WorldWideScience

Sample records for pennisetum purpureum schumach

  1. Assessment of the Potential Allelopathic Effects of Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. on the Germination and Growth of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.S.; Tan, P.W.; Chuah, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. is a weed that is currently spreading rapidly to many parts of the world particularly tropical countries. The abundance of P. purpureum in Malaysia is presently a serious problem. A study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the potential allelopathic effects of P. purpureum on Eleusine indica L. Gaertn. using the aqueous leaf extract and plant debris incorporated into the soil. Low concentrations of the P. purpureum aqueous extract (2%) and debris incorporated into the soil (25/ 500 g) inhibited germination and seedling growth of the bioassay species (E. indica) by >80 %. The responses of the bioassay species to the aqueous extract and debris-incorporated soil were concentration dependent. The aqueous extract had higher total phenolic content compared to that from the debris incorporated soil, indicating the presence of certain phyto toxic compounds in the leaf debris and leaf extracts. (author)

  2. Estimates of heterosis parameters in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna R.S Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a high growth rate and a DM yield of up to 80 t ha-1 yr¹, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. has been utilized as an alternative source of energy. However, genotypes adapted to and productive in the different regions of Brazil need to be developed. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate and evaluate heterotic effects in elephant-grass hybrids obtained in a partial diallel cross (5 x 5, with the aim of assisting the superior hybrids selection for bioenergy production. The experiment was conducted in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The following traits were evaluated: plant height (HGT, stem diameter (SD, leaf blade width (LBW, number of tillers per linear meter (NT, percentage of DM (%DM, and DM yield (DMY. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with 35 treatments (five female parents, five male parents, and 25 hybrid combinations and three replicates. The adopted statistical model was that of Miranda Filho and Geraldi, in an adaptation of Gardner and Eberhart. Significant heterosis was observed for most traits in the rainy and dry seasons. Hybrid combinations H1 ('Cubano Pinda' x 'Mercker', H7 ('Cameroon-Piracicaba' x 'Três Rios', H8 ('Cameroon-Piracicaba' x 'Mercker 86-Mexico', H17 ('IAC-Campinas' x 'Três Rios', H18 ('IAC-Campinas' x 'Mercker 86-Mexico', and H25 ('Guacu/IZ.2' x 'Roxo' showed potential for use in breeding programs that aiming at develop clones with a energy biomass production capacity high.

  3. Effect of Mineral and Humic Substances on Tailing Soil Properties and Nutrient Uptake by Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhe Phoppy Wira Etika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining produces a by-product sand tailing from soil leaching with characteristic low pH and total organic carbon, and can be reclaimed by providing a suitable ameliorant. When available in situ, ameliorant materials can be economically used as they are required in large amounts. Fortunately, Bangka Belitung has sample stock of such kaolinite-rich minerals that can be utilized for improving soil chemical properties. Extracted organic materials, such as humic substances, can also be utilized as they influence the complex soil reactions, and promote plant growth. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of mineral, humic materials and interaction of both material on soil chemical properties and nutrient uptake of Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. A completely randomized design with 2 factors and 3 replications each was employed. Factor 1 was mineral matter is 0; 420; 840; 1.260 Mg ha-1 while Factor 2 was humic material is 0; 0.46; 0.92; 1.38 kg C ha-1. Air-dried samples of tailing were applied with oil palm compost then mixed evenly with mineral and humic materials. Penissetum purpureum Schumach was planted after 4 weeks incubation, and maintained for another 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that the addition of mineral matter significantly increased soil organic carbon content, total N, exchangeable K, Fe, Mn and boosted nutrient - total Ca, Mg and Mn – uptake of the plant. But the application of humic material increased only soil organic carbon content. The interaction of both materials only lowered soil pH.

  4. Development of mechanical methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. must be propagated vegetatively due to lack of viable seeds, root splitting and stem cuttings are generally used to obtain true-to-type plant populations. These ordinary methods are laborious and costly, and are the greatest barriers for expanding the cultivation area of this crop. The objectives of this research were to develop nursery production of dwarf napiergrass in cell trays and to compare the efficiency of mechanical versus manual methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting. After defoliation of herbage either by a sickle (manually or hand-mowing machine, every potential aerial tiller bud was cut to a single one for transplanting into cell trays as stem cuttings and placed in a glasshouse over winter. The following June, nursery plants were trimmed to a 25–cm length and transplanted in an experimental field (sandy soil with 20,000 plants ha^(−1 either by shovel (manually or Welsh onion planter. Labour time was recorded for each process. The manual defoliation of plants required 44% more labour time for preparing the stem cuttings (0.73 person-min. stemcutting^(−1 compared to using hand-mowing machinery (0.51 person-min. stem-cutting^(−1. In contrast, labour time for transplanting required an extra 0.30 person-min. m^(−2 (14% using the machinery compared to manual transplanting, possibly due to the limited plot size for machinery operation. The transplanting method had no significant effect on plant establishment or plant growth, except for herbage yield 110 days after planting. Defoliation of herbage by machinery, production using a cell-tray nursery and mechanical transplanting reduced the labour intensity of dwarf napiergrass propagation.

  5. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  6. Genomic homeology between Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barreto dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pennisetum (Richard, 1805 includes two economically important tropical forage plants: Pennisetum purpureum (Schumacher, 1827 (elephant grass, with 2n = 4x = 28 chromosomes and genomes A'A'BB, and Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus, 1753 (pearl millet, with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes and genomes AA. The genetic proximity between them allows obtaining hybrids (2n = 3x = 21 that yield forage of higher quality in relation to the parents. The study of genomic relationships provides subsidies for the knowledge about phylogenetic relations and evolution, and is useful in breeding programs seeking gene introgression. Concerning elephant grass and pearl millet, the homeology between the genomes A and A', and between these and the genome B, has been reported by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the degree of homeology between these genomes by means of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH. The results confirmed the homeology between the genomes A of pearl millet and A'B of elephant grass, and showed that there are differences in the distribution and proportion of homologous regions after hybridization. Discussion regarding the evolutionary origin of P. purpureum and P. glaucum was also included.

  7. Implicações do período de crescimento na composição química e digestão dos tecidos de cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Effects of growing periods on digestion and chemical composition of elephant grass cultivars tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Deschamps

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram medidas, ao longo de 126 dias de crescimento, as principais modificações na composição química e na digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS de três cultivares (Empasc-307-Testo, Empasc-309-Areia e Roxo de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.. A produção e a qualidade destas gramíneas forrageiras tropicais foram determinadas, em parte, pelo período de crescimento. Com o alongamento do período de crescimento, as plantas apresentaram maior altura e produção de MS, aumentando a concentração de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e lignina, na medida em que ocorreu forte redução na digestibilidade da MS e FDN. A contribuição do colmo na produção total de MS acentuou-se, chegando ao final do período com relação folha:colmo de 35:65%. Em estádio mais avançado de crescimento, mesmo apresentando semelhante concentração de lignina, a digestibilidade do colmo foi inferior à da folha. A perda de qualidade, medida pela redução na digestibilidade, observada com o envelhecimento do capim-elefante está relacionada ao espessamento e lignificação da parede celular, acompanhada por redução na proporção de folhas na produção total de MS. No colmo, além da lignina, outras barreiras contribuem para a redução da digestibilidade.In the present work, the chemical composition changes and dry matter (DM digestibility of three cultivars (Empasc-307-Testo, Empasc-309-Areia and Roxo of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., were measured through a growing period of 126 days. The production and quality of tropical forage grasses were determined, in part, by the growing period. The plants showed greater height and dry matter accumulation, increasing the neutral detergent fiber (NDF and lignin concentrations and substantially reducing DM and NDF digestibility levels, with longer growing periods. The stem contribution with the total DM production increased with time, reaching leaf:stem ratio of 35

  8. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Techio, Vânia Helena; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Pereira, Antônio Vander

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  9. Impediments to hybridization between Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and other Pennisetum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is a robust, perennial, warm-season grass that grows throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Some genotypes have sufficient winter hardiness to survive winters in the Gulf coast region of the United States. However, germplasm with in...

  10. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  11. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterisation of 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum/PLA biocomposites scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revati, R; Abdul Majid, M S; Ridzuan, M J M; Normahira, M; Mohd Nasir, N F; Rahman Y, M N; Gibson, A G

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70-200μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper and zinc fractionation in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely S. A. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals on the biosolid, it is necessary to promote its phytoremediation. It is important to know the total content and chemical forms of these elements in the residue for analyzing its behavior and potential toxicity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fractionation and behavior of Cu and Zn in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design. The treatments, with five replicates, corresponded to Pennisetum purpureum cultivation in biosolid for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting. The total contents of Cu and Zn in the biosolid remained below the critical limits established by the CONAMA Resolution 357, and there was a reduction in these values with Pennisetum purpureum cultivation. Furthermore, the increment in the grass cultivation period caused intense reduction of Zn contents bound to organic matter, but there was an increase in soluble Zn and residual Zn. Additionally, there was an intense reduction in the content of Cu bound to sulfides. Therefore, for biosolid phytoremediation purposes, the grass should be cultivated for 150 days.

  13. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterisation of 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum/PLA biocomposites scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revati, R. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Abdul Majid, M.S., E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ridzuan, M.J.M., E-mail: ridzuanjamir@unimap.edu.my [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Normahira, M., E-mail: normahira@unimap.edu.my [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Mohd Nasir, N.F., E-mail: nashrul@unimap.edu.my [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Rahman Y, M.N., E-mail: nurrahman@unimap.edu.my [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Gibson, A.G., E-mail: geoff.gibson@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70–200 μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25 MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73 MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage. - Highlights: • High interconnected pores with 99% of porosity were observed for the scaffolds. • The pore sizes of the P. purpureum/PLA scaffolds ranged from 69 to 215 μm. • Addition of fillers improves the thermal properties and stability of the scaffolds. • PLA-PP{sub 30} scaffold showed enhanced compression modulus from 1.73 to 5.25 MPa.

  14. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterisation of 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum/PLA biocomposites scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revati, R.; Abdul Majid, M.S.; Ridzuan, M.J.M.; Normahira, M.; Mohd Nasir, N.F.; Rahman Y, M.N.; Gibson, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70–200 μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25 MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73 MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage. - Highlights: • High interconnected pores with 99% of porosity were observed for the scaffolds. • The pore sizes of the P. purpureum/PLA scaffolds ranged from 69 to 215 μm. • Addition of fillers improves the thermal properties and stability of the scaffolds. • PLA-PP 30 scaffold showed enhanced compression modulus from 1.73 to 5.25 MPa.

  15. In vitro degradation of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum/PLA biocomposite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revati, R; Majid, M S Abdul; Ridzuan, M J M; Basaruddin, K S; Rahman Y, M N; Cheng, E M; Gibson, A G

    2017-10-01

    The in vitro degradation and mechanical properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA)-based scaffold were investigated. In this study, composite scaffolds with PP to PLA ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% were immersed in a PBS solution at 37°C for 40 days. Compression tests were conducted to evaluate the compressive strength and modulus of the scaffolds, according to ASTM F451-95. The compression strength of the scaffolds was found to increase from 1.94 to 9.32MPa, while the compressive modulus increased from 1.73 to 5.25MPa as the fillers' content increased from 0wt% to 30wt%. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe and analyse the microstructure and fibre-matrix interface. Interestingly, the degradation rate was reduced for the PLA/PP 20 scaffold, though insignificantly, this could be attributed to the improved mechanical properties and stronger fibre-matrix interface. Microstructure changes after degradation were observed using FESEM. The FESEM results indicated that a strong fibre-matrix interface was formed in the PLA/PP 20 scaffold, which reflected the addition of P. purpureum into PLA decreasing the degradation rate compared to in pure PLA scaffolds. The results suggest that the P. purpureum/PLA scaffold degradation rate can be altered and controlled to meet requirements imposed by a given tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.M.F.D.; Sales, K.A.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO 2 , MgO, CaO and K 2 O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  17. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The

  18. purpureum)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHIMA DAVID

    produce bio-ethanol from elephant grass (Pennisetun purpureum). The grass was .... production by microbial fermentation process. Increased yield ... wine, respectively, and maintained on Potato. Dextrose agar .... Kinetic studies of enzymatic ...

  19. Comparison of silage and hay of dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) fed to Thai native beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha

    2018-03-23

    Both quantity and quality of forages are important in dry season feeding. Eight Thai native beef bulls were arranged in a Completely randomized design to evaluate dwarf Napier namely Sweet grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) preserved as silage or hay on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The animals were fed with forage ad libitum supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.0% of BW for 21 days; data were collected during the last 7 days. The results showed that there were differences (P  0.05) in animals fed silage and hay. Sweet grass is better preserved as hay rather than silage.

  20. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  1. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  2. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic; Caracterizacao de cinzas de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) para potencial adicao em massa de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.M.F.D.; Sales, K.A.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F., E-mail: diasilva.a@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2012-07-01

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO{sub 2}, MgO, CaO and K{sub 2}O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  3. Emisión de metano en ovinos alimentados con Pennisetum purpureum y árboles que contienen taninos condensados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Piñeiro-Vázquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados (TC contenidos en el follaje de arbóreas tropicales, sobre el consumo de materia seca y orgánica (CMS, CMO, la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y emisiones de metano (CH4 en ovinos alimentados con una ración basal de pasto Pennisetum purpureum. Cuatro ovinos de pelo con un peso vivo promedio de 21.6±2.0 kg se sometieron a cuatro tratamientos en un diseño cuadro latino 4 x 4. Los tratamientos fueron P. purpureum (PP, P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA, P. purpureum + Bursera simaruba (PPBS, y P. purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP; el follaje de las arbóreas se incluyó en 300 g/kg de MS de la ración. El consumo, la digestibilidad y la producción total de metano entérico se midieron por periodos de 23 h. La producción de metano se midió en cajas de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo y digestibilidad de la MS y materia orgánica (MO entre los tratamientos PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP no se afectaron por la inclusión de los follajes de arbóreas en la ración (P>0.05. Cuando la producción de CH4 se expresó en L/kg del CMS, CMO o consumo de fibra detergente neutro los resultados fueron similares entre tratamientos (PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP (P>0.05. Se concluye que los TC contenidos en el follaje de Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba no afectaron las emisiones de CH4 al nivel de incorporación de 30 % de la MS; tampoco se observaron efectos en el CMS, CMO, DMS y concentración molar de ácidos grasos volátiles.

  4. Evaluación del pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido del pasto maralfalfa (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum para la producción de etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Mateus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of goliath grass (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum for ethanol cellulosic Resumen : Evaluar la producción de etanol a partir de cultivos lignocelulósicos, específicamente pastos de rápido crecimiento en la región, constituye una alternativa a la demanda de biocombustibles. En la presente investigación se seleccionó el pasto Maralfalfa (Pennisetum  glaucum x Pennisetum  purpureum utilizando el pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido a diferentes temperaturas (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C y concentraciones de ácido (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (p/p, seguido de un proceso de hidrólisis enzimática utilizando celulasas y celobiosas comerciales y un proceso de hidrólisis y fermentación simultanea. La máxima producción de etanol obtenido fue 117 mg etanol/ g biomasa pretratada a 190 °C y 1,2 %(p/p de ácido sulfúrico. El líquido hidrolizado fue caracterizado calculando el porcentaje de glucosa, xilosa y lignina solubilizadas y degradadas durante el pretratamiento. Palabras clave: etanol lignocelulósico; celulosa; hemicelulosa. Abstract: The goliath grass (Pennisetum  glaucum x Pennisetum  purpureum was pretreated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (w/w from low to high temperatures (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF of remaining solids. The maximum yield was 117 mg of ethanol/g biomass to 190 °C and 1.2 % (w/w of sulfuric acid. Key words: lignocellulosic ethanol; hemicelluloses; cellulose.

  5. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum americanum × P. purpureum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Zhang, Xuehong; Gao, Bo; Li, Zhian; Xia, Hanping; Li, Haifang; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schumach × P. thyphoideum Rich). Leaf shape was more sensitive to Cd than biomass and root length. Leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg −1 Cd. High Cd pollution significantly increased the chlorophyll content of young leaves but showed no effect on mature leaves. Cd enhanced the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax), light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP). For roots, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and Ca. For stems, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca, while had a negative relationship with Mn. For leaves, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and K, while had a negative relationship with Mn and Ca. Plant tissues accumulated 98, 21 and 26 mg kg −1 Cd in roots, stems and leaves, respectively, and extracted 477 and 515 μg Cd in roots and shoots for a single plant at 30 mg kg −1 Cd, respectively. King grass would require 23–290 years to remediate contaminated soil with 8–100 mg kg −1 Cd. It could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha −1 Cd and produce 216–375 t ha −1 of fresh biomass and 28–79 t ha −1 of dry biomass each year. In summary, king grass had high biomass production and phytoremediation potential. - Highlights: • The effect of Cd on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of energy crop, king grass was investigated. • Plant leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg −1 soil Cd. • Plant could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha −1 Cd and produce 28–79 t ha −1 of dry biomass each year under 8–100 mg kg −1 soil Cd

  6. Biomass production and nutrients extraction by the elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum schum.) cv Guacu; Producao de biomassa e extracao de nutrientes pelo capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum schum.) cv. Guacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Joao Batista de; Ferrari Junior, Evaldo; Werner, Joaquim Carlos; Beisman, Darcy Antonio [Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    It was developed at Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, an experiment to evaluate the biomass production, for energy ends of (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), cv Guacu, under 5 rates of nitrogen and potash fertilization. It was used a randomized block design, with 4 replications. The rates of nutrients were: 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg of N and K{sub 2} O/ha/year. Thr grass was harvested twice in every agricultural year (August and January). It was used a 20-00-20 commercial fertilizer and the application was splitted after the two annual cuts. The biomass production, as a function of the nutrients rates was described by the equation y = 31.45 + 0.13 x - 0.0004 x{sup 2} and the maximum production happened at the 162.5 kg de N e K2 O/ha/year. The production of the firs agricultural year was superior to the production of the second agricultural year. N and K were the most extracted nutrients of the soil. The concentration of energy of the grass was 4,228.35 kcal/kg and the production of energy per ha/year was 111.975 Gcal. (author)

  7. Ethanol production from sugars obtained during enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Angélica Luisi; Menegol, Daiane; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2015-09-01

    In this work, steam explosion was used a pretreatment method to improve the conversion of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) to cellulosic ethanol. This way, enzymatic hydrolysis of vaccum-drained and water-washed steam-treated substrates was carried out with Penicillium echinulatum enzymes while Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1 was used for fermentation. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the highest yield of reducing sugars was obtained from vaccum-drained steam-treated substrates that were produced after 10 min at 200 °C (863.42 ± 62.52 mg/g). However, the highest glucose yield was derived from water-washed steam-treated substrates that were produced after 10 min at 190 °C (248.34 ± 6.27 mg/g) and 200 °C (246.00 ± 9.60 mg/g). Nevertheless, the highest ethanol production was obtained from water-washed steam-treated substrates that were produced after 6 min at 200 °C. These data revealed that water washing is a critical step for ethanol production from steam-treated elephant grass and that pretreatment generates a great deal of water soluble inhibitory compounds for hydrolysis and fermentation, which were partly characterized as part of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioremoval of lead using Pennisetum purpureum augmented with Enterobacter cloacae-VITPASJ1: A pot culture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anamika; Belgaonkar, Priyanka; Raman, Aditya S; Banu, Sofia; Osborne, Jabez W

    2017-06-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal discharged into the ecosystem from various industries. Biological remediation strategies have been effective in the bioremoval of lead. In our current study, a phytobacterial system using Pennisetum purpureum along with lead-resistant bacterium (LRB) was employed for the uptake of lead. The LRB was obtained from lead-contaminated sites. The isolate VITPASJ1 was found to be highly tolerant to lead and was identified as an effective plant growth-promoting bacterium. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed VITPASJ1 to be the closest neighbour of Enterobacter cloacae. The lead-resistant gene pbrA in the plant and the bacterium were amplified using a specific primer. The uptake of lead was studied by phytoremediation and rhizoremediation set-ups where the soil was supplemented with various concentrations of lead (50, 100, 150 mg/kg). The plants were uprooted at regular intervals, and the translocation of lead into the plant was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The root length, shoot height and chlorophyll content were found to be higher in the rhizoremediation set-up when compared to the phytoremediation set-up. The scanning electron microscopic micrographs gave a clear picture of increased tissue damage in the root and shoot of the phytoremediation set-up as compared to the rhizoremediation set-up with LRB.

  9. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of threecultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. Thecultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments withfour replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 wasfound in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found inGk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantlydifferent, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can beconcluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gkcultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. Atreproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase

  10. Differencial rumen protozoa counting from steers fed Napier elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum at different maturity stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Machado Nogueira Filho

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Capim elefante Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum colhido em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento: a 1,30 m de altura e 17,54% de matéria seca; b 2,35 m de altura e 25,84% de matéria seca; e c 3,25 m de altura e 26,31% de matéria seca, foi fornecido “ad libitum" a 8 bovinos com 5/8 de sangue europeu-zebu, com 220 kg de peso vivo médio, providos de fístulas ruminais. Todos receberam 1,5 kg de uma mistura concentrada com 24,10% de proteína bruta. Os tratamentos foram comparados em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo que na quarta semana de cada período experimental colheram-se amostras de líquido de rúmen antes da oferta dos alimentos, para contagens diferenciais dos seguintes gêneros de protozoários ciliados e auferir suas concentrações por mililitro: Entodinium spp; Diplodinium spp; Eudiplodinium spp e Polyptastron spp. Os resultados mostraram que os protozoários ciliados do gênero Entodinium predominaram com 96,73% do total da população desses microorganismos. O número de Entodinium spp decresceu com a maturação da planta: a 18,2 x 104/ml; b 12,1 x 104/ml; e c 9,8 x 104/ml.

  11. Selección de accesiones de Pennisetum purpureum para fomentar sistemas de alimentación ganadera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset Castañeda

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la variación de cuatro accesiones de Pennisetum purpureum (NH2, MF-24, NO2 e Híbrido-31, en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo de mediana fertilidad, durante la fase inicial del proceso de selección. Las accesiones se evaluaron en ambas épocas del año, a partir de las estimaciones y mediciones propuestas en la metodología para la evaluación de especies creada por la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey y aprobada por la Subcomisión Nacional de Variedades de Pastos y Forrajes de Cuba . No se utilizó riego ni fertilización. Se midió la altura de la planta; la hojosidad, el vigor y la cobertura; las afectaciones por insectos fitófagos y patógenos y por clorosis; así como el rendimiento de biomasa. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales (ACP demostraron que la variabilidad total fue moderadamente alta (76,50 % en las dos épocas del año. La accesión Híbrido-31 mostró el mejor comportamiento agronómico en el periodo lluvioso (3,40 t MS/ha y 105,15 cm de altura y la NO2 superó al resto en el poco lluvioso (1,8 t y 100,1 cm. Se demostró que las accesiones se adaptaron en mayor o menor grado a las condiciones de suelo y manejo impuestas, y que fueron tolerantes. Es recomendable continuar la evaluación de las mejores accesiones en condiciones de pastoreo simulado y en otras condiciones edafoclimáticas contrastantes, para seleccionar variedades precomerciales.

  12. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum dry matter (DMD % were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc and bags (Vb per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE of mean DMD. The adequate number of bags to be used was the one that produced a value of 1 % (SE of the study. Precision increased as the number of cows increased, with mean SE of 1.66, 1.18 and 0.96 % for one, two and three cows, respectively. Precision remained more or less constant for incubation times of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 48 h, with respective values of 0.93, 0.81, 1.05, 0.92 and 1.08 %. The SE values doubled at 24 (2.15 and 72 (1.92 h. The EE diminished as the number of bags increased, being the values higher for one cow than for two or three cows, but these differences were slight when 10 bags were used. The use of two cows seems reasonable, since the increase in precision from one to two cows was greater than from two to three cows. Three bags were the minimum necessary to estimate the SE value of 1%.

  13. Efeito da inclusão de polpa cítrica peletizada na confecção de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. Effect of pelleted citrus pulp inclusion on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da idade de corte do capim-elefante cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e da inclusão da polpa sobre a qualidade fermentativa e a estabilidade aeróbia da silagem, além de elaborar um índice de recomendação da inclusão de polpa cítrica, em função do teor de umidade do capim, para reduzir os custos com esta tecnologia. Foram confeccionados silos de laboratório (capacidade de 6 litros e testados 20 tratamentos (quatro repetições, correspondentes a cinco idades de crescimento do capim (40, 60, 80, 100 ou 120 dias após corte de nivelamento e quatro níveis de inclusão de polpa cítrica peletizada (0, 3, 6 ou 9%, com base na matéria natural do capim, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4. Houve efeito da interação idade de corte × nível de polpa sobre as concentrações de ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, a relação lático/acético, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a temperatura máxima, mas não para a concentração de álcool, a digestibilidade in vitro da MS, o tempo para atingir a temperatura máxima, a taxa para elevação da temperatura e o tempo para elevação da temperatura em 2ºC. A inclusão de polpa melhorou o perfil fermentativo das silagens, com efeito mais pronunciado em silagens produzidas com capins mais novos. Com base no teor de ácido acético e em derivações da equação de superfície gerada, foi possível obter a recomendação de inclusão de 0,7% de polpa cítrica (com base na matéria natural do capim para cada unidade percentual de MS que o capim possuir abaixo de 32. Portanto, o nível ótimo de inclusão de polpa que otimiza a qualidade da silagem é igual a (32 - MS x 0,7.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the effects of regrowth age of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier, and citrus pulp addition on the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of their silage. In addition to that, this research also aimed

  14. Pennisetum purpureum Schum.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Elephant grass has been proposed for the energy sector as a possible source of renewable energy, because of its high biomass production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the mineral nutrients nitrogen and potassium on the morpho-agronomic traits (dry mater yield (DMY), percentage of.

  15. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto elefante (pennisetum purpureum) a partir de diferentes biofertilizantes en la Finca Los robles de la Fundación Universitaria de Popayán

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Ramos, Claudia Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2016 En Colombia, el pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) se ha introducido como una alternativa de alimentación animal que pueda satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales y por ser una especie de crecimiento resistente a condiciones extremas de temperatura. El presente documento reporta los resultados del trabajo de investigación titulado “Eva...

  16. Efecto de dos inhibidores de la nitrificación sobre la concentración de nitratos en pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez G. Hugo

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon dos inhibidores de la nitrificación (Sulfatiazol, N- Serve y las tendencias de la conversión de amonio a nitrato en el suelo y la concentración de este ión en el pasto según la fuente (Urea, Nitrón 26 y las dosis de nitrógeno (100, 200 kg/ha. Las concentraciones de nitratos en los suelos y en el tejido vegetal tendieron a incrementarse a medida que aumentaban los niveles de fertilización. La efectividad de los inhibidores se encuentra determinada por los niveles de fertilización y, en algunos casos, por las condiciones medio ambientales presentes.It was compared the grade of inhibition of two inhibitors products of the nitrification (Sulfatiazol, N - Serve and the tendencies on the conversion of ammonium into nitrate in the ground and the concentration of this ion on Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Depending on the source (urea, Nitrón 26 and the quantity of nitrogen (100, 200 kq/ha. The concentrations of nitrates on the grounds and the vegetal tissue stretched to intensity at the same time as were increase the levels of nitrogenous. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is determined for the employed levels and in some cases for the present environment conditions.

  17. Pengaruh pemberian Azolla (Azolla microphyla, Kaulfuss dan mikroorganisme efektif terhadap produksi rumput raja (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumacher & Thonn c.v King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Yuniati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at determining the influence of azolla compost and effective microorganism (EM application on the production of King Grass at the 1st and the 2nd cuttings at Sumbersekar field laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry Brawijaya University for four months. The Randomized Block Factorial design was applied with two factors. The first factor was EM4 consists of E1 (EM4 addition and E0 (without EM4. The second factor was the dosage of fertilizer consists of A100 (100% azolla + 0% urea, A75 (75% azolla + 25% urea, A50 (50% azolla + 50% urea, A25 (25% azolla + 75% urea and A0 (0% azolla + 100% urea. The parameters observed comprised the number of tillers, plant height, dry matter (DM leaf production, organic matter (OM content, crude protein (CP content. The study indicates that there were interaction (P<0.05 between EM4 and fertilizer (azolla dosage on plant height, total OM, total CP, DM leaf production, DM stem production, total DM production, and total CP production at the first cutting. Then, at the second cutting there were interaction (P<0.05 among treatments on the number of tillers, total OM, total CP, DM leaf pro-duction, total DM production, and total CP. At the first cutting, the highest values of plant height, leaf OM, stem OM, leaf CP, stem CP, OM production were 86.39%, 92.40%, 7.85%, and 3.89% respectively found at ElA25. Furthermore, at the second cutting the best treatment were ElA25 in which the value of leaf CP content and total DM content were 8.08% and 4.64 kg/plot respectively. The leaf DM production and stem OM content at the first cutting were higher than those at the second cutting. It can be concluded that azolla can substitute the role of urea by 25%.

  18. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  19. Intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos por ingestão de Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante e Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante no sertão da Paraíba Nitrate and nitrite poisoning in cattle caused by the ingestion of Echinochloa polystachya and Pennisetum purpureum in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane M.T. Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos na região semi-árida do estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro surto foi causado por Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante e os demais por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante e ocorreram após um período prolongado de seca, após o início das primeiras chuvas. Em um dos surtos causado por Pennisetum purpureum, uma parte da área onde estava o pasto que continha níveis altos de nitratos havia sido fertilizada com esterco de bovino. No primeiro surto morreram 5 bovinos de um total de 11, no segundo morreram 21 de um total de 81 e no terceiro morreram 3 de um total de 19 bovinos. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram por anorexia, dispnéia, ranger de dentes, depressão ou hiperexitabilidade, tremores, contrações abdominais, salivação, corrimento nasal, andar cambaleante, mucosas cianóticas e, finalmente, decúbito. A presença de nitratos e nitritos foi detectada no sangue dos animais e nos pastos por meio da prova de difenilamina. Parece que o principal fator que determinou a concentração de altos níveis de nitratos nas plantas foi a ocorrência de chuvas depois de um longo período de seca. Outro fator importante no surto causado por Pennisetum purpureum foi a fertilização do solo com esterco.Three outbreaks of nitrate poisoning are reported from the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. One outbreak caused by Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante and two others caused by Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante occurred at the end of the dry season, after the first rains. In one of the outbreaks caused by Pennisetum purpureum part of the pasture had been fertilized with cattle manure. Five out of 11 cattle died on one farm, 27 out of 81 on another, and 3 out of 9 on a third one. Clinical signs were anorexia, respiratory distress, teeth grinding, depression or hyperexitability, tremors, abdominal contractions

  20. Produção e avaliação de briquetes de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cultivados com doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juscileia de Souza Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de briquetes surge como uma forma alternativa no reaproveitamento de resíduos lignocelulósicos, concentrando a energia disponível na biomassa, visando a problemática do armazenamento de resíduos, produzindo biocombustível. O objetivo desse trabalho foi produzir briquetes utilizando resíduo de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cultivar Carajás, adubado com diferentes doses de nitrogênio avaliando quanto à descompressão, índice de combustão (ICOM, massa, volume, densidade, altura e diâmetro. O capim elefante recebeu dosagens de 200 e 400 kg de N/ha. A coleta foi realizada em diferentes épocas: 60, 75 e 90 dias. Após a coleta, o material foi armazenado em sacos de fibra e deixado para climatizar com temperatura e umidade controlada (20ºC e 60%. O material foi triturado com o auxílio de um moinho. Posteriormente, para cada briquete produzido pesou-se 40 g de biomassa, na qual foi compactada em uma prensa hidráulica de 15 Toneladas.  A pressão utilizada foi de aproximadamente 152,7 kgf/cm² e temperatura de ±118ºC. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o fatorial 2X3. Os índices de combustão encontrados variaram de 1,93 a 3,30, tais resultados mostraram-se ótimos, pois briquetes com maior ICOM possuem qualidade superior, pois uma menor massa desse material seria consumida em menor período de tempo de combustão e uma temperatura mais elevada seria atingida. A partir da análise de regressão foi visto que o ICOM independe da densidade do briquete. As variáveis altura, volume e diâmetro não diferiram estatisticamente entre si, havendo apenas diferença estatística nos parâmetros densidade, massa e ICOM.Production and evalutation of elephant grass briquettes (Penisetum pupureum Shum. grown with nitrogen ratesAbstract: The production of briquettes is an alternative way in the reuse of lignocellulosic waste, concentrating the energy available from biomass, aimed at waste storage problem

  1. (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) and switchgrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    determined in an effort to evaluate them as raw materials for pulp and paper production. Elephant grass .... pulped using a 14% active alkali (AA) and 20% sulphidity using a .... even packaging paper(Law et al., 2001; Ververis et al.,. 2004).

  2. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM. ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas sobre o desempenho de bezerros, desmamados precocemente, submetidos ao pastejo contínuo em capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv Taiwan A-146. As fontes energéticas testadas foram a casca de soja, o grão de milho moído e o farelo de arroz integral, além da mistura múltipla desses três alimentos, fornecidos ao nível de 1% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca. A pastagem apresentou em média massa de forragem da planta inteira de 7286 kg de MS/ha, com 34,31% de folhas. O ganho de peso médio diário (GMD não foi influenciado significativamente pela fonte energética, sendo 0,867; 0,841; 0,753 e 0,817 kg para a casca de soja, grão de milho, farelo de arroz integral e mistura múltipla, respectivamente. O GMD apresentou comportamento quadrático (1,119-0,024X+0,00034X2 frente aos períodos experimentais. O peso final dos bezerros suplementados com grão de milho (162 kg foi maior que os suplementados com farelo de arroz integral (156 kg, ambos não diferindo dos suplementados com casca de soja (160 kg ou mistura múltipla (158 kg. O estado corporal final foi maior nos animais que receberam a casca de soja ou a mistura múltipla (3,62 e 3,64 pontos, respectivamente em relação àqueles que receberam milho ou farelo de arroz integral (3,48 e 3,43 pontos, respectivamente como suplemento. Palavras chaves: Casca de soja, estado corporal, farelo de arroz integral, ganho de peso, grão de milho ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effect of different energetic sources on the performance of early weaned beef calves, submitted to continuous grazing on pasture of Elephant Grass Taiwan A146. The energetic sources tested were ground corn grain, soybean hulls and rice bran, besides a mixture of the three energetic sources. The amount offered was equivalent to 1% of the live weight, dry matter basis

  3. Predição do consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação Prediction of the voluntary intake of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack grazing by Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Ferraz Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação, utilizando-se procedimentos de stepwise em regressões múltiplas, aplicados a um banco de dados de experimentos conduzidos ao longo de três anos na Embrapa Gado de Leite (Coronel Pacheco, MG. As variáveis independentes disponíveis foram relacionadas a características inerentes às vacas (dias em lactação; teores de proteína, gordura e extrato seco total e produções destes componentes no leite; produção de leite in natura ou corrigida para 4% de gordura; ordem de lactação; peso vivo atual; peso vivo ao parto e grau de sangue Holandês x Zebu; ao manejo (dias de pastejo; disponibilidade de forragem e período de descanso da pastagem; ao ambiente (estação do ano e precipitação pluviométrica e à alimentação (digestibilidade in vitro e parâmetros da composição química do pasto de capim-elefante e da cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum (L. corrigida com 1% de uréia; consumos de suplemento volumoso (cana corrigida com uréia e concentrado; concentrações fecais de proteína bruta e de fibras em detergente neutro e ácido. Efeitos linear e quadrático e transformações logarítmicas foram adicionalmente incluídos no banco de dados. Foram obtidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (expresso em kg/vaca/dia ou % do peso vivo com coeficientes de determinação de 65,2 a 67,0%. As principais variáveis independentes incluídas nas equações foram o consumo do suplemento volumoso usado na estação seca do ano (cana corrigida com uréia; a digestibilidade in vitro do pasto de capim-elefante; a precipitação pluviométrica; a produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura; o peso vivo atual ou, em alternativa a este, o valor da pesagem realizada após o parto da vaca; além do consumo de suplemento concentrado, que evidenciou um

  4. Adubação fosfatada e níveis críticos de fósforo no solo para manutenção da produtividade do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier Phosphorus fertilization and soil phosphorus critical levels for the maintenance of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Melo Moreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual da adubação fosfatada de implantação sobre a produção de MS e os valores de níveis críticos de fósforo no solo para manutenção do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier. Os tratamentos foram arranjados segundo fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, em blocos casualizados com três repetições, e consistiram de duas formas de aplicação de fósforo (localizada no fundo do sulco e distribuída no sulco com incorporação, dois espaçamentos entre linhas de plantio (0,5 e 1,0 m e cinco doses de fósforo (0, 30, 60, 100 e 150 kg/ha de P e a 0, 60, 120, 200 e 300 kg/ha, para as aplicações localizada e distribuída, respectivamente. Foram efetuadas sete colheitas (cortes das plantas nos sulcos (linhas centrais da parcela, correspondente a 2 m². Após pesagem da forragem colhida, amostras foram retiradas para determinação dos teores de MS. Amostras de solo também foram colhidas sobre as linhas de plantas após cada corte, para determinação dos teores de fósforo disponível pelo extrator Mehlich-1. Após cada corte, foi feita adubação em cobertura com nitrogênio e potássio (67 kg/ha de N e K2O utilizando-se sulfato de amônio e cloreto de potássio. A adubação fosfatada apresentou efeitos residuais sobre a produção de MS do capim-elefante durante dois anos após o estabelecimento da forrageira. Maiores produções foram verificadas no espaçamento de 0,5 m entre linhas de plantio. A forma de aplicação do fertilizante não influenciou o rendimento de MS. Os níveis críticos de fósforo no solo mostraram-se estáveis com a sucessão de cortes, apresentando maiores valores para o espaçamento de 1,0 m e na forma distribuída e incorporada no sulco para os dois espaçamentos.The experiment was conducted over two years to evaluate the residual effect of phosphate fertilizer application on the DM yield and the soil P critical levels for maintenance of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv

  5. EFEITO DAS ÉPOCAS DE DIFERIMENTO NA PRODUÇÃO E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum SCHUM. Cv. Cameroon EFFECT OF CLOSING OUT DATES ON THE PRODUCTION AND THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (Pennisetum purpureum SCHUM. Cv. CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Roberto de Carvalho Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o efeito de três épocas de diferimento sobre a produção e a composição química do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Cameroon, cultivado em latossolo vermelho-amarelo, em área do Departamento de Produção Animal da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Goiânia - GO. Utilizou-se um delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x4, com quatro repetições, para estudar as três épocas de diferimento (17/01, 14/02 e 14/03/1990 e as quatro épocas de utilização (20/05, 20/06, 18/07 e 15/08/1990. Os resultados demonstraram que, se a capineira for utilizada mais para o início do período da seca, ela deverá ser diferida em janeiro ou fevereiro. Caso seja utilizada mais para o final da seca, o diferimento deverá ocorrer em março. Quanto aos teores de proteína, constatou-se que o capim-elefante atendeu às exigências dos animais em apenas uma utilização (diferimento em março e uso em maio. Com relação às outras variáveis (MS, FB, Ca e P, concluiu-se que o capim cortado mais novo foi sempre melhor que nos estágios mais avançados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ca; fibra bruta; proteína bruta; P.

