the virus was impeded by this peptide. Peptide gg-ww displayed antiviral action against DENV-2 by targeting an early stage of viral replication (i.e. during viral entry). Peptide gg-ww may represent a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of DENV infections and is a potential candidate to be developed as a peptide drug. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  10. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs were recommended as a monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents or basal insulin in the position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association 2017 for pharmacological therapy. Many randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews report that GLP-1RAs have considerable glucose-lowering effect and lead to weight reduction and low risk of hypoglycemia when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy. The cardiovascular safety of GLP-1RAs has been assessed in several randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials of long-acting GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, semaglutide demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The GLP-1RA may be a choice of therapy when weight control and avoidance of hypoglycemia are important, and patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease might also favor choosing GLP-1RA.

  11. Biopharmaceuticals: From peptide to drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Margarete

    2017-08-01

    Biologics are therapeutic proteins or peptides that are produced by means of biological processes within living organisms and cells. They are highly specific molecules and play a crucial role as therapeutics for the treatment of severe and chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, autoimmune disorders). The development of new biologics and biologics-based drugs gains more and more importance in the fight against various diseases. A short overview on biotherapeutical drug development is given. Cone snails are a large group of poisonous, predatory sea snails with more than 700 species. They use a very powerful venom which rapidly inactivates and paralyzes their prey. Most bioactive venom components are small peptides (conotoxins, conopeptides) which are precisely directed towards a specific target (e.g. ion channel, receptors). Due to their small size, their precision and speed of action, naturally occurring cone snail venom peptides represent an attractive source for the identification and design of novel biological drug entities. The Jagna cone snail project is an encouraging initiative to map the ecological variety of cone snails around the island of Bohol (Philippines) and to conserve the biological information for potential future application.

  12. Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on canine cerebral artery strips and the in-vivo vertebral blood flow in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaki, I; Suzuki, Y; Satoh, S; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Sugita, K

    1989-10-01

    The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on canine cerebral arteries and on vertebral blood flow were investigated in-vivo and in-vitro and the findings compared with the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P. Administration of CGRP into the vertebral artery caused a dose-dependent and long-lasting increase in blood flow. The in-vivo vasodilatory effects of substance P and VIP were short-lasting. CGRP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of the isolated middle cerebral and basilar arteries when the tissues were precontracted by exposure to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). This effect was not antagonized by propranolol, atropine, tetrodotoxin, (N-Ac-Tyr1, D-Phe2)-growth hormone-releasing factor(1-29)-NH2 or (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9) substance P. CGRP also reduced concentration-dependently the contraction of cerebral arteries induced by KCl or 9,11-epithio-11,12-metano-thromboxane A2 (STXA2). Mechanical removal of the endothelium did not abolish the vasodilatory response to CGRP. In PGF2 alpha-contracted canine cerebral arteries, VIP (0.1 to 100 nmol/l) was less potent a vasodilator than CGRP. At low concentrations (0.01 to 1 nmol/l) substance P elicited a rapid and short-lasting relaxation, and in the absence of endothelium this relaxation disappeared. These findings are clear evidence that CGRP modulates vascular tone.

  13. Treating autoimmune disorders with venom-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bingzheng; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Wu, Yingliang

    2017-09-01

    The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones. This review highlights the advances in screening and design of these peptides with diverse structures and potencies. It focuses on representative strategies for improving peptide selectivity and discusses the preclinical research on those venom-derived peptides as well as their clinical developmental status. Expert opinion: Encouraging results indicate that peptides isolated from the venom of venomous animals are a large resource for discovering immunomodulators that act on Kv1.3 channels. Since the structural diversity of venom-derived peptides determines the variety of their pharmacological activities, the design and optimization of venom-peptides for improved Kv1.3 channel-specificity has been advanced through some representative strategies, such as peptide chemical modification, amino acid residue truncation and binding interface modulation. These advances should further accelerate research, development and the future clinical application of venom-derived peptides selectively targeting Kv1.3 channels.

  14. Soluble elastin peptides in cardiovascular homeostasis: Foe or ally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Elastin peptides, also known as elastin-derived peptides or elastokines, are soluble polypeptides in blood and tissue. The blood levels of elastin peptides are usually low but can increase during cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm and diabetes with vascular complications. Generally, elastin peptides are derived from the degradation of insoluble elastic polymers. The biological activities of elastin peptides are bidirectional, e.g., a pro-inflammatory effect on monocyte migration induction vs. a protective effect on vasodilation promotion. However, recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that elastin peptides promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in hypercholesterolemic mice and induce hyperglycemia and elevations in plasma lipid levels in fasted mice. More important, the detrimental effects induced by elastin peptides can be largely inhibited by genetic or pharmacological blockade of the elastin receptor complex or by neutralization of an antibody against elastin peptides. These studies indicate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by targeting elastin peptide metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to summarize current knowledge about elastin peptides relevant to cardiovascular pathologies to further delineate their potential application in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The VPAC2 agonist peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) up-regulates glutamate transport in the corpus callosum of a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (hSOD1G93A) by inhibiting caspase-3 mediated inactivation of GLT-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Focant, Marylène C; Berger, Julie V; Nizet, Yannick; Maloteaux, Jean-Marie; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2011-10-01

    Degeneration of corpus callosum appears in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before clinical signs of upper motor neuron death. Considering the ALS-associated impairment of astrocytic glutamate uptake, we have characterized the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter isoforms GLT-1a and GLT-1b in the corpus callosum of transgenic rats expressing a mutated form of the human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1(G93A)). We have also studied the effect of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 2 (VPAC(2)) agonist on glutamate transporters both in vivo and in callosal astrocytes. Before the onset of motor symptoms, the expression of both transporter isoforms was correlated with a constitutive activity of caspase-3. This enzyme participates in the down-regulation of GLT-1 in ALS, and here we demonstrated its involvement in the selective degradation of GLT-1a in the white matter. A single stereotactic injection of PHI into the corpus callosum of symptomatic rats decreased caspase-3 activity and promoted GLT-1a expression and uptake activity. Together, with evidence for a reduced expression of prepro-VIP/PHI mRNA in the corpus callosum of transgenic animals, these data shed light on the modulatory role of the VIP/PHI system on the glutamatergic transmission in ALS.

  16. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...

  17. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H Hansen

    Full Text Available One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP and presenilin-1 (PS1 are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c., or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.. In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD.

  18. PNA Peptide chimerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Næsby, M.; Wittung, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of PNA has been performed try linking a peptide segment to the PNA which is substrate for protein kinase A. The enzymatic phosphorylation proceeds in almost quantitative yields....

  19. Proinsulin C-peptide interferes with insulin fibril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landreh, Michael; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Willander, Hanna; Söder, Olle; Johansson, Jan; Jörnvall, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Insulin and C-peptide can interact under insulin fibril forming conditions. ► C-peptide is incorporated into insulin aggregates and alters aggregation lag time. ► C-peptide changes insulin fibril morphology and affects backbone accessibility. ► C-peptide may be a regulator of fibril formation by β-cell granule proteins. -- Abstract: Insulin aggregation can prevent rapid insulin uptake and cause localized amyloidosis in the treatment of type-1 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of C-peptide, the 31-residue peptide cleaved from proinsulin, on insulin fibrillation at optimal conditions for fibrillation. This is at low pH and high concentration, when the fibrils formed are regular and extended. We report that C-peptide then modulates the insulin aggregation lag time and profoundly changes the fibril appearance, to rounded clumps of short fibrils, which, however, still are Thioflavine T-positive. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry also indicates that C-peptide interacts with aggregating insulin and is incorporated into the aggregates. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry further reveals reduced backbone accessibility in insulin aggregates formed in the presence of C-peptide. Combined, these effects are similar to those of C-peptide on islet amyloid polypeptide fibrillation and suggest that C-peptide has a general ability to interact with amyloidogenic proteins from pancreatic β-cell granules. Considering the concentrations, these peptide interactions should be relevant also during physiological secretion, and even so at special sites post-secretory or under insulin treatment conditions in vivo.

  20. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Mori, Seiji; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kohzo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2017-09-23

    SVVYGLR peptide (SV peptide) is a 7-amino-acid sequence with angiogenic properties that is derived from osteopontin in the extracellular matrix and promotes differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblast-like cells and the production of collagen type Ⅲ by cardiac fibroblasts. However, the effects of SV peptide on dermal cells and tissue are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of this peptide in a rat model of dermal wound healing. The synthetic SV peptide was added to dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes, and their cellular motility was evaluated. In an in vivo wound healing exeriment, male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the SV peptide treatment, non-treated control, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) groups. Wound healing was assessed by its repair rate and histological features. Scratch assay and cell migration assays using the Chemotaxicell method showed that SV peptide significantly promoted the cell migration in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In contrast the proliferation potency of these cells was not affected by SV peptide. In the rat model, wound healing progressed faster in the SV peptide-treated group than in the control and PBS groups. The histopathological analyses showed that the SV peptide treatment stimulated the migration of fibroblasts to the wound area and increased the number of myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of von Willebland factor-positive neomicrovessels in the SV peptide-treated group. In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proinsulin C-peptide interferes with insulin fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreh, Michael [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Willander, Hanna [KI-Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, NVS Department, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Soeder, Olle [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Jan [KI-Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, NVS Department, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Joernvall, Hans, E-mail: Hans.Jornvall@ki.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin and C-peptide can interact under insulin fibril forming conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide is incorporated into insulin aggregates and alters aggregation lag time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide changes insulin fibril morphology and affects backbone accessibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide may be a regulator of fibril formation by {beta}-cell granule proteins. -- Abstract: Insulin aggregation can prevent rapid insulin uptake and cause localized amyloidosis in the treatment of type-1 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of C-peptide, the 31-residue peptide cleaved from proinsulin, on insulin fibrillation at optimal conditions for fibrillation. This is at low pH and high concentration, when the fibrils formed are regular and extended. We report that C-peptide then modulates the insulin aggregation lag time and profoundly changes the fibril appearance, to rounded clumps of short fibrils, which, however, still are Thioflavine T-positive. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry also indicates that C-peptide interacts with aggregating insulin and is incorporated into the aggregates. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry further reveals reduced backbone accessibility in insulin aggregates formed in the presence of C-peptide. Combined, these effects are similar to those of C-peptide on islet amyloid polypeptide fibrillation and suggest that C-peptide has a general ability to interact with amyloidogenic proteins from pancreatic {beta}-cell granules. Considering the concentrations, these peptide interactions should be relevant also during physiological secretion, and even so at special sites post-secretory or under insulin treatment conditions in vivo.

  2. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  3. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Seok O; Ko, Seung Hyun; Rhee, Sang Youl; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, Byung Wan; Kim, Jin Hwa; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-12-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were recommended as a monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents or basal insulin in the position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association 2017 for pharmacological therapy. Many randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews report that GLP-1RAs have considerable glucose-lowering effect and lead to weight reduction and low risk of hypoglycemia when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy. The cardiovascular safety of GLP-1RAs has been assessed in several randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials of long-acting GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, semaglutide) demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The GLP-1RA may be a choice of therapy when weight control and avoidance of hypoglycemia are important, and patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease might also favor choosing GLP-1RA. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  4. Dose-dependent folic acid and memantine treatments promote synergistic or additive protection against Aβ(25-35) peptide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells mediated by mitochondria stress-associated death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Ming-Chi; Chou, Chia-Hui; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Huang, R-F S

    2013-12-01

    Increased dietary folic acid (FA) is associated with reduced risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD drug memantine (Mn) has had limited therapeutic effects for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. This study investigated whether and the underlying mechanisms by which the combination of Mn and FA may have synergistic or additive effects in protecting against amyloid-β(25-35) peptide (Aβ)-induced neurocytotoxicity. Aβ treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells significantly induced a 6-fold increase of apoptotic cells compared with the Aβ-untreated group. Preincubation of Aβ-exposed cells with FA (500 μM) or Mn (20 μM) caused a 22% and 10% reduction of apoptotic cells, respectively, whereas the combo-treatments at such doses synergistically alleviated Aβ-induced apoptosis by 60% (P<0.05). The apoptotic protection by the combo-treatments coincided with attenuating Aβ-elicited mitochondrial (mt) membrane depolarization and abolishing Aβ-induced mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol. Increased levels of FA at 1000 μM in combination with 20 μM Mn exerted an additive protection against Aβ(25-35)-induced-apoptosis as compared to the isolate Mn group (P<0.05). The combo-treatments reversed Aβ-elicited mt membrane depolarization, attenuated Aβ-elicited mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and diminished Aβ-promoted superoxide generation. The apoptotic-protection by such combo-treatments was partially abolished by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (mt membrane potential uncoupler) and sodium azide (mt cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor). Taken together, the data demonstrated that dose-dependent FA and Mn synergistically or additively protected SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis, which was partially, if not completely, mediated by mt stress-associated death signals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. G-Protein-coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kirk P

    2016-09-01

    Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1). Based on both compelling scientific rationale and a promising safety profile, the relaxin ligand-receptor system is comprehensively evaluated as a potential therapeutic endpoint in preeclampsia. The published literature relating to the topic was searched through January 2016 using PubMed. Relaxin is a peptide hormone secreted by the corpus luteum; it circulates in the luteal phase and during pregnancy. Activation of RXFP1 is vasodilatory; thus, relaxin supplementation is expected to at least partly restore the fundamental vasodilatory changes of normal pregnancy, thereby alleviating maternal organ hypoperfusion, which is a major pathogenic manifestation of severe preeclampsia. Specifically, by exploiting its pleiotropic hemodynamic attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin administration is predicted to (i) reverse robust arterial myogenic constriction; (ii) blunt systemic and renal vasoconstriction in response to activation of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1; (iii) mollify the action of endogenous vasoconstrictors on uterine spiral arteries with failed remodeling and retained smooth muscle; (iv) increase arterial compliance; (v) enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal by promoting skeletal muscle vasodilation and (vi) mobilize and activate bone marrow-derived angiogenic progenitor cells, thereby repairing injured endothelium and improving maternal vascularity in organs such as breast, uterus, pancreas, skin and fat. By exploiting its pleiotropic molecular attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin supplementation is

  7. Effective modification of cell death-inducing intracellular peptides by means of a photo-cleavable peptide array-based screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Ikko; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular functional peptides that play a significant role inside cells have been receiving a lot of attention as regulators of cellular activity. Previously, we proposed a novel screening system for intracellular functional peptides; it combined a photo-cleavable peptide array system with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Various peptides can be delivered into cells and intracellular functions of the peptides can be assayed by means of our system. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the proposed screening system can be used for assessing the intracellular activity of peptides. The cell death-inducing peptide (LNLISKLF) identified in a mitochondria-targeting domain (MTD) of the Noxa protein served as an original peptide sequence for screening of peptides with higher activity via modification of the peptide sequence. We obtained 4 peptides with higher activity, in which we substituted serine (S) at the fifth position with phenylalanine (F), valine (V), tryptophan (W), or tyrosine (Y). During analysis of the mechanism of action, the modified peptides induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, which was caused by the treatment with the original peptide. Higher capacity for cell death induction by the modified peptides may be caused by increased hydrophobicity or an increased number of aromatic residues. Thus, the present work suggests that the intracellular activity of peptides can be assessed using the proposed screening system. It could be used for identifying intracellular functional peptides with higher activity through comprehensive screening. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  9. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides.

  10. Developing a Dissociative Nanocontainer for Peptide Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The potency, selectivity, and decreased side effects of bioactive peptides have propelled these agents to the forefront of pharmacological research. Peptides are especially promising for the treatment of neurological disorders and pain. However, delivery of peptide therapeutics often requires invasive techniques, which is a major obstacle to their widespread application. We have developed a tailored peptide drug delivery system in which the viral capsid of P22 bacteriophage is modified to serve as a tunable nanocontainer for the packaging and controlled release of bioactive peptides. Recent efforts have demonstrated that P22 nanocontainers can effectively encapsulate analgesic peptides and translocate them across blood-brain-barrier (BBB models. However, release of encapsulated peptides at their target site remains a challenge. Here a Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP reaction is applied to trigger P22 nanocontainer disassembly under physiological conditions. Specifically, the ROMP substrate norbornene (5-Norbornene-2-carboxylic acid is conjugated to the exterior of a loaded P22 nanocontainer and Grubbs II Catalyst is used to trigger the polymerization reaction leading to nanocontainer disassembly. Our results demonstrate initial attempts to characterize the ROMP-triggered release of cargo peptides from P22 nanocontainers. This work provides proof-of-concept for the construction of a triggerable peptide drug delivery system using viral nanocontainers.

  11. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  12. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of peptide-dendrimer-paclitaxel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2017; 16 (4): 737-742 ... conjugates for treatment of heterogeneous stage 1 non- small cell lung ... Keywords: Paclitaxel, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer, Dendrimer, Peptide, PAMAM.

  14. Anti-inflammatory Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Franzyk, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) neutralization constitute potential non-antibiotic treatment strategies for sepsis - a systemic infection-induced inflammatory response. Studies on LPS- and LTA-neutralizing compounds are abundant in literature, and a number of peptides...

  15. Peptides for radiotherapy of neuroendocrine cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez A, L.

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a resurgence of interest in therapeutic nuclear medicine, due to the limitation of conventional or external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of secondary or metastatic cancer sites outside of the primary treatment area. Some of the human tumours that produce metastases express high levels of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible the diagnostic and radiotherapeutic treatment of these kind of tumours, various somatostatin analogue peptides have been developed in recent years. Peptides have become an important class of radiopharmaceuticals,due to its unique ability to detect specific sites as receptors or enzymes. This paper describes the work with 99m Tc to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue as a precursor, to undertake a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical labelled with 188 Re for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. (Author)

  16. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  18. The status of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody are not associated with the effect of anti-TNFα agent treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Lv

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether the status of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody are associated with the clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: A systemic literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Clinical Trials Register databases, and Hayden's criteria of quality assessment for prognostic studies were used to evaluate all of the studies. The correlation between the RF and anti-CCP antibody status with the treatment effect of anti-TNFα agents was analyzed separately using the Mantel Haenszel method. A fixed-effects model was used when there was no significant heterogeneity; otherwise, a random-effects model was applied. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's linear regression and a funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 5561 RA patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The overall analysis showed that the pooled relative risk for the predictive effects of the RF and anti-CCP antibody status on patient response to anti-TNFα agents was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91-1.05, p=0.54 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.03, p=0.11, respectively, with I(2 values of 43% (p=0.05 and 67% (p<0.01, respectively. Subgroup analyses of different anti-TNFα treatments (infliximab vs. etanercept vs. adalimumab vs. golimumab, response criteria (DAS28 vs. ACR20 vs. EULAR response, follow-up period (≥ 6 vs. <6 months, and ethnic group did not reveal a significant association for the status of RF and anti-CCP. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the RF nor anti-CCP antibody status in RA patients is associated with a clinical response to anti-TNFα treatment.