    The effects of three closing out dates and four harvesting dates on the production and chemical composition of an elephant grass soilage area were studied. The experiment was carried out in the Departamento de Produção Animal at the UFG, in Goiânia-GO, during the year of 1990. It was used a completely randomized block design according to a factorial scheme 3x4 with four replications, three closing out dates and four harvesting dates. The closing out dates were: January, February and March and the sampling dates were: May, June, July and August. If the soilage is going to be utilized just at the beginning of the

  6. EFFECT OF GRASS TAIWAN (Pennisetum purpureum AND RAMON (Brosimum alicastrum SILAGE SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHANGE OF BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD VARIABLES IN COLLARED PECCARY (Pecarí tajacu IN CAPTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the weight changes, level of hematocrit and serum total protein to supplement the diet of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu with a silage mixture of grass Taiwan (Pennisetum purpureum and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum a voluntary consumption test was performed for five weeks. Using eleven non-pregnant adult females, with mean age of 4.5 years and weighing 19.15 kg (± 0.5 kg, two groups were formed: one of five animals which offered squash (Cucurbita pepo and corn (Zea mays, and another of six animals on a diet of squash, corn and silage at 50%. Were taken blood samples and record weight every seven days. T-student test were used to compare means of two independent samples.  There were no differences between the means of the weights and blood proteins levels of individuals. The use of a silage mixture of grass and fodder cutting is a viable option to supplement the diet of nonpregnant adult females.

  7. Adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre a composição química e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080 Microbial inoculants addition on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de dois inoculantes microbianos e 1 inoculante enzimo-microbiano no capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum, ensilado em 16 silos experimentais e confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O capim foi cortado aos 97 dias de crescimento, homogeneizado e submetido a tratamentos com 4 repetições: controle, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 120 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Embora de magnitude pequena, o Sil-All® aumentou a MS, o Pioneer aumentou as concentrações de NIDA e o Silobac® aumentou a FDA e a celulose. Em comparação com o tratamento-controle, o Pioneer e o Silobac melhoraram consideravelmente a relação lático:acético, o Pioneer baixou o pH e melhorou a estabilidade aeróbia.Elephant grass was harvested at 97th day and ensiled in 16 plastic experimental silos, consisting of 4 treatments: control, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp., and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 120 days after ensiling and sampled to proceede chemical analyses. Sil-All increased DM, Pioneer increased ADIN concentration and Silobac increased ADF and cellulose contents of silage. Comparing to control Pioneer and Silobac improved consistently the lactic:acetic ratio, Pioneer decreased pH and improved aerobic stability.

  8. Physiological and morphological effects of high water tables on early growth of giant reed (Arundo donax), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), energycane and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennewein, Stephen Peter [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Here, an increasing demand for renewable energy sources has spurred interest in high-biomass crops used for energy production. Species potentially well-suited for biofuel production in the seasonally wet organic Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida include giant reed (Arundo donax), elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum), energycane (Saccharum spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). The objectives in this study were to evaluate the role of fluctuating water tables on the morphology, physiology, and early season growth of these four genotypes. The candidate genotypes were grown in a greenhouse under three water table depths, defined by distance of the water table from the soil surface: two constant water tables (-16 cm and -40 cm) along with a flood cycle (2 weeks of flood to the soil level followed by 2 weeks at -40 cm from the soil level). The genotypes included CP 89-2143 (sugarcane), L 79-1002 (energycane), Merkeron (elephant grass), and wild type (giant reed). The experiment was repeated for plant cane, first ratoon, and successive plant cane crop cycles. Reductions in dry matter yield were observed among genotypes subjected to the -40 cm drained, periodically flooded (40F) water table relative to the -40 cm constant (40C) or -16 cm constant (16C). Plant cane dry weights were reduced by 37% in giant reed, 52% in elephant grass, 42% in energycane, and 34% in sugarcane in the 40F compared to 40C water table treatments. Similarly, in the first ratoon crop dry weights were reduced by 29% in giant reed, 42% in elephant grass, 27% in energycane, and 62% in sugarcane. In plant cane and successive plant cane, average total dry weight was greatest for elephant grass whereas ratoon total dry weight was greatest for energycane. Genotype had more pronounced effects on physiological attributes than water table including the highest stomatal conductance and SPAD values in giant reed, and the highest stalk populations in elephant grass and

  9. Massas de lâminas foliares nas características produtivas e qualitativas da pastagem de capim-elefante "Pennisetum purpureum, Schum" (cv. "Taiwan" e desempenho animal Mass of leaf lamina in the produtive and qualitative characteristics of Elephantgrass "Pennisetum purpureum, Schum" (cv. Taiwan pasture and animal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Luis Míssio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para avaliar produtiva e qualitativamente a pastagem de capim elefante e o desempenho animal sob pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de oito piquetes de 0,443ha cada de capim-elefante (Pennisetun purpureum, Schum. cv. "Tawian", onde pastejaram 36 novilhos das raças Charolês, Nelore e suas cruzas, com três animais "testers" por piquete, em duas repetições. Foram estudadas as variáveis relacionadas à produtividade e à qualidade da pastagem e ao desempenho animal. As massas reais de lâminas foliares (MLF de capim-elefante foram: 1.167; 1.543; 1.926 e 2.248kg MS LF/ha, o que constitui os tratamentos. A carga animal suportada pela pastagem, pode ser descrita pela equação y=2.243,14 - 0,32MLF (R2=0,4. O peso vivo final em kg apresentou resposta quadrática (PF=103,41 + 0,114x - 0,00003x², R2=0,5 com o acréscimo da MLF. O ganho de peso diário médio apresentou comportamento linear positivo (GMD = 0,25 + 0,0002MLF, R2=0,2. O aumento na massa de lâminas foliares de capim-elefante acarreta diminuição na carga animal suportada pela pastagem e aumenta o ganho de peso médio diário.The experiment was conducted at the animal science department of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, to evaluate productive and qualitative characteristics of elephantgrass pasture and animal performance under grazing. The experimental area consisted of eight paddocks of 0.443 ha of elephantgrass (Pennisetun purpureum, Schum. cv. Taiwam, where 36 Charolais, Nelore and crossbred were kept, with three tester animals per paddock, with two repetitions. Variables related to pasture production and quality and animal performance were studied. Real leaf lamina masses (LLM of elephantgrass were: 1.167; 1.543; 1.926 and 2.248kg of dry matter of leaf lamina/ha, constituting the treatments. Stocking rate (y=2.243.14 - .32LLM, R2=.4, showed a negative linear relationship

  10. Herbicidal activity of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... Although, it had no phytotoxic activity on the root or shoot growth of bioassay species, it had ... mays and Eleusine indica seedlings by 11, 31, 37 and. 54%, respectively ..... might provide chemical basis for the development of.

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase gene from varieties of Pennisetum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Lu, H B; Yang, F Y; Liu, S J; Bai, C J; Zhang, Y W

    2015-03-31

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an enzyme used by higher plants for sucrose synthesis. In this study, three primer sets were designed on the basis of known SPS sequences from maize (GenBank: NM_001112224.1) and sugarcane (GenBank: JN584485.1), and five novel SPS genes were identified by RT-PCR from the genomes of Pennisetum spp (the hybrid P. americanum x P. purpureum, P. purpureum Schum., P. purpureum Schum. cv. Red, P. purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan, and P. purpureum Schum. cv. Mott). The cloned sequences showed 99.9% identity and 80-88% similarity to the SPS sequences of other plants. The SPS gene of hybrid Pennisetum had one nucleotide and four amino acid polymorphisms compared to the other four germplasms, and cluster analysis was performed to assess genetic diversity in this species. Additional characterization of the SPS gene product can potentially allow Pennisetum to be exploited as a biofuel source.

  12. Efecto de la gallinaza y del estiércol bovino frescos sobre la producción de forraje de la gramínea King grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. americanum Burton en un andosol de Cajibio-Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León C. Pedro R.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta en el rendimiento del "King qrass" a la aplicación de fertilizantes orgánicos, úrea y cal dolomítica. Los mayores rendimientos de forraje seco se obtuvieron con la aplicación por corte de tres toneladas de gallinaza/ha, aunque no fue diferente estadísticamente del tratamiento con úrea (200 kg de N/ha. A pesar de ésto, parecen poco recomendables cantidades mayores de 1 t de gallinaza/ha y 50 kg de N/ha-corte, tratamientos que obtuvieron igual comportamiento en cuanto a rendimiento se refiere. La producción no respondió a las aplicaciones de cal.The yield response of "King grass" Pennisetum purpureum x P. americanum Burton, to an organic and urea fertilization was evaluated under and andosol at the departamento del Cauca, Colombia. The treatments with lime (O and 2 t of dolomitic lime/ha showed no statistical difference. The highest dry forage yields for "King grass" were obtained with three t of hen-dung/ha/cut although there was no difference with urea (200 kg of N/ ha/cut. Nevertheless, quantities greater than 1 t of hen-dung/ha/cut and 50 kg of N/ha/cut are not recommended, since they showed the same behavior as to yield is concerned.

  13. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  14. Composição Bromatológica, Disponibilidade de Forragem e Índice de Área Foliar de 17 Genótipos de Capim-Elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. sob Pastejo, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Manoel Messias Pereira da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido entre outubro de 1998 e janeiro de 1999, no setor de forragicultura da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Foram avaliados os teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, a produção de matéria seca da forragem disponível e o índice de área foliar de 17 genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., 15 clones de capim-elefante: CNPGL 91-19-1, CNPGL 91-10-5, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-02-5, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-13-2, CNPGL 91-25-3, CNPGL 91-10-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-11-2, CNPGL 91-34-1, CNPGL 91-27-1, CNPGL 91-28-1, CNPGL 91-06-3, CNPGL 91-17-5 e duas cultivares, MINEIRO e TAIWAN A-146, provenientes do BAGCE da EMBRAPA Gado de Leite. Os genótipos foram submetidos ao pastejo, na época das águas, por grupos de 10 a 13 vacas secas com peso vivo médio de 500 kg, por um período de 1 a 2 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em três ciclos de pastejo. Os genótipos CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-10-2, CNPGL 91-25-3, CNPGL 91-10-5 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram maiores teores de proteína bruta e menores valores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido. De modo geral, a composição bromatológica foi influenciada negativamente pelo ciclo após ciclo de pastejo. Não houve diferenças na produção de matéria seca dos genótipos. Os genótipos CNPGL 91-02-5 e CNPGL 91-11-2 apresentaram IAF extremos de 7,08 e 6,67, respectivamente. Houve diferenças do primeiro para os demais ciclos de pastejo, tanto para a produção de matéria seca como para o índice de área foliar.

  15. Número cromossômico em acessos de Pennisetum spp. (Poaceae, Poales = Chromosome number in Pennisetum spp. accessions (Poaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o complemento cromossômico de 16 acessos de Pennisetum disponíveis na Coleção de Germoplasma da Embrapa Gado de Leite – Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais. Para a avaliação citogenética, utilizou-se a técnica de esmagamento e coloração com Feulgen. Paraquatro acessos foram obtidas metáfases com 2n = 28 cromossomos, confirmando sua classificação como P. purpureum. A origem híbrida P. purpureum x P. glaucum foi constatada em oito acessos, os quais apresentaram 2n = 21. Em um acesso identificado como híbrido entre P.purpureum x P. glaucum, foram observadas metáfases com 2n = 54, permitindo inferir que não se trata de um híbrido interespecífico triplóide. Para outros três acessos avaliados, também foramobservadas células com 2n = 54, embora estivessem identificados como híbridos entre P. purpureum x espécie selvagem; P. glaucum policross x hexaplóide 200 e P. glaucum x [F92-161-01 (P. purpureum x P. glaucum].The chromosome complement of 16 Pennisetum accessions belonging to the Germplasm Collection of Embrapa Gado de Leite - Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State was evaluated. The cytogenetic analysis employed the smear technique and staining with Feulgen. In four accessions,metaphases with 2n = 28 chromosomes were obtained, confirming their classification as P. purpureum. The hybrid origin P. purpureum x P. glaucum was observed in eight accessions, which presented 2n = 21. In an accession identified as P. purpureum x P. glaucum hybrid, metaphases with 2n = 54 were observed, suggesting that it is not a triploid interspecific hybrid. For three other evaluated accessions, cells with 2n=54 were also observed, although they were identified ashybrids between P. purpureum x wild species; P. glaucum polycross x hexaploid 200 and P. glaucum x [F92-161-01 (P. purpureum x P. glaucum].

  16. Embriogênese somática em híbridos de Pennisetum sp. e avaliação de estabilidade genômica por citometria Somatic embryogenesis in hybrids of Pennisetum sp. and genomic stability evaluation by cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcello Salabert de Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer um protocolo eficiente de embriogênese somática, em híbridos triploides entre capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. e milheto (P. glaucum (L. R. Br., e avaliar por citometria de fluxo a estabilidade genômica das plantas obtidas in vitro. A embriogênese somática e a regeneração das plantas foram estabelecidas a partir de embriões zigóticos maduros de híbridos entre capim elefante e milheto. Foram testados quatro tratamentos com 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4 D, nas concentrações 0, 1, 2 e 3 mg L-1, para indução de calos embriogênicos, e dois tratamentos com inositol a 1 e 2 g L-1, para regeneração das plantas. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. A combinação ótima de hormônios foi de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4 D, para indução de calos embriogênicos, e de 1 g L-1 de inositol, para conversão de embriões e regeneração de plantas. A análise de quantidade de DNA, por citometria de fluxo das plantas regeneradas, indicou a não ocorrência de alterações em ploidia durante a embriogênese somática e a regeneração das plantas. A quantidade de DNA nuclear e a ploidia das plantas regeneradas foram estáveis e homogêneas em comparação às das plantas controle. Não ocorreu instabilidade cariotípica no sistema de regeneração usado para híbridos de Pennisetum.The objectives of this study were to establish an efficient protocol for somatic embryogenesis in triploid hybrids between napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. and pearl millet (P. glaucum (L. R. Br., and to assess the genomic stability by flow cytometry of the plants obtained in vitro. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were successfully established from mature zygotic embryos of napiergrass and pearl millet hybrids. Four treatments with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D at 0, 1, 2 e 3 mg L-1 were tested for embryogenic calli induction and two treatments with

  17. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  18. Efeito de aditivos biológicos comerciais na silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum Effect of commercial biological additives on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Patrizi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o pH e a composição bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante var. Napier, sem e com três aditivos biológicos comerciais (B, C e D em duas concentrações de diluição, a recomendada pelo fabricante (concentração 1 ou com o dobro (concentração 2, feitas em microsilos de PVC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e seis repetições por tratamento. Apenas o aditivo B em ambas as concentrações (3,73; 4,07 foi eficiente em reduzir (PA completely randomized design with seven treatments and six replicates per treatment was conducted to study the effect of three commercial biological additives (B, C and D, in two concentrations (manufacturer’s recommended dose - concentration 1 or double dose -concentration 2 on pH and chemical composition of elephantgrass (var. Napier silage. A lower pH (P<0.05 was observed in silage with additive B at concentrations 1 (pH=3.73 and concentration 2 (pH=4.07, when compared to the control treatment (pH=5.01. Silage dry matter (% increased (P<0.05 with the use of additive B at concentrations 1 and 2 (29.9% and 31.3 %, respectively and additives C and D at concentration 2 (26.8% and 25.7%, respectively in comparison to the control treatment (24.0%. Silage with additive B had higher crude protein levels than the control treatment (6.6% at concentrations 1 (13.4% and 2 (12.1%. Lignin and neutral detergent fiber levels were lower (P<0.05 for treatments with additive B. The use of doble level of additive B did not increase its efficiency. All additives increased calcium concentration, but not phosphorus concentration. These results indicated that additive B (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici improved elephantgrass silage fermentation process and its nutritional value. Increasing commercial biological additives above the manufacturer’s recommended level did not improve (P<0.05 silage quality.

  19. Diferenças Varietais nas Características Fotossintéticas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum Varietal Differences in the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum, Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL 91-10-2 selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA, clorofila b (CHB e carotenóides (CRT mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC. Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd, da irradiância de compensação (Ic, do rendimento quântico (f e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético.Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR. Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd, light compensation point (Ic, quantum yield (f and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.

  20. Evaluation of the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) aiming the coal fuel production; Avaliacao do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) visando o carvoejamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Joao Batista de; Ferrari Junior, Evaldo; Beisman, Darcy Antonio; Werner, Joaquim Carlos; Ghisi, Odete Maria A.A.; Leite, Vanderley Benedito de Oliveira [Instituto de Zootecnica, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    It was conducted, in the research farms of the Instituto de Zootecnia, at Nova Odessa and Brotas, 2 experiments to evaluate dry matter yield of elephant grass, cv Guacu, upon 4 rates of nitrogen (50, 100, 200 or 400 kg N/ha/year) and 3 cut frequencies (2, 3 or 4 cuts/year). The experiments were set in randomized block design, with 4 replications. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial. The dry matter yield increased as nitrogen rates increased and cut frequency decreased. (author)

  1. Número cromossômico em acessos de Pennisetum spp. (Poaceae, Poales - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5016 Chromosome number in Pennisetum spp. accessions (Poaceae, Poales - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vander Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o complemento cromossômico de 16 acessos de Pennisetum disponíveis na Coleção de Germoplasma da Embrapa Gado de Leite – Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais. Para a avaliação citogenética, utilizou-se a técnica de esmagamento e coloração com Feulgen. Para quatro acessos foram obtidas metáfases com 2n = 28 cromossomos, confirmando sua classificação como P. purpureum. A origem híbrida P. purpureum x P. glaucum foi constatada em oito acessos, os quais apresentaram 2n = 21. Em um acesso identificado como híbrido entre P. purpureum x P. glaucum, foram observadas metáfases com 2n = 54, permitindo inferir que não se trata de um híbrido interespecífico triplóide. Para outros três acessos avaliados, também foram observadas células com 2n = 54, embora estivessem identificados como híbridos entre P. purpureum x espécie selvagem; P. glaucum policross x hexaplóide 200 e P. glaucum x F92-161-01 ( P. purpureum x P. glaucum .The chromosome complement of 16 Pennisetum accessions belonging to the Germplasm Collection of Embrapa Gado de Leite - Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State was evaluated. The cytogenetic analysis employed the smear technique and staining with Feulgen. In four accessions, metaphases with 2n = 28 chromosomes were obtained, confirming their classification as P. purpureum. The hybrid origin P. purpureum x P. glaucum was observed in eight accessions, which presented 2n = 21. In an accession identified as P. purpureum x P. glaucum hybrid, metaphases with 2n = 54 were observed, suggesting that it is not a triploid interspecific hybrid. For three other evaluated accessions, cells with 2n=54 were also observed, although they were identified as hybrids between P. purpureum x wild species; P. glaucum polycross x hexaploid 200 and P. glaucum x [F92-161-01 (P. purpureum x P. glaucum].

  2. 40 CFR 721.10141 - Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. 721... Substances § 721.10141 Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum (PMN P-06...

  3. APLIKASI FMA DAN PUPUK KANDANG TERHADAP PRODUKSI DAN KUALITAS RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Khalidin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF and manure on production and quality of the elephant grass. The experiment used a factorial randomized completely block design, consisting of two factors: AMF and manure, with three replications. AMF consisted of two levels, i.e. without AMF and with AMF 10 g hole-1, while manure consisted of 0, 15, 30, and 45 tons ha-1. Results showedthat the best combination for crude proteinandcrude fibergrass at age of 50 days after planting was found at without AMF and 15tons ha-1of animal manure. Manure of45 tonsha-1produced higher elephantgrass production than that of30tons ha-1, 15tons ha-1, andwithoutmanure.

  4. Biogas production from anaerobic codigestion of cowdung and elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) using batch digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Agus; Hasanudin, Udin; Afrian, Chandra; Zulkarnaen, Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed at determining biogas production from codigestion of Elephant grass and cowdung using batch digester. Fresh grass was manually chopped with a maximum length of 3 cm. Chopped grass (25 kg) was perfectly mixed with fresh cowdung (25 kg). The mixture was introduced into a 220-liter batch drum digester. The substrate was diluted with water at different rates (P1 = 50 L, P2 = 75 L, and P3 = 100 L) and was stirred thoroughly. Six digesters were prepared as duplicate for each treatment. Two other digesters containing only 25 kg cowdung diluted with 25 L water were also provided as control treatment (P0). The digesters were air tightly sealed for 70 days. Observation was conducted on daily temperature, substrate pH (initial and final), TS and VS content, biogas yield and biogas composition. Results showed that final pH of grass containing substrate was in the acidic range, namely 4.50, 4.62, 6.82, whereas that of control (P0) was normal with pH of 7.30. Digester with substrate composition 25:25:100 (cowdung:grass:water) produced the highest biogas total (524.3 L). Biogas yield of codigestion, however, was much lower as compared to that of control, namely 7.35, 16.75, and 111.72 L/kg VS r respectively for treatment P1, P2, P3. with dilution rate of 50, 75, and 100 L. Biogas produced from control digester had methane content of 53.88%. In contrast, biogas resulted from all treatments contained low methane (the highest was 31.37%). Methane yield of 39.3 L/kg TS removal was achieved from digester with dilution 100 L (P3). Mechanical pretreatment is suggested to break Elephant grass down into smaller particles prior to introducing it into the digestion process.

  5. Cytotaxonomy of some species and of interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum (Poaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum showed metaphases with 2n = 54 chromosomes, while those characterized as P. nervosum had cells with 2n = 36 chromosomes. The wild accession 15 was different from the others for the morphological characters, with 2n = 36 chromosomes, and was classified as P. orientale. Two statistical procedures were used (canonical variables and cluster analysis on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance, and the results confirmed the conclusions obtained from the cytogenetic and morphologic analysis.

  6. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  7. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  8. Estabilidade da produção forrageira em clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Stability of forage production in clones of elephantgrass (Pennisetun purpureum Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Figueiredo Daher

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze clones e três cultivares de capim-elefante foram avaliados no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros de estabilidade pelas metodologias de Plaisted & Peterson (1959, Lin & Binns (1988 e Kang (1988, com base na produção de matéria seca (MS, em kg/ha.corte, num total de 12 cortes (medidas repetidas no tempo como ambientes. O clone CNPGL 91 F11-2 e a cultivar Pioneiro apresentaram alta estabilidade e produtividade pelos métodos utilizados, destacando-se como promissores para as condições de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.Fourteen clones and three cultivars of elephant grass were evaluated in a randomized block experimental design with four repetitions. The objective of this study was to estimate stability parameters related to dry matter (DM production in kg/ha.cut, based in methodologies of Plaisted & Peterson (1959, Lin & Binns (1988 and Kang (1988, resulted of twelve cuts (as environments. The clone CNPGL 91 F11-2 and Pioneiro cultivar presented high stability and production based in these methodologies, consisting in satisfactory genetic materials adapted to Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ conditions.

  9. Valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante cultivar Napier (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum inoculada com bactérias ácido-láticas Nutritional value of elephant-grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum inoculated with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ribeiro de Lima

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo do presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da silagem de capim-elefante sobre a digestibilidade total em carneiros. Doze carneiros machos e castrados foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem de capim-elefante (média de 17,2% de MS e 7,6% de PB, controle ou inoculada com o produto Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium e L. plantarum. O experimento teve duração total de 21 dias, sendo os 5 últimos destinados à coleta de fezes e urina. A inoculação não alterou a digestibilidade total da MS (inoculado = 49,9% vs. controle = 48,4%, PB (45,9% vs. 43,6%, EE (42,9% vs. 40,8%, FB (53,6% vs. 54,2%, FDN (48,6% vs. 48,0%, FDA (48,8% vs. 49,2%, amido (60,8% vs. 66,2%, NDT (44,5% vs. 41,8% ou o consumo de MS (1,36 vs. 1,63% do PV, mas tendeu (P = 0,0845 a aumentar a digestibilidade do ENN (47,3% vs. 40,6% e a diminuir (P = 0,0571 a retenção nitrogenada (–2,61 vs. –2,17 g de N/animal/dia. Os dados presentes não permitem recomendar a inoculação do capim-elefante com bactérias ácido-láticas para produção de silagens.The effects of microbial inoculated elephant-grass silage on total digestibility in sheep were evaluated. Twelve wethers were randomly assigned to two treatments: elephant-grass silage (average 17.2% DM and 7.6% CP control and microbial inoculated with Pioneer 1174 product (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Experimental period consisted of twenty-one days, the last five for feces and urine collection. Inoculation did not influence total digestibility of DM (inoculated=49.9% vs. control=48.4%, CP (45.9% vs. 43.6%, EE (42.9% vs. 40.8%, CF (53.6% vs. 54.2%, NDF (48.6% vs. 48.0%, ADF (48.8% vs. 49.2%, starch (60.8% vs. 66.2%, TDN (44.5% vs. 41.8% or DM intake (1.36 vs. 1.63% of BW. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.0845 of increasing digestibility of NFE (47.3% vs. 40.6% and decreasing (P = 0.0571 N retention (–2.61 vs. –2.17 g of N/animal/day. Present data do not recommend lactic acid bacteria for inoculation of elephant-grass silage.

  10. Aspectos produtivos do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo no brejo paraibano Productive aspects of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. var. Roxo in Paraíba swamp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes alturas de corte sobre a produtividade do capim-elefante cv. Roxo em épocas de seca e chuva no Brejo paraibano. O esquema experimental foi um fatorial 4 x 2, sendo quatro alturas de corte (0, 15, 30 e 45 cm, duas épocas (períodos seco e chuvoso e quatro blocos. Foram avaliadas as produções por hectare de massa verde (MV, matéria seca total (MS, de folhas (MSF e colmos (MSC e proteína bruta (PB. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco em intervalos de 90 dias e três no período chuvoso em intervalos de 60 dias. Não houve interação entre altura de corte e a época. Entretanto, à medida que se elevou a altura do corte, reduziram-se as produções de MV, MS e MSC. As produções de PB e MSF não diferiram. Quando elevadas as alturas dos cortes de 0 para 45 cm, houve redução de aproximadamente 33% na produção para MV, 24,83% para MSF e 60% para MSC. Os cortes no período seco foram mais produtivos em relação aos da época chuvosa. As médias das produções de MS, MV, MSF, MSC e PB foram, respectivamente, 4,12; 21,19; 2,65; 1,47 e 0,32 t/ha no período seco e 12,44; 2,45; 1,81; 0,54 e 0,17 t/ha no período chuvoso.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of different cutting heights on the productivity of elephant grass var. Roxo in dry and rainy season in the Paraíba swamp region. A randomized complete block design in a 4 X 2 factorial, arrangement, with four cutting heights (0, 15, 30 and 45 cm, two periods (dry and rainy seasons and 4 blocks were used. It was evaluated the production/ha of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM, leaves (DML, stems (DMS and crude protein (CP. After the uniformity cut, two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval and three cuts in the rainy season with 60 days interval were made. There was no interaction between seasons and cutting heights. However, as cutting height increased, the values of FM, DM and DMS productions decreased. The production of PB and MSF did not differ. When the cutting heights was evaluated from 0 to 45 cm, there was a reduction of the productions of approximately 33% for FM, 24.83% for DML and 60% for DMS. The cuts in the dry season were more productive than in the rainy season. The production averages of DM, FM, LDM, SDM and CP were: 4.12, 21.19, 2.65, 1.47 and 0.32 t/ha in the dry season, and 12.44, 2.45, 1.81, 0.54 and 0.17 ton/ha in the rainy season, respectively.

  11. Qualidade da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. emurchecido ou acrescido de farelo de mandioca Quality of elephantgrass silage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. wilted or adding cassava meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Ferrari Júnior

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a silagem de capim-elefante cv. Taiwan A-146, submetida a seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: A - capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por 8 horas; B - capim-elefante sem emurchecimento; C - capim-elefante (98% mais farelo de mandioca (2%; D - capim-elefante (96% mais farelo de mandioca (4%; E - capim-elefante (92% mais farelo de mandioca (8% e F - capim-elefante (88% mais farelo de mandioca (12%. A adição de 12% de farelo de mandioca mostrou-se mais eficiente que o emurchecimento em aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem. A adição de farelo de mandioca promoveu decréscimo no teor de proteína bruta, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e hemicelulose de forma linear, porém aumentou os teores de extrativo não nitrogenado, matéria mineral e carboidratos solúveis das silagens. Os teores de ácido lático mostraram-se baixos, indicando que o farelo de mandioca não foi utilizado de forma eficiente pelos lactobacilos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as porcentagens dos ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático nas silagens. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca podem ser utilizados como alternativas para aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem.Silage evaluation of elephantgrass cv. Taiwan A146 was done at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP-Botucatu. Six treatments were used with four replications as follows: A - elephantgrass with eight hours of wilting under the sun; B - elephantgrass; C - elephantgrass (98% plus cassava meal (2%; D - elephantgrass (96% plus cassava meal (4%; E - elephantgrass (92% plus cassava meal (8%; F - elephantgrass (88% plus cassava meal (12%. The efficiency meal (12% was greater than wilting in increasing total dry matter content. The addition of cassava led to a linear decrease in CP, OM, NDF and hemicellulose content, at the same time it increased the NFE, ASH and soluble carbohidrates contents of silages. The low levels of lactic acid showed that cassava meal was not very well processed by lactobacillus. No significant differences were observed among the acetic, propionic, butiric and lactic acid percentages of silages.

  12. Capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., sob duas doses de nitrogênio. Consumo e produção de leite Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. fertilized with two levels of nitrogen, under grazing, voluntary intake and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Guimarães Soares

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de leite, o consumo voluntário de matéria seca e a taxa de passagem da FDN no trato gastrintestinal em quatro épocas do ano (julho, outubro, janeiro e março, de vacas mestiças, sob pastejo de capim-elefante, submetido a dois níveis de nitrogênio (300 e 700 kg de N/ha•ano, foram estimados. Foi usado pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação e 30 de descanso, empregando-se 36 vacas lactantes mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em uma lotação de 6 vacas/ha. A estimativa de consumo e a taxa de passagem foram determinadas em apenas 24 animais. Para a coleta de extrusas, foram usadas duas vacas esôfago-fistuladas. O consumo foi estimado usando-se a relação produção fecal:indigestibilidade dos alimentos. A produção fecal foi estimada usando-se a FDN da extrusa marcada com dicromato de sódio fornecida em dose única. O consumo de MS total não foi influenciado pelas doses de N e por épocas do ano, com valores médios diários de 10,9 e 10,5 kg /MS•vaca para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente. Entretanto, o consumo de MS do capim-elefante foi influenciado por doses de N e épocas, com valores de 6,5 e 5,6 kg/vaca•dia para as doses de N supracitadas, respectivamente. O capim-elefante contribuiu com 26,0% da MS total ingerida, durante a época seca (julho/outubro e sua contribuição aumentou para 84,0% na época das águas (janeiro/março. A produção diária de leite não foi influenciada por doses de N, com produções médias de 11,6 e 12,3 kg de leite/vaca•dia, para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente.The milk production, the dry matter intake (DMI and the NDF passage rate in the gastrointestinal tract in four seasons (July, October, January and March, of crossbred cows, under grazing of elephant grass, submitted to two levels of nitrogen (300 and 700 kg N/ha•year were estimated. The rotation grazing with three days of occupation and 30 days of resting, using 36 crossbred Holstein Zebu milking cows, in a stocking rate of 6 cows/ha, was used. The estimates of the intake and passage rate were determined only in 24 animals. For the extrusa collection, two esophageal fistulated cows were used. The intake was estimated using the fecal output: feed indigestibility ratio. The fecal output was estimated using the NDF of the extrusa marked with sodium dichromium fed in an unique dose. The total dry matter intake was not affected by the N levels and the year seasons, with average values of 10.9 and 10.5 kg DM/cow, for the levels of 300 and 700kg N/ha•year, respectively. However, the DM intake of the elephant grass was affected by N levels and year seasons, with reported values of 6.55 e 5.63 kg/cow•day, for the above described N levels, respectively. The elephant grass contributed with 26% of the total DM intake during the dry season (July/October and its contribution increased up to 84% in the rainy season (January/March. The milk production was not affected by N levels, with reported average production of 11.6 and 12.3 kg/cow•day, for the levels of 300 and 700 kg N/ha•year, respectively.

  13. Nutrient Digestibility and Performances of Frisian Holstein Calves Fed with Pennisetum purpureum and Inoculated with Buffalo’s Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prihantoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB are potential in digesting fiber feed. BRB already adapted well with low quality forages and agricultural byproducts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB consortium inoculated into preweaning Frisian Holstein calves on nutrient digestibility, physiological status, mineral uptake, and blood profile. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of four local buffalos. The research units consisted of seven Frisian Holstein calves at two weeks old with the average body weight of 43.6±4.5 kg. Calves were inoculated with 20 mL of buffalo’s rumen bacteria isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/mL] every morning for 10 weeks. The calves were divided into two groups i.e., three calves received bacterial inoculation and four calves without any inoculation. The variables which were analyzed in the preweaning and weaning period were feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, rumen fermentation characteristics, body weight, physiological status, blood profile, and mineral status. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test. The results showed that inoculation of buffalo’s rumen bacteria into Frisian Holstein calves effectively increased feed intake, characteristics of leukocytes and neutrophils, and cobalt (Co uptake during the weaning period. Inoculation of rumen bacteria improved rumen pH during preweaning and weaning periods. Inoculation of rumen bacteria also had no negative effects on digestibility, feed conversion (FCR, average daily gain (ADG, and physiological status.

  14. Natural activities of 40K, 238U and 232Th in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Ajao, A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of elephant grass collected at some pasturing farmlands across different locations in Ibadan metropolis were analyzed for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th radionuclides. Radioactivity measurements were carried out using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average radioactivity concentration of 40 K was found to be 64.5±8.1 Bq kg -1 , 25.7±5.5 Bq kg -1 for 238 U and 33.4±3.9 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the grass in the metropolis

  15. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  16. Microsporogenesis, reproductive behavior, and fertility in five Pennisetum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.

    1984-01-01

    Microsporogenesis, reproductive behavior, pollen fertility and seed set were studied in Pennisetum basedowii Summerhayes and C. E. Hubbard, 2n=54; P. macrostachyum (Brough.) Trin., 2n=54; P. macrourum Trin., 2n=36; P. polystachion (L.) Schult, 2n=54; and P. squamulatum Fresen 2n=54. Meiosis was regular in P. basedowii with primarily bivalent pairing. As many as 54 univalents were observed at metaphase I in P. macrostachyum. A high frequency of univalents at metaphase I in P. macrourum resulted in lagging chromosomes and micronuclei at anaphase I and telophase I, respectively. Pennisetum polystachion and P. squamulatum showed frequent multivalent chromosome associations. Studies of megasporogenesis and embryo sac development in P. basedowii showed sexual reproduction. Pennisetum macrostachyum was highly male sterile with predominantly aposporous apomictic embryo sac development. Pennisetum macrourum, P. polystachion, and P. squamulatum had only aposporous embryo sac development. Pennisetum macrourum, P. polystachion, and P. squamulatum had only aposporous embryo sac development. Seed propagated progenies of these latter three species were uniform and matromorphic, confirming the obligate apomixis nature.