  19. Screening and Identification of Peptides Specifically Targeted to Gastric Cancer Cells from a Phage Display Peptide Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Deniz; Taflan, Sevket Onur; Yartas, Gizem; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T

    2018-04-25

    Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among the malign cancer types. Inefficiency of traditional techniques both in diagnosis and therapy of the disease makes the development of alternative and novel techniques indispensable. As an alternative to traditional methods, tumor specific targeting small peptides can be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment and reduce the side effects related to traditional techniques. The aim of this study is screening and identification of individual peptides specifically targeted to human gastric cancer cells using a phage-displayed peptide library and designing specific peptide sequences by using experimentally-eluted peptide sequences. Methods: Here, MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells and HFE-145 human normal gastric epithelial cells were used as the target and control cells, respectively. 5 rounds of biopannning with a phage display 12-peptide library were applied following subtraction biopanning with HFE-145 control cells. The selected phage clones were established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence detection. We first obtain random phage clones after five biopanning rounds, determine the binding levels of each individual clone. Then, we analyze the frequencies of each amino acid in best binding clones to determine positively overexpressed amino acids for designing novel peptide sequences. Results: DE532 (VETSQYFRGTLS) phage clone was screened positive, showing specific binding on MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. DE-Obs (HNDLFPSWYHNY) peptide, which was designed by using amino acid frequencies of experimentally selected peptides in the 5th round of biopanning, showed specific binding in MKN-45 cells. Conclusion: Selection and characterization of individual clones may give us specifically binding peptides, but more importantly, data extracted from eluted phage clones may be used to design theoretical peptides with better binding properties than even experimentally selected ones

  20. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  1. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    of these are currently being used in quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) studies for AMP optimization. Additionally, some key commercial computational tools are discussed, and both successful and less successful studies are referenced, illustrating some of the challenges facing AMP scientists. Through...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  2. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Skoneczna, I; Aass, N

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor-progno...

  3. Peptide inhibition of human cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Cindy A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection in the United States and Europe causing significant morbidity and mortality to both mother and child. HCMV is also an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected patients with AIDS, and solid organ and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Current treatments for HCMV-associated diseases are insufficient due to the emergence of drug-induced resistance and cytotoxicity, necessitating novel approaches to limit HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic peptides targeting glycoprotein B (gB, a major glycoprotein of HCMV that is highly conserved across the Herpesviridae family, that specifically inhibit fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane preventing HCMV entry and infection. Results Using the Wimley-White Interfacial Hydrophobicity Scale (WWIHS, several regions within gB were identified that display a high potential to interact with lipid bilayers of cell membranes and hydrophobic surfaces within proteins. The ability of synthetic peptides analogous to WWIHS-positive sequences of HCMV gB to inhibit viral infectivity was evaluated. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF were infected with the Towne-GFP strain of HCMV (0.5 MOI, preincubated with peptides at a range of concentrations (78 nm to 100 μM, and GFP-positive cells were visualized 48 hours post-infection by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed quantitatively by flow cytometry. Peptides that inhibited HCMV infection demonstrated different inhibitory concentration curves indicating that each peptide possesses distinct biophysical properties. Peptide 174-200 showed 80% inhibition of viral infection at a concentration of 100 μM, and 51% and 62% inhibition at concentrations of 5 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. Peptide 233-263 inhibited infection by 97% and 92% at concentrations of 100

  4. Amyloid-beta induced CA1 pyramidal cell loss in young adult rats is alleviated by systemic treatment with FGL, a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived mimetic peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Corbett

    Full Text Available Increased levels of neurotoxic amyloid-beta in the brain are a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease. FG-Loop (FGL, a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide that corresponds to its second fibronectin type III module, has been shown to provide neuroprotection against a range of cellular insults. In the present study impairments in social recognition memory were seen 24 days after a 5 mg/15 µl amyloid-beta(25-35 injection into the right lateral ventricle of the young adult rat brain. This impairment was prevented if the animal was given a systemic treatment of FGL. Unbiased stereology was used to investigate the ability of FGL to alleviate the deleterious effects on CA1 pyramidal cells of the amyloid-beta(25-35 injection. NeuN, a neuronal marker (for nuclear staining was used to identify pyramidal cells, and immunocytochemistry was also used to identify inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3β and to determine the effects of amyloid-beta(25-35 and FGL on the activation state of GSK3β, since active GSK3β has been shown to cause a range of AD pathologies. The cognitive deficits were not due to hippocampal atrophy as volume estimations of the entire hippocampus and its regions showed no significant loss, but amyloid-beta caused a 40% loss of pyramidal cells in the dorsal CA1 which was alleviated partially by FGL. However, FGL treatment without amyloid-beta was also found to cause a 40% decrease in CA1 pyramidal cells. The action of FGL may be due to inactivation of GSK3β, as an increased proportion of CA1 pyramidal neurons contained inactive GSK3β after FGL treatment. These data suggest that FGL, although potentially disruptive in non-pathological conditions, can be neuroprotective in disease-like conditions.

  5. Bioactive self-assembled peptide nanofibers for corneal stroma regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunalli, G; Soran, Z; Erkal, T S; Dagdas, Y S; Dinc, E; Hondur, A M; Bilgihan, K; Aydin, B; Guler, M O; Tekinay, A B

    2014-03-01

    Defects in the corneal stroma caused by trauma or diseases such as macular corneal dystrophy and keratoconus can be detrimental for vision. Development of therapeutic methods to enhance corneal regeneration is essential for treatment of these defects. This paper describes a bioactive peptide nanofiber scaffold system for corneal tissue regeneration. These nanofibers are formed by self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecules containing laminin and fibronectin inspired sequences. Human corneal keratocyte cells cultured on laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers retained their characteristic morphology, and their proliferation was enhanced compared with cells cultured on fibronectin-mimetic nanofibers. When these nanofibers were used for damaged rabbit corneas, laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers increased keratocyte migration and supported stroma regeneration. These results suggest that laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers provide a promising injectable, synthetic scaffold system for cornea stroma regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Mansour, Sarah C; Hancock, Robert E W

    2017-01-01

    The "golden era" of antibiotic discovery has long passed, but the need for new antibiotics has never been greater due to the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance. This urgency to develop new antibiotics has motivated researchers to find new methods to combat pathogenic microorganisms resulting in a surge of research focused around antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; also termed host defense peptides) and their potential as therapeutics. During the past few decades, more than 2000 AMPs have been identified from a diverse range of organisms (animals, fungi, plants, and bacteria). While these AMPs share a number of common features and a limited number of structural motifs; their sequences, activities, and targets differ considerably. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs can also exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-biofilm, and anticancer activities. These diverse functions have spurred tremendous interest in research aimed at understanding the activity of AMPs, and various protocols have been described to assess different aspects of AMP function including screening and evaluating the activities of natural and synthetic AMPs, measuring interactions with membranes, optimizing peptide function, and scaling up peptide production. Here, we provide a general overview of AMPs and introduce some of the methodologies that have been used to advance AMP research.

  8. Preventive and therapeutic potential of peptides from cereals against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martinez, Margarita; Winkler, Robert; García-Lara, Silverio

    2014-12-05

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of food based on whole-grain cereals and their products is associated with reduced risks of various types of degenerative chronic diseases. Food proteins are considered an important source of nutraceutical peptides and amino acids that can exert biological functions to promote health and prevent disease, including cancer. There have been several reports on peptides with anti-tumour activity in recent years. Plant-derived peptides, such as rapeseed, amaranth and soybean lunasin have received main attention. In this review, we extend this vision to analyse the evidence of current advances in peptides in cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, barley, rye and pseudocereals compared with soybean. We also show evidence of several mechanisms through which bioactive peptide exerts anti-tumour activity. Finally, we report the current status of major strategies for the fractionation, isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides in cereals. In recent reports, it has been shown that peptides are an interesting alternative in the search for new treatments for cancer. One of the most studied sources of these peptides is food proteins; however, a review that includes more recent findings for cereals as a potential source of bioactive peptides in the treatment of cancer, the techniques for their isolation and characterisation and the assays used to prove their bioactivity is not available. This review can be used as a tool in the search for new sources of anti-cancer peptides. The authors have no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interconnecting with VIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Interconnectedness changes lives. It can even save lives. Recently the author got to witness and be part of something in his role as a teacher of primary science that has changed lives: it may even have saved lives. It involved primary science teaching--and the climate. Robert Collins describes how it is all interconnected. The "Toilet…

  10. A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensterle, Mojca; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Pfeifer, Marija; Kocjan, Tomaz; Janez, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    The long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide is linked to progressive and sustained weight loss in obese people with diabetes. However, its efficacy and safety in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not yet been addressed. Thirty-two obese women (aged 27.6±7.2 years, BMI 39.5±6.2 kg/m(2)) with newly diagnosed PCOS were randomized to receive either liraglutide 1.2 mg QD sc (n=17) or metformin 1000 mg BID po (n=15) for 12 weeks; 28 patients completed the study (14 on liraglutide and 14 on metformin). The main outcome was change in body weight. Intention-to-treat analysis showed significant BMI (-0.98 kg/m(2); pweight (-2.52 kg; p2), severe obesity and higher odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome (OR=3.9), the patients fared much better with liraglutide than with metformin (mean BMI decreased 2.13 kg/m(2) vs. 0.62 kg/m(2), respectively). Short-term liraglutide treatment was associated with significant weight loss in a subset of obese patients with newly diagnosed PCOS and a higher metabolic risk profile.

  11. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  13. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  14. A Review of the Latest Advances in Encrypted Bioactive Peptides from Protein-Rich Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries.

  15. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    The peptide aptamer approach employs high-throughput selection to identify members of a randomized peptide library displayed from a scaffold protein by virtue of their interaction with a target molecule. Extending this approach, we have developed a peptide aptamer scaffold protein that can impart small-molecule control over the aptamer-target interaction. This ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) scaffold, consisting of the protein domains FKBP12, FRB, and GST, binds to the cell-permeable small-molecule rapamycin and the binding of this molecule can prevent the interaction of the randomizable linker region connecting FKBP12 with FRB. Here we present a detailed protocol for the creation of a peptide aptamer plasmid library, selection of peptide aptamers using the LiRP scaffold in a yeast two-hybrid system, and the screening of those peptide aptamers for a ligand-regulated interaction.

  16. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... peptides has only been elucidated during the last decade. The cellular synthesis including amino acid modifications and proteolytic cleavages has proven considerably more complex than initially perceived. Consequently, the elimination phase of the peptide products in circulation is not yet well....... An inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  17. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  18. Neuro-peptide treatment with Cerebrolysin improves the survival of neural stem cell grafts in an APP transgenic model of Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rockenstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs have been considered as potential therapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD but their use is hampered by the poor survival of grafted cells. Supply of neurotrophic factors to the grafted cells has been proposed as a way to augment survival of the stem cells. In this context, we investigated the utility of Cerebrolysin (CBL, a peptidergic mixture with neurotrophic-like properties, as an adjunct to stem cell therapy in an APP transgenic (tg model of AD. We grafted murine NSCs into the hippocampus of non-tg and APP tg that were treated systemically with CBL and analyzed after 1, 3, 6 and 9 months post grafting. Compared to vehicle-treated non-tg mice, in the vehicle-treated APP tg mice there was considerable reduction in the survival of the grafted NSCs. Whereas, CBL treatment enhanced the survival of NSCs in both non-tg and APP tg with the majority of the surviving NSCs remaining as neuroblasts. The NSCs of the CBL treated mice displayed reduced numbers of caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and furin immunoreactivity. These results suggest that CBL might protect grafted NSCs and as such be a potential adjuvant therapy when combined with grafting.

  19. Bioactive Mimetics of Conotoxins and other Venom Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Duggan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziconotide (Prialt®, a synthetic version of the peptide ω-conotoxin MVIIA found in the venom of a fish-hunting marine cone snail Conus magnus, is one of very few drugs effective in the treatment of intractable chronic pain. However, its intrathecal mode of delivery and narrow therapeutic window cause complications for patients. This review will summarize progress in the development of small molecule, non-peptidic mimics of Conotoxins and a small number of other venom peptides. This will include a description of how some of the initially designed mimics have been modified to improve their drug-like properties.

  20. Evaluation by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentrations and ross scoring of the efficacy of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Sandikkaya, Ayse; Kocak, Gulendam; Karakurt, Cemsit; Taskapan, Cagatay; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digoxin in children with heart failure secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions and normal left ventricular systolic function. The study registered 37 such patients (ages 10 days to 24 months, groups 1 and 2) and used 20 healthy children as a control group (group 3). Left ventricular systolic function, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, was normal in all the subjects. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed by clinical evaluation and modified Ross scoring. Plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and complete blood counts were assessed in all the children. Group 1 was treated with digoxin, enalapril, and furosemide and group 2 with enalapril and furosemide. Approximately 1 month after starting treatment, the patients were reevaluated by physical and echocardiographic examinations, modified Ross scoring, plasma NT-proBNP concentrations, and complete blood counts. The pre- and posttreatment Ross scores of group 1 (p = 0.377) and group 2 (p = 0.616) did not differ significantly. The NT-proBNP values in both groups decreased after treatment (p = 0.0001). The pre- and posttreatment NT-proBNP values did not differ significantly in group 1 (p = 0.094)) and group 2 (p = 0.372). The pretreatment NT-proBNP values in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.003). A smaller difference was observed between posttreatment NT-proBNP values in group 1 and the control group (p = 0.045). We found no significant difference between the posttreatment NT-proBNP values of group 2 and those of the control group (p = 0.271). The study showed that both treatments currently used to treat heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts and preserved left ventricular systolic function are effective and do not differ significantly. Thus, digoxin does not provide any extra benefit in the treatment of such patients.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  2. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  3. A study on the C-peptide radioimmunoassay with synthetized connecting peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Shoichi; Sasaki, Takashi; Nakayama, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Takuji; Aoki, Shin

    1976-01-01

    A method of C-peptide radioimmunoassay with the synthetized connecting peptide by Yanaihara was tested for the determination of serum C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in normal people and in diabetics with or without insulin treatment. The CPR value obtained by this method was not interfered with by the presence of serum proteins or by the insulin of people with or without insulin treatment judged by the dilution test and the recovery test. The normal fasting CPR was 2.80 +- 0.78 ng/ml with the synthetized C-peptide as a standard. The CPR value increased and reached a maximum 90 minutes after the ingestion of 50 g of glucose. The increase after the glucose loading reduced corresponding to the severity of diabetes, and some juvenile-onset diabetes showed no response. Adult-type diabetics under insulin treatment, however, showed weak but significant CPR response. The increment of CPR and immunoreactive insulin after glucose loading in normal people and non-treated diabetics was well correlated (γ=0.8262). Judged from the above mentioned results, CPR determination in insulin-treated diabetics was thought to be a useful method for the assessment of the insulin-secreting ability of beta-cells of the pancreas. (J.P.N.)

  4. Study on the C-peptide radioimmunoassay with synthetized connecting peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S; Sasaki, T; Nakayama, H; Watanabe, T; Aoki, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-01-01

    A method of C-peptide radioimmunoassay with the synthetized connecting peptide by Yanaihara was tested for the determination of serum C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in normal people and in diabetics with or without insulin treatment. The CPR value obtained by this method was not interfered with by the presence of serum proteins or by the insulin of people with or without insulin treatment judged by the dilution test and the recovery test. The normal fasting CPR was 2.80 +- 0.78 ng/ml with the synthetized C-peptide as a standard. The CPR value increased and reached a maximum 90 minutes after the ingestion of 50 g of glucose. The increase after the glucose loading reduced corresponding to the severity of diabetes, and some juvenile-onset diabetes showed no response. Adult-type diabetics under insulin treatment, however, showed weak but significant CPR response. The increment of CPR and immunoreactive insulin after glucose loading in normal people and non-treated diabetics was well correlated (..gamma..=0.8262). Judged from the above mentioned results, CPR determination in insulin-treated diabetics was thought to be a useful method for the assessment of the insulin-secreting ability of beta-cells of the pancreas.

  5. Application of reaction type of C-peptide release test in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Duan Wenruo; He Juan; Lu Zhenfang

    2001-01-01

    The author is to confirm the effect of C-peptide release test and types of release reaction in appraisal of pancreas function of β-cell and selection of treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The serum C-peptide release test of 67 normal controls and 217 DM patients were determined by RIA, and the results were analyzed and compared. C-peptide release test can reflect the pancreas function of β-cell better, the peak of C-peptide ≥ 0.6 nmol/L after lunch can be the limit of whether to reduce the level of blood glucose only by oral drug. The authors should adjust the treatment through analyzing the type of C-peptide release reaction. C-peptide release test is very important in evaluating the pancreas function of β-cell, classifying the type of DM and selecting the treatment

  6. Amphiphilic Peptide Interactions with Complex Biological Membranes : Effect of peptide properties on antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    With increasing problem of resistance development in bacteria against conventional antibiotics, as well as problems associated with diseases either triggered or enhanced by infection, there is an urgent need to identify new types of effective therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases and its consequences. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides have attracted considerable interest as potential new antibiotics in this context. While antimicrobial function of such peptides is b...

  7. Treatment patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: Higher adherence and persistence with dulaglutide compared with once-weekly exenatide and liraglutide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, Carlos; Fernández Landó, Laura; Yu, Maria; Brown, Katelyn; Montejano, Leslie; Juneau, Paul; Mody, Reema; Swindle, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    To compare adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC]), persistence, and treatment patterns among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) newly initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). More specifically, the main objectives were to compare dulaglutide vs exenatide once weekly and dulaglutide vs liraglutide. Patients with T2DM newly initiating dulaglutide, albiglutide, exenatide once weekly, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide between November 2014 and April 2015 were hierarchically selected from Truven Health's MarketScan Research Databases. Propensity score matching was used to account for selection bias. Adherence to and persistence with the index GLP-1RA, and switching and augmentation patterns were assessed during the 6-month post-index period. Mean adherence for the matched cohorts was significantly higher for dulaglutide than for exenatide once weekly (0.72 vs 0.61; P  < .0001) and liraglutide (0.71 vs 0.67; P  < .0001). The percentage of patients achieving PDC ≥ 0.80 was significantly higher for dulaglutide compared with exenatide once weekly (54.2% vs 37.9%; P  < .0001) and liraglutide (53.5% vs 44.3%; P  < .0001). The mean (standard deviation) days on treatment for all matched patients was significantly higher for patients in the dulaglutide cohort compared with those in the exenatide once-weekly (148.4 [55.4] vs 123.6 [61.6]; P  < .0001) and liraglutide cohorts (146.0 [56.9] vs 137.4 [60.1]; P  < .0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients on dulaglutide discontinued treatment compared with those on exenatide once weekly (26.2% vs 48.4%; P  < .0001) and those on liraglutide (28.0% vs 35.6%; P  < .0001). Dulaglutide initiators had significantly higher adherence, were more persistent, and had lower discontinuation rates compared with initiators of exenatide once weekly or liraglutide during the 6-month follow-up period. © 2017 Eli Lilly and Company. Diabetes, Obesity and

  8. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  9. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  10. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  11. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  12. Anticancer peptides from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz M. Karpiński

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. The rapid development of medicine and pharmacology allows to create new and effective anticancer drugs. Among modern anticancer drugs are bacterial proteins. Until now has been shown anticancer activity among others azurin and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pep27anal2 from Streptococcus pneumoniae, diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and recently discovered Entap from Enterococcus sp. The study presents the current data regarding the properties, action and anticancer activity of listed peptides.