  17. Risico voor fruitbomen en inheemse bomen na bestrijding van Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) met loodglansschimmel (Chondrostereum purpureum) = [Risk to fruit trees and native trees due to control of black cherry (Prunus serotina) by silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The shrub Prunus serotina , introduced from North America, became a forest pest in the Netherlands. Biological control was considered using the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum , commonly present as a saprophyte and parasite in wood. C. purpureum can cause

  18. Gergithoides Schumacher, 1915 in Vietnam, with two new species, and taxonomic notes on the genus (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Gergithoides Schumacher, 1915 (Issinae, Hemisphaeriini, G. gnezdilovi sp. nov. from Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park in Central Vietnam and G. nui sp. nov. from Pia-Oac National Park in North Vietnam, are described. These are the only species of the genus formally recorded from Vietnam to date. Habitus, details and male genitalia are illustrated and a distribution map is provided. Four females representing three or four additional species, known from females only, are mentioned and illustrated. Taxonomic and biogeographical updates based on a thorough review of the literature are proposed and discussed for G. carinatifrons Schumacher, 1915, G. rugulosus (Melichar, 1906 and G. undulatus Wang & Che, 2003.

  19. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. (Smithsonian Institution, WA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  20. Forage Potential of Photoperiod-Sensitive millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine its potential as an annual forage, 'Maiwa', which is a short-day photoperiod-sensitive millet (Pennisetum americanum (Linn.) ... Improvement in the level and seasonal distribution of 'maiwa' herbage production as well as quality can be realised through suitable agronomic practices as well as breeding.

  1. Molecular markers shared by diverse apomictic Pennisetum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, E L; Arthur, L; Hanna, W W; Ozias-Akins, P

    1994-11-01

    Two molecular markers, a RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) and a RFLP/STS (restriction fragment length polymorphism/sequence-tagged site), previously were found associated with apomictic reproductive behavior in a backcross population produced to transfer apomixis from Pennisetum squamulatum to pearl millet. The occurrence of these molecular markers in a range of 29 accessions of Pennisetum comprising 11 apomictic and 8 sexual species was investigated. Both markers were specific for apomictic species in Pennisetum. The RFLP/STS marker, UGT 197, was found to be associated with all taxa that displayed apomictic reproductive behavior except those in section Brevivalvula. Neither UGT197 nor the cloned RAPD fragment OPC-04600 hybridized with any sexually reproducing representatives of the genus. The cloned C04600 was associated with 3 of the 11 apomictic species, P. ciliare, P. massaicum, and P. squamulatum. UGT197 was more consistently associated with apomictic reproductive behavior than OPC04600 or cloned C04600, thus it could be inferred that UGT197 is more closely linked to the gene(s) for apomixis than the cloned C04600. The successful use of these probes to survey other Pennisetum species indicates that apomixis is a trait that can be followed across species by using molecular means. This technique of surveying species within a genus will be useful in determining the relative importance of newly isolated markers and may facilitate the identification of the apomixis gene(s).

  2. In vitro transformation of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L). R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasmids pULGU1 and pEmuGN were introduced by biolistics in embryogenic cell suspensions of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum. The plasmid pULGU1 contained the mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, responsible for resistance to the chlorsulfuron herbicide. The plasmid pEmuGN ...

  3. Evolution of the apomixis transmitting chromosome in Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada-Akiyama Hitomi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants. Results In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated. Conclusions Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.

  4. Recent trends in phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacological significance of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Pone Kamdem; Ferreira, Sabrina Baptista; Kaiser, Carlos Roland

    2016-09-15

    Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) (A. cordifolia) is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, where it is used extensively in traditional medicine. Conditions for which the plant has enjoyed wide use are: coughs, gonorrhoea, infertility, prostatitis, bacterial infections, diarrhoea, ulcers, pain, inflammation, fever and bronchial troubles. This review summarizes the achievements of the investigations in traditional uses, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicological profile of A. cordifolia; this review also describes the shortcomings of studies on this herbal drug and thus serves as the basis of further scientific research and development of this traditional herbal drug. A. cordifolia-related information was collected from various resources including published articles in peer-reviewed journals, unpublished materials, textbooks, government survey reports and scientific databases such as Scifinder®, Pubmed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, ACS, Scielo, Web of Science and other web search instruments (Google, Yahoo), published on the subject from 1950 to 2016. 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org) and 'Kew Royal Botanic Gardens' (mpns.kew.org) were used to validate the scientific name of the plant. The literature revealed several reports on traditional uses, biological activities, chemical constituents and toxicological evaluation of A. cordifolia. The phytochemical information indicates identification of 95 compounds including fatty acids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, which exhibited various pharmacological activities such as wound healing, anti-inflammation, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulation, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial and anxiolytic. However, there are still significant gaps in the completeness of our understanding of A. cordifolia bioactivity, therapeutic value, and roles played by each of the numerous

  5. Changes in the photosynthetic pigment patterns during the synchronous life cycle of Porphyridium purpureum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jiří; Lukavská, Alena; Verboviková, E.; Pfündel, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2004), s. 121-132 ISSN 0342-1120 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : porphyridium purpureum * carotenoids * cell cycle Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. PRODUCCIÓN DE TRES VARIEDADES DE Pennisetum purpureum FERTILIZADAS CON DOS DIFERENTES FUENTES NITROGENADAS EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Trejo O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento (t MS ha-1 año-1 y porcentaje de proteína cruda (calidad nutritiva del pasto King grass (KNG y los clones Cubanos OM-22 y CT-115, fertilizadas con dos fuentes nitrogenadas. Las parcelas se establecieron con varetas de material vegetativo de 25 cm de largo con dos a tres yemas en surcos a 10 cm de profundidad. El marco de siembra fue de 0.5 m entre plantas y 1.0 m entre hileras con orientación de Este a Oeste. Se utilizó Urea y Agua Residual Porcina (ARP como fuentes de nitrógeno (N a dosis de 300 Kg de N ha-1 año-1. Se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 en producción de materia seca (MS entre las tres variedades de forraje, el mayor rendimiento fue para el OM-22 con 155 y 160 t MS ha-1 año -1 con el uso de Urea y ARP, respectivamente. Se observó la misma tendencia con KNG con rendimiento de 131 a 140 t de MS ha-1 año-1. Las variedades OM-22, CT-115 y KNG fueron diferentes estadísticamente (p<0.05 al tratamiento testigo. No se observó efecto en la composición química por la aplicación de N. Se obtuvieron valores entre 8 y 12 % de proteína cruda (PC en los tres ecotipos. Se concluye que la fertilización con las dos fuentes nitrogenadas (Urea y ARP mejora la producción de forraje en los tres ecotipos evaluados.

  7. EFFECT OF Trichoderma harzianum AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON GROWTH IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum MILL SEEDLINGS, NAPIER (Pennisetum purpureum L AND TEA (Camellia sinensis L CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Mwangi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A green-house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in enhancing growth in tomato seedlings, tea and napier grass cuttings. The effect of these bio-inoculants on growth was compared with the influence of Diammonium phosphate (DAP fertilizer and the interactions of these three factors (P52, AMF and DAP. The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements taken on height shoot and root dry weights.  It was observed that isolate P52 and DAP fertilizer individually enhanced growth in tomatoes, tea and napier while AMF only enhanced growth in tomatoes. Combinations of P52 and DAP; P52, AMF and DAP enhanced growth significantly (P

  8. Caracterização e Seleção de Clones de Capim-Elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Carneiro Leão de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou caracterizar uma coleção de 71 clones de capim-elefante e selecionar os mais promissores para serem testados sob pastejo. A caracterização foi realizada na Estação Experimental do Cedro/IPA, no município de Vitória de Sto. Antão/PE, nas estações chuvosa e seca. Cada clone foi representado por parcelas não repetidas de 10 m². Segundo análise de correlação linear, os clones mais produtivos em relação à MS, também apresentaram maiores alturas de planta e de meristemas apicais, diâmetros de colmo, relações colmo/folha (C/F, números de perfilhos basais e total e comprimentos de folha. Excetuando-se a relação C/F, as mesmas características também correlacionaram-se positivamente com a produção de lâmina foliar (LF. Foi observada uma correlação linear positiva e altamente significativa (r = 0,9517 entre as produções de MS e de LF. Baseando-se nos materiais que apresentaram as maiores produções de LF/área, foram selecionados 10 clones: Mineirão/IPEACO, Hexaplóide, Mole de Volta Grande, King Grass, 591-76 ou Cameroon, CE 5 A.D., Gigante de Pinda, CE 4 A.D., Elefante da Colômbia e Vrukwona

  9. FITODEPURACIÓN DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMESTICAS CON POACEAS: Brachiaria mutica, Pennisetum purpureum y Panicum maximunEN EL MUNICIPIO DE POPAYÁN, CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANI HERNÁN PALTA-PRADO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El asentamiento Brisas de San Isidro del Municipio de Popayán no presenta sistema de colección de aguas servidas, las cuales son vertidas directamente sobre la Quebrada Lame, ocasionando contaminación por la carga orgánica y detergentes provenientes del uso doméstico. El objetivo fue evaluar diferentes especies de gramíneas, buscando una alternativa de manejo de las aguas residuales domésticas con plantas útiles en la alimentación animal. Para tal fin se establecieron humedales artificiales bajo un diseño de muestreo temporal y un arreglo factorial de bloques al azar. Se tomaron las muestras de agua residual (pH, oxígeno disuelto (OD, concentración de CO2, demanda biológica oxigeno (DBO, demanda química oxigeno (DQO, conductividad, amonio (NH4+, nitratos (NO3-, fosfatos (PO4 y nitritos (NO2- y Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigeno (DBO5 cada quince días durante seis meses. El análisis estadístico, se realizó por medio de una ANOVA comparando los tratamientos expuestos y una prueba posthoc de Tuckey. El análisis de varianza, mostro diferencias estadísticas significativas para los parámetros oxígeno disuelto (OD, demanda química oxigeno (DQO, amonio (NH4+, nitratos (NO3-, nitritos (NO2- y coliformes totales; evidenciando que los mejores tratamientos fueron B. mutica y P. maximun

  10. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  11. Tratamento de compactação do cólon maior em eqüídeos com fluidoterapia enteral

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Marco Aurélio Ferreira; Moura,Gabriela Soares de; Junqueira,Luiz Arthur Camargo; Lima,Leonardo Rodrigues de; Pinto,José de Oliveira; Dantas Filho,José; Assis,Carlos Batista de

    1998-01-01

    A eficiência da fluidoterapia por via enteral foi avaliada em 14 eqüídeos (12 eqüinos e dois muares) que apresentavam compactação do cólon maior. Os animais tinham entre um ano e meio e 20 anos de idade e todos eram alimentados com capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) triturado. O início dos sinais de cólica foi observado no dia do internamento em seis casos, um dia antes em cinco casos, três dias antes em um caso, quatro dias antes em um caso e seis dias antes em um caso. Um cavalo...

  12. Quantitative HPLC analysis of sesquiterpene lactones and determination of chemotypes in Eremanthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Humberto T.; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P.; Lopes, Joao L.C.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.

    2005-01-01

    Eremanthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher has a restricted occurrence to the Brazilian 'cerrado' surrounding the Furnas (MG) reservoir, in environments that have been seriously damaged by human activity. The present phytochemical investigation reveals that the sesquiterpene lactones (SL) 4β,5-dihydro-2',3'-dihydroxy-15-desoxy-goyazensolide (1) and 4β,5-dihydro-1',2'-epoxy-eremantholide-C (2) are the major secondary metabolites in E. seidelii leaves, and an HPLC method was developed for their quantitative analysis. HPLC analysis showed no significant seasonal variation in the concentrations of both SL. No qualitative differences were found in the SL patterns of all individuals sampled. However, there is a different SL quantitative pattern among the plants analyzed, pointing to the existence of three quantitative chemotypes of this species, with differences possibly originating from the activity of the enzymes that cyclize the goyazensolide type SL (1) to a eremantholide type SL (2). (author)

  13. Avaliação do consumo e ganho de peso de novilhos em pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, na estação chuvosa Evaluation of intake and weight gain of steers in rotacional grazing of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora D'Avila Erbesdobler

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, onde foram avaliados o consumo de capim-elefante, a efetividade da limitação do tempo de pastejo a quatro horas diárias, para manter o consumo próximo à mantença e o ganho de peso de 36 novilhos ¾ Gir-Holandês, em cinco períodos sucessivos de 36 dias, na estação chuvosa. Os tratamentos foram: livre acesso ao pasto (pastejo irrestrito e pastejo restrito. A disponibilidade de matéria verde seca do capim-elefante nos cinco períodos variou de 4,0 a 7,8 kg/100 kg PV. Os animais com livre acesso ao pasto consumiram o equivalente a 1,61 vezes o dos animais de pastejo restrito e tiveram ganho de peso de corpo vazio médio diário de 516,4 g, com um ganho estimado de 432,5 kg por hectare, estando dentro da faixa de ganho de peso verificada para capim-elefante no Brasil. O consumo de energia metabolizável por unidade de tamanho metabólico manteve-se estável nos três primeiros períodos, elevando-se nos dois últimos períodos, em que ocorreram os maiores ganhos de peso dos animais. Quatro horas diárias de pastejo garantiram consumo próximo à mantença.The research was conducted in the experimental farm of the EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, to evaluate intake of elephantgrass, the effectiveness of limiting grazing time to four daily hours for keeping intake close to maintenance level, and the weight gain of thirty-six steers during five successive periods of thirty-six days, during the rainy season. The treatments were: free access to pasture (unlimited grazing and restricted grazing. The availability of green dry matter varied from 4.0 to 7.8 kg/100kg LW. The average daily weight gain of animals with free access to pasture was 516.5 g and their dry matter intake corresponded to 1.61 times that from the restricted grazing ones. The estimated gain per hectare was 423.5 kg, which is within the range reported for elephantgrass in Brasil. Metabolizable energy intake, per unit metabolic size, remained stable in the first three periods and increased in the last two, during which the highest weight gains of the animals. Four daily hours grazing period ensured intake close to maintenance level.

  14. Digestão do feno de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott sob diferentes níveis de consumo em ovinos Dwarf elephant grass hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott digestion by sheep at different levels of intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucileia Aparecida da Silva Morais

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados doze ovinos Texel × Corriedale machos, castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso vivo (PV inicial médio de 27kg, mantidos em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, conduzido em dois períodos, para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo (base matéria seca (MS de feno de capim elefante anão (CEA (1,50; 1,75; 2,00; 2,25; 2,50% do PV e ad libitum sobre a digestão nesses animais. A digestibilidade aparente da MS, da matéria orgânica (MO e do nitrogênio (N, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira do N, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a síntese de proteína microbiana ruminal não foram afetados, mas a retenção de N (em g dia-1 e como % do N consumido foi sempre positiva e aumentou linearmente (PTwelve one year old Texel x Corriedale castrated male sheep, with 27kg mean live weight (LW, housed in metabolic cages, were used in a completely randomized experiment, carried out in two periods, to evaluate the effect of level of intake (dry matter (DM basis of dwarf elephant grass (1.5; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.5% of LW and ad libitum on digestion. DM, organic matter (OM and nitrogen (N apparent digestibility, as well as the N true digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN contents and rumen microbial protein synthesis were not affected by level of hay intake. N retention (as g day-1 and as % of N intake was always positive and increased linearly (P<0.05 as the level of hay intake increased. However, neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF apparent digestibility, as well as OM true digestibility decreased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing intake. Passage rate and mean retention time in the cecum-colon were not affected, whereas passage rate through the reticulum-rumen increased and mean retention time decreased (P<0.05 as the level of intake increased. Fibre and OM true digestibility decreased as hay intake increased (P<0.05, mainly due to a decreasing in retention time of particles into the reticulo-rumen. However, OM apparent digestibility and, thus, the energetic value of dwarf elephant grass hay was not affected by the level of intake.

  15. Degradabilidade do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. e da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. mais uréia no rúmen de vacas mestiças Holandês × Zebu em lactação Rumen degradability of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum, L. plus urea in crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Elephantgrass shows a high stocking rate only during the rainy season. Forage production is drastically reduced in the dry season. One of the alternatives to minimize this problem is the supplementation with sugarcane plus urea. In this trial the main goal was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI of elephantgrass, chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea and their degradability in three lactating (11.6kg/milk/day rumen fistulated crossbred cows (472kg/L.W. grazing elephantgrass during the dry season. The cows had access during three consecutive night to the paddocks grazed every 30 days in a stocking rate, of 4.5 cows/hectare. Between the two milking times, cows received chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. The DMI was on average 1.01%/L.W. for the elephantgrass and 0.88%/L.W. for the sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total DMI, taking into account both roughage and concentrate (2kg/cow/day was 2.25%/L.W. The effective rumen degradability (ED, considering the rate of passage in the rumen of 5%/hour was 44.46% for elephantgrass and 41.94% for sugarcane plus 1% urea, DM. The elephantgrass ED crude protein was 48.58% and its neutral detergent fiber 33.82%. During the dry season lactating crossbred cows grazing elephantgrass have to receive a roughage supplement and concentrate to produce around to 12kg of milk per day.

  16. Quantitative HPLC analysis of sesquiterpene lactones and determination of chemotypes in Eremanthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Humberto T. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P.; Lopes, Joao L.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: joaoluis@usp.br; npelopes@fcfrp.usp.br; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2005-11-15

    anthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher has a restricted occurrence to the Brazilian 'cerrado' surrounding the Furnas (MG) reservoir, in environments that have been seriously damaged by human activity. The present phytochemical investigation reveals that the sesquiterpene lactones (SL) 4{beta},5-dihydro-2',3'-dihydroxy-15-desoxy-goyazensolide (1) and 4{beta},5-dihydro-1',2'-epoxy-eremantholide-C (2) are the major secondary metabolites in E. seidelii leaves, and an HPLC method was developed for their quantitative analysis. HPLC analysis showed no significant seasonal variation in the concentrations of both SL. No qualitative differences were found in the SL patterns of all individuals sampled. However, there is a different SL quantitative pattern among the plants analyzed, pointing to the existence of three quantitative chemotypes of this species, with differences possibly originating from the activity of the enzymes that cyclize the goyazensolide type SL (1) to a eremantholide type SL (2). (author)

  17. Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The effects of nitrogen limitation on laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross were studied under continuous white light illumination (35 {mu}E {times} m{sup {minus}2} {times} s{sup {minus}1}). Growth ceased, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, chlorophyll content was reduced by 80%, and phycoerythrin content was reduced by 99% over a period of 14 days under nitrogen limitation. Recovery upon addition of nitrogen resulted in increased phycobiliprotein content, appearance of phycobilisomes attached to the thylakoids, increased oxygen evolution, and increased fluorescence emission from photosystem 1 (720 nm) and photosystem 2 (685 nm) upon excitation by green light. Growth resumes after 72 h and was concomitant with an increase of chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and phycobilisomes per thylakoid area. The results suggest that photosystem 1 was less affected by nitrogen starvation than photosystem 2 and that the recovery was largely dependent on the restoration of phycobilisomes and other photosystem components.

  18. Ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall e aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimar volume de árvores de eucalipto Adjustment of the Schumacher and Hall model and application of artificial neural networks to estimate volume of eucalypt trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Luiza Marques da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall por diferentes algoritmos, bem como a aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimação do volume de madeira de eucalipto em função do diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP, da altura total (Ht e do clone. Foram utilizadas 21 cubagens de povoamentos de clones de eucalipto com DAP variando de 4,5 a 28,3 cm e altura total de 6,6 a 33,8 m, num total de 862 árvores. O modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall foi ajustado nas formas linear e não linear, com os seguintes algoritmos: Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves Pattern, Rosenbrock Pattern, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves e Rosenbrock, utilizado simultaneamente com o método Quasi-Newton e com o princípio da Máxima Verossimilhança. Diferentes arquiteturas e modelos (Multilayer Perceptron MLP e Radial Basis Function RBF de redes neurais artificiais foram testados, sendo selecionadas as redes que melhor representaram os dados. As estimativas dos volumes foram avaliadas por gráficos de volume estimado em função do volume observado e pelo teste estatístico L&O. Assim, conclui-se que o ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall pode ser usado na sua forma linear, com boa representatividade e sem apresentar tendenciosidade; os algoritmos Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton e Levenberg-Marquardt mostraram-se eficientes para o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall, e as redes neurais artificiais apresentaram boa adequação ao problema, sendo elas altamente recomendadas para realizar prognose da produção de florestas plantadas.This research aimed at evaluating the adjustment of Schumacher and Hall volumetric model by different algorithms and the application of artificial neural networks to estimate the volume of wood of eucalyptus according to the diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (Ht of the clone. For such, 21 scalings of stands of eucalyptus clones were used with

  19. Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

  20. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Pennisetum section Brevivalvula in West Africa : morphological and genetic variation in an agamic species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmelzer, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Section Brevivalvula is one of five sections in the large tropical grass genus Pennisetum . It belongs to the tertiary genepool of P. glaucum (L.) R. Br., pearl millet, and consists of six morphological species: P.

  2. Improving methane production from anaerobic digestion of Pennisetum Hybrid by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xihui; Sun, Yongming; Li, Lianhua; Kong, Xiaoying; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2018-05-01

    Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH was used to improve methane yield from Pennisetum Hybrid. The pretreatments were carried out with different NaOH solutions (2-8% w/w) at three temperatures (35, 55 and 121 °C) for different periods of time (24, 24 and 1 h). All treated and untreated Pennisetum Hybrid were digested under mesophilic conditions (37 °C) to biogas, significant effects of the pretreatments on the yield of methane were observed. Results showed the modified Gompertz equation was reliable (determination coefficients (R 2 ) greater than 0.96) to describe the kinetic behavior of anaerobic digestion of Pennisetum Hybrid. The best result, obtained by the treatment at 35 °C 2% NaOH for 24 h, resulted in the methane yield of 301.7 mL/g VS, corresponding to 21.0% improvement in the methane yield. Compositional, SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed that lignin removal, structural modification and cellulose crystalline variation were responsible for the improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimativas de consumo do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum), fornecido picado para vacas lactantes utilizando a técnica do óxido crômico

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,João Paulo Guimarães; Berchielli,Telma Teresinha; Aroeira,Luiz Januário Magalhães; Deresz,Fermino; Verneque,Rui da Silva

    2004-01-01

    O consumo de matéria seca (CMS) de vacas mestiças Holandês-Zebu, fistuladas no rúmen, em lactação, foi medido pela diferença de peso do alimento oferecido e das sobras e estimado com auxílio do óxido crômico (Cr2O3) pela produção fecal (PF) e indigestibilidade do alimento. O delineamento experimental foi em três quadrados latinos (3x3) e os tratamentos consistiram de capim-elefante cortado nas idades de 30, 45 e 60 dias. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) foi determinada nas a...

  4. Modelagem comparativa da cinética de fluxo da fase sólida do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack consumido sob pastejo por vacas mestiças Holandês × Zebu em lactação Evaluation of mathematical models to estimate the passage rate of solids in Holstein × Zebu lactating cows grazing on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em pastagem de capim-elefante manejada em sistema rotativo. Foram usadas duas repetições de área por tratamento e o período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. No primeiro experimento (estação da seca foram usadas 18 vacas Holandês × Zebu em lactação, sendo seis fistuladas no rúmen e alocadas em cada repetição de área de cada um dos três tratamentos: período de descanso da pastagem de 30 dias, sem uso de concentrado, e períodos de descanso de 30 e 45 dias, com uso de concentrado. Entre ordenhas, as vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar com 1% de uréia:sulfato de amônio (9:1. Em cada vaca fistulada, em função do tratamento, foi administrada FDN-cromo-mordente de extrusas de capim-elefante obtidas em cada dia de ocupação do piquete. No segundo experimento (estação das chuvas foram usadas 12 vacas em lactação (quatro fistuladas no rúmen e estudaram-se dois períodos de descanso da pastagem (30 e 45 dias sem suplementação. As estimativas da taxa de passagem ruminal obtidas de dois modelos (bicompartimental tempo-independente e multicompartimental tempo-dependente foram bastante próximas. Valores superiores para taxa de passagem pós-ruminal foram observados para o modelo multicompartimental tempo-dependente. Na estação da seca, os valores médios para taxas de passagem ruminal e pós-ruminal foram, respectivamente, 0,042 e 0,087/h (modelo bicompartimental tempo-independente e 0,041 e 0,109/h (modelo multicompartimental tempo-dependente. Na estação das chuvas observaram-se valores de 0,035 e 0,056/h, e de 0,029 e 0,090/h, na mesma ordem de citação.Two experiments were carried out in a rotational elephantgrass pasture system. Two replicates of paddocks per treatment were grazed for three consecutive days. The first experiment was carried out during the dry season with 18 lactating crossbred cows, six of them rumen canulated. The cows were randomly allotted to each of the treatments: 1- resting period of 30 days without concentrate, 2- resting period of 30 days with concentrate and 3- resting period of 45 days with concentrate. In the dry season cows grazed elephantgrass during the night and were fed on chopped sugarcane plus 1% ammonium sulphate:urea (9:1 between milkings. The rate of passage was estimated by using chromium complexed to the cellular wall of elephantgrass extrusas collected during the first, second and third grazing days of each treatment. In the second trial carried out during the rainy season 12 lactating crossbred cows (four rumen fistulated were used. The treatments were resting periods of 30 or 45 days without supplementation. Parameters of particulate passage kinectics were estimated by two models (age-independent double-compartmental and age-dependent multicompartmental which provided similar results of ruminal passage rates values. However, larger values of post-ruminal passage rates were generally obtained with the age-dependent multicompartmental model. In the dry season, the ruminal and post-ruminal passage rates were, respectively, 0.042 and 0.087/h (age-independent double-compartmental model and 0.041 and 0.109/h (age-dependent multicompartmental model. In the rainy season, values of 0.035 and 0.056/h, and 0.029 and 0.090/h, were observed, respectively.

  5. Características fotossintéticas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., em estresse hídrico - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961 Photosynthetic characteristics of dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes under different hydric conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Torres Netto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as trocas gasosas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão, em diferentes condições hídricas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Foram avaliados três genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 e CNPGL 92-198-7 em duas condições de umidade do solo: irrigado (I e não-irrigado (NI. Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos I e NI para todos os genótipos em relação à taxa fotossintética, condutância estomática, transpiração e déficit de pressão de vapor. O genótipo CNPGL 94-34-3 apresentou maior tolerância ao estresse hídrico, seguido pelos genótipos Mott e CNPGL 92-198-7. Todos os genótipos avaliados apresentaram, em condições ideais de umidade do solo, alta taxa fotossintética, caracterizando, deste modo, os genótipos estudados como plantas de elevada eficiência fotossintética.The experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the gas exchange of dwarf elephant grass genotypes under different hydric conditions, in a randomized design with three replications. Genotypes of dwarf elephant grass (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 and CNPGL 92-198-7 were analyzed under two hydric conditions: irrigated (I and non-irrigated (NI. Differences between treatments I and NI were observed for all genotypes for photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water vapor pressure deficit. Genotype CNPGL 94-34-3 presented highest tolerance to hydric stress, followed by Mott and CNPGL 92-198-7 genotypes. All genotypes presented high photosynthetic rate, under ideal conditions of soil humidity, thus characterizing the analyzed dwarf elephant grass genotypes as plants with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  6. Redução da interferência de Brachiaria decumbens na formação de pastagem com Penisetum purpureum através de herbicidas Reduction of Brachiaria decumbens interference on Pennisetum purpureum pasture establishment through herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A tolerância da gramínea forrageira capim-elefante a herbicidas aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas entre si, aplicados em condições de pré e pós-emergência da forrageira, bem como a eficiência desses produtos no controle de B. decumbens e outras espécies de plantas daninhas, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento conduzido em condições de pré-emergência do capim-elefante, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1, foram: metolachlor (1,152; 2,304; e 3,456, oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96 e 1,44 e a formulação comercial de atrazine + metolachlor (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75, três repetições. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento instalado em condições de pós-emergência da forrageira, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1,foram: ametryne (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75 e oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96; e 1,44, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso; sendo que, em ambos os experimentos foram adicionadas as testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, e os cultivares de capim-elefante utilizados em ambos os experimentos foram Cameroon e Pioneiro. A aplicação dos herbicidas em pré-emergência da forrageira foi feita um dia após o plantio com solo úmido; no experimento em pós-emergência do capim-elefante os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre o topo das plantas da cultura forrageira, aos 20 dias após a emergência. Metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor, em pré-emergência, foram seletivos para os dois cultivares testados. O oxyfluorfen, até 0,96 kg ha-1, foi seletivo para a cultura forrageira nas aplicações tanto em pré- como em pós-emergência. O ametryne, em pós-emergência, também foi seletivo aos cultivares na dose inferior a 2,50 kg ha-1. B. decumbens e B. brizantha foram eficientemente controladas (90,9% em pré-emergência, exceto na menor dose de metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor. O controle das dicotiledôneas atingiu 85% com metolachlor, atrazine + metolachlor e oxyfluorfen, exceto nas menores doses dos produtos. Em pós-emergência, o ametryne, nas doses de 2,50 e 3,75 kg ha¹, e o oxyfluorfen, nas três doses estudadas, proporcionaram controle superior a 90,3% para B. decumbens, B. brizantha, S. glaziovii e S. urens; todavia, o oxyfluorfen propiciou controle de A. australe e de D. tortuosum inferior a 81,0%, e o ametryne, inferior a 75,6% para D. tortuosum. Tanto na aplicação em pré quanto em pós-emergência, o efeito residual de controle estendeu-se até os 90 dias após aplicação dos herbicidas. O capim-elefante tratado com herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência cresceu mais (36,28 a 42,79%; em pós-emergência esse crescimento foi menor (34,78 a 47,1% para o cultivar Pioneiro, quando comparado com a testemunha sem capina. Para o cultivar Cameroon o crescimento foi de 39,90 a 51,30% quando o herbicida foi aplicado em pré-emergência e de 39,83 a 46,61% em pós-emergência. O acúmulo de biomassa seca da parte aérea do cultivar Pioneiro foi maior em pré-emergência (33,22 a 48,85% e em pós-emergência (73,80 a 76,65%; para o cultivar Cameroon esse acúmulo foi de 79,63 a 83,95% em pré-emergência e de 61,92 a 68,21% em pós-emergência, também em relação à testemunha sem capina. O cultivar Pioneiro mostrou ser mais tolerante à interferência das plantas daninhas que o Cameroon.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate elephant-grass tolerance to different herbicides sprayed alone or in mixtures in pre- and post-emergence crop conditions, and to evaluate the efficiency of these products in controlling B. decumbens and other weeds infesting the elephantgrass crops. Herbicide treatments evaluated in the experiment installed in pre-emergence of the crop, in kg ha-1 were: metolachlor (1.152; 2.304 and 3.456, oxyfluorfen (0.48; 0.96 and 1.44 and atrazine + metolachlor (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75, plus the controls, in three repetitions; The herbicide treatments evaluated in the experiment installed in post-emergence conditions, in kg ha-1, were: ametryne (1.25; 2.50 and 3.75 and oxyfluorfen (0.48; 0.96 and 1.44, in four repetitions. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks in both experiments, with added as treatments (weeded and weed-free, using the elephant-grass cultivars Cameroon and Pioneer. Herbicides in post-emergence were applied on the cultivar plant tops, at 20 days after planting, and in the pre-emergence experiment, one day after planting, and the soil was wet at the moment of herbicide application. Metolachlor, atrazine + metolachlor and oxyfluorfen applied in pre-emergence were selective for Pioneer and Cameroon cultivars. Ametryne and oxyfluorfen were also selective for cultivars when sprayed in post-emergence conditions. Because of initial damages to the crop, oxyfluorfen application in the dose of 1.44 kg ha-1, as well as, in pre- and post-emergence of the crop, combined with ametryne application in the dose of 3.75 kg ha-1 in post-emergence, must be avoided. B. decumbens and B. brizantha were controlled in 90.9% in pre-emergence, when intermediate and higher doses of the herbicides were used. Dicotyledonous plant control was 85% with metolachlor, atrazine + metalachlor and oxyfluorfen, except when the lowest doses were applied. In pre-emergence application, ametryne doses of 2.50 and 3.75 kg ha-1 and oxyfluorfen in the three doses studied provided a control level over 90% in B. decumbens, B. brizantha, S. glaziovii and S. urens, while D. tortuosum, and A. australe control was over 77.9%. In either pre- or in post-emergence application, residual effect of weed control was up to 90 days after application. Treatments with pre-emergence herbicides were 36.2% higher in cultivar height evaluated in pre-emergence and 34.7% higher in height in post-emergence, than the treatment weeded. As for above ground shoot dry matter accumulation, cultivars presented mean earnings of 48.8% in the treatments with pre-emergence herbicides and of 61.9% in post-emergence herbicides, compared to weeded. The cultivar Pioneer was more tolerant to weed interference than the cultivar Cameroon.

  7. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  8. Effect Of Light Qualities And Storage Periods On The Germination Of Pennisetum Polystachion Seeds*)

    OpenAIRE

    TJITROSEMITO, S

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the yellowish inflorescence strain of Pennisetum polystachion, collected from the field in Indonesia, were kept in the dark for 30 days, then germinated in 12-h light and 24-h light under various light qualities, namely, white, black, blue, red and far-red. There was no effect of photo-period to seed germination. Percent of seed germination under white, red, far-red, blue and dark were 49, 43, 22, 11 and 2%, respectively. White and red light did not cause any diffe...

  9. An investigation on the characteristics of cellulose nanocrystals from Pennisetum sinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qi-lin; Tang, Li-rong; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Biao; Chen, Yan-dan; Chen, Xue-rong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of Pennisetum sinese as cellulose source for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The cellulose was extracted from P. sinese by chemical treatment and bleaching, and obtained cellulose nanocrystals by acid hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that CNC were rod-like with the diameter of 20–30 nm and the length of 200–300 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed that chemical treatment removed most of the lignin and hemicellulose from P. sinese, and CNC had similar structure to that of native cellulose. The crystallinity indexes calculated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) for P. sinese and CNC were 40.6% and 77.3%, respectively. The zeta-potential analysis showed that CNC had higher stability than P. sinese had. The thermal stability was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the result showed that P. sinese had higher thermal stability than that of prepared CNC. - Highlights: • Pennisetum sinese Roxb is good raw material for preparing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). • Crystallinity of prepared CNC is higher than that of P. sinese Roxb. • Thermal stability of prepared CNC is lower than that of P. sinese Roxb

  10. Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense Schumach et Thonn) attenuates carbohydrate hydrolyzing, blood pressure regulating and cholinergic enzymes in experimental type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu; Adefegha, Omowunmi Monisola

    2017-01-01

    Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense Schumach et Thonn) seed is well known in folkloric medicine in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with little or no scientific documentation for its action. This study investigated the effect of Ashanti pepper seed on some enzymes relevant to carbohydrate hydrolysis, blood regulation and the cholinergic system, as well as the blood glucose level, lipid profile, antioxidant parameters, and hepatic and renal function markers in T2DM rats. T2DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ). Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats were placed on a dietary regimen containing 2%-4% Ashanti pepper. Reduced blood glucose level with decreased α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities were observed in Ashanti pepper seed and acarbose-treated rat groups when compared to that of the diabetic control rat group. Furthermore, the results revealed that inclusion of 2%-4% Ashanti pepper seed in diabetic rat fed group diets may ameliorate the lipid profile, antioxidant status, and hepatic and renal function in T2DM rats as much as in the acarbose-treated groups. In addition, a chromatographic profile of the seed revealed the presence of quercitrin (116.51 mg/g), capsaicin (113.94 mg/g), dihydrocapsaicin (88.29 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (74.89 mg/g). The results from this study clearly suggest that Ashanti pepper could serve as a promising source of phenolic compounds with great alternative therapeutic potentials in the management of T2DM.

  11. Effect of high-voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF pretreatment on biogas production rates of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijuan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the raw materials of hybrid Pennisetum were pretreated in different conditions of high voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF to improve its material utilization ratios and biogas production rates of anaerobic fermentation. Then, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted within 32 days at moderate temperature (35 °C with TS mass fraction (6%, inoculation rate (20% and initial pH (7.0. It is indicated that compared with the control group, 9 groups of hybrid Pennisetum pretreated by HPEF are obviously superior in gas production efficiency of anaerobic fermentation, and higher in cumulative gas production, peak daily gas production and maximum methane concentration; that the most remarkable stimulation occurs in the HPEF condition of 15 kV/120 Hz/60 min, in that situation, the cumulative gas production in the fermentation period of 32 days is up to 9587 mL, 26.95% higher than that of the control group, the peak daily gas production increases and the range of peak period extends. It is demonstrated that the optimal HPEF pretreatment time is 60 min and three HPEF parameters have a better effect on gas production in the order of voltage > time > frequency; and that the effect degree of treatment parameters on peak daily gas production is voltage, frequency and time in turn. It is concluded that HPEF can improve material utilization ratio and gas production rate of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation and shorten the gas production cycle. By virtue of this physical pretreatment method, the resource of Pennisetum is utilized sufficiently and the classes of energy plants are enlarged effectively. Keywords: Hybrid Pennisetum, Anaerobic fermentation, High voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF, Biogas, Material utilization ratio, Gas generation rate, Model, Stimulation

  12. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A.; Hanna, Wayne W.; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, St?phane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) a...