  13. Anticancer Activity of Bacterial Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Adamczak, Artur

    2018-04-30

    Despite much progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, tumour diseases constitute one of the main reasons of deaths worldwide. The side effects of chemotherapy and drug resistance of some cancer types belong to the significant current therapeutic problems. Hence, searching for new anticancer substances and medicines are very important. Among them, bacterial proteins and peptides are a promising group of bioactive compounds and potential anticancer drugs. Some of them, including anticancer antibiotics (actinomycin D, bleomycin, doxorubicin, mitomycin C) and diphtheria toxin, are already used in the cancer treatment, while other substances are in clinical trials (e.g., p28, arginine deiminase ADI) or tested in in vitro research. This review shows the current literature data regarding the anticancer activity of proteins and peptides originated from bacteria: antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, nonribosomal peptides (NRPs), toxins and others such as azurin, p28, Entap and Pep27anal2. The special attention was paid to the still poorly understood active substances obtained from the marine sediment bacteria. In total, 37 chemical compounds or groups of compounds with antitumor properties have been described in the present article.

  14. Natriuretic peptides in unstable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; James, Stefan; Lindahl, Bertil; Johnston, Nina; Stridsberg, Mats; Venge, Per; Wallentin, Lars

    2004-09-01

    Patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), i.e., unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, vary widely in clinical presentation, prognosis and response to treatment. To select appropriate therapy, early risk stratification has become increasingly important. This review focuses on the emerging role of natriuretic peptides in the early assessment of patients with unstable CAD. We conclude that levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are strongly associated to mortality and the risk of future congestive heart failure, and carry important prognostic information independent from previously known risk factors in unstable CAD. There are some data indicating that these markers can also be helpful in the selection of appropriate therapy in these patients but further studies are needed. Before a routine use of BNP or NT-proBNP in unstable CAD can be recommended, the cost-effectiveness of adding these new markers to the currently routine markers and their impact on selection of treatment needs further evaluation. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Methyl Silanediol Peptide Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Lindsay, Karl; Faber, Jesper

    2007-01-01

     The treatment of chiral sulfinimines with (methyldiphenylsilyl)lithium gives R-(methyldiphenylsilyl)-sulfinamides with excellent diastereoselectivity, and in good yield. The presence of α-protons on the imines is also well tolerated. The sulfinamide auxiliary is easily removed via treatment with...... corresponding bis-TMS siloxane via protection with TMSCl, and converted back to the desired silanediol via hydrolysis with aqueous KOH. Efforts to apply this approach to biologically relevant silanediol peptide mimics, with a view to protease inhibition, are described....

  16. Novel heparan sulfate-binding peptides for blocking herpesvirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Dogra

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection can lead to congenital hearing loss and mental retardation. Upon immune suppression, reactivation of latent HCMV or primary infection increases morbidity in cancer, transplantation, and late stage AIDS patients. Current treatments include nucleoside analogues, which have significant toxicities limiting their usefulness. In this study we screened a panel of synthetic heparin-binding peptides for their ability to prevent CMV infection in vitro. A peptide designated, p5+14 exhibited ~ 90% reduction in murine CMV (MCMV infection. Because negatively charged, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, serve as the attachment receptor during the adsorption phase of the CMV infection cycle, we hypothesized that p5+14 effectively competes for CMV adsorption to the cell surface resulting in the reduction in infection. Positively charged Lys residues were required for peptide binding to cell-surface HSPGs and reducing viral infection. We show that this inhibition was not due to a direct neutralizing effect on the virus itself and that the peptide blocked adsorption of the virus. The peptide also inhibited infection of other herpesviruses: HCMV and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in vitro, demonstrating it has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Therefore, this peptide may offer an adjunct therapy for the treatment of herpes viral infections and other viruses that use HSPGs for entry.

  17. Anti-angiogenic SPARC peptides inhibit progression of neuroblastoma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yufeng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New, more effective strategies are needed to treat highly aggressive neuroblastoma. Our laboratory has previously shown that full-length Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC and a SPARC peptide corresponding to the follistatin domain of the protein (FS-E potently block angiogenesis and inhibit the growth of neuroblastoma tumors in preclinical models. Peptide FS-E is structurally complex and difficult to produce, limiting its potential as a therapeutic in the clinic. Results In this study, we synthesized two smaller and structurally more simple SPARC peptides, FSEN and FSEC, that respectively correspond to the N-and C-terminal loops of peptide FS-E. We show that both peptides FSEN and FSEC have anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, although FSEC is more potent. Peptide FSEC also significantly inhibited the growth of neuroblastoma xenografts. Histologic examination demonstrated characteristic features of tumor angiogenesis with structurally abnormal, tortuous blood vessels in control neuroblastoma xenografts. In contrast, the blood vessels observed in tumors, treated with SPARC peptides, were thin walled and structurally more normal. Using a novel method to quantitatively assess blood vessel abnormality we demonstrated that both SPARC peptides induced changes in blood vessel architecture that are consistent with blood vessel normalization. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that SPARC peptide FSEC has potent anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic effects in neuroblastoma. Its simple structure and ease of production indicate that it may have clinical utility in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma and other types of pediatric and adult cancers, which depend on angiogenesis.

  18. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth.

  19. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  20. Activity of synthetic peptides against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Biondi, Roberta; Papa, Valentina; Borel, Nicole; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Magnino, Simone; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Levi, Aurora; Franco, Octavio L

    2017-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six synthetic peptides against 36 strains of Chlamydia from different origins was investigated. Clavanin MO (CMO) proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion number of all Chlamydia strains from eight different species tested by ≥50% at 10 µg mL -1 . Mastoparan L showed an equal activity against C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, and C. muridarum, but did not exert any inhibitory effect against C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. abortus, and C. avium even at 80 µg mL -1 . These data suggest that CMO could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of chlamydial infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides.

  2. Chimeric vaccine composed of viral peptide and mammalian heat-shock protein 60 peptide protects against West Nile virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Landes, Shimon; Kleiman-Shoval, Smadar; Ben-Nathan, David; Kam, Michal; Lachmi, Bat-El; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Samina, Itzhak; Eitan, Anat; Cohen, Irun R; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Porgador, Angel

    2010-08-01

    The protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a chimeric peptide against West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated. This virus is the aetiological agent of West Nile fever, which has recently emerged in the western hemisphere. The rapid spread of WNV throughout North America, as well as the constantly changing epidemiology and transmission of the virus by blood transfusion and transplantation, have raised major public-health concerns. Currently, there are no effective treatments for WNV or vaccine for human use. We previously identified a novel, continuous B-cell epitope from domain III of the WNV envelope protein, termed Ep15. To test whether this epitope can protect against WNV infection, we synthesized a linear chimeric peptide composed of Ep15 and the heat-shock protein 60 peptide, p458. The p458 peptide is an effective carrier peptide for subunit vaccines against other infectious agents. We now report that mice immunized with the chimeric peptide, p458-Ep15, were resistant to lethal challenges with three different WNV strains. Moreover, their brains were free of viral genome and infectious virus. Mice immunized with Ep15 alone or with p431-Ep15, a control conjugate, were not protected. The chimeric p458-Ep15 peptide induced WNV-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies that neutralized the virus and induced the secretion of interferon-gammain vitro. Challenge of chimeric peptide-immunized mice considerably enhanced WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies. We conclude that this chimeric peptide can be used for formulation of a human vaccine against WNV.

  3. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  4. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  5. Peptide radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Vermeij, P.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the labelling of peptides that are recognised to be of interest for nuclear medicine or are the subject of ongoing nuclear medicine research. Applications and approaches to the labelling of peptide radiopharmaceuticals are discussed, and drawbacks in their development considered. (orig.)

  6. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand

    2014-01-01

    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides....... The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic...

  7. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  8. Treatment of both native and deamidated gluten peptides with an endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger prevents stimulation of gut-derived gluten-reactive T cells from either children or adults with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Karina Søndergård; Nielsen, Anne Staal

    2014-01-01

    the proliferative response by a gluten-specific CD4+ T cell clone and seven gluten-reactive T cell lines to protease-digested gluten peptides. A proline-specific endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger (AnP2), was particularly efficient at diminishing proliferation after stimulation with cleaved antigen, and could...

  9. A dose-equivalent comparison of the effects of continuous subcutaneous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) infusions versus meal related GLP-2 injections in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naimi, R M; Madsen, K B; Askov-Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), secreted endogenously from L-cells in the distal bowel in relation to meals, modulates intestinal absorption by adjusting gastric emptying and secretion and intestinal growth. Short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with distal intestinal resections have attenuated...