  13. Variation and geographical distribution of ploidy levels in Pennisetum section Brevivalvula (Poaceae) in Burkina Faso, Benin and southern Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Jean-François; Schmelzer, G.; De Jong, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    #Pennisetum$ sect. #Brevivalvula$ is a species complex characterized by polyploidy and apoximis. Ploidy level was assessed by DAPI-flow cytometry for 304 plants of the section, originating from Burkina Faso, Benin and southern Niger. The results were confirmed for 54 plants based on chromosome counts. The samples show four euploidy levels (with x = 9) distributed among five species : #P. hordeoides$ (2n = 36, 54), #P. pedicellatum$ (2n = 36, 45, 54), #P. polystachion$ (2n = 18, 36, 45, 54), #...

  14. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  15. EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTED SOIL ON THE SEEDLING GROWTH OF PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L. R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SHAFIQ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution by crude oil is an important environmental issue all around the world. Increase in oil pollution level in the environment produce toxic effects on flora and fauna of the region. The effects of different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of crude oil polluted soil on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum were studied. The polluted soil affected the root, shoot length, seedling size, number of leaves and leaf area of P. glaucum. The significant (p<0.05 effects of polluted soil on fresh and dry weight of root, stem, leaves, and seedling of P. glaucum were also recorded. Leaf area, leaf number and total seedling dry weight were noticeably reduced in 10 and 15% polluted soil than control soil treatment. Principally, 20% crude oil polluted soil treatment exhibited highest percentage of decrease in most of the seedling growth parameters of P. glaucum than control. Hence, the effects on seedling growth parameters were increased with increasing levels of polluted soil. For most of the growth parameters, the mean values obtained were found higher for the control soil and progressively decreased from 5-20% crude oil polluted soils. The seedlings of P. glaucum were also tested for tolerance to polluted soil treatment. The results showed that the seedlings of P. glaucum showed high percentage of tolerance to low concentration (5% of polluted soil treatment as compared to control soil treatment (0%.

  16. Changes in soil bacterial communities induced by the invasive plant Pennisetum setaceum in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Gema; Caravaca, Fuensanta; del Mar Alguacil, María; Fernández-López, Manuel; José Fernández-González, Antonio; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Invasive alien species are considered as a global threat being among the main causes of biodiversity loss. Plant invasions have been extensively studied from different disciplines with the purpose of identifying predictor traits of invasiveness and finding solutions. However, less is known about the implication of the rhizosphere microbiota in these processes, even when it is well known the importance of the interaction between plant rhizosphere and microbial communities. The objective of this study was to determine whether native and invasive plants support different bacterial communities in their rhizospheres and whether there are bacterial indicator species that might be contributing to the invasion process of these ecosystems. We carried out a study in five independent locations under Mediterranean semiarid conditions, where the native Hyparrhenia hirta is being displaced by Pennisetum setaceum, an aggressive invasive Poaceae and soil bacterial communities were amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. Changes in the composition and structure of the bacterial communities, owing to the invasive status of the plant, were detected when the richness and alpha-diversity estimators were calculated as well as when we analyzed the PCoA axes scores. The Indicator Species Analysis results showed a higher number of indicators for invaded communities at all studied taxonomic levels. In conclusion, the effect of the invasiveness and its interaction with the soil location has promoted shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial communities which might be facilitating the invader success in these ecosystems.

  17. Comparative gene expression in sexual and apomictic ovaries of Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielle-Calzada, J P; Nuccio, M L; Budiman, M A; Thomas, T L; Burson, B L; Hussey, M A; Wing, R A

    1996-12-01

    Limited emphasis has been given to the molecular study of apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction where seeds are produced without fertilization. Most buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn = Cenchrus ciliaris L.) genotypes reproduce by obligate apomixis (apospory); however, rare sexual plants have been recovered. A modified differential display procedure was used to compare gene expression in unpollinated ovaries containing ovules with either sexual or apomictic female gametophytes. The modification incorporated end-labeled poly(A)+ anchored primers as the only isotopic source, and was a reliable and consistent approach for detecting differentially displayed transcripts. Using 20 different decamers and two anchor primers, 2268 cDNA fragments between 200 and 600 bp were displayed. From these, eight reproducible differentially displayed cDNAs were identified and cloned. Based on northern analysis, one cDNA was detected in only the sexual ovaries, two cDNAs in only apomictic ovaries and one cDNA was present in both types of ovaries. Three fragments could not be detected and one fragment was detected in ovaries, stems, and leaves. Comparison of gene expression during sexual and apomictic development in buffelgrass represents a new model system and a strategy for investigating female reproductive development in the angiosperms.

  18. Isolation of candidate genes for apomictic development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjit; Burson, Byron L; Finlayson, Scott A

    2007-08-01

    Asexual reproduction through seeds, or apomixis, is a process that holds much promise for agricultural advances. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis are currently poorly understood. To identify genes related to female gametophyte development in apomictic ovaries of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link), Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of ovary cDNA with leaf cDNA was performed. Through macroarray screening of subtracted cDNAs two genes were identified, Pca21 and Pca24, that showed differential expression between apomictic and sexual ovaries. Sequence analysis showed that both Pca21 and Pca24 are novel genes not previously characterized in plants. Pca21 shows homology to two wheat genes that are also expressed during reproductive development. Pca24 has similarity to coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain containing proteins from maize and sugarcane. Northern blot analysis revealed that both of these genes are expressed throughout female gametophyte development in apomictic ovaries. In situ hybridizations localized the transcript of these two genes to the developing embryo sacs in the apomictic ovaries. Based on the expression patterns it was concluded that Pca21 and Pca24 likely play a role during apomictic development in buffelgrass.

  19. Impact of bio-nanogold on seed germination and seedling growth in Pennisetum glaucum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Asra; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Rao, Srinath

    2016-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading towards the development of low cost applications to improve the cultivation and growth of plants. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture will leads to a significant effect on food industry along with opening a new area of research in agroecosystem. In this paper gold nanoparticles were biosynthesized with Cassia auriculata leaf extract at room temperature and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of synthesized bio-nanogold on an important food and biofuel producing plant Pennisetum glaucum. Positive effects were observed on percentage of seed germination and growth of seedlings. Improved germination and increased plant biomass have high economic importance in production of biofuel or raw materials, agriculture and horticulture. Although the impact of nanoparticles on plants depends on concentration, size and shape. The biological synthesized AuNPs can replace the chemically synthesized AuNPs used in gene transfer method. The study gives brief insight on nanoparticles effects on plants, brings attention on both positive and negative side of nanomaterial which can resolve phytopathological infections by stimulating nutrition and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellulolytic and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria population density, after supplementing fodder diets (Pennisetum clandestinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licet Molina G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the population density of cellulolytic bacteria, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and the concentration of vaccenic acid, by supplementing diets consisting of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst. Ex Chiov. as base ingredient, together with cassava flour and biomass (effluent from ethanol production in rumen simulator-Rusitec. Materials and methods. Four treatments (T were evaluated, these were composed as: T1/Control 1: 100% kikuyu grass with a total protein intake of 23.9%, T2: a mixture of 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a total protein intake of 19.4%; T3/Control 2: 100% kikuyu grass, with a 17.8% protein intake and T4: 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a 15.3% protein intake. One and two-way variance analysis was made and the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined. Results. An increase was observed in the population density of viable cellulolytic bacteria (CFU/ml and B. fibrisolvens statistically significant (p<0.005 with treatment T2, in contrast to T1, T3 and T4 treatments. In addition, there was a significant increase in the concentration of vaccenic acid (mg/L in the ruminal content in Rusitec with the same treatment (T2. Conclusions. Results obtained in this ruminal simulation study are evidence to the benefits of kikuyu grass together with cassava flour and biomass diet implementation on the growth of ruminal cellulolytic and B. fibrisolvens bacteria, as well as on the production of vaccenic acid. The study also suggests the nutritional potential that such supplements could provide to grazing bovine feeding.

  1. Short Communication: An apospory-specific genomic region is conserved between Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche; Cong; Chen; Hanna; Gustine; Sherwood; Ozias-Akins

    1999-07-01

    Twelve molecular markers linked to pseudogamous apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis, were previously isolated from Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen. No recombination between these markers was found in a segregating population of 397 individuals (Ozias-Akins et al. 1998, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 5127-5132). The objective of the present study was to test if these markers were also linked to the aposporous mode of reproduction in two small segregating populations of Cenchrus ciliaris (= Pennisetum ciliare (L.)Link), another apomictic grass species. Among 12 markers (sequence characterized amplified regions, SCARs), six were scored as dominant markers between aposporous and sexual C. ciliaris genotypes (presence/absence, respectively). Five were always linked to apospory and one showed a low level of recombination in 84 progenies. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were observed between sexual and apomictic phenotypes for three of the six remaining SCARs from P. squamulatum when used as probes. No recombination was observed in the F1 progenies. Preliminary data from megabase DNA analysis and sequencing in both species indicate that an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) is highly conserved between the two species. Although C. ciliaris has a smaller genome size to P. squamulatum, a higher copy number for markers linked to apospory found in the former may impair the progress of positional cloning of gene(s) for apomixis in this species.

  2. Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum

  3. The impact of an invasive African bunchgrass (Pennisetum setaceum) on water availability and productivity of canopy trees within a tropical dry forest in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cordell; D. R. Sandquist

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are among the Earth's most threatened ecosystems. On the Island of Hawaii the African bunchgrass Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) dominates the understorey of the few remaining fragments of native dry forests and is contributing to the degradation of this once diverse ecosystem. In this study, we...

  4. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum based foods and their functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, considered a poor man’s cereal, may be a repository of dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, which provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical induced oxidative stress and probably play a role in the prevention of ageing and various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases.Objective: The present study focused on the identification of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids from seven commercial varieties of pearl millet and five samples of pearl millet-based traditional recipes of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India.Methods: Total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and individual polyphenol separation included the isolation and identification of (a flavonoids, (b phenolic acids, and (c glycoflavones involving interaction with diagnostic reagents and paper chromatographic separation of compounds and their UV-visible spectroscopic studies including hypsochromic and bathchromic shifts with reagents such as AlCl3, AlCl3/HCl, NaOMe, NaOAc,and NaOAc/H3PO3. Five traditional recipes consumed in the pearl millet producing belt of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India, were standardized in the laboratory and analyzed for phenol and individual flavonoids. Results: Total phenols in raw samples ranged from 268.5 - 420mg/100g of DW and 247.5 -Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7:251-264335mg/100g of DW in cooked recipes. The commonly identified flavonoids were tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin. Five phenolic acids were identified: namely vanilic acid, syringic acid, melilotic acid, para-hydroxyl benzoic acid, and salicylic acid.Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids, such as tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin, indicate the chemopreventive efficacy of pearl millet. They may be inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease and to the incidence

  5. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjan Sapkota

    Full Text Available Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae. The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR. Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  6. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A; Hanna, Wayne W; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 781 ... Vol 39, No 2 (2012), Influence of feed quantity offered on growth ... Performance of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schum) during the year ... For Synchronization Of Estrus In Postpartum Buffalo Cows, Abstract.

  8. Agronomic parameters in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica in convencional, organic and natural crop systems/ Parâmetros agronômicos em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica em sistema convencional, orgânico e natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic parameters were assessed in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica, cv. Legacy, in different cultivation systems: Natural 1 [incorporation of elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Conventional (NPK in the planting + bórax + dressing N]; Organic [organic compost (1 kg/plant]. Plants high were assessed 30, 45 and 60 days after planting; cycle; fresh weight; shelf life and dried weight were also evaluated. Fresh weight of leaves and stems in conventional was higher then in organic treatment. Inflorescence fresh weight, leaves and stems dried weight and shelf life were similar among treatments. The inflorescence fresh and dried weight from conventional were higher than those from Organic and Natural 1. Cycle found in Natural 1 was longer than the other treatments.Parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L . var. italica, cv. Legacy, em quatro sistemas de cultivo: Natural 1 [incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [incorporação de composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Convencional [NPK no plantio + bórax + N em cobertura]; Orgânico [aplicação de composto (1 kg/planta]. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplantio; duração do ciclo, peso fresco, período de conservação pós-colheita e peso seco. O peso fresco da parte vegetativa obtido no sistema convencional foi superior ao sistema orgânico. O peso fresco e seco da inflorescência obtido no sistema convencional, foi superior àquele obtido nos sistemas Orgânico e Natural 1. O ciclo no sistema Natural 1 foi mais longo do que nos outros tratamentos.

  9. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados

  10. Población de nematodos en forrajes tropicales en dos rangos de altura en el cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela

    OpenAIRE

    WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Salazar Figueroa, Luís

    2011-01-01

    Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus), Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun), King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass), Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania), Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha), Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo), Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza), Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare) y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi) en la localidad de San C...

  11. Efecto de las PGPB sobre el crecimiento Pennisetum clandestinum bajo condiciones de estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sánchez López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims the isolation and characterization of bacteria with potential to promote the growth of grass Pennisetum clandestinum in simulated saline soils. 92 Gram positive bacterias were isolated from Rhizosphere soil samples of P. clandestinum. Ten isolated bacteria grew on nutrient agar supplemented with NaCl (2.578 M. Isolates were evaluated under greenhouse conditions; the strains identified as KISA 34 and KISA 71 were selected as the best based on the statistical test of Dunnet (p ≤ 0.05 and were identified Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KISA 34 and Bacillus subtilis KISA 71. These strains have the ability to produce ammonium, exopolysaccharides and cellulose, both in absence and presence of NaCl. The strains produced indoles and phosphorus solubilization. The evaluation of strains in greenhouse showed that the T6 - KISA 34 + KISA 71+ 25 % (phosphate rock RF significantly increased biomass and plant development (p≤ 0.05 compared with T2 - full fertilization . The results of this research showed that isolates have the ability to grow in saline soils retaining its characteristics as promoting plant growth with positive effects on P. clandestinum.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Namibian Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. BR. (Pearl Millet Landraces Analyzed by SSR and Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy McBenedict

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation’s food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces. A sample of 96 genotypes was further analyzed by SSR using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and revealed a value of 0.45 indicating low genetic diversity. Ordination using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA on SSR data confirmed clusters generated by UPGMA for the 96 P. glaucum accessions. UPGMA phenograms of 29 morphological characterized genotypes were generated for SSR and morphology data and the two trees revealed 78% resemblance. Lodging susceptibility, tillering attitude, spike density, fodder yield potential, early vigour, and spike shape were the phenotypic characters upon which some clusters were based in both datasets. It is recommended that efforts should be made to widen the current gene pool in Namibia.

  13. A note on the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on chemical composition of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hago, T. E. M; Eltilib, A. M. A.; Ali, S. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    A filed experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (1999/2000 and 2000/2001) at the University of Zalengi, Western Darfur State, Sudan, to study the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on chemical composition of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains. A local pearl millet cultivar (Darmassa) was used as a test crop. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen (0, 30, 60,80 kg N/ha) and four phosphorus (0, 15, 30, 60 kg p 2 O 5 /ha) rates, using urea (46% N) and triple superphosphate (48% P 2 O 5 ) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The experimental design was split plot with five replicates, allocating nitrogen to the main and phosphorus to the subplots. The results showed that nitrogen significantly increased grain protein content in both seasons, while phosphorus caused a consistent increase in grain protein and phosphorus contents in both seasons, but the increase was significant in the second season only. As for the other grain constituents (K, Ca, Mg), they were not effected by any of the treatment. Moreover, there were no significant interactions between the treatments.(Author)

  14. Effect of domestic processing on the polyphenol content and bioaccessibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-12-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were evaluated for polyphenolic content and their bioaccessibility. Total polyphenols of native finger millet was 10.2mg/g which reduced by 50% after sprouting or pressure-cooking, while 12-19% reduction was seen after open-pan boiling. Total flavonoids of the grain reduced drastically on sprouting, pressure-cooking or open-pan boiling. Concentration of phenolic acids generally increased during sprouting and roasting of finger millet. Pressure cooking, open-pan boiling and microwave-heating reduced the bioaccessible polyphenols by 30-35%, while the same was increased by 67% by sprouting. Significant reduction of total polyphenols was observed in pressure-cooked, open-pan boiled and microwave-heated pearl millet. Concentration of sinapic and salicylic acids were highest phenolic acids of pearl millet. Total polyphenols reduced during sprouting and pressure-cooking. There was a 20% increase in the bioaccessible polyphenols after sprouting of pearl millet. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible phenolics from these two common millets studied. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3, Fusarium redolens (n = 4 and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15. Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Namibian Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. (Pearl Millet) Landraces Analyzed by SSR and Morphological Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBenedict, Billy; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Kwembeya, Ezekeil; Maggs-Kölling, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Current Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation's food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces. A sample of 96 genotypes was further analyzed by SSR using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and revealed a value of 0.45 indicating low genetic diversity. Ordination using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) on SSR data confirmed clusters generated by UPGMA for the 96 P. glaucum accessions. UPGMA phenograms of 29 morphological characterized genotypes were generated for SSR and morphology data and the two trees revealed 78% resemblance. Lodging susceptibility, tillering attitude, spike density, fodder yield potential, early vigour, and spike shape were the phenotypic characters upon which some clusters were based in both datasets. It is recommended that efforts should be made to widen the current gene pool in Namibia.

  17. Constancy of local spread rates for buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare L.) in the Arizona Upland of the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    In North American deserts, grass invasions threaten native vegetation via competition and altered fire regimes. Accurate prediction and successful mitigation of these invasions hinge on estimation of spread rates and their degree of constancy in time and space. We used high-resolution aerial photographs from 11 sites in the Santa Catalina Mountains, southern Arizona to reconstruct the spread of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare), a C4 perennial bunchgrass, since 1980. The total area infested was fit to a logistic model and residuals of the model were compared to climatic factors of the corresponding and lagged time periods. Infestations grew from small colonizing patches in the 1980s to 66 ha in 2008, doubling every 2.26–7.04 years since 1988. Although buffelgrass germination, establishment and distribution are favored by wet summers and warm winters, climate variables did not predict spread rates. Buffelgrass has grown at a constant rate, at least since 1988, when much of its expansion took place. In the study area, minimum requirements are met almost every year for germination and reproduction, establishing a consistent baseline for spread that manifests as a constant spread rate.

  18. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  19. Segmental allotetraploidy and allelic interactions in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.) as revealed by genome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, R W; Burson, B L; Burow, O; Wang, Y W; Chang, C; Li, Z; Paterson, A H; Hussey, M A

    2003-04-01

    Linkage analyses increasingly complement cytological and traditional plant breeding techniques by providing valuable information regarding genome organization and transmission genetics of complex polyploid species. This study reports a genome map of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Maternal and paternal maps were constructed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) segregating in 87 F1 progeny from an intraspecific cross between two heterozygous genotypes. A survey of 862 heterologous cDNAs and gDNAs from across the Poaceae, as well as 443 buffelgrass cDNAs, yielded 100 and 360 polymorphic probes, respectively. The maternal map included 322 RFLPs, 47 linkage groups, and 3464 cM, whereas the paternal map contained 245 RFLPs, 42 linkage groups, and 2757 cM. Approximately 70 to 80% of the buffelgrass genome was covered, and the average marker spacing was 10.8 and 11.3 cM on the respective maps. Preferential pairing was indicated between many linkage groups, which supports cytological reports that buffelgrass is a segmental allotetraploid. More preferential pairing (disomy) was found in the maternal than paternal parent across linkage groups (55 vs. 38%) and loci (48 vs. 15%). Comparison of interval lengths in 15 allelic bridges indicated significantly less meiotic recombination in paternal gametes. Allelic interactions were detected in four regions of the maternal map and were absent in the paternal map.

  20. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These

  1. "Titán" y "Regio", variedades de pasto Buffel (Pennisetum ciliare) (L.) Link para zonas áridas y semiáridas

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán López, Sergio; García Díaz, Carlos Alberto; Loredo Osti, Catarina; Urrutia Morales, Jorge; Hernández Alatorre, José Antonio; Gámez Vázquez, Héctor Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: El pasto buffel (Pennisetum ciliare) es una gramínea perenne, originaria de Sud África, de buen valor forrajero que se adapta bien a una amplia gama de suelos y condiciones climáticas. Las variedades de pasto buffel Titán y buffel Regio provienen de colectas realizadas en el centro y norte de México. Fueron evaluadas en zonas áridas y semiáridas, en temporal y riego desde 1986 hasta la obtención del registro en el año 2008. Los registros definitivos otorgados por parte del Sistema Na...

  2. Responses and Remediating Effects of Pennisetum hydridum to Application of Heavy-Metals-Contaminated Chicken Manures and Sewage Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xi-na

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pennisetum hydridum is a rapid growth, large biomass and multi-stress resistant plant. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the bioremediation effects of P. hydridum by 2 kg heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contaminated chicken manure or sewage sludge mixing with 18 kg of lateritic red soil. The growth and heavy metal uptake of P. hydridum were measured in order to assess the phytoremediation potential. Results showed that P. hydridum growed well in all treatments and the best appeared in chicken manure. The biomass of plant in treatments with chicken manure, sewage sludge, and the control was 736.56±29.21, 499.99±32.01 g·pot-1, and 466.89±37.08 g·pot-1, respectively. The heavy metals in the soils were reduced significantly at the 200 d after planting P. hydridum in fall. The removing percentage of total Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in soil was 1.90%~4.52%, 3.96%~5.72%, 0.53%~1.24% and 10.34%~17.14% respectively. The best effect of removing Zn, Cd and Pb appeared in chicken manure treatment was 89.74, 0.68 mg and 19.18 mg. The best effect of removing Cu appeared in sludge treatment was 16.84 mg. The results indicated that P. hydridum could be used for removement of the heavy metals from the heavy metal contaminated soils which could be considered as an potential plant for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  3. Restricción del riego en la producción de biomasa del pasto Pennisetum sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Enrique Chavarría Párraga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló en el sitio Garrapata, Parroquia Santa Rita, provincia Manabí; durante la época seca del año 2015. El estudio consistió en evaluar la restricción hídrica en la producción del pasto king grass morado (Pennisetum sp bajo riego por aspersión. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, formado de tres tratamientos y seis repeticiones. Los tratamientos consistieron en aplicar tres láminas de reposición de agua 80% ETc, 100% ETc, 120% ETc, calculados a partir de los registros diarios de evaporación en un tanque evaporímetro tipo A y afectados por el coeficientes Kp (Coeficiente de tina, método FAO 33,1980. Las variables evaluadas fueron altura de planta a los 15 y 30 días del corte de igualación del pasto, altura de planta a la cosecha (m, rendimiento de forraje verde por parcela y hectárea (kg y materia seca (%. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento lámina de riego al 120% de la ETc (T3, respondió de manera favorable en altura de planta a la cosecha (2.08 m, rendimiento (53000 kg.ha-1; el tratamiento lámina de riego al 100% de la ETc (T2 obtuvo mayor contenido de materia seca (19.86%. El pasto king grass morado regado con una lámina de riego al 120% de la ETc, constituye una modalidad que mejora el rendimiento productivo y rentable del cultivo y podría aplicarse en la zona.

  4. Análisis de crecimiento del pasto maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp. en clima cálido subhúmedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel Calzada-Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este experimento fue realizar un análisis de crecimiento del pasto “Maralfalfa” ( Pennisetum sp. desde la siembra hasta determinar el momento óptimo de cosecha. La morfología de la planta (MP, tas a de crecimiento (TC, altura, radiación interceptada (RI, relación hoja/tallo (H:T, hoja/no hoja (H:NH y la acumulación de biomasa aérea, se evaluaron a intervalos de 15 días, en un periodo de 180 días, a excepción de lo s dos primeros muestreos que fueron mensuales. Los datos se analizaron mediante el procedimiento GLM de SA S, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con medidas repetidas en el tiempo, con tres repeticiones . La MP varió de manera significativa ( P <0.01 a través de los diferentes estados fisiológicos. La máxima producción de biomasa aérea y TC se alcanzó a los 151 días después de la siemb ra con 37,297 kg MS ha -1 y 247 kg MS ha -1 d -1 , respectivamente. También se registró el mayor porcentaje de RI (97.4 %, con una altura de 2.3 m aproximadamente. La producción de biomasa de tallos y la producción de material muerto del pasto mar alfalfa, están correlacionadas de manera positiva con el incremento en la edad de la planta. La máxima tasa d e crecimiento, coincide con la máxima producción de hojas y de tallos, y con la mayor producción de bi omasa total.

  5. Structure, agency, and the transformation of the Sonoran Desert by buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare): An application of land change science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jacob C.

    A regional land transformation is underway in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America as a result of the conversion of native rangeland to exotic pasture. In northwestern Sonora, Mexico the process involves clearing native vegetation for cultivation of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare). Southern African buffelgrass was introduced to Sonora through the United States in the 1950s with generous support from the Mexican federal and Sonoran state governments. The ascendance of buffelgrass as a range management tool in Sonora has been conditioned by an international political economy of beef production. However, land use decisions regarding buffelgrass are also conditioned by factors internal to the ranch household. This research examines the expansion of buffelgrass in the Sonoran Desert, addressing its extent and drivers. Through the use of systematic interviews with ranchers, key informant interviews with government officials, and an examination of northern Mexico's cattle ranching history and policy, the dissertation documents why buffelgrass has spread as a policy program and management choice. This part of the work addresses a "structure-agency debate" in human-environment geography. Next the research turns to landscape impacts of buffelgrass cultivation, through vegetation plot and transect sampling. The extent, cover, and density of buffelgrass inside and outside fenced pastures are examined, confirming the hypothesis that disturbance facilitates invasion from pastures onto surrounding lands. Finally, the research employs novel methods of remote sensing and geographic information science using a 1973-2006 time series of Landsat imagery to characterize the patterns and temporal trajectories of land change by buffelgrass across the site. Object-based image processing techniques are combined with traditional maximum likelihood techniques and classification tree analysis to address the difficult task of distinguishing buffelgrass from other prevalent land

  6. Aspectos do Comportamento da Cigarrinha-das-Pastagens Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae na Produção de Espuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Batista

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. The spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant synthesizes a protective froth against natural enemies and dry along the immature stage. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of grouping and forage type in the production of the froth made by the spittlebug, and the behavior exhibited during this period. Tests with individual nymphs were performed in which the average time to complete cover by the froth was 38’55’’ and 40’00’’ in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumach. and signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain e Evrard, respectively; as well as tests with groups of nymphs where the average time to complete cover was 48’00’’ in elephant grass and in signal grass 41’06’’. The correlation analysis showed that the nymphs who later initiated the production of froth were those that took the most time to complete the cover within the two forage. The behavioral sequence exhibited by the nymphs was presented, since its release in the pot until the complete cover of the froth. The total time of coverage does not suffer significant change whether the nymphs feed on elephant grass or signal grass, or feeding in solitary or aggregated way.

  7. Effect of Repeated Application of Manure on Herbage Yield, Quality and Wintering Ability during Cropping of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass in Hilly Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two levels of manure application (184 and 275 kg N ha−1 year−1 on herbage yield, quality, and wintering ability during the cropping of a dwarf genotype of late-heading (DL Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach oversown with Italian ryegrass (IR; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were examined and compared with chemical fertilizer application (234 kg N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years to determine a sustainable and environmentally harmonized herbage production in a hilly area (340 m above sea level. No significant (p > 0.05 differences in growth attributes of plant height, tiller density, percentage of leaf blade, or dry matter yield appeared in either DL Napiergrass or IR among moderate levels (184–275 kg N ha−1 year−1 of manure and chemical fertilizer treatments. IR exhibited no significant detrimental effect on spring regrowth of DL Napiergrass, which showed a high wintering ability in all treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility of DL Napiergrass tended to increase with increasing manure application, especially at the first defoliation in the first three years. Manure application improved soil chemical properties and total nitrogen and carbon content. The results suggested that the lower rate of manure application of 184 kg nitrogen ha−1 year−1 would be suitable, which would be a good substitute for chemical fertilizer application with an equilibrium nitrogen budget for sustainable DL Napiergrass and IR cropping in the hilly region of southern Kyushu.

  8. The utilization of microbial inoculants based on irradiated compost in dryland remediation to increase the growth of king grass and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRD Larasati; N Mulyana; D Sudradjat

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the capability of functional microbial inoculants to remediate drylands. The microbial inoculants used consist of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial inoculants and plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants. Compost-based carrier was sterilized by a gamma irradiation dose of 25 kGy to prepare seed inoculants. The irradiated-compost-based hydrocarbon-degrading microbial inoculants and king grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) were used to remediate oil-sludge-contaminated soil using in-situ composting for 60 days. The results showed that they could reduce THP (total petroleum hydrocarbons) by up to 82.23%. Plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants were able to increase the dry weight of king grass from 47.39 to 100.66 g/plant, N uptake from 415.53 to 913.67 mg/plant, and P uptake from 76.52 to 178.33 mg/plant. Cow dung and irradiated-compost-based plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants were able to increase the dry weight of maize (Zea mays L.) from 5.75 to 6.63 ton/ha (12.54%) and dry weight of grain potential from 5.30 to 7.15 ton/ha (35.03%). The results indicate that irradiated-compost-based microbial inoculants are suitable for remediating a dryland and therefore increase potential resources and improve the quality of the environment. (author)

  9. Assessment of Bermudagrass and Bunch Grasses as Feedstock for Conversion to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William F.; Dien, Bruce S.; Brandon, Sarah K.; Peterson, Joy Doran

    Research is needed to allow more efficient processing of lignocellulose from abundant plant biomass resources for production to fuel ethanol at lower costs. Potential dedicated feedstock species vary in degrees of recalcitrance to ethanol processing. The standard dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by simultaneous sacharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed on leaf and stem material from three grasses: giant reed (Arundo donax L.), napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), and bermudagrass (Cynodon spp). In a separate study, napiergrass, and bermudagrass whole samples were pretreated with esterase and cellulose before fermentation. Conversion via SSF was greatest with two bermudagrass cultivars (140 and 122 mg g-1 of biomass) followed by leaves of two napiergrass genotypes (107 and 97 mg g-1) and two giant reed clones (109 and 85 mg g-1). Variability existed among bermudagrass cultivars for conversion to ethanol after esterase and cellulase treatments, with Tifton 85 (289 mg g) and Coastcross II (284 mg g-1) being superior to Coastal (247 mg g-1) and Tifton 44 (245 mg g-1). Results suggest that ethanol yields vary significantly for feedstocks by species and within species and that genetic breeding for improved feedstocks should be possible.

  10. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.Q.; Oliveira, L.C.A.; Bastos, A.R.R.; Carvalho, G.S.; Marques, J.G.S.M.; Carvalho, J.G.; De Souza, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  11. Composición química y degradación de cuatro especies de Pennisetum sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elizabeth Barrera Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de degradación de los pastos de corte en la Costa, constituye una alternativa a la demanda de gramíneas para la alimentación de rumiantes. Se seleccionó cuatro especies de pasto Pennisetum (elefante, king grass morado, maralfalfa y Clon Cuba CT-115 a tres edades de corte (30, 45 y 60 días y se evaluó la dinámica degradativa en 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 horas de incubación utilizando tres toros Brahman fistulados de 450 kg promedio. Se utilizó la técnica de las bolsas de nylon y se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con un arreglo factorial 4x3 (especies forrajeras x edad de corte. Los datos fueron expuestos a un análisis de varianza con la prueba de Tukey (p<0.05 y con el programa estadístico (SAS, 2003. Se constató que el avance de la edad estuvo asociado con la disminución de la proteína, sus mejores proporciones fueron a los 30 días con 12.89%, seguido por 12.19, 11.53 y 9.77% para el maralfalfa, CT-115, king grass y elefante, respectivamente. La mayor tasa de degradación in situ fue p≤0.001 para el pasto maralfalfa a los 30 días de corte, obteniendo materia seca (88.85%, materia orgánica (89.53% y biodisponibilidad de cenizas (85.24% a las 72 horas de incubación. La liberación de estos componentes se vio influenciada con la madurez del forraje, por tanto, su alta degradación garantiza una cantidad de energía fermentable, disponible para el proceso de síntesis microbiana ruminal y es una buena alternativa de uso para los ganaderos.

  12. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...... under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  13. Effect of malt pretreatment and fermentation on anti-nutritional factors and mineral bioavailability of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, S. M.

    2004-11-01

    pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum L.) is a source of carbohydrate, protein and minerals that is comparable to other common cereal grains. However, anti nutrient factors like phytate and polyphenols reduce nutrient bioavailability which can be improved by suitable processing methods such as germination and fermentation with and without malt pretreatment. In this study of 8 pearl millet cultivars Ashana, Dahabaya, Dembi, GB-87-35, Kordofani, Madelkawaya, population 1Shambat and Ugandi were investigated. Results showed that pearl millet contained 7.7-8.9% moisture, 1.6-23% ash, 11.4-13.0% protein, 4.0-7.7% oil and 2.1-3.2% crude fiber. Mineral contents were 13.0-19.4, 370.0-547.5, 70.3-93.3, 49.1-61.9 and 551.0-1290.4 mg/100 g for Na,K,Mg, Ca and P respectively and 1.3-1.8, 7.5-11.7, 0.8-1.7, 0.5-1.5 and 0.062-0.103 mg/100 g for Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Co respectively. HCI-extractability of these minerals (an index of their bioavailability to humans) were 63.1-73.3% Na, 64.9-73.3% K, 55.7-61.4% mg, 27.7-88.3% Ca, 31.0-38.5% P, 41.2-45.9% Zn, 22.5-27.7% Fe, 44.3-48.8% Mn, 21.3-28.6% Cu and 85.3-88.6% CO. Phytic acid content ranged from 422.3-1101.0 mg/100 g and polyphenol ranged from 306.7-669.4 mg/100 g. Cooking caused slight increase in mineral content and significantly (p<0.01) improved the bioavailability of all the minerals investigated; phytic acid reduced by 6-10% and polyphenols by 6-8%. Germination for 2,4 and 6- days showed significant (P<0.01) differences in the concentration of minerals during the course of germination.Total content of Fe, Zn and Mn were increased significantly (P<0.01) for all cultivars. The bioavailability of all the minerals was significantly (P<0.01) improved throughout all the time intervals of germination. Phytic acid was reduced by 66.3-81.0% after 6- days of germination while polyphenol content was reduced by 34.3-44.0%. Fermentation of cultivars of : Ashana and Dembi affected the minerals content and significantly (P<0.01) improved the

  14. Características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. sob pastejo no período de seca Structural and morphological characteristics of Pennisetum sp. genotypes under grazing during the dry period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar características estruturais e morfológicas de cinco genótipos de Pennisetum sp. (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elefante B e Hexaplóide sob pastejo no período de seca na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Os genótipos foram manejados sob lotação rotacionada (44 dias de descanso e quatro dias de pastejo ao longo de dois ciclos de pastejo. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas (os genótipos representaram as parcelas e os ciclos de pastejo, as subparcelas e quatro repetições. Houve variação nas características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B apresentaram maior densidade de lâmina foliar verde, menor porcentagem de material morto e maior densidade de perfilhos basais remanescentes e aéreos novos, com médias de 5,0±0,4 kg de MS/ha/cm, 33,0±0,2%, 22,0±0,2 e 146,0±0,4 perfilhos/m², respectivamente. O HV-241 apresentou alta participação de material morto em sua biomassa aérea (55,6±0,3%, o que pode ser atribuído à alta mortalidade de perfilhos (19,0±0,3 e 114,0±0,4 perfilhos basais e aéreos mortos/m², respectivamente. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B destacaram-se como promissores para utilização sob pastejo no período de seca. O genótipo HV-241, híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto, foi mais afetado pelos efeitos do estresse hídrico no período seco do ano.The experiment was carried out to study structural and morphologic characteristics of five Pennisetum sp. genotypes (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elephant B and Hexaplóide under grazing during the dry period in Pernambuco Forest Zone. Genotypes were managed under rotational stocking (44 days of resting and four days of grazing period. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a split plot arrangement, and four replications. The genotypes represented the plots, and grazing

  15. Assessing reference genes for accurate transcript normalization using quantitative real-time PCR in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Saha

    Full Text Available Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br.], a close relative of Panicoideae food crops and bioenergy grasses, offers an ideal system to perform functional genomics studies related to C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR provides a sensitive platform to conduct such gene expression analyses. However, the lack of suitable internal control reference genes for accurate transcript normalization during qRT-PCR analysis in pearl millet is the major limitation. Here, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of 18 reference genes on 234 samples which included an array of different developmental tissues, hormone treatments and abiotic stress conditions from three genotypes to determine appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Analyses of Ct values using Stability Index, BestKeeper, ΔCt, Normfinder, geNorm and RefFinder programs ranked PP2A, TIP41, UBC2, UBQ5 and ACT as the most reliable reference genes for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, we validated the specificity of these genes for precise quantification of relative gene expression and provided evidence that a combination of the best reference genes are required to obtain optimal expression patterns for both endogeneous genes as well as transgenes in pearl millet.

  16. Evaluación de la zeolita natural utilizada como una tecnología productiva y limpia, aplicada al pasto Maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp) como un complemento en el uso de los fertilizantes nitrogenados

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Marín, Manuel Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Gestión de Recursos Naturales y Tecnologías de Producción) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Agroforestal, 2014. La necesidad de buscar alternativas para el aprovechamiento de fertilizantes en pastos de alta calidad como Maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp), lleva a investigar a la zeolita a modo de tecnología complementaria al programa de fertilización. Países como México, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia han utilizado la zeolita de tal forma ...

  17. Cereal domestication and evolution of branching: evidence for soft selection in the Tb1 orthologue of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stanislas Remigereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1 in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1 in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, an African outcrossing cereal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1. Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet. Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain

  18. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  19. Selección de cultivares forrajeros de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor y mijo (Pennisetum americanum por índices de eficiencia de producción y calidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ru\\u00EDz Vega

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar cultivares de sorgo y mijo forrajeros con alta eficienciade producción de materia seca y calidad para condiciones deriego restringido, situación cada vez mas frecuente debido alabatimiento de los niveles freáticos en el período primavera-verano, se sembraron el 23 de marzo de 1998 en Santa CruzXoxocotlán, Oaxaca, México, seis variedades comerciales desorgo forrajero (Sorghum bicolor y una de mijo perla (Pennisetum americanum, además de seis líneas de mijo perla provenientes del International Crop Research Institute for the Semiarid Tropics (ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Apartir de losdatos de producción de materia seca, se generaron dos índices,uno llamado de productividad modificado (IPM y otro de productividad (IP, para facilitar la selección de materiales. ElIPM superó al IPen su capacidad para discriminar los materiales por mayor eficiencia de producción de forraje de calidad.En promedio, los genotipos de sorgo fueron más eficientes para producir materia seca, especialmente Sweet Sioux y Domor,este último caracterizado por mostrar poca variación entre cortes. Sin embargo, los mijos NELC C4 y ICMH 423, podríanser utilizados por campesinos que dispongan de menos agua ytengan urgencia de forraje, dada su alta eficiencia de producción de materia seca de buena calidad en el primer corte.

  20. Evaluation of Organic Matter Removal Efficiency and Microbial Enzyme Activity in Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, enzyme activities and their relationships to organics purification were investigated in three different vertical flow constructed wetlands, namely system A (planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb, system B (planting Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and system C (no plant. These three wetland systems were fed with simulation domestic sewage at an influent flow rate of 20 cm/day. The results showed that the final removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in these three systems was 87%, 85% and 63%, respectively. Planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. could improve the amount of adsorption and interception for organic matter in the substrate, and the amount of interception of organic matter in planting the Pennisetum sinese Roxb system was higher than that in planting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum. system. The activities of enzymes (urease, phosphatase and cellulase in systems A and B were higher than those in system C, and these enzyme activities in the top layer (0–30 cm were significantly higher than in the other layers. The correlations between the activities of urease, phosphatase, cellulase and the COD removal rates were R = 0.815, 0.961 and 0.973, respectively. It suggests that using Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as wetland plants could promote organics removal, and the activities of urease, phosphatase and cellulase in those three systems were important indicators for COD purification from wastewater. In addition, 0–30 cm was the main function layer. This study could provide a theoretical basis for COD removal in the wetland system and supply new plant materials for selection.

  1. Comparison of Rumen Degradation Characteristics between Pennisetum sp.and Commonly Used Roughages for Dairy Cows%禾王草与奶牛常用粗饲料瘤胃降解特性的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 刘艳芳; 杜云; 李胜利; 余雄

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究2种刈割高度的禾王草干草和青贮、羊草干草、苜蓿干草以及全株玉米青贮共7种粗饲料的瘤胃降解特性。选用4头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的荷斯坦奶牛为试验动物,采用尼龙袋法评定其干物质( DM)、粗蛋白质( CP)、中性洗涤纤维( NDF)和酸性洗涤纤维( ADF)的72 h瘤胃降解率。结果表明:1)禾王草干草CP含量显著高于羊草干草( P<0.05), NDF含量显著低于羊草干草( P<0.05);禾王草青贮CP和NDF含量显著高于全株玉米青贮( P<0.05)。2)苜蓿干草DM有效降解率最高,与依次降低的全株玉米青贮、2.0 m禾王草青贮、2.5 m禾王草青贮、2.0 m禾王草干草、2.5 m禾王草干草和羊草干草差异显著( P<0.05),羊草干草的DM有效降解率显著低于其他粗饲料( P<0.05);CP有效降解率以苜蓿干草最高,与2.0 m禾王草青贮差异不显著( P>0.05),显著高于依次降低的2.5 m禾王草青贮、2.0 m禾王草干草、全株玉米青贮、2.5 m禾王草干草和羊草干草( P<0.05);全株玉米青贮与禾王草青贮的NDF有效降解率差异不显著( P>0.05),而显著高于其他粗饲料( P<0.05);禾王草青贮72 h时ADF有效降解率显著高于其他粗饲料( P<0.05)。由此可知,禾王草有作为奶牛粗饲料的潜力,禾王草经青贮后可以保存营养成分,并可以提高营养成分的瘤胃利用效率。%This experiment was conducted to determine the rumen degradation characteristics of 7 kinds of roughages including 2 kinds of Pennisetum sp.hay ( different cutting height) , 2 kinds of Pennisetum sp.silage ( different cutting height) , dried Chinese wildye, dried alfalfa hay and whole corn silage.Four Holstein cows with permanent ruminal cannulas were used.Nylon-bag technique was used to evaluate the ruminal degradabili-ty of dry matter

  2. Evaluación química y organoléptica del ensilaje de maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp. más yuca fresca (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Maza A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la composición química y características organolépticas del ensilado de maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp. más diferentes proporciones de yuca fresca (Manihot esculenta. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron 4 tratamientos (T de ensilaje de maralfalfa más diferentes proporciones de yuca fresca: 0% (Tratamiento 1, Control, 5% (Tratamiento 2, 10% (Tratamiento 3 y 15% (Tratamiento 4. Se determinaron las proporciones de fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, lignina, fracción de materia seca (MS, extracto etéreo (EE, cenizas y proteína bruta (PB. Además, se evaluaron las características organolépticas. Para evaluar las variables nutricionales del ensilaje, se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado y los datos se analizaron a través de un análisis de varianza y la prueba de polinomios ortogonales. Para la evaluación del consumo y variables organolépticas se utilizaron 20 novillas, a las que se les ofreció 30 kg de ensilaje por cada tratamiento, analizando los resultados a través de estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Las variables nutricionales mostraron diferentes tipos de tendencias polinómicas. La MS y EE tuvieron comportamiento lineal, la lignina cuadrático y la PB, cenizas, FDN, FDA y pH comportamiento cúbico. Las características organolépticas para T3 y T4, fueron excelentes. El consumo promedio de T1, T2, T3 y T4 fue 4.66, 4.42, 4.58 y 4.74 kg, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La inclusión de raíz de yuca contribuyó favorablemente en la calidad nutricional del ensilaje de maralfalfa y sus características organolépticas.

  3. Rotational Grazing System for Beef Cows on Dwarf Elephantgrass Pasture for Two Years after Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mukhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive rotational grazing system for dwarf and late heading (DL elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach pasture was examined in a summer period for two years following establishment. Four 0.05 of DL elephant grass pastures (20×25 m were established on May 2003. They were rotationally grazed for 1 week, followed by a 3-week rest period by three breeding or raising beef cattle for three and six cycles during the first and second years of establishment respectively. Before grazing, the plant height, leaf area index and the ratio of leaf blade to stem were at the highest, while tiller number increased and herbage mass tended to increase, except for the first grazing cycle both two years and for one paddock in the second year. Herbage consumption, the rate of herbage consumption and dry matter intake tended to decrease in three paddocks from the first to the third cycle in the first year, but increase as grazing occurred in the second year. Dry matter intake averaged 10.2-14.5 and 15.4–23.2 g DM/kg/live weight (LW/day over the four paddocks in the first and second year, respectively, and average daily gains were 0.09 and 0.35 kg/head/day in the first and second year respectively. The carrying capacities were estimated at 1,016 and 208 cow-days (CD/ha (annual total 1,224 CD/ha in the first year and 1,355 and 207 CD/ha (annual total 1,562 CD/ha in the second year. Thus, DL elephant grass pasture can expand the grazing period for beef cows for the following two-year establishment. (Animal Production 13(1:10-17 (2011 Key Words: dwarf elephant grass, herbage mass, plant characters, rotational grazing

  4. Utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15-30kg de peso vivo Utilization of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain on feeding of starting pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, (L. R. Brown na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15 aos 30kg de peso vivo. Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho, utilizando-se 48 leitões híbridos comerciais, sendo metade machos e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 14,9 ± 2,01kg. Utilizou-se a variedade IAPAR-IA98301 de milheto (MS: 90,61%; PB: 11,64%; Ca: 0,05%, P: 0,29% e 3.181kcal ED kg-1. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (0, 20, 40 e 60% de inclusão de milheto, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão do milheto em rações para suínos na fase inicial não influenciou o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e o custo em ração por quilograma de suíno produzido. Em uma relação onde o preço do milheto corresponde a 70% do preço do milho, o custo em ração do quilograma de suíno produzido também não foi alterado. Os resultados sugerem que o milheto IAPAR-IA98301 pode ser incluído em rações de suínos na fase inicial até o nível de 60%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown utilization on feeding of initial pigs (15-30kg of body weight. A performance trial was conducted by using 48 crossbred pigs (a half barrows and a half females with initial weight of 14.93 + 2.01kg with the use of IAPAR-IA98301 species of pearl millet (DM 90.61%; CP 11.64%; Ca 0.05%; P 0.29% and 3,182 kcal DE kg-1. A randomized blocks designwas used, with four treatments (0; 20; 40 and 60% of pearl millet inclusion, with six repetitions and two animals per experimental unit. The pearl millet inclusion on starting pigs diets did not influence on daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio and cost in diet per kilogram of pig produced during the initial phase. The results, suggest that the pearl millet IAPAR-IA98301 can be included in

  5. EFECTO DE LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA Y DE LA EDAD DE CORTE SOBRE LA DIGESTIBILIDAD INTESTINAL In vitro DE LA PROTEÍNA DEL PASTO KIKUYO (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECT AND CUT AGE ON THE In vitro INTESTINAL DIGESTIBILITY OF KIKUYO GRASS (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Castañeda Colorado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada y de la edad de corte sobre la digestibilidad intestinal In vitro de la proteína del pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst, se seleccionaron 16 parcelas a las cuales se les asignó uno de los siguientes tratamientos (cuatro parcelas/tratamiento: T1 (30 días de corte y 0 kg/N/Ha/Corte, T2 (60 días de corte y 0 kg/N/Ha/Corte, T3 (60 días de corte y 50 kg/N/Ha/Corte y T4 (30 días de corte y 50 kg/N/Ha/Corte. Luego de 120 días de tratamiento se recolectaron 5 submuestras de cada parcela con las que se conformó una muestra final para cada parcela en las que se analizó el contenido de proteína cruda y se realizó la prueba de degradabilidad ruminal a 16 horas y la prueba de digestibilidad intestinal In vitro de la proteína por el método de los tres pasos. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo efecto de la edad de corte, ni de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre el porcentaje de proteína cruda del pasto kikuyo. Los valores de digestibilidad intestinal como porcentaje de la proteína no degradable en rumen fueron: 52,51%, 56,14% para las praderas sin fertilizar con edad de corte de 30 y 60 días respectivamente y 43,38%, 45,40% para las praderas fertilizadas con edad de corte de 30 y 60 días respectivamente.With the purpose of evaluating the effect of the nitrogen fertilization and cut age on the In vitro intestinal digestibility of kikuyo grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst protein, 16 plots were made, everyone assigned one of the following treatments (four plots per treatment: T1 (30 cut -day and 0 kg/ N/ Ha/ cut, T2 (60 cut-day and 0 kg/ N/ Ha/ cut, T3 (60 cut-day and 50 kg/ N/ Ha/ cut and T4 (30 cut-day and 50kg/ N/ Ha/ cut. 120 days after the treatment, 5 sub-samples were harvested of each plot, which were defined as final samples for each plot and, were realized to these samples a ruminal degradability trial for 16 hours and In vitro three-step method of

  6. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  7. Multi-scale measurements show limited soil greenhouse GAS emissions in Kenyan smallholder coffee-dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Gonzalo, Daniel; de Neergaard, Andreas; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    the three main cropping systems found in the area: 1) coffee (Coffea arabica L.); 2) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum); and 3) maize intercropped with beans (Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris). Within these fields, chambers were allocated on fertilised and unfertilised locations to capture spatial...

  8. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  9. South. Afr.J. Educ.Sci.Technol.2(1) (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNR841, Pennisetum purpureum cvv. Napier SDPP 19 and Bana, Chloris gayana ... Bana, Napier, Sorghum bicolor, Chloris gayana and Cynodon inlemfluensis on the sandy, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils. On the clay soil, the .... of experimental plots, which included seedbed preparation, planting, weeding and ...

  10. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  11. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  12. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tein, 28 to 40 per cent in crude fiber, 10 to 16 per cent in ash, 0.9 ... and forage production in the alley cropping system of agro- ... Keywords. genetic diversity; cluster analysis; DNA markers; Shannon information index; Pennisetum purpureum.

  13. Thermophysiological Responses of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the physiological responses of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks fed Pennisetum purpureum (PP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP). Thirty 30 growingWAD bucks with average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg and aged between 8 and 9 months old, were allotted to three (3) dietary treatments (A, ...

  14. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine (9) West African dwarf goats (8 weeks of age,averaging 6.3 + 1.3 kg body weight) were used in a 42 day feeding trial to determine the effec of feeding Pennisetum purpureum supplemented with Gmelina arborea on diet intake and nutrient digesibility of goats. The experimental diets were diets 1 2 and 3 wth 0%, 25%, ...

  15. Performance Evaluation of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of replacing Pennisetum purpureum with unripe plantain peels on the performance of West African Dwarf Goats. Thirty buck kids with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups with ten bucks per treatment in a completely randomized ...

  16. The potential of improving napier grass under smallholder farmers' conditions in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, J.N.

    1998-01-01

    Dairy farming is the main livestock enterprise in the mixed crop/livestock farming system in the high rainfall areas of Kenya. These areas are characterised by a high human population density and very small farms. As a consequence, napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum )

  17. Effects of proportion and ensiling duration on nutrient digestibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Pennisetum purpureum and Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds silage using ... for 48h were: acetate (0.74 to 1.90 %); propionate (0.49 to 1.26 %) and butyrate ... and grass at 60 days produced higher total anaerobic bacteria counts than in ...

  18. Variation in the production and quality of bana grass over the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 1965. Effect of hybridization on the chemical composition and nutritive value of Napier grass. (Pennisetum purpureum). Indian J. Vet. Sci. 35, 301. TILLEY, T.M.A. & TERRY, R.A., 1%3. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage ...

  19. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.

  20. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  1. Determinación del potencial depurador del cultivo hidropónico de Phalaris spp y Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst, mediante la técnica de la película nutriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Cruz Torres

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio corresponde a la segunda etapa de la evaluación de un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas conocido como la Técnica de la Película Nutriente (TPN, utilizando dos especies de gramíneas: Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst (pasto kikuyo y Phalaris spp (pasto brasilero. Los resultados permitieron establecer que las raíces actúan como un filtro biológico de los sólidos y materia orgánica, y además absorben los nutrientes contenidos en este tipo de aguas residuales. Por otra parte, el establecimiento de una cadena trófica o "cadena depuradora" de organismos (plancton y fauna asociada contribuye en gran medida en la remoción de polutantes. Bajo las condiciones de operación, el sistema de tratamiento (TPN removió eficientemente bacterias coliformes de origen fecal, seguido por sólidos suspendidos, materia orgánica y en menor grado los nutrientes.

  2. Avaliação da folha e do colmo de topo e base de perfilhos de três gramíneas forrageiras: 2. Anatomia Evaluation of top and bottom leaf and stem fractions from tiller of three forage grasses: 2. Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - A proporção de tecidos, o grau de correlação linear desta característica com a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e sua composição química foram determinadas em seções transversais das frações botânicas, lâmina e bainha foliares e colmo, amostrados no topo e na base de perfilhos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, cv. Mott, capim-setária (Setaria anceps, cv. kazungula e capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa. O capim-jaraguá, com maior proporção de bainha parenquimática dos feixes (BPF na lâmina foliar e de tecido vascular lignificado (TVL e esclerênquima (ESC na lâmina e bainha foliares, apresentou proporção de tecidos menos compatível à de uma forrageira de alto valor nutritivo, em comparação ao capim-elefante e capim-setária. As lâminas foliares caracterizaram-se por apresentar alta proporção de epiderme e baixa proporção de ESC, TVL e células parenquimáticas (CPA em relação à bainha foliar e ao colmo. A proporção de ESC mostrou correlação negativa com a DIVMS da lâmina foliar de topo, do colmo e do total das frações do perfilho. A proporção de CPA correlacionou positivamente com a DIVMS da bainha foliar, r = 0,68, enquanto a proporção de TVL apresentou correlação positiva com a DIVMS, quando todas as frações do perfilho foram consideradas, r = 0,31. As proporções de BPF, TVL e ESC correlacionaram positivamente com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido das forrageiras, enquanto as proporções de mesofilo e epiderme apresentaram correlação negativa.ABSTRACT - The tissue proportions, the degree of simple linear correlation of this characteristics with the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and their chemical composition were determined in transversal sections of the botanical fractions, leaf blades and sheath and stem sampled from the top and bottom tillers of dwarf elefantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumach cv. Mott

  3. Renovación de pasturas degradadas de kikuyo Pennisetum clandestinum, Hoechst, con labranza mínima en una región alto andina de Colombia I. Productividad forrajera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Indira Isis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron tres métodos de renovación de pasturas degradadas: (Kikuyo sin labranza mínima, KSLM; Kikuyo con labranza mínima, KLM, y kikuyo con labranza mínima más la aplicación de fertilización química y siembra de tréboles, KLMFS en período lluvioso y seco; se incluyó como testigo (T el manejo tradicional de la pastura en la finca. La disponibilidad de forraje verde seco fue mayor en KLM y KLMFS en el período lluvioso (962 y 735 kg/ha que en el seco (505 y 378 kg/ha, respectivamente. La capacidad de carga en los métodos con labranza mínima se estimó en 2.5 UA/ha (5 vacas en el período de lluvias y de 1.2 y 1.4 U.A/ha (4 vacas en el período seco. En los métodos sin labranza mínima fue de 0.1 y 2 U.A/ha (1 y 4 vacas en el período de lluvias y de 0.1 y 0.4 U.A/ha (1 vaca en el período seco. ABSTRACT Renovation of pastures degraded the kikuyo pennisetum clandestinum, Hoechst, with minimum tillage in an andean high region de Colombia I. Productivity forrajera. Three methods of renewal of degraded pastures were used (Kikuyo without minimum tillage of pasture, KSLM; Kikuyo with minimum tillage, KLM and Kikuyo with minimum tillage more the application of chemical fertilization and clovers seeds, KLMFS, in rainy period and dry off; as a control it was included the traditional method of forage management in the farm (T. The availability of the green forage, was bigger in KLM and KLMFS in the rainy period (962 and 735 kg/ha that in the dry period (505 and 378 kg/ha. The load capacity in the methods with minimum farm you estimates in 2.5 UA/ha (5 cows in the period of rains and of 1.2 and 1.4 U.A/ha (4 cows in the dry period. In the methods without minimum farm was of 0.1 and 2 U.A/ha (1 and 4 cows in the period of rains and of 0.1 and 0.4 U.A/ha (1 cow in the dry period. Key words: Kikuyo grass, Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst, pasture renewal, minimum tillage, Hills, Forage productivity, Cattle Use, High Andean Región.

  4. Renovación de pasturas degradadas de kikuyo, Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst, con labranza mínima en una región alto andina de Colombia II. Productividad animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Indira Isis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron vacas lactantes de doble propósito, en pasturas de kikuyo sometidas a tres métodos de renovación (kikuyo sin labranza mínima, KSLM; kikuyo con labranza mínima, KLM; y kikuyo con labranza mínima más la aplicación de fertilización química y siembra de tréboles, KLMFS en período lluvioso o seco; se incluyó como testigo (T el manejo en la finca. La producción de leche no presentó diferencias entre métodos con labranza mínima y sin ella, mientras que la producción en kg/ha-día fue mayor en KLMFS y KLM, en el período lluvioso (43 y 40 kg y con KSLM y T (31.2 y 8 kg. En el período seco la producción continuó siendo mayor con KLMFS y KLM (28 y 25.2 kg y KSLM y T (6.6 y 6.4 kg respectivamente. La calidad de la leche (porcentaje de grasa en el período de lluvias fue baja para todos los métodos. La condición corporal de las vacas en el período lluvioso se mantuvo estable (3.0; en el período seco fue mayor en pasturas con labranza mínima (2.8. La eficiencia reproductiva fue mejor en pasturas con labranza mínima (IEP de 12.2 meses. ABSTRACT Renovation of pastures degrades de kikuyo Pennisetum Clandestinum, Hoechst, with minimum farm in areas of hillsides in an andean high región de Colombia. II. Animal productivity. Cows lactantings of double purpose were used in kikuyo pastures, subjected to three methods of renovation (Kikuyo Without Minimum Farm, KSLM; Kikuyo with Minimum Farm, KLM and kikuyo with Minimum Farm more the application of chemical fertilization and siembra of clovers, KLMFS. in dry and rainy periods; it was included as control (C, the traditional handling pasture in the property. The production of milk in kg/vaca-day, it don’t present differences among methods with and without minimum farm. While the production in kg/ha-day was bigger in KLMFS and KLM, in the rainy period (43 and 40 kg and with KSLM and C (31.2 and 8 kg. In the dry period, the production continued being bigger with

  5. A segment of the apospory-specific genomic region is highly microsyntenic not only between the apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass, but also with a rice chromosome 11 centromeric-proximal genomic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Gustavo; Conner, Joann A; Morishige, Daryl T; Moore, L David; Mullet, John E; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), isolated with the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) marker ugt197, were assembled into contigs that were extended by chromosome walking. Gene-like sequences from contigs were identified by shotgun sequencing and BLAST searches, and used to isolate orthologous rice contigs. Additional gene-like sequences in the apomicts' contigs were identified by bioinformatics using fully sequenced BACs from orthologous rice contigs as templates, as well as by interspecies, whole-contig cross-hybridizations. Hierarchical contig orthology was rapidly assessed by constructing detailed long-range contig molecular maps showing the distribution of gene-like sequences and markers, and searching for microsyntenic patterns of sequence identity and spatial distribution within and across species contigs. We found microsynteny between P. squamulatum and buffelgrass contigs. Importantly, this approach also enabled us to isolate from within the rice (Oryza sativa) genome contig Rice A, which shows the highest microsynteny and is most orthologous to the ugt197-containing C1C buffelgrass contig. Contig Rice A belongs to the rice genome database contig 77 (according to the current September 12, 2003, rice fingerprint contig build) that maps proximal to the chromosome 11 centromere, a feature that interestingly correlates with the mapping of ASGR-linked BACs proximal to the centromere or centromere-like sequences. Thus, relatedness between these two orthologous contigs is supported both by their molecular microstructure and by their centromeric-proximal location. Our discoveries promote the use of a microsynteny-based positional-cloning approach using the rice genome as a template to aid in constructing the ASGR toward the isolation of genes underlying apospory.

  6. A Segment of the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region Is Highly Microsyntenic Not Only between the Apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and Buffelgrass, But Also with a Rice Chromosome 11 Centromeric-Proximal Genomic Region1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Gustavo; Conner, Joann A.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Moore, L. David; Mullet, John E.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), isolated with the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) marker ugt197, were assembled into contigs that were extended by chromosome walking. Gene-like sequences from contigs were identified by shotgun sequencing and BLAST searches, and used to isolate orthologous rice contigs. Additional gene-like sequences in the apomicts' contigs were identified by bioinformatics using fully sequenced BACs from orthologous rice contigs as templates, as well as by interspecies, whole-contig cross-hybridizations. Hierarchical contig orthology was rapidly assessed by constructing detailed long-range contig molecular maps showing the distribution of gene-like sequences and markers, and searching for microsyntenic patterns of sequence identity and spatial distribution within and across species contigs. We found microsynteny between P. squamulatum and buffelgrass contigs. Importantly, this approach also enabled us to isolate from within the rice (Oryza sativa) genome contig Rice A, which shows the highest microsynteny and is most orthologous to the ugt197-containing C1C buffelgrass contig. Contig Rice A belongs to the rice genome database contig 77 (according to the current September 12, 2003, rice fingerprint contig build) that maps proximal to the chromosome 11 centromere, a feature that interestingly correlates with the mapping of ASGR-linked BACs proximal to the centromere or centromere-like sequences. Thus, relatedness between these two orthologous contigs is supported both by their molecular microstructure and by their centromeric-proximal location. Our discoveries promote the use of a microsynteny-based positional-cloning approach using the rice genome as a template to aid in constructing the ASGR toward the isolation of genes underlying apospory. PMID:16415213

  7. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  8. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Halizah Awang; Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf, corn (Zea mays) stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier ...

  9. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  10. THE USE OF PEARL MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanun L., LEEKE IN SWINE GROWING RATIONS UTILIZAÇÃO DO GRÃO DO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum L., Leeke EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE CRESCIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romão da cunha Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine growing rations 20 Agroceres-PIC cross-bred swine weighting about 25.00 kg and fed rations with different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution of the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized with 5 replacing levels. With the results obtained in this experiment, it is concluded that the completely substitution of corn by millet is possible to be used in swine growing rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Pennisetum americanum; pearl millet; swine growing rations; energetic feed.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de crescimento. Utilizaram-se 20 suínos mestiços da linhagem Agroceres-PIC com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 25,00 kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de crescimento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; Pennisetum americanum; suínos em crescimento; concentrados energéticos.

  11. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  12. Response of Tunisian autochthonous pearl millet (Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... This reflects an adaptive response involving an increase in root length to reach deeper water in the soil. It was also notified that the elongation of the radicle is more ... glycol molecules with a Mr ≥ 6000 (PEG 6000) are inert, non ionic ... PEG solution mimic dry soil more closely than solutions of low Mr.

  13. Schumacher and Kautilyan economics from an integral view : A sustainable approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    The world today is changing rapidly in many areas. On the macroeconomic level this is occurring in the form of climate change, resource depletion, disparity of wealth and possibilities of global nuclear waste. Several scholars express a need for a new paradigm of economics and management addressing

  14. Social Business, Business as if People Mattered: Variations on a Theme by Schumacher (1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is promoted as the solution to enhance the standard of living of the third of the world’s population living below the poverty line. Such growth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, is unsustainable and predicated on increased production/consumption without sufficient consideration of what is consumed by whom. In essence this is because GDP is a mechanistic measure of quantity that ignores individual human welfare or quality-of-life. To rectify this, affluent consumers need to learn that materialism and selfish self-interest are unsustainable, whereas enlightened self-interest, as assumed by Adam Smith when promoting capitalism and free markets, will benefit everyone. “Social Business” and marketing are proposed as practices that will facilitate this transformation.

  15. Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Diversity of Tropical Grass-legumes Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Ridwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus preserved in silage is an alternative method for improving the crude protein content of feeds for sustainable ruminant production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of silage which contained different levels of C. calothyrsus by examining the fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Silage was made in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments with three replications i.e.: R0, Pennisetum purpureum 100%; R1, P. purpureum 75%+C. calothyrsus 25%;, R2, P. purpureum 50%+C. calothyrsus 50%; R3, P. purpureum 25%+C. calothyrsus 75%; and R4, C. calothyrsus 100%. All silages were prepared using plastic jar silos (600 g and incubated at room temperature for 30 days. Silages were analyzed for fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Increased levels of C. calothyrsus in silage had a significant effect (p<0.01 on the fermentation characteristics. The microbial diversity index decreased and activity was inhibited with increasing levels of C. calothyrsus. The microbial community indicated that there was a population of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Chryseobacterium sp., and uncultured bacteria. The result confirmed that silage with a combination of grass and C. calothyrsus had good fermentation characteristics and microbial communities were dominated by L. plantarum.

  16. Évaluation des apports nutritionnels et énergétiques des fourrages verts dans l’alimentation des aulacodes (Thryonomys swinderianus en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Kouadio ETTIAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the physicochemical and energetic quantity of succulent and sweet taste forage grasses, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae incorporated in the feed of grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (FG and maintenance (MG. This study is set to determine the chemical and energetic composition of three levels of green fodder (50, 75 and 85% incorporated into the diets of grasscutters and compare it to nutrient intake and energy consumption of feed resources used normally in the ration by farmers. The three experimental diets were: 75% fodder and 25% of food complement (diet T25; 50% of fodder and 50% of food complement (diet T50; 85% of fodder and 15% of food complement (diet T15. The results showed that the green fodder used contains important sources of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals. Dry matter content of Panicum maximum (13.4 to 22.9% and Pennisetum purpureum (10.9 to 18.6% provide energy needs as calories needed of grasscutters. Food ingredients consisting of minerals and organic matter provide the energy potential in the form of calories for maintenance and production feed needs of grasscutters. A positive and highly significant effect (p<0.01 of the T15 was observed. These results suggest that the nutritional and energy values consumed can be used for grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (GF and maintenance (GM.The intake of energy and functional foods into a controlled diet stimulates the appetite of farmed animals. Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum grasses that were used as a substitute for the main staple feed, and which are highly sought after in the natural environment by grasscutters, are recommended for grasscutter raising. Green forages with succulent sweet-tasting stems, incorporated into food rations as 15% of food supplements, are more stable and perform better in food rations for grasscutters. Active nutrients are balanced, varied, moderate and necessary for the proper

  17. Energy valorization of the species used in short-rotation plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Roque, Roger; Tenorio Monge, Carolina; Salazar Zeledon, Estephania

    2016-01-01

    The energy potential of some non-traditional plantations for production of energy is exposed. Forest and forage species are utilized in Costa Rica for energy plantations. The characteristics of these species have been short rotation (1-3 years) and a production between 20 and 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Agro-energy plantations are described. Gmelina arborea y Pennisetum purpureum species have been viable options for biomass production. However, the high cost of seedlings and land to cultivate have been one of the problems of this energy source [es

  18. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  19. Características do efluente e composição químico-bromatológica da silagem de capim-elefante sob diferentes níveis de compactação

    OpenAIRE

    Loures, Daniele Rebouças Santana; Garcia, Rasmo; Pereira, Odilon Gomes; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Souza, Alexandre Lima de

    2003-01-01

    Foi realizado um experimento utilizando capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) cv. Cameroon, com o teor de 13% matéria seca, submetido a cinco pressões de compactação no processo de ensilagem, com o objetivo de determinar as características quantitativas e qualitativas do efluente produzido, bem como a qualidade da silagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos cilíndricos de PVC com 25 cm de diâmetro e 75 cm de altura. Aplicaram-se as pressões de 356,67; 446,67; 531,33; 684,00 e 791,00 kg...

  20. Características do efluente e composição químico-bromatológica da silagem de capim-elefante sob diferentes níveis de compactação Effluent characteristics and chemical-bromatologic compound of elephantgrass silage under different levels of pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures; Rasmo Garcia; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Alexandre Lima de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Foi realizado um experimento utilizando capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) cv. Cameroon, com o teor de 13% matéria seca, submetido a cinco pressões de compactação no processo de ensilagem, com o objetivo de determinar as características quantitativas e qualitativas do efluente produzido, bem como a qualidade da silagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos cilíndricos de PVC com 25 cm de diâmetro e 75 cm de altura. Aplicaram-se as pressões de 356,67; 446,67; 531,33; 684,00 e 791,00 kg...

  1. Produção forrageira e composição bromatológica de combinações genômicas de capim-elefante e milheto Fodder production and bromatological composition of genomic combinations in elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar o comportamento agronômico de combinações genômicas oriundas do cruzamento entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, visando determinar o potencial de Pennisetum glaucum para o melhoramento da qualidade forrageira do capim-elefante. Três cultivares de capim-elefante e 11 combinações genômicas foram avaliadas para produção de matéria verde total (PMV, produção de matéria seca total (PMS, percentagem de matéria seca (%MS, produção de matéria seca de folhas (PMSF, produção de matéria seca de caule (PMSC, relação caule/folha (RFC, altura (ALT, vigor fenotípico (VF, número de perfilhos (NP, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, proteína bruta (PB e digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS. Excetuando RFC e NP, todas as demais características apresentaram diferenças significativas para os genótipos (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of genomic combinations from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, in order to determine the Pennisetum glaucum potencial as a germoplasm for elephant grass improvement. Three cultivars and eleven genomic combinations were evaluated for fresh forage production (PMV, total dry matter production (PMS, dry matter ratio (%MS, leaves dry matter production (PMSF, stem dry matter production (PMSC, leaf/stem ratio (RFC, height (ALT, plant vigor (VF, number of tillers (NP, acid detergent fiber ratio (FDA, Neutral detergent fiber ratio (FDN, crude protein ratio (PB and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS. All characteristics, except for RFC and NP, showed significant difference for genotypes (p < 0.05, point out to the genetic variability among the evaluated genotypes. As to forage dry matter production, the HCM-5x-2 genomic combination outstood the pentaploids while the HCM-4x-2 outstood

  2. EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN (Zea mays BY PEARL MILLETS (Pennisetun americanun IN RATIONS FOR FINISHING SWINE AVALIAÇÃO DA SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE MILHO (Zea mays PELO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nunes Bandeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine finisher ration. Twenty cross-bred swine (Landrace x Large White weighing 53.00kg had in their rations different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution to the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5 replacement levels x 2 sexes. With the results obtained in this experiment, one may infer that the substitution of corn by millet is possible to finisher swine rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Millets; pig; finishing.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 20 suínos mestiços (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 53,00kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 ( 5 níveis de substituição x 2 sexos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de terminação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; suínos; terminação.

  3. NUTRITIVE QUALITY OF TEN GRASSES DURING THE RAINY SEASON IN A HOT-HUMID CLIMATE AND ULTISOL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ortega-Gómez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive quality of ten grasses harvested at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of regrowth was assessed during the rainy season (August-October 2008, in the humid tropics of Veracruz, Mexico. Grasses tested included four Brachiaria spp.: “insurgente”–B. brizantha, “signal”–B. decumbens, Chetumal–B. humidicola, “mulato I”–B. brizantha x B. ruziziensis; three Panicum maximum: Mombasa, “privilegio”, Tanzania; and three Pennisetum spp.: Taiwán, and the hybrids P. purpureum x P. glaucum “Cuban” king grass and “purple” king grass. Means for crude protein by grass group were: Pennisetum spp. (9.9 % = P. maximum (8.7 % > Brachiaria spp. (7.6 %, whereas means for in situ dry matter disappearance (ISD were: Pennisetum spp. (69.7 % > Brachiaria spp. (65.1 % > P. maximum (59.7 %. Crude protein and ISD significantly decreased by 0.42 % and 1.50 % per week. Neutral detergent fiber was not affected by model effects (mean 71.4 %. Means for acid detergent fiber (ADF by grass group were: P. maximum (47.6 % = Pennisetum spp. (44.0 % > Brachiaria spp. (42.8 %, whereas means for lignin (LIG were: P. maximum (8.5 % > Pennisetum spp. (7.6 % > Brachiaria spp. (6.7 %. The ADF and LIG significantly increased by 1.21 % and 0.19 % per week. Pennisetum spp. had the highest nutritive value at all regrowth ages.

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  5. PGPB effect on the growth Pennisetum clandestinum under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims the isolation and characterization of bacteria with potential to promote the growth of grass Pennisetumclandestinum in simulated saline soils. 92 Gram positive bacterias were isolated from Rhizosphere soil samples of P. clandestinum. Ten isolated bacteria grew on nutrient agar supplemented with NaCl (2.578 M. Isolates were evaluated under greenhouse conditions; the strains identified as KISA 34 and KISA 71 were selected as the best based on the statistical test of Dunnet (p ≤ 0.05 and were identified Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KISA 34 and Bacillus subtilis KISA 71. These strains have the ability to produce ammonium, exopolysaccharides and cellulose, both in absence and presence of NaCl. The strains produced indoles and phosphorus solubilization. The evaluation of strains in greenhouse showed that the T6 - KISA 34 + KISA 71+ 25 % (phosphate rock RF significantly increased biomass and plant development (p≤ 0.05 compared with T2 - full fertilization . The results of this research showed that isolates have the ability to grow in saline soils retaining its characteristics as promoting plant growth with positive effects on P. clandestinum.