  10. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for additional risk stratification in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome and an elevated troponin T: an Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes (ICTUS) substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhausen, Fons; Hirsch, Alexander; Sanders, Gerard T.; Cornel, Jan Hein; Fischer, Johan; van Straalen, Jan P.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence has emerged that the assessment of multiple biomarkers such as cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTE-ACS) provides unique prognostic information. The purpose of this

  11. Toxicity of Biologically Active Peptides and Future Safety Aspects: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-02-18

    Peptides are fragments of proteins with significant biological activities. These peptides are encoded in the protein sequence. Initially, such peptides are inactive in their parental form, unless proteolytic enzymes are released. These peptides then exhibit various functions and play a therapeutic role in the body. Besides the therapeutic and physiological activities of peptides, the main purpose of this study was to highlight the safety aspects of peptides. We performed an organized search of available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, Reaxys and Scopus databases. All the relevant citations including research and review articles about the toxicity of biologically active peptides were evaluated and gathered in this study. Biological peptides are widely used in the daily routine ranging from food production to the cosmetics industry and also they have a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of different diseases. These peptides are manufactured by both chemical and biotechnological techniques, which show negligible toxicity, however, some naturally occurring peptides and enzymes may induce high toxicity. Depending upon the demand and expected use in the food or pharmaceutical industry, we need different approaches to acertain the safety of these peptides preferentially through in silico methods. Intestinal wall disruption, erythrocytes and lymphocytes toxicity, free radical production, enzymopathic and immunopathic tissue damage and cytotoxicity due to the consumption of peptides are the main problems in the biological system that lead to various complicated disorders. Therefore, before considering biologically active peptides for food production and for therapeutic purpose, it is first necessary to evaluate the immunogenicity and toxicities of peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Purification and use of E. coli peptide deformylase for peptide deprotection in chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Toma, Claudia; Sonke, Theo; Quaedflieg, Peter J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    Peptide deformylases (PDFs) catalyze the removal of the formyl group from the N-terminal methionine residue in nascent polypeptide chains in prokaryotes. Its deformylation activity makes PDF an attractive candidate for the biocatalytic deprotection of formylated peptides that are used in

  13. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Handan [Institute; Department; Samaeekia, Ravand [Institute; Department; Schnorenberg, Mathew R. [Institute; Department; Medical; Sasmal, Dibyendu K. [Institute; Huang, Jun [Institute; Tirrell, Matthew V. [Institute; Institute; LaBelle, James L. [Department

    2017-08-24

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are two major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.

  14. Daily changes in synaptic innervation of VIP neurons in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: contribution of glutamatergic afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Clémence; Blanchard, Marie-Pierre; Ferracci, Géraldine; Lévêque, Christian; Moreno, Mathias; François-Bellan, Anne-Marie; Becquet, Denis; Bosler, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The daily temporal organization of rhythmic functions in mammals, which requires synchronization of the circadian clock to the 24-h light-dark cycle, is believed to involve adjustments of the mutual phasing of the cellular oscillators that comprise the time-keeper within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). Following from a previous study showing that the SCN undergoes day/night rearrangements of its neuronal-glial network that may be crucial for intercellular phasing, we investigated the contribution of glutamatergic synapses, known to play major roles in SCN functioning, to such rhythmic plastic events. Neither expression levels of the vesicular glutamate transporters nor numbers of glutamatergic terminals showed nycthemeral variations in the SCN. However, using quantitative imaging after combined immunolabelling, the density of synapses on neurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide, known as targets of the retinal input, increased during the day and both glutamatergic and non-glutamatergic synapses contributed to the increase (+36%). This was not the case for synapses made on vasopressin-containing neurons, the other major source of SCN efferents in the non-retinorecipient region. Together with electron microscope observations showing no differences in the morphometric features of glutamatergic terminals during the day and night, these data show that the light synchronization process in the SCN involves a selective remodelling of synapses at sites of photic integration. They provide a further illustration of how the adult brain may rapidly and reversibly adapt its synaptic architecture to functional needs.

  15. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH 2 -RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27 Kip1 protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27 Kip1 significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27 Kip1 degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin

  16. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  17. VIP-Man: An image-based whole-body adult male model constructed from color photographs of the visible human project for multi-particle Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.G.; Chao, T.C.; Bozkurt, A.

    2000-01-01

    Human anatomical models have been indispensable to radiation protection dosimetry using Monte Carlo calculations. Existing MIRD-based mathematical models are easy to compute and standardize, but they are simplified and crude compared to human anatomy. This article describes the development of an image-based whole-body model, called VIP-Man, using transversal color photographic images obtained from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project for Monte Carlo organ dose calculations involving photons, electron, neutrons, and protons. As the first of a series of papers on dose calculations based on VIP-Man, this article provides detailed information about how to construct an image-based model, as well as how to adopt it into well-tested Monte Carlo codes, EGS4, MCNP4B, and MCNPX

  18. Design and Engineering Strategies for Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossi, Alessandro

    Thousands of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of prokaryotic, fungal, plant, or animal origin have been identified, and their potential as lead compounds for the design of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of infection, for stimulating the immune system, or in countering septic shock has been widely recognized. Added to this is their possible use in prophylaxis of infectious diseases for animal or plant protection, for disinfection of surgical instruments or industrial surfaces, and for food preservation among other commercially important applications. Since the early eighties, AMPs have been subject to a vast number of studies aimed at understanding what determines their potency and spectrum of activities against bacterial or fungal pathogens, and at maximizing these while limiting cytotoxic activities toward host cells. Much research has also been directed toward understanding specific mechanisms of action underlying the antimicrobial activity and selectivity, to be able to redesign the peptides for optimal performance. A central theme in the mode of action of many AMPs is their dynamic interaction with biological membranes, which involves various properties of these peptides such as, among others, surface hydrophobicity and polarity, charge, structure, and induced conformational variations. These features are often intimately interconnected so that engineering peptides to independently adjust any one property in particular is not an easy task. However, solid-phase peptide synthesis allows the use of a large repertoire of nonproteinogenic amino acids that can be used in the rational design of peptides to finely tune structural and physicochemical properties and precisely probe structure-function relationships.

  19. Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc, M{sup 3+} radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 86/90}Y, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 67/68}Ga), {sup 64/67}Cu, {sup 18}F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin

  20. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Membrane interactions and biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from Australian scorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E; Possani, Lourival D; Separovic, Frances

    2014-09-01

    UyCT peptides are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of the Australian scorpion. The activity of the UyCT peptides against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and red blood cells was determined. The membrane interactions of these peptides were evaluated by dye release (DR) of the fluorophore calcein from liposomes and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); and their secondary structure was determined by circular dichroism (CD). Three different lipid systems were used to mimic red blood cells, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus membranes. UyCT peptides exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with low MIC for S. aureus and multi-drug resistant Gram negative strains. Peptide combinations showed some synergy enhancing their potency but not hemolytic activity. The UyCT peptides adopted a helical structure in lipid environments and DR results confirmed that the mechanism of action is by disrupting the membrane. ITC data indicated that UyCT peptides preferred prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic membranes. The overall results suggest that UyCT peptides could be pharmaceutical leads for the treatment of Gram negative multiresistant bacterial infections, especially against Acinetobacter baumanni, and candidates for peptidomimetics to enhance their potency and minimize hemolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. © 2013.

  2. Peptide-LNA oligonucleotide conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Vester, Birte

    2013-01-01

    properties, peptides were introduced into oligonucleotides via a 2'-alkyne-2'-amino-LNA scaffold. Derivatives of methionine- and leucine-enkephalins were chosen as model peptides of mixed amino acid content, which were singly and doubly incorporated into LNA/DNA strands using highly efficient copper......(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry. DNA/RNA target binding affinity and selectivity of the resulting POCs were improved in comparison to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA controls. This clearly demonstrates that internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides can significantly...

  3. New vasoactive peptides in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Goetze, Jens Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis have substantial circulatory imbalance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilating forces. The study of circulatory vasoactive peptides may provide important pathophysiological information. This study aimed to assess concentrations, organ extraction and relations...... to haemodynamic changes in the pro-peptides copeptin, proadrenomedullin and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four cirrhotic patients and 15 controls were characterized haemodynamically during a liver vein catheterization. Copeptin, proadrenomedullin...... pressure (R=0·32, P0·31, Ppeptide is elevated in cirrhosis. Copeptin, proadrenomedullin and proANP are related to portal pressure and seem associated with systemic haemodynamics. These propeptides may...

  4. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists: a new approach to type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemia and weight gain that are associated with many antidiabetic medications may interfere with the implementation and long-term application of treatment strategies. Glucose homeostasis is dependent on a complex interplay of multiple hormones and gastrointestinal peptides, including glucagon-like peptide 1 ...

  5. Relação entre toxicidade de proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a receptores intestinais de lepidópteros-praga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cristina Marucci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de novas proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino de lagartas neonatas de Spodoptera frugiperda, Anticarsia gemmatalise Heliothis virescens. Proteínas expressas pelos genes vip3Aa42 e vip3Aa43 mostraram-se tóxicas a S. frugiperda (CL50 de 78,2 e 113 ng cm-2, respectivamente e A. gemmatalis(CL50 de 239,2 e 57,5 ng cm-2, respectivamente, e pouco tóxicas a H. virescens (CL50>5.000 ng cm-2. Os ensaios de ligação às VMMA mostraram que as proteínas unem-se de forma efetiva aos receptores nas vesículas das espécies avaliadas, mas essa capacidade de ligação somente é efetiva na ativação da toxicidade para as populações avaliadas de S. frugiperdae A. gemmatalis.

  6. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  7. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs), including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS. PMID:21453492

  8. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindin Inger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs, including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB, display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS.

  9. Cardioprotective peptides from marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnedy, Padraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure or hypertension is one of the fastest growing health problems worldwide. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, dietary factors play an important role. With the high costs and adverse side-effects associated with synthetic antihypertensive drugs and the awareness of the link between diet and health there has been increased focus on identification of food components that may contribute to cardiovascular health. In recent years special interest has been paid to the cardioprotective activity of peptides derived from food proteins including marine proteins. These peptides are latent within the sequence of the parent protein and only become active when released by proteolytic digestion during gastrointestinal digestion or through food processing. Current data on antihypertensive activity of marine-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides in animal and human studies is reviewed herein. Furthermore, products containing protein hydrolysates/peptides from marine origin with antihypertensive effects are discussed.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  11. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies...... are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors......, including solid-phase peptide-carrier conjugation and peptide-carrier conjugation in solution. Upon immunization, adjuvants such as Al(OH)(3) are added together with the immunogenic peptide-carrier conjugate, which usually leads to high-titred antisera. Following immunization and peptide antibody...