  6. Toxicologic screening of fungi isolated from millet (pennisetum spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    Key words: Fungi, aflatoxin B1, mycotoxins, millet, Niger State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ..... above the current internationally set safe limit of 20 µg/kg or 20 ppb. .... at http:// www.unep.ch/etu/etp/events/Agriculture/nigeria/pdf. African crops ...

  7. Polyploidy and interspecific hybridization in Cynodon, Paspalum, Pennisetum, and Zoysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many examples of agronomically or economically important characteristics in wild species, such as disease tolerance or quality, that are difficult to incorporate into related cultivated species due to differences in ploidy levels. Sterility, or at least reduced fertility, is common when w...

  8. Genomic DNA extraction method from pearl millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA extraction is difficult in a variety of plants because of the presence of metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation procedures and downstream applications such as DNA restriction, amplification, and cloning. Here we describe a modified procedure based on the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to ...

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glauccum [L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between genotype PT 2835/1 and PT 5552 and lowest similarity index was observed between PT 5554 and PT 2835/1. Analysis of RAPD data appears to be helpful in determining the genetic relationship among 20 pearl millet genotypes. The associations among the 20 genotypes were also examined with Principle ...

  10. FRACIONAMENTO DE PROTEÍNAS DE SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE EMURCHECIDO OU COM FARELO DE CACAU PROTEIN FRACTIONING OF SILAGE OF ELEPHANTGRASS WILTED OR WITH COCOA MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento para determinar as frações que compõem as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Camaroon submetido ao emurchecimento ou à adição de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas, e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento com níveis de 0 %, 7 %, 14%, 21 % e 28 % de farelo de cacau (FC (% da matéria natural. Acondicionou-se o material em silos de PVC com capacidade para 5,3 litros, que foram abertos após 45 dias. Para todas as frações de proteínas estimadas, o tratamento emurchecido apresentou valores semelhantes (P>0,05 ao do tratamento sem emurchecimento. As frações protéicas foram influenciadas pelas adições de FC, verificando-se redução dos teores das frações A e B1+B2 e aumentos das frações B3 e C, para os níveis crescentes de FC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conservação de forragens, forrageira, Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, subproduto, Theobroma cacao L.

    The experiment was conducted to determine the fractions that compose the protein of silage on the submitted elephant grass forage to wilting under the sun light for eight hours. Other treatments involved the same elephant grass without exposing to sun light but with addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal (CM at the ensilage processing. The PVC silos used in the experiment were 5.3 liters in capacity, and were opened in 45 days. To all protein-estimated fractions, the wilted treatment showed similar values (P>.05 to the treatment without wilting. The protein fractions were influenced by CM addictions, verifying reduction in contents of A and B1+B2 fractions and increase in B3 and C fractions, with CM increasing levels

  11. Biological control of tanoak and bay laurel resprouts using the fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne Elliott; Gary Chastagner; Simon Shamoun; Grace Sumampong; Ellen Goheen; Alan Kanaskie

    2013-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, an aggressive program of cutting and burning host plants in an effort toeradicate Phytophthora ramorum was initiated. It was soon apparent that tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.& Arn.) Manos, Cannon& S.H. Oh) resprouts were highly susceptible to P. ramorum and...

  12. Porphyridium purpureum (formerly P. cruenium) contains Beta-carotenc but no Alfa-carotenc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jiří; Riederer, M.; Pfundel, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2003), s. 189-195 ISSN 0342-1120 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : carotene * porphyridium * red alga Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  14. Biotechnological application of sustainable biogas production through dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Cheunbarn, Tapana

    2017-05-01

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples. Napier grass was used as the mono-substrate. The biogas composition of carbon dioxide (30.10%), methane (63.50%) and 5 ppm of H 2 S was estimated from the biogas. Therefore, fast-growing, high-yielding and organic matter-enriched of Napier grass was promising energy crop for biogas production.

  15. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  16. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper. Results showed that P, Mg, A/a, Zn and Cu in forages were generally below the critical level stipulated to satisfy the requirements of grazing livestock in the tropics. Calcium was inadequate in the sera of goats and sheep where as P, Mg, Zn and Cu were adequate. Use of salt licks to supplement intake of mineral elements from grasses by goats and sheep is necessary in the region.

  17. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  18. Komposisi Kimia, Degradasi Nutrien dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro Rumput Tropik yang Diawetkan dengan Metode Silase dan Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Six grass species (Pennisetum purpureum, Pennisetum purpureophoides, Sorghum sudanense, Brachiaria brizantha, Imperata cylindrica, and Panicum maximum were harvested at 49 days and preserved as silage or as hay. Samples of silage and hay were evaluated by an in vitro gas production and in vitro nutrient degradability. Total gas production at 24 and 48 h as well as CH4 were higher (P<0.01 in silage than in hay. Brachiaria brizantha had the highest (P<0.01 gas production compared to other species, whereas P. purpureum had the highest CH4 production (mM/g organic matter degraded. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM degradations were higher (P<0.01 in silage than hay. When compared with hay, silage had higher (P<0.01 ammonia-N concentration (20.3 vs. 10.6 mg/100 ml and higher (P<0.05 butyric acid concentration (7.9 vs. 7.0 mM. Non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC and crude protein contents were positively correlated with gas production (r = 0.51; P<0.05 and CH4 production (r = 0.64; P<0.01 at 48 h of in vitro incubation. However total gas and CH4 productions were negatively correlated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF content. There were positive correlation between DM (r = 0.90; P<0.01, OM (r = 0.93; P<0.01, and NDF (r = 0.84; P<0.01 degradations and gas production.

  19. POBLACIÓN DE NEMATODOS EN FORRAJES TROPICALES EN DOS RANGOS DE ALTURA EN EL CANTÓN DE SAN CARLOS, ALAJUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus, Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun, King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass, Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania, Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha, Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo, Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza, Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi en la localidad de San Carlos, Alajuela, de junio a noviembre del 2003. Se tomaron 5 muestras compuestas de suelo y de las raíces contenidas en el volumen de suelo para los forrajes evaluados, excepto para el pasto King grass, el Ratana y el Maní forrajero, en donde el número de muestras compuestas fue de 10 para cada material. Los nematodos Pratylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp., Criconemella sp., se identificaron en 8 de los pastos y en la leguminosa evaluada. El género Psilenchus sp., solo se presentó en el pasto Tanzania, mientras que el género Xiphinema sp., en los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha, Ratana y en el maní forrajero. El género Paratylenchus sp., se contabilizó con los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha y Ratana. En el pasto Toledo, Camerún y en el maní forrajero se observó Hemicycliophora sp. En cambio, Meloidogyne sp., se encontró en los pastos Brizantha y Ratana. Los nematodos no fitoparásitos se identificaron en los 9 pastos y la leguminosa evaluada.

  20. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  1. Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a disjunct Guineo-Congolian tree found in Ethiopia as dominant in riverine forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Harris, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The small Guineo-Congolian tree Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) has been observed to dominate the undergrowth in an open type of southwest Ethiopian riverine forest not recorded before. The nearest previously known records of this species were at the South Sudan–Congo border and in Uganda...

  2. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  3. The nitrogen biological fixing as support for renewable energy production; A fixacao biologica de nitrogenio como suporte para a producao de energia renovavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Diego Mureb; Frade, Catia; Resende, Alexander; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Reis, Veronica Massena; Boddey, Robert; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo [EMBRAPA, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Agrobiologia; Xavier, Deise [EMBRAPA, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Gado de Leite

    2000-07-01

    Recently, rapid-growing grasses which possess the C4 photosynthetic pathway such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum spp. have been considered as prime candidates for the production of bio-fuels. In the case of Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and related hybrids, the genotypes studied until now have generally been selected for high production of forage for cattle under high N fertiliser additions. For forage production it is desirable that the tissues have high protein content. However, for biomass production the priority should be for carbon accumulation and the highest possible biomass production per unit of applied fertiliser. The manufacture of N fertiliser involves a very high cost in terms of fossil energy, and if large additions are made the grass biomass produced may have only a little more (or even less) calorific value than that utilised in the manufacture of the fertiliser. This completely negates the prime objective of bio fuel production which the replacement of energy derived from non-renewable fossil sources with that derived from solar radiation. Recently the team headed by Dr Johanna Doebereiner at EMBRAPA Agrobiologia have shown that several tropical grasses (including sugar cane and elephant grass) are able to obtain significant quantities of N through the action of associated endo phytic N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria. Derived from this line of reasoning a study is being conducted in the field to select appropriate genotypes of Pennisetum purpureum which are efficient is biomass production in soil of very low N fertility. In the first stage four genotypes have been selected : Gramafante, Cameroon, BAG 02 and Roxo, which have been the most productive over a 5 year period without N fertiliser addition.A complementary study is underway to evaluate biomass production and quantify the N{sub 2} fixation input. Preliminary results are promising and show that these materials produce well without N fertiliser application a with a contribution of approximately

  4. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass

  5. Phylogenetic position of Geitleribactron purpureum (Synechococcales, Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyceae) and its implications for the taxonomy of Chamaesiphonaceae and Leptolyngbyaceae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan; Cantonati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 104-111 ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alps * carbonate lakes * Geitleribactron * heteropolar cyanobacteria * single-colony sequencing * unicellular cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.350, year: 2016

  6. Phylogenetic position of Geitleribactron purpureum (Synechococcales, Cyanobacteria / Cyanophyceae) and its implications for the taxonomy of Chamaesiphonaceae and Leptolyngbyaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan; Cantonati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 104-111 ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00113S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Geitleribactron * coccoid cyanobacteria * phylogeny Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.350, year: 2016

  7. Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinun or Kikuyuocloa clandestina silage fermented with three additives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of kikuyu grass silage with high humidity and the bromatologic quality when adding three different additives. These were added at three levels: molasses: 0, 2, and 4%, ground corn and citrus pulp: 5, 7 and 9% on a dry basis on the whole forage, fresh chopped and compacted in plastic bags. The experiment was conducted in 2010 at the El Pizote dairy farm, located in San Ramón, Tres Ríos, Cartago, Costa Rica. The experimental period lasted 77 days. Averages of 14.10%, 13.75%, 13.71% DM, 8.20%, 7.38%, 7.36% CP, 77.48%, 79.51%, 79.07% NDF, 39.22%, 40.12%, 39.68 % of FAD, 38.26%, 39.39%, 39.39% hemicellulose, 32.79%, 33.47%, 33.26% cellulose, 6.43%, 6.66%, 6.42% lignin, 2.23%, 1.89%, 2.04% EE and 11.53%, 11,74% , 11, 65% of total ash for silage with molasses, ground corn and citrus pulp respectively were obtained. Differences (p<0.05 were found in the amount of effluent according to the additive and the addition level. High humidity of kikuyu grass can cause that the effluents produce since the beginning until obtaining the maximum accumulation inside the bag, after 60 to 80 días of silage. That is why the bag has to be checked periodically and, if possible, drain the liquid effluents generated to avoid the process of deterioration.

  8. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  9. (Pennisetum glaucum LR Br.) en présence de stress hydrique et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2013 ... saline ou hydrique, peut constituer un outil efficace pour la différenciation ..... mécanisme en « extra » pour l'osmorégulation durant .... Salinity effects on five cultivars/ ... metabolism of flowering plants International. Review of ...

  10. Analysis of genetic relationships of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from Zimbabwe, using microsatellites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and indigenous farmer given names. Analysis was done by PAGE stained with ethidium bromide. Simple matching coefficients were compared and the genetic relationships between genotypes were clarified on dendrograms by unweighted pair-group averages (UPGMA). Two...

  11. In vitro transformation of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L). R. BR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... method for in vitro transformation of graminaceous even if improvements of the .... bovine serum albumin. GUS activity was assessed on ..... and mature embryos, shoot tips and embryogenic calli for in vitro transformation of S.

  12. Mutation breeding for resistance to downy mildew and ergot in Pennisetum and to Ascochyta in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    The mutational rectification of the susceptible male steriles of otherwise food yield, and the pollen parents in pearl millet of the released hybrids has been completed successfully. The reconstituted hybrids were tested in National Coordination trials and one of them (NHB5) has been released for All-India cultivation during 1975. They were also tested in more than 2000 trials all over India in farmers' fields. The yield level of the released hybrid (NHB5) based on trials during the past four seasons is 19.2 Q/ha in 232 trials as compared to 14.5 Q/ha of HB-3 (old) based on 221 trials. Biochemical analysis of seedlings of the mutant male steriles resistant to downy mildew and their normal counterparts indicated larger peroxidase activity of high electrophoretic mobility in the resistant ones. In the trials of the reconstituted hybrids along with their normal counterparts the new hybrids proved at least as good in yield even in the absence of the disease in virulent form. Mutational rectification of the male sterile lines and pollen parents could be shown to provide resistance with wide adaptation. Nearly 400 tons of hybrid seed from mutational rectified parents has replaced the earlier hybrids and will cover an area of 80,000 ha in 1976 alone. The low incidence of downy mildew in the male sterile developed from the mutation breeding is likely to be horizontal resistance of greater stability. The M 2 generation of chickpea showed appropriate skewed distribution of means for several of the 17 characters studied, including flowering time and yield

  13. Response surface optimization for ethanol production from Pennisetum Alopecoider by Klebsiella oxytoca THLC0409

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; I, Yet-Pole [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002 (China); Tran, Dang-Thuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan City 701 (China); Lai, Chi-Yung [Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua (China); Wu, Chih-Hung [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The strain Klebsiella oxytoca THLC0409 was isolated from a lignocellulose-degrading microflora and used in the direct conversion of Napiergrass powder to ethanol. Central Composite Design (CCD), part of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted to study the effects of the fermentation time, the initial pH of the liquid medium, the cultivation temperature, and the yeast extract (YE) concentration on ethanol production. A second-order model that relates the ethanol concentration to four basic factors was developed. Regression analysis revealed that the maximum ethanol concentration of 472 ppm could be reached at a fermentation time of about 11 days, an initial pH of 7.04, a cultivating temperature of 31 C, and a YE concentration of 7.0 g l{sup -1}. The adjusted R-square of the regression model was 0.996, indicating a good fit at 99.6% confidence level. The highest ethanol yield and productivity were estimated to be 82 g kg{sup -1} and 360 mg kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  14. Root activity and soil feeding zones of some Bajra hybrids (Pennisetum typhoids Stapf.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriniwas

    1980-01-01

    Root activity and soil feeding zones of five bajra hybrids (Hybrid D-356, HB-3, HB-4, HB-1 and Bil-3B) were determined under natural field conditions by placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate enclosed in gelatinous capsules at different soil locations around the plant. Percent root activity varied significantly from one depth to another and it decreased with increase in depths and lateral distances. More than 44 percent of the root activity occurred in a soil feeding zone consisting of 0-15 cm depth having double of this much lateral distance. Percent root activity in HB-3 and HB-4 was almost found identical both horizontally and vertically. Hybrid D-356 and HB-1 approximated more than 38 percent root activity in a soil feeding zone of 0-15 cm in depth and 0-10 cm in lateral distance. 32 P placement in capsules appeared to hold promise over Hall's technique since it overcomes the differences caused by disturbance of the feeding activity of roots at the point of 32 P injection into the soil. (author)

  15. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  16. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of 80 farmers were selected through stratified random sampling and were administered with questionnaires. The results revealed that educational ...

  17. Diagnostic des systèmes de culture à base de mil [Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... gagné en popularité. Les producteurs qui adoptent ces pratiques recherchent de multiples avantages : optimiser la gestion des résidus de cultures; diminuer la quantité de travail; protéger les sols contre l'érosion de l'eau et du vent; diminuer les coûts d'achat des engrais, d'opération et d'entretien de la ...

  18. Diagnostic des systèmes de culture à base de mil [ Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Le présent travail a pour objectif, de faire un état des lieux des systèmes de production à base de mil en Côte d'Ivoire septentrionale afin de proposer de nouvelles pistes d'amélioration. Méthodologie et résultats : L'approche méthodologique s'est reposée sur une enquête auprès des paysans sur le terrain dans ...

  19. Filamentous fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of melon plants (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivated in soil with organic amendments Fungos filamentosos isolados da rizosfera de meloeiros (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivados em solo com compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere soil samples were collected in a semiarid area, in the region of the São Francisco River valley, Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, to study the diversity of filamentous fungi in a soil cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine and receiving different organic amendments: Treatment 1 (control, without organic compost; T2 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; T3 (10% Ricinus communis leaves and stems, 50% Pennisetum purpureum leaves and 40% goat manure; T4 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% termophosphate; T5 (47% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 50% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; and T6 (57% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 40% goat manure and 3% termophosphate. Fungal isolation was carried out by the serial dilution technique to 1:1000. The Sorensen index of similarity, frequency and distribution of the fungi were evaluated. Seventy-eight species of filamentous fungi were isolated and identified, plus several Basidiomycota (04 and Mycelia sterilia (02. The predominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with 15 and 13 species, respectively. A greater number of species was found in the sowing period (49, and in relation to the organic fertilization, treatment 6 provided the greatest species diversity (43 species. Most of the species are saprobes and only a few are considered to be potential pathogens on melon plants, such as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Myrothecium roridum.Foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico em uma área semiárida, na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer a diversidade dos fungos filamentosos presentes em solo cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo cv. Gold Mine e adubado com diferentes compostos orgânicos: Tratamento 1 (controle, sem adição de compostos orgânicos; T2 (77% de bagaço de côco, 20% de esterco de caprino e 3% de K2SO4; T3 (10% de torta de mamona, 50% de capim elefante e 40% de esterco de caprino; T4 (77% de

  20. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  1. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  2. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  3. Influência do método e tempo de armazenamento de colmos de capim-cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca Influence of method and storage time of stem fractions of cameroongrass on tillering and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as influências dos métodos e tempos de armazenamentos de frações de colmos do capim-Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca, aos 70 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas divididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos foram: 1 amarradas em feixes; 2 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno com pequenos furos; 3 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno sem furos. Os tempos de armazenamento foram: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 dias. Verificou-se uma diferença entre os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos para número de perfilhos e para produção de matéria seca. O teor de umidade das frações de colmos foi afetado pelo método e pelo tempo de armazenamento. As frações de colmos de capim-cameroon podem ser armazenadas dentro de sacos de polietileno, perfurados ou não, durante 20 a 30 dias antes do plantio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods and storage times of stem fractions upon tillering and dry matter production of Cameroongrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon at 70 days after planting. Its propagation was carried out by planting culm fractions, each one containing four nodes. A split plot experiment design by time with 3 replications was used. Sorage methods of the stem fractions were: 1 tied bundles; 2 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags with small holes; 3 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags without holes. The storage times were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. A difference among storage methods of stem fractions for number of tillers and for dry matter production was observed. The water contents of stem fractions were affected by the storage methods as well as the storage times. The stem fractions of Cameroongrass could be stored in plastic

  4. Blood constituents of holstein cows fed with corn or elephant-grass silages / Constituintes sangüíneos de vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com silagens de milho ou de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of corn (Zea mays L. silage and elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silage on the nutrition of cows during lactation, over some of the blood constituents (glucose, triglycerides and urea. The treatments were three silages (corn silage, elephant-grass silage with bacterial inoculating, elephant-grass silage with enzyme-bacterial inoculating. Nine Holstein cows, with a medium weight of 520 kg, were distributed in experimental delineation of simultaneous triple Latin square. The blood glucose rates were considered normal, independents of the silage used. Concerning the triglicerides levels, it was verified that they are below normal to the different silages. One of the reasons would be the low fat level on the diet. The blood levels of urea observed on the three treatments are considered normal. There was not significant difference among the different kinds of silage in relation to the blood levels of urea, glucose and triglycerides.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de milho (Zea mays L. e silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na alimentação de vacas em lactação, sobre alguns dos constituintes sangüíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos e uréia. Os tratamentos foram três silagens (silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante bacteriano, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas da raça holandesa, com peso médio de 520 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de triplo quadrado latino simultâneo. As taxas de glicose sangüínea das vacas foram consideradas normais, independente do volumoso utilizado. Em relação aos níveis de triglicerídeos, verificou-se que estão abaixo do normal para os diferentes volumosos. Uma das razões seria o baixo nível de gordura na dieta. Os níveis sangüíneos de uréia observados nos três tratamentos são considerados normais

  5. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain Flora vascular da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq -Site 6. The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.Com o objetivo de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre a flora da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, foram conduzidos inventários florísticos no período de fevereiro de 2000 a março de 2008, incluídos no Programa Brasileiro de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD/CNPq - Sítio 6. O material coletado foi identificado em 774 espécies, 442 gêneros e 116 famílias. As dez famílias de maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae, que juntas reuniram 46,1% do total do número de espécies. Os gêneros com maior riqueza de espécies foram Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia

  6. Diversidade de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolada de plantas de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas no Brasil Diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane plants cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liamara Perin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade da população de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus oriunda de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. de diferentes regiões e bancos de germoplasma. O estudo foi realizado com 123 isolados, obtidos de folhas, colmos e raízes de 80 espécies e híbridos de cana-de-açúcar, procedentes de diferentes países e mantidos em coleções de germoplasma nos Estados da Bahia e Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados cinco isolados obtidos de plantas de café (Coffea arabica, dois de abacaxi (Ananas comosus e um de Pennisetum purpureum e mais 10 estirpes com padrões eletroforéticos distintos, após o uso de enzimas comuns do metabolismo microbiano (MLEE. O agrupamento obtido por meio da técnica de imunoadsorção com enzima acoplada (ELISA sugere que as variações expressas pelos isolados não estão relacionadas com a espécie de planta, a variedade de cana-de-açúcar, a origem geográfica, a parte da planta de onde os isolados foram obtidos e o tempo de amostragem. Altas doses de nitrogênio levaram à diminuição da diversidade de G. diazotrophicus.The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates from different sugarcane (Saccharum spp. varieties. This study was developed using 123 strains from the internal tissues of stems and roots, isolated from 80 species and hybrids of sugarcane, originated from different countries and maintained in two germoplasm collections localized in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro States. Five isolates obtained from coffee plants (Coffea arabica, two from pineapple (Ananas comosus, one from Pennisetum purpureum and 10 strains, which present different electrophoretic patterns, were used in the comparison. Cluster analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA results suggested that variations were not correlated with the plant species, sugarcane variety, geographic origin, parts of plants nor with sampling time

  7. Utilização de compostos orgânicos como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças Utilization of organic compost as substrate for vegetable seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de A Leal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando determinar a viabilidade da utilização de compostos orgânicos obtidos com palhada de Crotalaria juncea L. e capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças, realizaram-se experimentos com alface (folhosa, beterraba (raiz e tomate (hortaliça de fruto. Estudou-se a eficiência de compostos produzidos a partir dos materiais: 100% de Crotalária Júncea; 66% de Crotalária Júncea + 33% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier; 100% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 5% da massa com esterco bovino; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 100 L de Agrobio diluído a 5%; 100% de Napier, inoculado com 100 litros de Agrobio diluído a 5%. Como controle utilizou-se o substrato comercial Plantmax HT®. Avaliou-se altura da parte aérea, número de folhas, produção de massa fresca na parte aérea e produção de massa seca na parte aérea. O composto produzido com a mistura de 66% de Crotalária Júncea e 33% de Napier mostrou-se superior aos demais tratamentos para produção de mudas de alface, beterraba e tomate.The viability of the organic compost utilization as a substrate for vegetable seedlings production, obtained from Crotalaria juncea L. and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., was determined. The research was developed with lettuce (leaf vegetable, beetroot (root vegetable and tomato (fruit vegetable. The organic composts were produced from: 100% Crotalaria Juncea; 66% Crotalaria Juncea + 33% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier; 100% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 5% of the mass with cattle manure; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio; 100% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio. We evaluated the height, leaf number, aerial green weight and aerial dry weight. A commercial substrate Plantmax HT® was used as control. The

  8. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  9. Produção Animal em Pastagem com Gramíneas de Estação Quente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restle João

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de novilhos de corte, durante a fase de recria, em capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan A-146, papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitchc, sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cv. AG 2501C e milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke cv. comum. O período total de pastejo foi de 143 dias para a pastagem de capim-elefante e 98 dias para as demais pastagens. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável. O teor de proteína bruta na massa de forragem foi de 5,43; 10,08; 9,95; e 10,58% e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, de 50,93; 55,85; 54,56; e 54,81% para capim-elefante, papuã, sorgo e milheto, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa no ganho de peso médio diário, que foi de 0,928; 1,054; 1,121; e 1,188 kg, para o capim-elefante, papuã, sorgo e milheto, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa na carga animal entre as pastagens, sendo de 1682, 1634, 1389 e 1514 kg de PV/ha, e no ganho de peso vivo, que foi de 774, 668, 570 e 640 kg de PV/ha para as pastagens de capim-elefante, papuã, sorgo e milheto, respectivamente. A utilização de pastagens cultivadas de verão, manejadas corretamente, permite altos ganhos de peso por animal e por área, constituindo-se em uma excelente alternativa para intensificar a produção de bovinos de corte.

  10. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  11. Cereals for the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The region of semi-arid tropics is the most famine prone area of the world. This region with nearly one billion people extends across some 20 million square kilometres. Major domesticated cereals adapted to semi-arid regions are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Several minor cereals are grown as speciality crops, or harvested in the wild in times of severe drought and scarcity. Important in the African Sahel are the fonios Digitaria iburua Stapf, D. exilis (Kapist) Stapf and Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach). C.E. Hubbard. These species are aggressive colonizers and are commonly encouraged as weeds in cultivated fields. Sown genotypes differ from their close wild relatives primarily in the lack of efficient natural seed dispersal. The fonios lend themselves to rapid domestication. Several wild cereals extend well beyond the limits of agriculture into the Sahara. Commonly harvested are the perennial Stipagrostis pungens and Panicum turgidum, and the annual Cenchrus biflorus (kram-kram). Kram-kram yields well under extreme heat and drought stress, and holds promise as a domesticated cereal. Sauwi millet (Panicum sonorum) is promising cereal in arid northwestern Mexico. (author). 31 refs

  12. Perennial Grass and Native Wildflowers: A Synergistic Approach to Habitat Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen S. Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation on wildflower bloom and visitation by arthropods in a biofeedstocks-wildflower habitat buffer design. Twenty habitat buffer plots were established containing a subplot of Napier grass (Pennisetum perpureum Schumach for biofeedstock, three commercial wildflower mix subplots, and a control subplot containing spontaneous weeds. Arthropods and flowers were visually observed in quadrats throughout the season. At the end of the season we measured soil nutrients and harvested Napier biomass. We found irrespective of buffer location or irrigation, pollinators were observed more frequently early in the season and on experimental plots with wildflowers than on weeds in the control plots. Natural enemies showed a tendency for being more common on plots adjacent to a wooded border, and were also more commonly observed early in the season. Herbivore visits were infrequent and not significantly influenced by experimental treatments. Napier grass yields were high and typical of first-year yields reported regionally, and were not affected by location context or irrigation. Our results suggest habitat management designs integrating bioenergy crop and floral resources provide marketable biomass and habitat for beneficial arthropods.

  13. Caracterização e diversidade genética do capim-elefante e seus híbridos com milheto mediante padrões isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREITAS NARA SUZY AGUIAR DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas isoenzimaticamente sete cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum e seus híbridos com milheto (P. americanum, selecionados pela Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, visando à identificação de acessos. Foram estudados, em gel de poliacrilamida, os sistemas peroxidase (POX, esterase (EST, glutamato oxalacetato transaminase (GOT, leucina aminopeptidase (LAP, álcool-desidrogenase (ADH e fosfatase ácida (ACP, em folhas jovens, aos 28 dias após o corte de uniformização. Não foi observada atividade isoenzimática da ADH e observou-se baixa resolução do sistema LAP, os quais não são indicados para caracterização dos germoplasmas. Os padrões de ACP, GOT, POX e EST permitiram conhecer os fenótipos dos 14 acessos estudados. Foram revelados 9, 3, 13 e 19 diferentes padrões de bandas, respectivamente, sendo possível a identificação da coleção de forma rápida e segura utilizando apenas os padrões de esterase.

  14. Effects of Supplementing Napier Grass With Graded Levels of Desmodium on Intake and Rumen Fermentation of Steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.; Muia, J.M.K.; Gitau, G.K.; Gachuri, C.K.; Tamminga, S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of greenleaf desmodium ( Desmodium Detortum) on organic matter (OM) intake and rumen fermentation of steers fed on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). four Sahiwal steers (live-weight 437+/- 21 kg) were offered ad libitum four diets constituted from Napier grass and desmodium hay in a 4*4 latin square. The proportion of Desmodium in the diet on DM basis were 0% (D1), 15% (D2), 25% (D3), and 35% (D4) respectively.The OM intake increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the level of desmodium supplement (6.1, 6.4, 7.6 and 8.3). Rumen ammonia (NH3-N) also increased with increased level of supplementation (138, 162, 198, 237 mg 1-1). rumen pH increased slightly with increasing levels of legume in diet. Feeding desmodium significantly improved (P < 0.05) total volatile acids (VFA). The result indicated that supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with desmodium increased rumen NH3-N, VFA levels which subsequently led to enhanced digestion and intake

  15. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.R. [The Nature Conservancy, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tancig, K.J. [PO Box 116455, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Onderdonk, D.A.; Gantz, C.A. [Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Twelve taxa under exploration as bioenergy crops in Florida and the U.S. were evaluated for potential invasiveness using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment system (WRA) modified for separate assessment at the state and national scales. When tested across a range of geographies, this system correctly identifies invaders 90%, and non-invaders 70% of the time, on average. Predictions for Florida were the same as for the U.S. Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis, Jatropha curcas, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum purpureum, and Ricinus communis were found to have a high probability of becoming invasive, while Miscanthus x giganteus, Saccharum arundinaceum, Saccharum officinarum, and the sweet variety of Sorghum bicolor have a low probability of becoming invasive. Eucalyptus amplifolia requires further evaluation before a prediction is possible. These results are consistent with reports on other tests of these taxa. Given the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species, including the carbon expended for mechanical and chemical control efforts, cultivation of taxa likely to become invasive should be avoided. (author)

  16. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  17. ATRIBUTOS FÍSICOS DO SOLO EM DIFERENTES COBERTURAS VEGETAIS NA REGIÃO SUL DO PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO LUSTOSA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management when done so improperly can cause changes in the physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of physical attributes in a dystrophic Oxisol under different vegetation covers and managements in the city of Chain southern state of Piauí. The experimental design was randomized using a split-plot with four types of cropping systems and four sampling depths, with three replications. Cropping systems were studied: Nim (Azadirachta indica, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Brachiaria decumbens and Native Forest sampling depths 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0, 30 and 0.30-0.40 m. The effects of hedges and management on soil physical properties in different soil depths were recorded from the analysis of variance and treatment means compared by Tukey p <0.05. Determinations were carried out density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, and resistance to penetration in all cropping systems. The elephant grass and native forest had the lowest values of penetration resistance and bulk density, higher values of total porosity and macroporosity, reflecting better physical condition of the soil. The area with Nim and Brachiaria was influenced by animal trampling, thus causing increase of soil density and hence the resistance to penetration.

  18. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land.

  19. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  20. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy value for growing lambs of the Mucuna pruriens seed and the whole pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galván, Adan; Belmar-Casso, Roberto; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Whole pod and seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were included in diets for growing sheep used to validate previously estimated ME values of 9.7 MJ and 12.6 MJ for whole pod and seed respectively. Twenty-four lambs, 15 females and nine males of 18.7 ± 2.4 kg average weight, were allocated in three treatments using a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Each group was given a diet with a ratio of 60% of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 40% of a supplement with the addition of 0%, 50% whole pod or 66% of M. pruriens seeds, for TI, TII and TIII respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for 100-g daily live weight gain (LWG). The total dry matter intake (836 g a(-1) d(-1), forage + supplement), LWG (90 g a(-1) d(-1)) and feed conversion (9.66 kg DM/kg LWG) of lambs from TIII were lower (P 0.05) between TI and TII in the three evaluated variables. The ME values of whole pod and seeds of M. pruriens used in this work were validated. It was concluded that M. pruriens can be included as a component in diets for growing sheep, as a partial replacement of conventional feedstuffs.

  1. Fatty acid profile in vertical strata of elephant grass subjected to intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA M. DIAS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. swards subjected to grazing heights (90 or 120 cm pre-grazing heights and levels of defoliation (50% or 70% removal of the initial pre-grazing height. There were no interactions among pre-grazing height, the level of defoliation and grazing stratum. However, higher proportion of C18:3 (58% and 63% was found in the 90-cm swards and in the half upper stratum. A higher proportion of C18:3 was associated with a higher leaf proportion and crude protein content. Thus, the upper stratum of sward or a grazing management scheme (e.g. first-last stocking resulting in a higher proportion of leaves and crude protein both provide higher proportions of C18:3 to animals grazing in elephant grass swards.

  2. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  3. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  4. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals from soil using Poaceae energy crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa PRELAC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a method that use plants which can remove or stabilize pollutants in the environment. The aim of the polluted area remediation is to return ecosystems into original condition. Phytoremediation is a green technology used for a wide range of pollutants as well as on various lands, low costs and reduced environment impacts. Energy crops are relatively new in this field of researches and insufficiently explored. However, the results so far show their potential in heavy metal removal. The aim of this research was to examine the available literature and determine the phytoremediation potential of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc from the soil using Arundo donax, Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Sida hermaphrodita and Sorghum x drummondii. According to the researches conditions, studied energy crops are reccomended in heavy metals phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, stabilization and accumulation. Still, those plants accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere which makes them heavy metals excluders since heavy metals are not translocated into the plants' shoot system and favorable in the implementation of rhizofiltration as well.

  5. Costs of elephant grass gasification for rural electric power generation; Custos da gaseificacao de graminea para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos

    2000-07-01

    Biomass gasification is an sustainable option for energy supply, which presents low pollutants emission rate and allows - through the global cycle of growing and consumption of feedstock (vegetables), a balance between consumption and production of carbonic gas, preventing an increase of the carbonic gas levels in the atmosphere. Fluidized bed gasification is a means to increase the energetic use of biomass. A gasifier was built with internal diameter of 400 mm and total height of 4600 mm . The equipment was tested for gasification of elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at a 100 kg/h rate. It was evaluated an adequate diesel-electric-generator to work at hybrid regime, using 70% biomass gas and 30% diesel. With the equipment's construction costs, could be made a first economic feasibility assessment on the pilot-plant to produce electricity by grass gasification (elephant-grass) at rural communities. The annual cost of the investment was estimated. The cost of electricity was calculated as a function of the capital cost and the diesel price. The methods and equations for economic assessment are presented. This study found values between 0,16 and 0,23 R$/kWh for the produced electricity, what points towards the feasibility of this project. (author)

  6. Invitro Study on the Fluid From Banana Stem Bioprocess as Direct Fed Microbial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaqin, B. K.; Tanuwiria, U. H.; Hernawan, E.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the liquid produced by the bioprocess of banana stem as a Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) in order to enhance local sheep productivity invitro. Studying was the use of DFM in two invitro feeds. The object observed in this research was fermentability and digestibility value. The method was experimental with the experimental design, i.e. factorial experimental design with two factors. The first factor was DFM, the levels of which were 0, 0,2, 0,4 and 0,6%, while the second factor was two feed types (complete feed and Pennisetum purpureum only) with the treatment of threefold repetition. This research showed that fermentability and digestibility value were influenced by the DFM in the invitro complete feed. The research result analyzed using MANOVA with further testing using Duncan Test. The conclusion of the research result were shows the interaction DFM in the complete feed improve fermentability and digestibility values and DFM 0,6% shows the highest value.

  7. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  8. Approximated empirical correlations to the characterization of physical and geometrical properties of solid particulate biomass: case studies of the elephant grass and sugar cane trash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Lab. de Termodinamica e Energia; Alarcon, Guillermo A. Rocca; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Two types of biomass solid particles, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. variety) and sugar cane trash, were studied in laboratory in order to obtain information about several physical and geometrical properties. In the both case, the length, breadth, and thickness of fifty particles selected randomly from each fraction of the size class, obtained by mechanical fractionation through sieves, were measured manually given their size. A geometric model of type rectangular base prism was adopted because based on observations it was demonstrated that the most of particles that were measured exhibited length which was significantly greater that width ( l >> a ). From these measurements average values for other properties were estimated, for example, characteristic dimension of particle, projected area of the rectangular prism, area of the prism rectangular section, volume of the rectangular prism, shape factors, sphericity, particles specific superficial area and equivalent diameter. A statistical analysis was done and proposed empirical and semi-empirical mathematical correlation models obtained by lineal regression, which show a goodness of fit of these equations to the reported experimental data. (author)

  9. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  10. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  11. EFEITO DA ALIMENTAÇÃO COM CAROTENÓIDES NA COLORAÇÃO DA LÃ LAVADA. II - BORREGAS DA RAÇA IDEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vieira Benavides

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Vinte borregas ideal mantidas sob condições de cabanha, receberam alimentação diferenciada por um período de três meses. Após o término do mesmo foram retiradas amostras de lã, do costilhar, para posteriores análises laboratoriais da suarda e coloração da lã. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas baseadas em: capim elefante (pennisetum purpureum + grão de milho; capim elefante + grão de sorgo; capim elefante + grão de sorgo + pigmento cantaxantina (625mg e feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa + sorgo em grão, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas e isocalóricas (11 % PB e 65% NDT. Entre as características mensuradas, porcentagens de cera e suor, pH, cor e absorbância do suor e brilho (Y e coloração da lã lavada (Y-Z, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos alimentares. Neste trabalho não ficou evidenciado efeitos dos carotenóides alimentares na cor da lã lavada em animais da raça Ideal, contudo os dados ainda não são conclusivos, devido ao pequeno número de animais por tratamento.

  12. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus leaf, corn (Zea mays stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum. These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier grass and to investigate the fiber morphology of these crops. The chemical components analyzed include the following: cellulose (Kurshner-Hoffner method, holocellulose (chlorination method, hemicellulose (chlorination method, ash content (TAPPI method T211-om-93, lignin content (TAPPI method T222-om-98, and soluble sodium hydroxide (TAPPI method T203-om-98. All handsheets morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated each crop has the potential for use as a fiber in paper making. SEM images indicated a condensed composition of the fiber structure. The observed chemical composition and morphology of these three crops indicate their suitability for use as fiber sources for the paper industry.

  13. Dynamics of production and forage utilization on elephant grass pastures managed with different post-grazing heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the daily production of forage and its morphological components, as well as the potential of forage utilization in pastures of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier managed with three post-grazing heights (30, 50 and 70 cm. Two experiments were carried out: one from February to May 2009 and another from December 2009 to May 2010, characterizing months of summer and fall. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with three replicates. The grazing was performed by crossbred heifers of approximately 270 kg body weight, when the sward intercepted 95% of the incoming light. In both experiments, the pastures managed with post-grazing height of 30 cm, in the summer months (December to March, presented lower daily production of leaves and stems, as well as less daily leaf senescence, which resulted in lower daily forage production and accumulation in comparison with those managed at 70 and 50 cm. In the period from February to March 2009 (experiment 1 and December 2009 to March 2010 (experiment 2, pastures presented greater daily production of leaves and forage, greater daily forage accumulation and more daily leaf senescence in relation to the months of April and May 2009 and 2010. On the other hand, the daily production of stems was higher in the fall, in comparison with the summer. Therefore, elevation in the post-grazing height, especially in the summer, increases the regrowth vigor of elephant grass cv. Napier.

  14. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  15. Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis, fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

  16. Use of dried cassava root to replace corn in supplementation of Holstein cows grazing and consuming spontaneously, apparent digestibility and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of this experiment intended to evaluate the effect of replacing ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots with the levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in the experimental supplements for lactating cows kept on tropical irrigated and fertilized pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5x5 Latin squares, with an initial lactation average of 150 days, 22 kg/day of average milk production of lactation and approximate initial average body eight of 603 kg. The animals were kept in pasture constituted by elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM cv Pioneer, associated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis, irrigated and fertilized with 600 kg of nitrogen per hectare/year. No significant effects on the substitution of ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots in the concentrate (P>0.05 over the spontaneous consumption of the total diet, with estimated average of 20.61 kg/DM/animal/day, apparent digestibility of DM with estimated average of 59.60% and energy balance with estimated average of +6.36 Mcal day-1. The results of this study demonstrate that the cassava root can be used as an energy source of high nutritional value for supplementation of lactating cows grazing on tropical pastures, similar to corn results.

  17. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  18. Prediction of genetic gains by selection indices using mixed models in elephant grass for energy purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V B; Daher, R F; Araújo, M S B; Souza, Y P; Cassaro, S; Menezes, B R S; Gravina, L M; Novo, A A C; Tardin, F D; Júnior, A T Amaral

    2017-09-27

    Genetically improved cultivars of elephant grass need to be adapted to different ecosystems with a faster growth speed and lower seasonality of biomass production over the year. This study aimed to use selection indices using mixed models (REML/BLUP) for selecting families and progenies within full-sib families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for biomass production. One hundred and twenty full-sib progenies were assessed from 2014 to 2015 in a randomized block design with three replications. During this period, the traits dry matter production, the number of tillers, plant height, stem diameter, and neutral detergent fiber were assessed. Families 3 and 1 were the best classified, being the most indicated for selection effect. Progenies 40, 45, 46, and 49 got the first positions in the three indices assessed in the first cut. The gain for individual 40 was 161.76% using Mulamba and Mock index. The use of selection indices using mixed models is advantageous in elephant grass since they provide high gains with the selection, which are distributed among all the assessed traits in the most appropriate situation to breeding programs.

  19. Nitrate/nitrite poisoning in dairy cattle from the Midwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amaral Gontijo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In a rural property of the Midwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, three 2.5 to 3-year-old female bovines (7/8 Holstein x 1/8 Gir weighing approximately 380kg died after showing brownish colored mucosa of conjunctiva and vaginal vestibule, gray-bluish tongue, dyspnea, sialorrhea, tympany, and progression to sternal decubitus and death. In the macroscopic evaluation of one of the bovines, dark (chocolate-colored blood of difficult coagulation, and intensely cherry-red skeletal and cardiac musculature were observed. Beyond that were observed brownish lungs, kidneys, liver, and encephalon, and all the stomach compartments were dilated due to large amounts of gas. In addition, the carcass exhaled a nitrous odor. The diphenylamine test and the nitrate dosage in the forage (Pennisetum purpureum, “elephant grass”, Napier grass cultivar used in feeding the bovines showed a high concentration of nitrate, allowing the diagnosis of nitrate/nitrite intoxication. The main factors leading to the poisoning were attributed to excessive fertilization of grass with bovine manure, the occurrence of a drought period followed by a rainy season, lack of adaptation of the bovines to a nitrate-rich diet, and a diet composed almost exclusively of elephant grass. This is the first report of spontaneous nitrate/nitrite poisoning in cattle in southeastern Brazil.

  20. Dry season forages for improving dairy production in smallholder systems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kabirizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically feasible strategies for year-round feed supply to dairy cattle are needed to improve feed resource availability, milk yield and household income for the smallholder dairy farming systems that predominate in the rural Eastern and Central African region. Currently, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum is the major forage in zero-grazing production systems, but dry-season production is often constrained. Our results from 24 farms show that sowing forage legumes, including Centrosema molle (formerly C. pubescens and Clitoria ternatea, with Napier grass and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato improved both yield of forage and protein concentration. Sowing of 0.5 ha Napier-Centro plus 0.5 ha of Mulato-Clitoria increased milk yield by 80% and household income by 52% over 0.5 ha Napier grass monoculture. Possible income foregone from the crops which could have been grown on the additional 0.5 ha must be considered in assessing the economic viability of the system.

  1. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. The high concentrate level decreased forage intake and grazing time. In addition, the high concentrate level increased rumen propionate concentration and microbial synthesis and tended to decrease ammonia-N compared with low concentrate level. The addition of CSSO tended to decrease valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and microbial synthesis. In conclusion, feeding CSSO for mid lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture had negative effects on rumen function. In contrast, CSSO supplementation tended to interact with concentrate level and increased energy intake when fed at low concentrate level. Feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to increase energy intake and microbial synthesis and improve N utilization.

  2. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  3. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  4. Análise de trilha em caracteres produtivos de Pennisetum sob corte em Itambé, Pernambuco Path analysis in productive characters of Pennisetum under cut in Itambé-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Alixandrina da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter estimativas de coeficientes de correlação genética e avaliar os desdobramentos das correlações em efeitos diretos e indiretos (análise de trilha das variáveis independentes explicativas sobre a produção de matéria seca (variável dependente principal em cinco clones de capim-elefante. Foram realizados cinco cortes a cada 60 dias nas condições edafoclimáticas da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Cada parcela experimental apresentou 24 m², com 2 m² de área útil. Houve alta correlação entre quase todas as variáveis explicativas e a variável principal. Entretanto, a característica número de lâminas foliares por perfilho explicou melhor o potencial de produção de matéria seca e atuou de forma direta e indireta sobre as variáveis explicativas.This work aimed to estimate the correlation coefficients, determining the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of explanatory independent variables on total dry matter production (main dependent variables of five elephant grass clones in five cuts accomplished at the forest zone of Pernambuco. Each experimental plot measured 24 m² with 2 m² of utile area. There was high correlation between almost all the independent variables and the main variable. The characteristic leaf blade number per tiller, however, explained better the potential of dry matter production and leaf blade dry matter production, acting, respectively, in a direct and indirect way on the explanatory variables.

  5. COMPARISON OF NOZZLES IN PULVERIZATION TO DISSECATION OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum americanum COMPARAÇÃO DE BICOS DE PULVERIZAÇÃO NA DESSECAÇÃO DO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Auxiliadora Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was carried out in 1998, at experimental field of Federal University of Goiás – Brazil with the purpose of studying the drop penetration of glyphosate in the millet crop to weed control, using the nozzles XR 1102, XR 11003 and X-3. The effect of drops density was evaluated at three heigths in the row and between row. The results obtained in this experiment showed that X-3 nozzle as the best applicated at apical level of millet plants in the two position evaluated.

    KEY-WORDS: Nozzles; glyphosate; density drops.

    O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 1998, na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO. Objetivou-se estudar a penetração de glyphosate aplicado com os bicos tipo XR 11002, XR 11003 e X-3 na cultura do milheto, para controle de plantas daninhas e para análise dos efeitos da densidade de gotas dessas aplicações, avaliadas em três alturas nas linhas e entre linhas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o bico X-3, utilizado na altura apical do milheto nas duas posições avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bicos de pulverização; densidade de gotas.

  6. Uptake, translocation, distribution and persistence of 14C-metalaxyl in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum [L.] Leeke)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Kumar, J.; Dwivedi, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Time course absorption and desorption of metalaxyl by seeds of pearl millet was analysed by following chemical kinetics equations. Uptake of metalaxyl through roots, leaves and seed, its translocation and distribution in different plant parts and persistence following seed application were studied in pearl millet using 14 C-metalaxyl. Both uptake and efflux of metalaxyl by pearl millet seeds were complex and compartmentalized. Distribution inside the seed was not uniform. A major part of applied fungicide remained within the treated plant part, particularly after seed and foliar applications. Metalaxyl was ambimobile inside the plant and was found to get accumulated at apex and margins of leaf blade. No metalaxyl could be detected in grains harvested from plants grown from metalaxyl treated seeds. (orig.) [de

  7. Isolation and identification of lactid acid bacteria originated from king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides as candidate of probiotic for livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from king grass, and to determine their potential as candidate of probiotic for livestock. The LAB was isolated by culturing king grass extract in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. The pure culture LAB was used to identify strain of bacteria using Analytical Profile Index (API 50 CH kit. The result showed that the strain bacteria was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. L. plantarum was able to survive in extreme condition at pH 2 and 0.3% bile salt. L. plantarum also survived against pathogenic bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherechia coli and Salmonella thypi. It is concluded that L. plantarum isolated from king grass could potentially to be used as probiotic for livestock.

  8. Constitutive water-conserving mechanisms are correlated with the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholová, Jana; Hash, C Tom; Kakkera, Aparna; Kocová, Marie; Vadez, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Pearl millet, a key staple crop of the semi-arid tropics, is mostly grown in water-limited conditions, and improving its performance depends on how genotypes manage limited water resources. This study investigates whether the control of water loss under non-limiting water conditions is involved in the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet. Two pairs of tolerant x sensitive pearl millet genotypes, PRLT 2/89-33-H77/833-2 and 863B-P2-ICMB 841-P3, and near-isogenic lines (NILs), introgressed with a terminal drought tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) from the donor parent PRLT 2/89-33 into H77/833-2 (NILs-QTL), were tested. Upon exposure to water deficit, transpiration began to decline at lower fractions of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes, and NILs-QTL followed the pattern of the tolerant parents. The transpiration rate (Tr, in g water loss cm(-2) d(-1)) under well-watered conditions was lower in tolerant than in sensitive parental genotypes, and the Tr of NILs-QTL followed the pattern of the tolerant parents. In addition, Tr measured in detached leaves (g water loss cm(-2) h(-1)) from field-grown plants of the parental lines showed lower Tr values in tolerant parents. Defoliation led to an increase in Tr that was higher in sensitive than in tolerant genotypes. The differences in Tr between genotypes was not related to the stomatal density. These results demonstrate that constitutive traits controlling leaf water loss under well-watered conditions correlate with the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet. Such traits may lead to more water being available for grain filling under terminal drought.

  9. The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang'ara, J.N.N.; Kariuki, I.W.; KIruiro, E.M.; Ngugi, F.K.; Mwangi, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha -1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day -1 ) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day -1 ) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day -1 ). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

  10. Gamma radiation effects on microbiological, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Tunisian millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.R.Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Jerbi, Taïeb; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Fattouch, Sami

    2014-07-01

    Hygienic quality of Tunisian pearl millet flour is always of major concern to consumers as well as all involved in the production, processing and distribution sectors. In the present study, the microbiological and biochemical properties of this food were examined following gamma-radiation. The D10-values for the Total Aerobic Plate Count, yeasts and moulds were respectively 1.5 and 3.7kGy. Furthermore, millet flour is commonly susceptible to mycotoxin contaminations, so the Ochratoxin A residues were also investigated; a reduction of 74% was observed with 10kGy. Moreover, the radiation process did not significantly alter fatty acids composition of the millet flour as obtained with Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector technic. The peroxide value had increased from 26.16 to 34.43meqO2/kg with 3kGy. At 1kGy, we noticed an important loss of vitamin A of about 88.6%. In contrast, the total phenolic content, the ABTS-RSA and the DPPH-RSA of the radiated millet flour exhibited non-significant changes (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of fire in the germination ecology of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), an invasive African bunchgrass in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edith N. Adkins; Susan Cordell; Donald R. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to test factors expected to be relevant for the germination of fountain grass: (1) light; (2) emergence of fountain grass seedlings from depths of 0, 2.5, and 5 cm; (3) fire passing over exposed and buried seeds; (4) laboratory heat treatment mimicking exposure to grass fire. Both fire in the field and heat applied in the...

  12. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts of Hybrid Giant Napier (Pennisetum Hydridum) Direct-fired Power Generation in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Fang, Hailin; Zhang, Hengjin; Yu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    To meet with the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the feasibility of Hybrid Giant Napier (HGN) direct-fired power generation in this study. The entire life cycle is consisted of five stages (cultivation and harvesting, transportation, drying and comminuting, direct-fired power generation, constructing and decommissioning of biomass power plant). Analytical results revealed that to generate 10000kWh electricity, 10.925 t of customized HGN fuel (moisture content: 30 wt%) and 6659.430 MJ of energy were required. The total environmental impact potential was 0.927 PET2010 (person equivalents, targeted, in 2010) and the global warming (GW), acidification (AC), and nutrient (NE) emissions were 339.235 kg CO2-eq, 22.033 kg SO2-eq, and 25.486 kg NOx-eq respectively. The effect of AC was the most serious among all calculated category impacts. The energy requirements and environmental impacts were found to be sensitive to single yield, average transport distance, cutting frequency, and moisture content. The results indicated that HGN direct-fired power generation accorded well with Chinese energy planning; in addition, HGN proved to be a promising contribution to reducing non-renewable energy consumption and had encouraging prospects as a renewable energy plant.

  13. Effect of food processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) IKMP-5 on the level of phenolics, phytate, iron and zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanabria Eyzaguirre, R.; Nienaltowska, K.; Jong, de L.E.Q.; Hasenack, B.B.E.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl millet is consumed as a staple food in semi-arid tropical regions. With a view to upgrading the micronutrient status of pearl millet-based foods, the effects of single operations and of porridge preparation scenarios on levels and in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc and mineral

  14. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  15. Evaluation of Eleven Macro and Micro Elements Present in Various Hybrids of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. Americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadir Shar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-451 and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e.zinc (50mg/kg, manganese (8mg/kg, and copper (8mg/kg was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83720 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-7704, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83720 in the edible part of millet plants (grains cultivars respectively.

  16. Evaluation of eleven macro and micro elements present in various hybrids of millet (pennisetum glucum, or P. americanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Shar, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI) situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-45 I and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e. zinc (50 mg/kg), manganese (8 mg/kg), and copper (8mg/kg) was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83120 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-1104, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83120 in the edible part of millet plants (grains) cultivars respectively. (author)

  17. Transgenic and herbicide resistant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) R.Br. via microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girgi, M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available systems in cereals. In the early 1990?s genetic transformation using immature embryos as explants was successful in rice (Christou et al. 1991), sorghum (Casas et al. 1993) and wheat (Vasil et al. 1992). Yet, the genetic transformation of pearl millet...). The de- velopment of a low-cost method will form the basis for future genetic enhancement of this crop for the benefit of India and Sub-Saharan Africa. Five geneti- cally independent transgenic plants were identified by selection with the herbicide Basta...

  18. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  19. Potential use of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) in Brazil: Food security, processing, health benefits and nutritional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Martins, Amanda M; Pessanha, Kênia Letícia F; Pacheco, Sidney; Rodrigues, José Avelino S; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler

    2018-07-01

    Climate change can cause an increase in arid soils, warmer weather, and reduce water availability, which in turn can directly affect food security. This increases food prices and reduces the availability of food. Therefore, knowledge concerning the nutritional and technological potential of non-traditional crops and their resistance to heat and drought is very interesting. Pearl millet is known to produce small nutritious cereal grains, which can endure both heat and dry conditions, and is one of the basic cereals of several African and Asian countries. Although this species has been cultivated in Brazil for at least 50 years it is only used as a cover crop and animal feed, but not for human consumption. Nonetheless, pearl millet grains have a high potential as food for humans because they are gluten-free, higher in dietary fiber content than rice, similar in lipid content to maize and higher content of essential amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and lysine) than other traditional cereals, such as wheat and rye. In addition, the crop is low cost and less susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins compared to corn, for example. Most grains, including pearl millet, can be milled, decorticated, germinated, fermented, cooked and extruded to obtain products such as flours, biscuits, snacks, pasta and non-dairy probiotic beverages. Pearl millet also has functional properties; it has a low glycemic index and therefore it can be used as an alternative food for weight control and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Thus, this review intends to show the potential of pearl millet as an alternative food security crop, particularly in countries, like Brazil, where it is not commonly consumed. Also this review presents different processes and products that have been already reported in the literature in order to introduce the great potential of this important small grain to producers and consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Special Courses at Schumacher College-Schumacher College. Geetha Iyer Keshav Mukunda. Information and Announcements Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 96-97 ...

  1. A Multi-State Factor-Analytic and Psychometric Meta-Analysis of Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the 50 agricultural mechanics laboratory management competencies identified by Johnson and Schumacher in 1989 have served as the basis for numerous needs assessments of secondary agriculture teachers. This study reevaluated Johnson and Schumacher's instrument, as modified by Saucier, Schumacher, Funkenbusch, Terry, and…

  2. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  3. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55.20, and 49.80% for DM, 4160, 53.40, and 47.90% for gross energy, 24.60; 71.20 and 56.10% for crude protein and 40.60, 35.50, and 63.30% for neutral detergent fiber.

  4. Bromatological and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of annato by-product Características bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante contendo subproduto do urucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles Rêgo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. silages with the addition of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of the by-product from SPU annato (Bixa orellana, L. based on natural matter. A complete random design was used with four replications. The nutritional composition, pH, ammonical nitrogen and lactic, acetic, propyonic and butyric acids were determined. Levels of annato by-product had an increasingly linear effect on contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrates, propionic acid and ammonical nitrogen. The insoluble nitrogen contents in detergent and acid detergent, calculated on the percentage of total nitrogen and lactic, acetic and butyric acids were not altered by adding the annato by product. The annatto by-product improves the bromatological characteristics of the silages and it can be added in levels up to 16% of the natural matter at the moment of elephant grass ensilage.O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de subproduto do processamento do urucum (Bixa orellana, L. SPU, com base na matéria natural. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Determinaram-se a composição nutricional, valores de pH, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, acético, propiônico e butírico. Os níveis do subproduto de urucum tiveran efeito linear crescente sobre os teores de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos, ácido propiônico e nitrogênio amonical. Os teores nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente e em detergente ácido, calculados em porcentagem de nitrogênio total e os ácidos lático, acético e butírico não foram alterados com a adição do subproduto do urucum. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em

  5. Estrutura do pasto disponível e do resíduo pós-pastejo em pastagens de capim-cameroon e capim-marandu Pasture structure and post-grazing herbage mass in pastures of elephantgrass cv. Cameroon and palisadegrass cv. Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, em dois experimentos, as características estruturais e o teor de proteína bruta das forrageiras Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon e Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em pastagens submetidas a quatro taxas de lotação rotacionadas. No período das águas, as taxas de lotação impostas a ambas as pastagens foram de 3, 4, 5 e 6 novilhos/ha e, no período seco, de 2, 3, 4 e 5 novilhos/ha. Nos dois experimentos, o capim-cameroon apresentou maior massa de forragem total e massa de forragem verde, que decresceram com o aumento da desfolha imposta pelas taxas de lotação, principalmente no período seco. Nessa forrageira, o aumento da taxa de lotação comprometeu em maior intensidade a fração de matéria seca de lâmina foliar verde. No período das águas, as taxas de lotação que propiciaram maior oferta de massa seca de forragem total, forragem verde e fração de lâmina foliar foram as de 5 e 4 novilhos/ha, respectivamente, para os capins cameroon e marandu. No período seco, no entanto, os maiores valores obtidos para essas variáveis foram, respectivamente, de 4 e 3 novilhos/ha. As taxas de lotação não influenciaram o teor de proteína bruta das gramíneas, que foi maior no componente lâmina foliar verde da planta.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate structural characteristics and crude protein concentration of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under four rotational stocking rates. During the rainfall period, the studied stocking rates for both pastures were 3, 4, 5, and 6 steers/ha and in the dry period the stocking rates were 2, 3, 4, and 5 steers/ha. In both experiments, elephantgrass cv. Cameroon produced greater total herbage mass and green herbage mass, which decreased with the increase in defoliation as a result of the used stocking rates, mainly during the dry period. For elephantgrass pastures, the increase in stocking rate had a greater negative effect on the green

  6. Markers for total consumption estimate of penned holstein x zebu heifers Indicadores para estimativa de consumo total por novilhas holandês x zebu mantidas em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal markers: indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi, lignin Klason and the external markers: chromic oxide and modified enriched hidroxiphenilpropan LIPE® on the total intake estimates of penned crossbreed heifers (Holstein x Zebu. They´re assigned to four diets: elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage; elephant grass silage and commercial concentrate; chopped sugar cane and urea; chopped sugar cane, urea and commercial concentrate. The chromic oxide underestimated the heifers consumption of all diets and its estimates differed from either hod consumption or those obtained with markers. LIPE® may replace chromic oxide because its consumption estimates did not differ from hod consumption of all diets. The lignin Klason showed to be more appropriate to estimate the heifers consumption that were fed with diets based on grass silage than those heifers fed with sugarcane. This marker underestimated the consumption of heifers that received sugarcane and urea (3,57kg/day of MS when it was compared to the consumption registered in hod (4,05kg/day of MS, however, for those heifers that received sugarcane, urea and supply, lignin Klason underestimated the consumption (3,90kg/day of MS, so that, it differed form consumption in hod (4,90kg/day of MS. The indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi were suitable to estimate the heifers consumption in all diets. Those results showed that markers present differentiated effect according to the roughage used.Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia dos indicadores internos: fibras indigestíveis (FDAi e FDNi e lignina Klason e os indicadores externos: óxido crômico e hidroxifenilpropano enriquecido e modificado LIPE® nas estimativas de consumo total de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, mantidas em confinamento e submetidas a quatro dietas: silagem de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.; silagem de capim elefante e concentrado comercial; cana

  7. Cultivo e características nutricionais de Pleurotus em substrato pasteurizado Cultivation and nutritional characteristics of Pleurotus grown in pasteurized substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade, eficiência biológica, massa fresca, composição centesimal dos cogumelos Pleurotus ostreatus (BF24 e Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC96/03 e PSC01/06 produzidos no substrato capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum pasteurizado e a relação Carbono/Nitrogênio inicial e final do substrato. O substrato seco e particulado a 2 cm foi umedecido por 24 horas e pasteurizado a 100 ºC durante 30 minutos. Adicionaram-se 3% de inóculo de cada linhagem, sendo acondicionado em embalagens de polipropileno com 1 kg cada uma. Os substratos foram incubados a 26 ºC e na fase de frutificação a 23±3 ºC e umidade relativa de 75% a 90%. Na linhagem BF24 observou-se maior massa fresca (281,19g, eficiência biológica (112,46% e produtividade (28,11%. O substrato com relação Carbono:Nitrogênio inicial de 162:1 foi o de menor relação (68:1 após o cultivo do P. sajor-caju (PSC01/06. A linhagem PSC96/03 proporcionou maior teor de proteína em relação às demais, tendo a BF24 maior teor de lipídios. Quanto ao teor de carboidratos e cinzas, nas diferentes espécies e linhagens não houve diferenças significativas; já para a quantidade de fibras, as linhagens BF24 e PSC01/06 foram similares, porém superiores a PSC96/03. As duas espécies de Pleurotus podem ser cultivadas em capim-elefante pasteurizado, suprimindo o processo de compostagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity, biological efficiency, fresh matter, and centesimal composition of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (BF24 and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC96/03 and PSC01/06 grown in pasteurized elephant grass substrate (Pennisetum purpureum. It was also assessed the initial and final Carbon/Nitrogen ratio. The dried 2-cm-particulate substrate was moist for 24 hours and pasteurized at 100ºC during 30 minutes. Then, it was added 3% of inoculum of each strain. The substrate was placed into 1-kg polypropylene bags. The bags were incubated

  8. Efeito de coberturas mortas vegetais sobre o desempenho da cenoura em cultivo orgânico Effect of mulch of different plant species on the performance of organically grown carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAB Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de coberturas mortas com resíduos de diferentes espécies de plantas no rendimento da cenoura em cultivo orgânico e nos níveis de reinfestação pela vegetação espontânea. O experimento foi conduzido no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica ("Fazendinha Agroecológica Km 47", em Seropédica-RJ, empregando delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de coberturas dos canteiros com a biomassa aérea, seca e triturada, de capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e guandu (Cajanus cajan, além da testemunha (sem qualquer cobertura. Por ocasião da colheita da cenoura, determinou-se a produtividade e as médias em peso, comprimento e diâmetro máximo das raízes tuberosas. A reinfestação de ervas espontâneas foi estimada pelo número total de indivíduos por m², sendo as coletas realizadas aos 20, 50 e 80 dias após a semeadura. A cenoura cultivada nas parcelas tratadas com resíduos de leguminosas apresentou aumentos significativos de todas as variáveis fitotécnicas, com exceção para o comprimento médio da raiz. Nas parcelas cobertas com resíduos da gramínea, os resultados foram estatisticamente iguais aos da testemunha. A reinfestação por plantas espontâneas por unidade de área cultivada alcançou níveis da ordem de 300% superiores em parcelas sem cobertura do solo, na comparação com aquelas que receberam as palhadas.The effect of soil mulch with different plant species was evaluated in relation to the performance of organically grown carrots and to weed population levels. The experiment was carried out at the Integrated Agroecological Production System located in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Baixada Fluminense, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design comprising four treatments replicated six times. These treatments consisted of soil mulch with chopped and dried above

  9. Manejo da irrigação associada a coberturas mortas vegetais no cultivo orgânico da beterraba Irrigation management and mulching in organic beet planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas orgânicas, como a cobertura do solo com palha, foram testadas em área irrigada por gotejamento na Baixada Fluminense, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O cultivo de inverno da beterraba nesta região é favorecido por temperaturas mais amenas, coincidindo com a época de maior disponibilidade do produto no Estado. No cultivo da beterraba, foram adotados três tipos de cobertura do solo e seis lâminas de irrigação (0; 29; 48; 78; 100 e 148% da ETc determinadas com base no balanço de água no solo utilizando a técnica da TDR. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Sob cobertura morta de Pennisetum purpureum, de Gliricidia sepium e na ausência de cobertura morta, os valores máximos relativos de EUA, no cultivo de beterraba, foram de 21,00; 32,90 e 17,90 kg m-3, respectivamente. A maior e a menor lâmina de irrigação acumulada para cada tipo de manejo foram de 2.746 e 951 m³ ha-1 nas parcelas sem cobertura morta. Em comparação, as parcelas com cobertura do solo reduziram em 34,5 e 10,5% as lâminas acumuladas, respectivamente. Os valores acumulados de nitrogênio nas partes das plantas foram maiores no cultivo sob cobertura morta de G. sepium, indicando vantagens desta prática cultural associada à irrigação por gotejamento.Organic farming practices, like mulching, were tested in drip irrigated area in Baixada Fluminense, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In this region, the winter crop of sugar beet is favored by mild temperatures, coinciding with the period of higher product availability in the State. For the beet planting were used three soil management practices (different conditions of coverage. In each one, six irrigation depth(0, 29, 48, 78, 100 and 148% of ETc, estimated based on soil water balance using TDR technique were applied through drip of different flow rates. Moreover, it was also included a plot without irrigation. The statistical

  10. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  11. Chemical composition and fermentative parameters of elephant grass and sugar-cane silage treated with additives Composição química e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens de capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Martins Coelho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effect of different additives in the elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L., before and after the ensilage, through fermentation and chemical composition measures. The roughages were ensiled in PVC laboratory silos, with three for treatment, totalizing 24 microsilos for specie, in a completely randomized design. The treatments were control (without additive, corn meal, common salt, urea, acetic acid, formic acid, microbial inoculant and dried molasses. Samples were taken before and after 35 days of ensilage. Dry matter, crude protein and ammonia-N contents, pH and buffering capacity values and dry matter losses were analyzed. The elephant-grass presented satisfactory results for conservation in the silage form, and it was not necessary the use of additives. The sugar-cane presented satisfactory results for conservation in the silage form. The corn meal was the additive that promoted best fermentation pattern and smaller losses, as an option in the making of the sugar-cane silage.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aditivos no capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e na cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L., antes e após a ensilagem, através de medidas de fermentação e composição química. As forragens foram ensiladas em silos laboratoriais de PVC, com três unidades por tratamento, num total de 24 microsilos por espécie forrageira, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos consistiram em controle (sem aditivo, fubá, cloreto de sódio, ureia, ácido acético, ácido fórmico, inoculante microbiano e melaço em pó. Amostras foram tomadas antes e após 35 dias de ensilagem, de modo que foram analisados os teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta e nitrogênio amoniacal, os valores de pH e capacidade tamponante, além das perdas de matéria seca. O capim-elefante apresentou resultados satisfatórios para conservação na forma de silagem

  12. Consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas Holandesas sob pastejo em gramíneas tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549 Forage intake and performance of Holstein lactating cows fed on tropical grassland pastures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Portella Montardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a estrutura das pastagens de Capim Elefante Anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (CEA e Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 e sua relação com o consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas em lactação. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2004/05, em área da Escola Estadual Técnica Celeste Gobbato, em Palmeira das Missões, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas-teste da raça Holandesa, alimentadas exclusivamente com as pastagens, em pastejo contínuo, distribuídas em dois piquetes por tratamento. As densidades de forragem foram mais altas no T85 que no CEA, em função da maior produção de forragem. Os estratos do dossel forrageiro mais acessíveis ao consumo pelos animais (acima de 20 e 10 cm de altura para CEA e T85, respectivamente apresentaram estruturas distintas, mas o consumo de forragem e a produção de leite foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A composição química destas camadas foi similar à das respectivas simulações de pastejo em ambas forrageiras, indicando a determinação da composição química nos estratos mais acessíveis ao pastejo como ferramenta útil nas inferências sobre a qualidade da forragem potencialmente consumível. Pastagens tropicais podem proporcionar produções de leite acima de 17 kg vaca-1 dia-1, mesmo sem uso de suplementação.The structure of Dwarf Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (DEG and Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 pastures and its relation with forage intake and the performance of lactating cows were evaluated. The trial was conducted in the growth season of 2004/05, in an area belonging to the Celeste Gobbato State Technical School, in the city of Palmeira das Missões, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Twelve Holstein cows were used as testers, fed exclusively on pasture under continuous grazing, in two paddocks per treatment. Forage density was higher on T85 than in

  13. Composição química do capim-elefante cv. Roxo cortado em diferentes alturas Chemical composition of elephant grass var. Roxo cut at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos cortes efetuados a 0, 15, 30 e 45 cm sobre a composição química do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo, em épocas seca e chuvosa. As amostras foram obtidas de uma área útil de 8,4 m² de cada parcela. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco, em intervalos de 90 dias, e três no período chuvoso, em intervalos de 60 dias. De cada parcela foi tomada uma amostra de 3 a 5 perfilhos, desidratada em estufa e triturada para analises laboratoriais. Foram avaliados os percentuais de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG e cinzas. As alturas de corte não influenciaram a composição química da forrageira, nem houve interação com as épocas. Com exceção de hemicelulose e cinzas, os cortes na época seca mostraram resultados superiores à chuvosa. As médias nas duas épocas foram 19,70 e 17,44% para MS; 7,74 e 7,25% para PB; 76,41 e 71,13% para FDN; 42,75 e 41,02% para FDA; 31,44 e 30,43% para CEL; 30,66 e 30,28% para HCEL; 9,25 e 7,83% para LIG; e 1,97 e 3,38% para cinzas, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, respectivamente.This work was carried out to evaluate the cutting effect at 0, 15, 30 and 45 cm height, on the chemical composition of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo in dry and rainy seasons. The samples were obtained from an useful area of 8,4 m² from each parcel. After the uniformity cut two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval, and three cuts in rainy seasons with 60 days interval. A sample of 3 or 5 tillers was taken from each parcel and they were dehydrated in air forced stove and ground for laboratorial analysis. The percentages of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HCEL, lignin (LIG, and ashes were

  14. CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG STEERS AND HEIFERS, FINISHED WITH SUPPLEMENTATION ON CULTIVATED PASTURE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS E NOVILHAS SUPERJOVENS, TERMINADOS COM SUPLEMENTAÇÃO EM PASTAGEM CULTIVADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of young castrated steers and heifers. Twelve animals of each sex were used, fed during growth with energetic supplementation on Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa cultivated pasture, and finished on Pennisetum purpureum, and slaughtered at fourteen months of age. Farm live weight hot carcass and weight were higher for steers, being of 365.8 and 203.4 kg, respectively, than for heifers being 310.3 and 168.6 kg, in the same order.  Males were superior in carcass length (118.1 vs. 111.3 cm, leg length (69.2 vs. 64.1 cm and in the longissimus dorsi area (58.0 vs. 52.4 cm2. No difference was observed for subcutaneous fat thickness, but heifers showed meat with better marbling (5.58 points than the males (3.67 points. No differences for sensorial and organoleptical characteristics were observed between the two sexes. In conclusion,   excepting relation to weight, young heifers have carcass and meat characteristics similar to males.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, Hereford x Nellore, meat tenderness, cultivated pasture, sex.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as características de carcaça e da carne de novilhos castrados e novilhas superjovens. Foram usados doze animais de cada sexo, recriados com suplementação energética sobre pastagem cultivada de Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa e terminados em pastagem cultivada de Pennisetum purpureum, onde permaneceram até o abate aos quatorze meses de idade. Os pesos de fazenda e de carcaça quente foram superiores nos machos, sendo de 365,8 e 203,4 kg, respectivamente, enquanto as fêmeas apresentaram 310,3 e 168,6 kg, citados na mesma ordem. Os machos foram superiores nos comprimentos de carcaça (118,1 vs. 111,3 cm e de perna (69,2 vs. 64,1 cm e na área de Longissimus dorsi (58,0 vs. 52,4 cm². Não houve diferença na espessura de gordura subcutânea da carcaça, mas as fêmeas apresentaram carne mais

  15. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 16 novilhas ¾ Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 15 meses e peso médio inicial de 144kg, para avaliar o efeito da adição de diferentes níveis (5; 10; 15 e 20% de bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum sobre a qualidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas contendo, como volumoso, silagem de capim-elefante com quatro diferentes níveis de bagaço de mandioca, mais concentrado balanceado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Avaliou-se a qualidade das silagens, os consumos de nutrientes das dietas e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes das silagens e das dietas totais. O bagaço de mandioca elevou o teor de matéria seca (MS da silagem, preservando-a com o pH que variou de 3,85 a 4,07 e a relação N-NH3/NT de 6,2 a 7,85. Os consumos médios diários de MS e proteína bruta (PB não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente (P0,05 na digestibilidade da MS (DMS, da FDN (DFDN e da FDA (DFDA das silagens. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das silagens foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da PB (DPB, do extrato etéreo (DEE e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DCNF das silagens decresceu linearmente (P0,05 na DMS, DPB, DFDN, DFDA, DEE, DCNF e NDT entre as dietas experimentais. O nível de adição de 5% de bagaço de mandioca à silagem de capim-elefante é satisfatório para sua preservação, propiciando boa digestibilidade.Sixteen ¾ Holstein-Zebu heifers aging 15 month-old averaging 144kg were used to evaluate the effect of the additions of different levels of cassava bagasse (5; 10; 15 and 20% to elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum ensilage on the diet quality and nutrients digestibility. The treatments consisted of four diets containing, as roughage, elephant grass

  16. Comportamento de vacas em lactação em pastagem manejada sob princípios agroecológicos Behavior of grazing lactating cows in agro-ecological managed pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de vacas holandesas em lactação durante o período hibernal em pastagem constituída de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. As avaliações foram feitas em três ciclos de pastejo, em 17/06, 04/08 e 16/09 de 2004. Em cada avaliação, utilizaram-se seis vacas entre o 2º e o 5º mês de lactação. O registro de dados foi realizado por dois observadores das 18 às 6h e das 8 às 16h, a cada 10 minutos. As características comportamentais observadas foram os tempos de pastejo em capim-elefante e em aveia + azevém, em pastejo total (pastejo de capim-elefante + aveia e azevém, em ruminação e ócio. Concomitantemente, avaliaram-se os dados da massa de forragem inicial, da qualidade da forragem ingerida e das condições ambientais. A maior intensidade de pastejo ocorreu após cada ordenha, verificando-se posteriormente um decréscimo, tanto durante o dia quanto à noite. Em média, o turno que os animais demandaram mais tempo de pastejo foi o diurno. O tempo destinado pelas vacas ao consumo de aveia e de azevém foi maior no período em que o capim-elefante apresentava menor porcentagem de lâminas foliares. O tempo de ócio diminuiu e o de ruminação aumentou no decorrer dos pastejos, como resultado do declínio na porcentagem de lâminas foliares e da elevação na porcentagem de colmos das espécies de ciclo hibernal. O capim-elefante foi pastejado em todas as avaliações. A presença de espécies de ciclos diferentes possibilitou aos animais equilibrarem a dieta volumosa.The objective of this trial was to study the behavior of lactating Holstein cows grazing pasture containing elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Data from six early to mid lactating cows were collected every 10 minutes interval

  17. Efeito de diferentes períodos de ocupação da pastagem de capim-elefante sobre a produção de leite Effect of different grazing periods in elephant grass pasture upon milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cóser

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou determinar o melhor período de ocupação de pastagem de capim- elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier, na produção de leite. Foram testados três períodos de ocupação (1, 3 e 5 dias de pastejo, com 30 dias de descanso. O delineamento experimental usado foi de blocos casualizados, com duas repetições, durante três anos. Foi usada uma taxa de lotação de 4 UA/ha. Durante o período experimental os animais recebiam suplementação concentrada, à base de 2,0 kg/vaca/dia. Foram realizadas estimativas da disponibilidade e qualidade da forragem, da altura das plantas e da cobertura do solo a cada 14 dias, e registradas as produções de leite, diariamente. De acordo com os resultados, a disponibilidade e a qualidade da forragem e a produção de leite não foram influenciados pelos diferentes períodos de ocupação. No período das águas, foram observadas produções de leite de 10,9, 10,8 e 10,8 kg/vaca/dia e 7.848, 7.800 e 7.776 kg/ha, nos tratamentos de 1, 3 e 5 dias de ocupação, respectivamente (P>0,05. As maiores flutuações na produção diária de leite por vaca ocorreram no tratamento com cinco dias de pastejo, explicadas pela redução de forragem em quantidade e qualidade, ao longo do período de ocupação em cada piquete.Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier pastures were grazed by lactating dairy cows with the aim of assessing the best grazing period to maximize milk production. Three grazing periods (1, 3 and 5 days, with 30 days resting were tested using a randomized block design, with two replications, during three years. Each paddock was grazed by 4 milking cows. During the experimental period, the cows received individually 2,0 kg/day of a concentrate mixture. Estimates of forage availability and quality, plant height, ground cover and milk production, were recorded. Results showed that available forage and quality and milk production were not influenced by the three

  18. Concentrate and crude protein levels in diets for dairy Gyr lineage cows grazing elephant-grass during the rainy season Níveis de concentrado e proteína bruta em dietas para vacas da raça Gir linhagem leiteira sob pastejo de capim-elefante durante a época das águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of three levels of concentrate (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kg/cow/day and two levels of crude protein (CP (14 and 16% total dietary dry matter, in comparison to mineral mixture (control on the intake, apparent digestibility, milk composition and yield and on feed efficiency and use of concentrates of cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum in the rainy season. Twenty-one milking Gyr cows with average body weight of 426 kg and yield of 13.0 kg of milk/cow/day at 55 days of lactation were distributed in randomized blocks design, with seven diets (treatments in a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and three replications, in a period of 84 days. Forage dry matter intake was not influenced by the diets, but total dietary dry matter intake increased by 45% with the inclusion of concentrate in the diet. However, milk yield increased by only 17% (1.76 kg more milk per day with the use of concentrate. For dairy Gyr cows grazing elephant-grass during the rainy season, 2 kg of concentrate/cow/day and 14% of CP in the total diet provided the best productive response without harming body weight.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de três níveis de concentrado (2,0; 4,0 e 6,0 kg/vaca/dia e dois de proteína bruta (PB (14 e 16% da matéria seca total da dieta em comparação à mistura mineral (controle no consumo, na digestibilidade aparente, na produção e composição do leite e na eficiência alimentar e de utilização de concentrados de vacas sob pastejo de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum na época das águas. Vinte e uma vacas Gir linhagem leiteira com média de 426 kg de peso vivo e produção de 13,0 kg de leite/vaca/dia, aos 55 dias de lactação, foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com sete dietas (tratamentos, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 + 1 e três repetições, num período de 84 dias. O consumo de matéria seca de forragem não foi influenciado pelas

  19. Elephant grass genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion Genótipos de capim-elefante para produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fiusa de Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion. Five elephant grass genotypes grown in two different soil types, both of low fertility, were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Agrobiologia field station in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The design was in randomized complete blocks, with split plots and four replicates. The genotypes studied were Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo and CNPGL F06-3. Evaluations were made for biomass production, total biomass nitrogen, biomass nitrogen from biological fixation, carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios, and contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash. The dry matter yields ranged from 45 to 67 Mg ha-1. Genotype Roxo had the lowest yield and genotypes Bag 02 and Cameroon had the highest ones. The biomass nitrogen accumulation varied from 240 to 343 kg ha-1. The plant nitrogen from biological fixation was 51% in average. The carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios and the contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash did not vary among the genotypes. The five genotypes are suitable for energy production through combustion.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto ao potencial para a produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa. Avaliaram-se cinco genótipos de capim-elefante, em dois solos com baixa fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na estação experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, em Seropédica, RJ. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos estudados foram Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo e CNPGL F06-3. Determinaram-se a produção de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio na biomassa, o nitrogênio da biomassa proveniente da fixação biológica, as relações carbono/nitrogênio e talo/folha, e os teores de fibra, lignina

  20. Perfilhamento e algumas características morfológicas do capim-elefante cv. Roxo sob quatro alturas de corte em duas épocas do ano Tillering and some morphologic characteristics of elephant grass var. Roxo, cut at four heights in two periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos cortes efetuados a 0, 15, 30 e 45 cm sobre algumas características morfofisiológicas do Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo nas épocas seca e chuvosa no Brejo Paraibano. As amostras foram obtidas de uma área útil de 8,4 m² de cada parcela. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco, em intervalos de 90 dias, e três no período chuvoso, em intervalos de 60 dias. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: perfilhamento, altura das plantas, porcentagens de folhas e colmos e relação folha/colmo (RF/C. Aos 25 dias após cada corte, foram feitas as contagens dos perfilhos existentes nas parcelas. De cada parcela tomou-se uma amostra de 3 a 5 perfilhos, seca em estufa, e separaram-se as frações de folhas e colmos. Houve interação dos fatores (altura x época do corte quanto ao número de perfilhos por m² e à RF/C. No período chuvoso, houve mais perfilhos basais que no período seco, e o número de perfilhos aéreo foi superior em todos os cortes acima do nível do solo. A RF/C foi superior na época chuvosa nas alturas de 30 e 45 cm do solo. Cortes mais altos apresentaram maior proporção de folhas e menor proporção de colmos. Os percentuais de folhas na época chuvosa foram maiores que os da época seca.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of cutting at 0, 15, 30 and 45 cm height, on some morphological and physiological characteristics of the Pennisetum purpureum, Schum., var. Roxo in dry and rainy seasons in the Paraiba swamp region. The samples were obtained from a useful area of 8,4 m² from each parcel. After the uniformity cut, two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval and three cuts in the rainy season with 60 days interval were made. The number of tillers for m², plants heights, leaves and stems percentage (dry matter basis and the leaves/stem ratio (L/SR were evaluated. At the 25th day, the counting, after each cut, of the

  1. Manejo da água e do nitrogênio em cultivo de capim-elefante Water and nitrogen management in the cultivation of elephant grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A intensificação do manejo do solo, visando ao aumento da produtividade de forrageiras pode contribuir para a degradação física e química do solo se mal conduzida. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar a produção de MS, os conteúdos acumulados dos nutrientes na parte aérea de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e as alterações nos atributos físicos e químicos do solo após a adição de doses de nitrogênio e aplicação ou não da irrigação. Para tanto, amostras de planta e solo foram coletadas em área experimental de pastagem com capim-elefante no quarto ano de cultivo sob doses crescentes de nitrogênio (100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1 de N, anualmente no período de verão em sistema irrigado e não irrigado. Os resultados mostraram que após quatro anos de cultivo de capim-elefante o manejo com sistema irrigado combinado com adubação nitrogenada propiciou maior produção de MS da parte aérea, o que determinou maiores extrações de K, Ca e P pela planta, redução no teor de P extraível por Mehlich 1 no solo e incrementos nos teores de carbono orgânico total, K e Ca trocáveis. O solo com sistema não irrigado apresentou maior densidade.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the dry matter production and the content of nutrients accumulated in the aerial part of the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and alterations in the density and fertility of the soil after four years of fertilization with increasing nitrogen doses in an irrigated or non-irrigated cultivation area. For this purpose, plant and soil samples were collected from an experimental area of pasture with elephant grass in the fourth year of cultivation under increasing doses of nitrogen (100, 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1 N, yearly in the summer in both systems. The results showed that after four years of elephant grass cultivation, the irrigated system combined with nitrogen fertilization presented larger production of dry

  2. Efeito do dia de ocupação sobre a produção leiteira de vacas mestiças em pastejo rotacionado de forrageiras tropicais Days of occupation on crossbred cows milk production in a rotational grazing system tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Luciana dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para se observar as flutuações na produção leiteira de vacas mestiças em sistema de pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante cv. Guaçu (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq., de acordo com períodos de ocupação (dois dias de ocupação e 40 de descanso e três dias de ocupação e 33 de descanso, respectivamente, adubados com 200 kg de N/ha/ano. Foram estudados 19 piquetes de capim-elefante e 15 de capim-tanzânia. A análise estatística foi realizada considerando-se fase de lactação das vacas, piquete e dia de ocupação. Para o capim-elefante houve efeito da fase da lactação com interação com o dia de ocupação, mas não houve diferença para o dia de ocupação. As médias foram 10,3 ± 3,3 e 10,4 ± 3,2 kg de leite/vaca/dia para o 1º e 2º dia de ocupação, respectivamente. Para o capim-tanzânia, houve diferença significativa na produção de leite, conforme o dia de ocupação, e interação significativa para piquete e dia de ocupação. As médias foram 10,6 ± 3,0; 11,0 ± 3,1; 10,6 ± 3,2 kg de leite/vaca/dia, respectivamente, para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias de ocupação.The study was carried out to observe the fluctuation of milk yield of crossbred cows in two rotational grazing systems of elephant grass cv. Guaçu (Pennisetum purpureum Schum and Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq., according of period of occupation (2 days of occupation with 40 days resting and 3 days of occupation with 33 days resting, respectively, fertilized with 200 kg of N/ha/year. Nineteen paddocks of elephantgrass and 15 of Tanzaniagrass were studied. The statistical analysis was performed considering lactation phase of cows, paddocks and days of occupation. For elephantgrass there was an interaction effect of lactation phase and days of occupation, but no difference was observed for days of occupation. Averages of daily milk yield were 10.3 ± 3.3 and 10.4 ± 3.2 kg/day for 1st

  3. Características do efluente e composição químico-bromatológica da silagem de capim-elefante sob diferentes níveis de compactação Effluent characteristics and chemical-bromatologic compound of elephantgrass silage under different levels of pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento utilizando capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, com o teor de 13% matéria seca, submetido a cinco pressões de compactação no processo de ensilagem, com o objetivo de determinar as características quantitativas e qualitativas do efluente produzido, bem como a qualidade da silagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos cilíndricos de PVC com 25 cm de diâmetro e 75 cm de altura. Aplicaram-se as pressões de 356,67; 446,67; 531,33; 684,00 e 791,00 kg/m³. A produção de efluente aumentou, à medida que ocorreu o incremento das pressões de compactação, registrando-se maior produção nos dois primeiros dias após a ensilagem, independentemente da pressão exercida. Avaliaram-se as perdas totais, sendo possível observar que a compactação equivalente a 550 kg/m³ apresentou maior adequação ao processo de conservação. Os valores observados no efluente para demanda biológica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, relação DBO/DQO, pH, teores de magnésio e sódio não variaram em função da compactação efetuada e ao longo dos dias de coleta, sendo equivalentes a 14.596,69 mg/L, 31.138,2 mg/L, 2,38, 4,30, 0,3997% e 0,0008%, respectivamente. Para os teores de fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio amoniacal, nitrogênio total, nitrogênio orgânico, proteína bruta e sólidos totais foram observadas variações, devido à pressão de compactação, ao longo de todo o período de avaliação.An experiment was conducted using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, with the purpose of determining the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of effluent released, correlating this with levels of pressure and the quality of silage. The material with 13% of dry matter was ensiled in experimental plastic silos. The levels of pressure were: 356.67; 446.67; 531.33; 684.00 and 791.00 kg/m³. The effluent of silages with high moisture content was collected and

  4. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'MerckeronPinda' + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE + azevém anual (AZ Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', como SF1; CE + ECE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', como SF2; e CE + ECE + AZ + trevo vermelho (TV Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', como SF3. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. O azevém anual foi estabelecido entre as linhas do CE durante o período hibernal; o TV foi semeado e o AF foi preservado nos respectivos tratamentos. Para avaliação, foram usadas vacas da raça Holandesa que receberam 5,5kg dia-1 como complemento alimentar. Foram avaliadas a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, a massa de forragem desaparecida (MFD, a matéria seca desaparecida com base em 100kg de peso vivo (MSD e a produção de forragem (PF, as composições botânica e estrutural do CE. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (SF e duas repetições (piquetes em parcelas subdivididas no tempo (pastejo. Durante o período experimental (341 dias, foram efetuados nove ciclos de pastejo. Os valores médios de TA, MFD, MSD e PF foram de 53,16kg ha-1; 36,13%; 2,77kg de matéria seca por 100kg de peso vivo e 17,80t ha-1. Para a variável ECE, houve aumento significativo no SF1. Considerando a carga animal, o SF3 apresentou melhor desempenho.The objective of this research was to evaluate of tree pasture-based systems (PS with elephantgrass (EG Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'Merckeron Pinda' + spontaneous growing species (SGS, annual ryegrass (RG Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', for PS1; EG + SGS + forage peanut (FP Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', for PS2; and EG + SGS + RG + red clover (RC Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', for PS3. EG was planted in lines with a distance of 4m

  5. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  6. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  7. Changes in quality of goat meat after alterations in animal Handling - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of animal handling, consisting in castration and cashew nut diet supplementation, on the cholesterol content and percentage composition of the muscles that constitute the leg meat cut from crossbred goats, grown in Ceará State. A case experimental design was applied with twenty male-animals with 5-6 months age and mean weight of 12 Kg, randomly divided in two groups of castrated (10 and intact (10 animals. In individual bays, they received during 5 months, two food regimen based on dried elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and a standard isoproteic ration (corn and soy oil, one of them with the addition of 13% cashew nut bran (CNB, forming four sub-groups: A1 (intact with no CNB supplemented diet; A2 (intact with CNB supplemented diet; B1 (castrated with no CNB supplemented diet and B2 (castrated with CNB supplemented diet. The castration associated with the CNB supplementation increased the meat’s fat yield from 1.16% to 3.57% and the cholesterol content from 36.47 mg/100g to 62.30 mg/100g. The ash yield decreased from 1.14% to 1.04%. The castration isolated only reduced moisture yield from 75.98% on sub-group A2 to 74.19% on sub-group B2. In intact animals that fed diet supplemented with CNB the protein decreased from 20.58% to 18.85% (P < 0.05 (sub-groups A1 and A2. The increased cholesterol content was highly correlated with the increase of the fat (93% In conclusion, these results showed that the combined use of castration and cashew nut bran (13% diet negatively influenced the dietetic and nutritional quality of goat leg meat.

  8. PRODUCTION OF PRINTING AND WRITING PAPER GRADE PULP FROM ELEPHANT GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize chemically and morphologically elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, and evaluate the potential of its fibers for production of printing and writing paper grade pulp. The elephant grass was chemically and morphologically characterized and cooked by the soda process to two different degrees of delignification (kappa 17.5 and 10.6. The resulting pulps were fully bleached by the O-D*-(EP-D sequence and characterized for their beatability, drainability and physical-mechanical properties. The lignin content (20.2% was low, indicating that this grass should be easier to pulp. The morphological analyses of the elephant grass indicated a short fiber material, similar to hardwoods. The soda pulp from elephant grass cooked to kappa number 17.5 presented higher screened yield than 10.6 kappa pulp, with alkali demands of 15.0% and 20.0%, respectively. The total active chlorine required by the 17.5 and 10.6 kappa pulps, were 42.1 and 35.1 kg/odt pulp, respectively, to achieve an ISO brightness of approximately 90.0%. The bleached soda pulps cooked to 17.5 and 10.6 kappa number showed similar refinability and resistance to drainage, but the tensile and burst index were highest for the 17.5 kappa pulp at beating energy consumptions in the range of 0-6 Wh. It was concluded that both 10.6 and 17.5 kappa pulps from elephant grass are suitable for the production of printing and writing paper grade pulps, but the highest kappa 17.5 pulp is more economically attractive given its highest pulping yield, despite the significantly increased of chemical demand for bleaching A produção de papel para impressão e escrita Grau de celulose a partir de capim-elefante.

  9. Recycling stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Dumkhana, Bernard B; Ayotamuno, Josiah M; Okparanma, Reuben N

    2017-10-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which involves fixation and immobilisation of contaminants using cementitious materials, is one method of treating drill cuttings before final fate. This work considers reuse of stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils. It sought to improve the sustainability of S/S technique through supplementation with the phytoremediation potential of plants, eliminate the need for landfill disposal and reduce soil acidity for better plant growth. Drill cuttings with an initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 17,125 mg kg -1 and low concentrations of metals were treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% cement dosages. The treated drill cuttings were reused in granular form for growing a forage, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), after mixing with uncontaminated soil. The grasses were also grown in uncontaminated soil. The phytoremediation and growth potential of the plants was assessed over a 12-week period. A mix ratio of one part drill cuttings to three parts uncontaminated soil was required for active plant growth. The phytoremediation ability of elephant grass (alongside abiotic losses) reduced the TPH level (up to 8795 mg kg -1 ) in the soil-treated-drill cuttings mixtures below regulatory (1000 mg kg -1 ) levels. There were also decreased concentrations of metals. The grass showed better heights and leaf lengths in soil containing drill cuttings treated with 5% cement dosage than in uncontaminated soil. The results suggest that recycling S/S treated drill cuttings for forage production may be a potential end use of the treated waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategic grazing management towards sustainable intensification at tropical pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congio, Guilhermo F S; Batalha, Camila D A; Chiavegato, Marília B; Berndt, Alexandre; Oliveira, Patrícia P A; Frighetto, Rosa T S; Maxwell, Thomas M R; Gregorini, Pablo; Da Silva, Sila C

    2018-05-01

    Agricultural systems are responsible for environmental impacts that can be mitigated through the adoption of more sustainable principles. Our objective was to investigate the influence of two pre-grazing targets (95% and maximum canopy light interception during pasture regrowth; LI 95% and LI Max , respectively) on sward structure and herbage nutritive value of elephant grass cv. Cameroon, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, stocking rate, enteric methane (CH 4 ) emissions by Holstein × Jersey dairy cows. We hypothesized that grazing strategies modifying the sward structure of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) improves nutritive value of herbage, increasing DMI and reducing intensity of enteric CH 4 emissions, providing environmental and productivity benefits to tropical pasture-based dairy systems. Results indicated that pre-sward surface height was greater for LI Max (≈135 cm) than LI 95% (≈100 cm) and can be used as a reliable field guide for monitoring sward structure. Grazing management based on LI 95% criteria improved herbage nutritive value and grazing efficiency, allowing greater DMI, milk yield and stocking rate by dairy cows. Daily enteric CH 4 emission was not affected; however, cows grazing elephant grass at LI 95% were more efficient and emitted 21% less CH 4 /kg of milk yield and 18% less CH 4 /kg of DMI. The 51% increase in milk yield per hectare overcame the 29% increase in enteric CH 4 emissions per hectare in LI 95% grazing management. Thereby the same resource allocation resulted in a 16% mitigation of the main greenhouse gas from pasture-based dairy systems. Overall, strategic grazing management is an environmental friendly practice that improves use efficiency of allocated resources through optimization of processes evolving plant, ruminant and their interface, and enhances milk production efficiency of tropical pasture-based systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorus transformation in poultry litter and litter-treated Oxisol of Brazil assessed by 31P-NMR and wet chemical fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Roriz de Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of poultry litter are being produced in Brazil, which contain appreciable amounts of phosphorus (P that could be of environmental concern. To assess the immediate environmental threat, five poultry litters composed of diverse bedding material were incubated for 43 days under greenhouse conditions. The litters consisted of: coffee bean husk (CH; wood chips (WC; rice husk (RH; ground corn cobs (CC and ground napier grass (NG (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., in which the change in forms of soluble P was evaluated using 31P NMR spectroscopy. On average, 80.2 and 19.8 % of the total P in the extract, respectively, accounted for the inorganic and organic forms before incubation and 48 % of the organic P was mineralized to inorganic P in 43 days of incubation. Wide variation in the organic P mineralization rate (from 82 % -WC to 4 % - NG was observed among litters. Inorganic orthophosphate (99.9 % and pyrophosphate (0.1 % were the only inorganic P forms, whereas the organic P forms orthophosphate monoesters (76.3 % and diester (23.7 % were detected. Diester P compounds were mineralized almost completely in all litters, except in the CH litter, within the incubation period. Pyrophosphates contributed with less than 0.5% and remained unaltered during the incubation period. Wood-chip litter had a higher organic P (40 % content and a higher diester: monoester ratio; it was therefore mineralized rapidly, within the first 15 days, achieving steady state by the 29th day. Distinct mineralization patterns were observed in the litter when incubated with a clayey Oxisol. The substantial decrease observed in the organic P fraction (Po of the litter types followed the order: CH (45 % > CC (25 % > RH (13 % ≈ NG (12 % > WC (5 %, whereas the Pi fraction increased. Incubation of RH litter in soil slowed down the mineralization of organic P.

  12. Unidades de produção agrícola controlada no semiárido para o tratamento de água cinza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Costa Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As reservas de água doce, juntamente com as limitações de lançamento de efluentes no meio ambiente, culminam para a necessidade do uso racional dos recursos hídricos de modo a reduzir os impactos negativos da geração de efluentes. Nesse contexto, o trabalho foi realizado objetivando-se implantar e monitorar eficiência do tratamento da água, para o semiárido, de unidades de produção agrícola controladas UPAC’s utilizando as águas cinzas de uma lavanderia comunitária.  A pesquisa foi desenvolvida nas instalações da Lavanderia Pública do Distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras no Estado da Paraíba. Foram implantadas oito unidades de produção agrícola controlada e os parâmetros analisados das águas cinza coletadas dos pontos de observação das unidades foram: Condutividade Elétrica (CE, pH, e Oxigênio Dissolvido (OD.  No sistema foram plantadas duas culturas com destinação à alimentação animal as quais são a mucuna-preta (Mucuna pruriens (L. e o capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum e uma para consumo humano, o maracujá (Passiflora sp. O tratamento das águas cinzas nas Unidades de Produção Agrícola Controladas promoveu uma diminuição da CE, pH e OD das águas oriundas da lavanderia, tornando uma alternativa viável e sustentável para o tratamento de água de lavanderias como também para produzir alimentos para fins animais e humanos.

  13. Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambua, Lillian; Schneider, Bernd; Okwaro, Allan; Wanga, Joseph Odhiambo; Imali, Olive; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Agutu, Lavender; Olds, Cassandra; Jones, Chris Stephen; Masiga, Daniel; Midega, Charles; Khan, Zeyaur; Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure. We report the development of an easy to use, rapid, sensitive and specific molecular assay for field diagnosis of NSD. The procedure is based on recombinase polymerase amplification and targets the imp gene encoding a pathogen-specific immunodominant membrane protein. Therefore we followed a two-step process. First we developed an isothermal DNA amplification method for real time fluorescence application and then transferred this assay to a lateral flow format. The limit of detection for both procedures was estimated to be 10 organisms. We simplified the template preparation procedure by using freshly squeezed phloem sap from Napier grass. Additionally, we developed a laboratory serological assay with the potential to be converted to a lateral flow assay. Two murine monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity to the immunodominant membrane protein IMP of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae were generated. Both antibodies specifically reacted with the denatured or native 17 kDa IMP protein. In dot blot experiments of extracts from infected plant, phytoplasmas were detected in as little as 12,5 μg of fresh plant material. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of phytoplasma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, E; Masiga, D; Wachira, F; Gurja, B; Khan, Z R

    2011-02-01

    Napier stunt phytoplasma (16SrXI and 16SrIII) in eastern Africa is a serious threat to the expansion of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) farming in the region, where it is widely cultivated as fodder in zero grazing livestock systems. The grass has high potential for bio-fuel production, and has been adopted by farmers as a countermeasure to cereal stem borer Lepidoptera, since it attracts and traps the insect. Diagnosis of stunt phytoplasma have been largely by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the method is laborious, costly and technically demanding. This investigation has developed a simpler but effective phytoplasma diagnostic tool, called; loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP). The assay was tested on 8 symptomatic and 8 asymptomatic plants, while its detection limit was compared to nested PCR using samples serially diluted from 3 ng/μl to 0.38 pg/μl. Molecular typing of LAMP products was determined by BsrI restriction digestion and Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated, while the specificity was tested on 11 phytoplasma groups. LAMP was specific to 5 phytoplasma groups: 16SrVI, X, XI and XVI. BsrI restriction digestion produced two predicted fragments, and there was specific binding of probe DNA to the LAMP amplicons in Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity was 100%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 63 and 100% respectively. LAMP was 20-fold more sensitive than nested PCR. This study validates LAMP for routine diagnosis of Napier stunt and other closely related phytoplasmas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  16. Towards an assessment of on-farm niches for improved forages in Sud-Kivu, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe K. Paul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate quantity and quality of livestock feed is a persistent constraint to productivity for mixed crop-livestock farming in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. To assess on-farm niches of improved forages, demonstration trials and participatory on-farm research were conducted in four different sites. Forage legumes included Canavalia brasiliensis (CIAT 17009, Stylosanthes guianensis (CIAT 11995 and Desmodium uncinatum (cv. Silverleaf, while grasses were Guatemala grass (Tripsacum andersonii, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum French Cameroon, and a local Napier line. Within the first six months, forage legumes adapted differently to the four sites with little differences among varieties, while forage grasses displayed higher variability in biomass production among varieties than among sites. Farmers’ ranking largely corresponded to herbage yield from the first cut, preferring Canavalia, Silverleaf desmodium and Napier French Cameroon. Choice of forages and integration into farming systems depended on land availability, soil erosion prevalence and livestock husbandry system. In erosion prone sites, 55–60%of farmers planted grasses on field edges and 16–30% as hedgerows for erosion control. 43% of farmers grew forages as intercrop with food crops such as maize and cassava, pointing to land scarcity. Only in the site with lower land pressure, 71% of farmers grew legumes as pure stand. When land tenure was not secured and livestock freely roaming, 75% of farmers preferred to grow annual forage legumes instead of perennial grasses. Future research should develop robust decision support for spatial and temporal integration of forage technologies into diverse smallholder cropping systems and agro-ecologies.

  17. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels.

  18. Avaliação da folha e do colmo de topo e base de perfilhos de três gramíneas forrageiras: 1. Digestibilidade in vitro e composição química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Foi avaliado o grau de correlação linear simples entre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e a composição química de lâminas e bainhas foliares e, do colmo, amostrados no topo e na base de perfilhos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, cv. Mott, capim-setária (Setaria anceps, cv. Kazungula e capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa, Nees Stapf . Os valores de DIVMS e os teores de proteína bruta (PB e parede celular (FDN exibiram gradiente ao longo do perfil do perfilho e diferença entre as frações do perfilho. As folhas situadas no topo do perfilho mostraram maior conteúdo de PB e digestibilidade, apesar dos mais altos teores de FDN, que as folhas situadas na base dos perfilhos. As lâminas foliares mostraram valores relativamente mais altos de DIVMS, PB e FDN que a bainha foliar. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre os componentes químicos e a DIVMS da lâmina foliar do topo do perfilho. Apenas o teor de lignina apresentou correlação significativa (r = - 0,53 com a DIVMS, quando dados das lâminas foliares de topo e base do perfilho foram agrupados. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, proteína bruta e lignina propiciaram correlações com a DIVMS da lâmina foliar de base, da bainha foliar e do colmo.

  19. Avaliação da folha e do colmo de topo e base de perfilhos de três gramíneas forrageiras: 1. Digestibilidade in vitro e composição química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Domingos Sávio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Foi avaliado o grau de correlação linear simples entre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e a composição química de lâminas e bainhas foliares e, do colmo, amostrados no topo e na base de perfilhos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, cv. Mott, capim-setária (Setaria anceps, cv. Kazungula e capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa, Nees Stapf . Os valores de DIVMS e os teores de proteína bruta (PB e parede celular (FDN exibiram gradiente ao longo do perfil do perfilho e diferença entre as frações do perfilho. As folhas situadas no topo do perfilho mostraram maior conteúdo de PB e digestibilidade, apesar dos mais altos teores de FDN, que as folhas situadas na base dos perfilhos. As lâminas foliares mostraram valores relativamente mais altos de DIVMS, PB e FDN que a bainha foliar. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre os componentes químicos e a DIVMS da lâmina foliar do topo do perfilho. Apenas o teor de lignina apresentou correlação significativa (r = - 0,53 com a DIVMS, quando dados das lâminas foliares de topo e base do perfilho foram agrupados. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, proteína bruta e lignina propiciaram correlações com a DIVMS da lâmina foliar de base, da bainha foliar e do colmo.

  20. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  1. Assessment of indicators and collection methodology to estimate nutrient digestibility in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry fecal matter production was estimated from neutral detergent indicators on indigestible fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible dry matter, incubated for 144 hours and 288 hours, as well as chromium oxide (Cr2O3 and enriched and purified isolated lignin (LIPE® in two sampling schemes (3 and 5 days on buffaloes. Sample consisted of five castrated animals with average weight of 300 ± 0.6 kg fed on elephant grass cv Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in subdivided plots. Production of dry fecal matter was overestimated when using Cr2O3, indigestible acid detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 288 hours and indigestible dry matter 144 hours, while indigestible acid detergent fiber 288 hours, indigestible dry matter 288 hours and LIPE® did not differ from total collection. The same result was observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. There was no difference in dry fecal matter production and digestibility between both collection periods of 3 and 5 days, demonstrating that a collection period of three days can be used to estimate dry fecal matter production in buffaloes. A three-day period of sample collection, in order to estimate dry fecal matter production and apparent digestibility coefficients, is therefore recommended. The use of LIPE®, fibers in indigestible acid detergent and indigestible dry matter as indicators, both latter incubated for 288 hours, result in accurate estimates of dry fecal matter production in confined buffaloes, fed on a forage based diet.

  2. Herbage intake and animal performance of cattle grazing dwarf elaphant grass with two access times to a forage peanut area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo de Liz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively short grazing periods in a pure legume pasture can be an alternative for increasing animal performance in medium-quality tropical pastures. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the herbage intake and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. BRS Kurumi with two access times [2 h (07:00 - 9:00 and 6 h (07:00 - 13:00] to an area of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo. Twelve steers (219 ± 28.8 kg LW were divided into four groups and assessed during three consecutive grazing cycles, from January to March 2013. The crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents were 158 and 577 g/kg dry matter (DM for dwarf elephant grass and 209 and 435 g/kg DM for forage peanut, respectively. The pre-grazing height and leaf mass of dwarf elephant grass and forage peanut were 94 cm and 2782 kg DM/ha and 15 cm and 1751 kg DM/ha, respectively. The herbage intake (mean = 2.7 ± 0.06% LW and average daily weight gain (mean = 1.16 ± 0.31 kg/day were similar for both treatments. However, animals with 2-h access to the legume paddock grazed for 71% of the time, whereas those with 6-h access grazed for 48% of the time. The performance of the steers that were allowed to graze forage peanut pasture for 2 h is similar to that of those that were allowed to graze the legume pasture for 6 h.

  3. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  4. Efficient in vitro plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldach, KH

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available -20 days after pollination and cultured on various L3 media. The influence of different parameters during the callus induction phase was examined with respect to the regeneration rate: (1) the concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D...

  5. Purification and Characterization of Extracellular enzyme from Aspergillus fumigatus and Its Application on a pennisetum sp for enhanced glucose production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are saprophytic fungi widely distributed in nature and are associated with a number of human diseases. The present study was investigated for production of extracellular cellulase from Aspergillus fumigatus which could be potentially used for degradation of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. In the present work, A. fumigatus were grown in fungal basal medium and preserved at 30 °C for 72 h. The cellulase enzyme was filtered (using Whatman filter paper, precipitated (using ammonium sulphate, dialysed and then purified on a Sepharose 6B ion exchange column. The cellulase enzyme showed a purification of 0.4 fold and the molecular weight was determined as 100 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH, temperature, incubation time of the enzyme was determined to be pH 7.0, 35 °C and 24 h respectively. The presence of metal ion Mn2+, followed by Ca2+ and Co2+ was found to increase the cellulase activity. Notably, the cellulase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of additives like EDTA, and Triton X-100 and β-mercaptoethanol. Response surface methodology was used to design optimisation experiments for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (hybrid napier grass and the response i.e. glucose yield was considered as the product. The glucose yield was considerably increased from 101.4 mg/g to 856.5 mg/g in the optimised conditions of 35°C, pH 5.2 with substrate concentration (ultrasono assisted alkali pretreated biomass of 3.5 g, with enzyme concentration of 3 ml was incubated for 24 h. Further, the statistical analysis using ANNOVA demonstrated a p- value of less than 0.005 and the R2 value of 90.18.

  6. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  7. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Elizabeth Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the 1 st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines.

  8. Effects of radiation on the R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ progenies of Pennisetum typhoides S. and H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, L D.V. [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India)

    1978-05-01

    Dry seeds of cumbu strains HB3 and MS7625 were irradiated with different doses of X- and gamma rays. The survival, growth reduction and pollen sterility of R/sub 1/ plants were estimated. The seeds from each R/sub 1/ plant were sown in the field and all clearly deviating plants were scored as morphological mutants. Gamma rays were found to be more effective than X-rays with respect to R/sub 1/ lethality, growth reduction, pollen sterility, and R/sub 2/ mutant frequency. In addition, the survival frequency of the R/sub 1/ plants was reduced to zero per cent when the exposure was increased to 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays. The response of the two strains clearly deviated in X-rays and gamma rays. HB3 showed a lower percentage of lethality, lesser growth reduction and lower pollen sterility. While the relation between R/sub 1/ pollen sterility and the R/sub 2/ mutant frequency was established, it was found that HB3 segregates greater number of mutants than MS7625. The possibility for this might be due to the hybrid parentage of HB3.

  9. Relative contribution of phytates, fibers, and tannins to low iron and zinc in vitro solubility in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour and grain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestienne, Isabelle; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Besançon, Pierre; Rochette, Isabelle; Trèche, Serge

    2005-10-19

    In vitro digestions were performed on pearl millet flours with decreased phytate contents and on two dephytinized or nondephytinized pearl millet grain fractions, a decorticated fraction, and a bran fraction with low and high fiber and tannin contents, respectively. Insoluble residues of these digestions were then incubated with buffer or enzymatic solutions (xylanases and/or phytases), and the quantities of indigestible iron and zinc released by these different treatments were determined. In decorticated pearl millet grain, iron was chelated by phytates and by insoluble fibers, whereas zinc was almost exclusively chelated by phytates. In the bran of pearl millet grain, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron-binding phenolic compounds, while the rest of iron as well as the majority of zinc