  12. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μ W from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e - RMS at room temperature.

  13. Peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  14. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  16. T-peptide Enhances the Killing Effects of Cisplatinum on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi ZHANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective T peptide is extensively used in anti-tumor treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate whether T peptide enhances cisplatinum efficiency while reducing its side effects and to identify its effective mechanisms. Methods (1 Human macrophage U937 cells were treated with T peptide and/or cisplatinum. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ of each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (2 Xenograft mouse models of human lung cancer were treated with T peptide and/or cisplatinum once every five days for three times. Tumor volumes were measured during treatment; (3 The percentages of macrophages in the peripheral blood of the xenograft mouse models were measured by FACS. Results (1 Compared with other groups, the level of TNF-α was significantly higher in the human macrophage U937 cells that were treated with T peptide combined with cisplatinum. The levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in human macrophage U937 cells that were treated with T peptide alone or T peptide combined with cisplatinum; (2 In the xenograft mouse models, T peptide combined with cisplatinum treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth without weight loss compared with the other groups; (3 The percentages of macrophages in the peripheral blood were significantly higher in the xenograft mouse models that were treated with T peptide combined with cisplatinum compared with in the other groups. Conclusion T peptide promotes macrophage proliferation and increases tumor cell killing factors (TNF-α, IFN-γ in vitro. Moreover, T peptide enhances the efficacy of cisplatin and reduces its toxicity in vivo.

  17. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal peptides (SPs mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I, and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i eukaryotes (Euk (ii Gram-positive (Gram+ bacteria, and (iii Gram-negative (Gram- bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs.

  18. Antiangiogenic Metargidin Peptide (AMEP) Gene Therapy in Disseminated Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Gehl, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery by electroporation is an efficient method for transfecting genes into various tissues including tumors. Here we present the treatment protocol used in a phase 1 study on gene electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding an antiangiogenic peptide into cutaneous melanoma....

  19. Unusual chemical properties of N-terminal histidine residues of glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefford, M.A.; Evans, R.M.; Oda, G.; Kaplan, H.

    1985-01-01

    An N-terminal histidine residue of a protein or peptide has two functional groups, viz., an alpha-amino group and an imidazole group. A new procedure, based on the competitive labeling approach described by Duggleby and Kaplan has been developed by which the chemical reactivity of each functional group in such a residue can be determined as a function of pH. Only very small amounts of material are required, which makes it possible to determine the chemical properties in dilute solution or in proteins and polypeptides that can be obtained in only minute quantities. With this approach, the reactivity of the alpha-amino group of histidylglycine toward 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.64 +/- 0.07 at 37 degrees C, in good agreement with a value of 7.69 +/- 0.02 obtained by acid-base titration. However, the reactivity of the imidazole function gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.16 +/- 0.07 as compared to the pK /sub a/ value of 5.85 +/- 0.01 obtained by acid-base titration. Similarly, in glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), apparent pKa values of 7.60 +/- 0.04 and 7.88 +/- 0.18, respectively, were obtained for the alpha-amino of their N-terminal histidine, and pKa values of 7.43 +/- 0.09 and 7.59 +/- 0.18 were obtained for the imidazole function

  20. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  1. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  2. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  3. What peptides these deltorphins be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L H; Bryant, S D; Cooper, P S; Salvadori, S

    1999-02-01

    The deltorphins are a class of highly selective delta-opioid heptapeptides from the skin of the Amazonian frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and P. bicolor. The first of these fascinating peptides came to light in 1987 by cloning of the cDNA of from frog skins, while the other members of this family were identified either by cDNA or isolation of the peptides. The distinctive feature of deltorphins is the presence of a naturally occurring D-enantiomer at the second position in their common N-terminal sequence, Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, comparable to dermorphin, which is the prototype of a group of mu-selective opioids from the same source. The D-amino acid and the anionic residues, either Glu or Asp, as well as their unique amino acid compositions are responsible for the remarkable biostability, high delta-receptor affinity, bioactivity and peptide conformation. This review summarizes a decade of research from many laboratories that defined which residues and substituents in the deltorphins interact with the delta-receptor and characterized pharmacological and physiological activities in vitro and in vivo. It begins with a historical description of the topic and presents general schema for the synthesis of peptide analogues of deltorphins A, B and C as a means to document the methods employed in producing a myriad of analogues. Structure activity studies of the peptides and their pharmacological activities in vitro are detailed in abundantly tabulated data. A brief compendium of the current level of knowledge of the delta-receptor assists the reader to appreciate the rationale for the design of these analogues. Discussion of the conformation of these peptides addresses how structure leads to further hypotheses regarding ligand receptor interaction. The review ends with a broad discussion of the potential applications of these peptides in clinical and therapeutic settings.

  4. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  5. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effect of C-peptide on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy and the possible link between C-peptide and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbassuoni, Eman A; Aziz, Neven M; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Renal injury markers measured were serum urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and angiotensin II, and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, Bcl-2, and NO in renal tissue. In conclusion, diabetic induction resulted in islet degenerations and decreased insulin secretion with its metabolic consequences and subsequent renal complications. C-Peptide deficiencies in diabetes might have contributed to the metabolic and renal error, since C-peptide treatment to the diabetic rats completely corrected these errors. The beneficial effects of C-peptide are partially antagonized by L-NAME coadministration, indicating that NO partially mediates C-peptide effects.

  7. Propensity of a single-walled carbon nanotube-peptide to mimic a KK10 peptide in an HLA-TCR complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Bell, David R.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2017-12-01

    The application of nanotechnology to improve disease diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prevention is the goal of nanomedicine. We report here a theoretical study of a functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) mimic binding to a human leukocyte antigen-T cell receptor (HLA-TCR) immune complex as a first attempt of a potential nanomedicine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine development. The carbon nanotube was coated with three arginine residues to imitate the HIV type 1 immunodominant viral peptide KK10 (gag 263-272: KRWIILGLNK), named CNT-peptide hereafter. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the CNT-peptide and KK10 binding to an important HLA-TCR complex. Our results suggest that the CNT-peptide and KK10 bind comparably to the HLA-TCR complex, but the CNT-peptide forms stronger interactions with the TCR. Desorption simulations highlight the innate flexibility of KK10 over the CNT-peptide, resulting in a slightly higher desorption energy required for KK10 over the CNT-peptide. Our findings indicate that the designed CNT-peptide mimic has favorable propensity to activate TCR pathways and should be further explored to understand therapeutic potential.

  8. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Park

    Full Text Available Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB, also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal

  9. Neuroactive peptides as putative mediators of antiepileptic ketogenic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela eGiordano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various ketogenic diet (KD therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs. In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the

  10. Biological Applications of Designed Hairpin Peptides: As Antimicrobials and as Inhibitors of Amyloidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesam, Kalkena

    More than 40 diseases have been associated with the misfolding of peptides (or proteins) that form fibrils with a very specific morphology. These peptides classified as amyloidogenic peptides have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Type II Diabetes, Hungtinton's Disease etc. To date, these diseases have no cure, only therapies that can ameliorate the symptoms to a degree. Inhibition of the amyloidogenesis of these peptides has been proposed as a possible treatment option. While small molecules have been heavily tested as inhibitors of amyloidogenesis, peptides have emerged as potential inhibitors. In this work, the ability of a set of designed hairpin peptides to inhibit the amyloidogenesis of two different systems, alpha-synuclein (implicated in Parkinson's Disease) and human amylin (implicated in Type II Diabetes) is tested. Using circular dichroism and thioflavin T fluorescence, the ability of these peptides to inhibit amyloidogenesis is tested. The binding loci of these inhibitors to alpha-synuclein are also explored. The use of peptides as antimicrobials on the other hand is not a novel concept. However, most antimicrobial peptides, both natural and designed, rely heavily on covalent stabilizations in order to maintain secondary structure. In this study, non-covalent stabilizations are applied to a couple of natural as well as designed antimicrobials in order to study the effects of secondary structure stabilization on biological activity.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1135 - C-peptides of proinsulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of C-peptides of proinsulin are used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with abnormal insulin secretion, including diabetes mellitus. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  12. The effect of a beta-lactamase inhibitor peptide on bacterial membrane structure and integrity: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Uluocak, Bilge Gedik; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar; Ozkirimli, Elif

    2017-05-01

    Co-administration of beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors has been a favored treatment strategy against beta-lactamase-mediated bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the emergence of beta-lactamases resistant to current inhibitors necessitates the discovery of novel non-beta-lactam inhibitors. Peptides derived from the Ala46-Tyr51 region of the beta-lactamase inhibitor protein are considered as potent inhibitors of beta-lactamase; unfortunately, peptide delivery into the cell limits their potential. The properties of cell-penetrating peptides could guide the design of beta-lactamase inhibitory peptides. Here, our goal is to modify the peptide with the sequence RRGHYY that possesses beta-lactamase inhibitory activity under in vitro conditions. Inspired by the work on the cell-penetrating peptide pVEC, our approach involved the addition of the N-terminal hydrophobic residues, LLIIL, from pVEC to the inhibitor peptide to build a chimera. These residues have been reported to be critical in the uptake of pVEC. We tested the potential of RRGHYY and its chimeric derivative as a beta-lactamase inhibitory peptide on Escherichia coli cells and compared the results with the action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, the beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin, and the beta-lactamase inhibitor potassium clavulanate to get mechanistic details on their action. Our results show that the addition of LLIIL to the N-terminus of the beta-lactamase inhibitory peptide RRGHYY increases its membrane permeabilizing potential. Interestingly, the addition of this short stretch of hydrophobic residues also modified the inhibitory peptide such that it acquired antimicrobial property. We propose that addition of the hydrophobic LLIIL residues to the peptide N-terminus offers a promising strategy to design novel antimicrobial peptides in the battle against antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European

  13. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidang Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines.

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Newman, Lawrence; Ashina, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact...... role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials.gov . The search term used was "cluster headache and calcitonin gene related peptide......" and "primary headaches and calcitonin gene related peptide." Reference lists of identified articles were also searched for additional relevant papers. Human experimental studies have reported elevated plasma CGRP levels during both spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced cluster attacks. CGRP may play...

  15. Deglycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and derived peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.C.; Krueger, R.C.; Schwartz, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to define the domain structure of proteoglycans as well as identify primary amino acid sequences specific for attachment of the various carbohydrate substituents, reliable techniques for deglycosylating proteoglycans are required. In this study, deglycosylation of cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) with minimal core protein cleavage was accomplished by digestion with chondroitinase ABC and keratanase, followed by treatment with anhydrous HF in pyridine. Nearly complete deglycosylation of secreted proteoglycan was verified within 45 min of HF treatment by loss of incorporated [ 3 H]glucosamine label from the proteoglycan as a function of time of treatment, as well as by direct analysis of carbohydrate content and xylosyltransferase acceptor activity of unlabeled core protein preparations. The deglycosylated CSPG preparations were homogeneous and of high molecular weight. Comparison of the intact deglycosylated core protein preparations with newly synthesized unprocessed precursors suggested that extensive proteolytic cleavage of the core protein did not occur during normal intracellular processing. Furthermore, peptide patterns generated after clostripain digestion of core protein precursor and of deglycosylated secreted proteoglycan were comparable. With the use of the clostripain digestion procedure, peptides were produced from unlabeled proteoglycan, and two predominant peptides from the most highly glycosylated regions were isolated, characterized, and deglycosylated. These peptides were found to follow similar kinetics of deglycosylation and to acquire xylose activity comparable to the intact core protein

  16. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  18. Peptide Extracts from Cultures of Certain Lactobacilli Inhibit Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Vincent, Pascal; Makras, Eleftherios; Leroy, Frédéric; Pot, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori inhibition by probiotic lactobacilli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. Carefully selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains could therefore play an important role in the treatment of H. pylori infection and eradication. However, the underlying mechanism for this inhibition is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine if peptide extracts, containing bacteriocins or other antibacterial peptides, from six Lactobacillus cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus La1, Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471, Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029, Lactobacillus gasseri K7, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) contribute to the inhibition of H. pylori. Peptide extracts from cultures of Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were most active, reducing the viability of H. pylori ATCC 43504 with more than 2 log units within 4 h of incubation (P < 0.001). The four other extracts were less or not active. When six clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested for their susceptibility towards five inhibitory peptide extracts, similar observations were made. Again, the peptide extracts from Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were the most inhibitory, while the three other extracts resulted in a much lower inhibition of H. pylori. Protease-treated extracts were inactive towards H. pylori, confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance.

  19. Buwchitin: a ruminal peptide with antimicrobial potential against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Linda B.; Crochet, Jean-Adrien; Edwards, Joan E.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Cookson, Alan R.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Hilpert, Kai; Golyshin, Peter N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Privé, Florence; Hess, Matthias; Mantovani, Hilario C.; Creevey, Christopher J.; Huws, Sharon A.

    2017-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains. The killing mechanism of buwchitin was investigated further by monitoring its ability to cause membrane depolarization (diSC3(5) method) and morphological changes in E. faecalis cells. Transmission electron micrographs of buwchitin treated E. faecalis cells showed intact outer membranes with blebbing, but no major damaging effects and cell morphology changes. Buwchitin had negligible cytotoxicity against defibrinated sheep erythrocytes. Although no significant membrane leakage and depolarization was observed, buwchitin at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was bacteriostatic against E. faecalis cells and inhibited growth in vitro by 70% when compared to untreated cells. These findings suggest that buwchitin, a rumen derived peptide, has potential for antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  20. Buwchitin: A Ruminal Peptide with Antimicrobial Potential against Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda B. Oyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains. The killing mechanism of buwchitin was investigated further by monitoring its ability to cause membrane depolarization (diSC3(5 method and morphological changes in E. faecalis cells. Transmission electron micrographs of buwchitin treated E. faecalis cells showed intact outer membranes with blebbing, but no major damaging effects and cell morphology changes. Buwchitin had negligible cytotoxicity against defibrinated sheep erythrocytes. Although no significant membrane leakage and depolarization was observed, buwchitin at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was bacteriostatic against E. faecalis cells and inhibited growth in vitro by 70% when compared to untreated cells. These findings suggest that buwchitin, a rumen derived peptide, has potential for antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN-PEPTIDE COMPLEX IN THE TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS INEFFICIENCY OF SLOW-RELEASE ORAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (THE MULTICENTER OPEN-LABEL STUDY PRIMULA: USE OF RUMALON® WITH INITIALLY SMALL SUCCESS IN THE TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex (GPC (Rumalon® is an injectable slow-release anti-inflammatory agent (SRIA that has complex anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects. GPC has been successfully used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA for several decades. The agent now returns again to Russian clinical practice. Objective: to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GPC in patients with knee OA, in whom other SRIAs have been previously ineffective.Subjects and methods. A study group consisted of 104 patients (92.3% women (mean age, 63.2±8.5 years; body mass index (BMI, 28.5±5.4 kg/m2 with severe joint pain (≥40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS and/or the need to regularly use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. All the patients received oral SRIAs in the last 6 months and had no improvement. At baseline, VAS pain intensity was 59.4±13.1 mm; the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain was 227.3±90.8; WOMAC stiffness, 97.9±42.1; WOMAC function, 769.2±326.1; total WOMAC scores, 1095.1±426.6. GPC was used by the standard scheme: 25 intramuscular injections every other day per treatment cycle; the results of treatment were assessed at 8 and 12 weeks by VAS and WOMAC pain scores, needs for NSAIDs, satisfaction with treatment (measured on a 1- to 5-pont scale where 1 = no improvement or deterioration and 5 = the best result.Results and discussion. At 8 and 12 weeks, VAS pain scores decreased by 30.1±18.3% and 36.9±16.9%, respectively; the reductions in WOMAC pain scores were 29.8±16.3 and 38.2±23.4%; WOMAC stiffness scores, 29.2±15.4 and 31.6±17.4%; WOMAC function scores, 27.7±14.7 and 30.6±18.4%; and total WOMAC scores, 27.2±13.5 and 33.6±18.0%. The changes in pain intensity and WOMAC scores were statistically significant in both followup periods (p<0.001. The majority of patients rated their treatment result as good or excellent: 70.2% at 8 weeks and 75.9% at 12 weeks. 31

  2. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery....... To better understand the underlying mechanisms of antibody-antigen interaction here we present a pipeline developed by us to structurally classify immunoglobulin antigen binding sites and to infer key sequence residues and other variables that have a prominent role in each structural class....

  3. Self-assembling peptide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Makam, Pandeeswar; Aizen, Ruth; Gazit, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are central to the modern electronics and optics industries. Conventional semiconductive materials bear inherent limitations, especially in emerging fields such as interfacing with biological systems and bottom-up fabrication. A promising candidate for bioinspired and durable nanoscale semiconductors is the family of self-assembled nanostructures comprising short peptides. The highly ordered and directional intermolecular π-π interactions and hydrogen-bonding network allow the formation of quantum confined structures within the peptide self-assemblies, thus decreasing the band gaps of the superstructures into semiconductor regions. As a result of the diverse architectures and ease of modification of peptide self-assemblies, their semiconductivity can be readily tuned, doped, and functionalized. Therefore, this family of electroactive supramolecular materials may bridge the gap between the inorganic semiconductor world and biological systems. PMID:29146781

  4. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  5. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  6. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  7. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viester Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost- effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises, and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test. Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures, as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave (secondary outcome measures will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction

  8. Aqueous Extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium Enhances the Antimelanogenic and Antioxidative Activities of the Mixture of Soy Peptide and Collagen Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possible synergistic effect between the aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium (菊花 Jú Huā (AECM and the peptide mixture (PM containing soy peptide and collagen peptide was investigated in an ultraviolet (UV irradiation–induced skin damage mouse model. The irradiated mice were treated with the PM or PM+AECM (containing PM and AECM, respectively. Both PM and PM+AECM groups displayed an apparent photoprotective effect on the UV-irradiated skin damage of mice. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the epidermal hyperplasia and melanocytes in the basal epidermal layer of the UV-irradiated skin in mice decreased when treated with either PM or PM+AECM. Further study showed that soy peptide, collagen peptide, and AECM also inhibited the activities of mushroom tyrosinase with IC50 values of 82.3, 28.2, and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. Additionally, PM+AECM reduced melanogenesis by 46.2% at the concentration of 10 mg/ml in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Meanwhile, the UV-induced increase of antioxidative indicators, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA, was reduced significantly after treatment with 1.83 g/kg/dbw of PM+AECM. This evidence supported the synergistic antioxidative effect of AECM with PM. These results demonstrated that oral intake of PM and AECM had synergistic antimelanogenic and antioxidative effects in UV-irradiated mice.

  9. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  10. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  11. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  12. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Douglas G.; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic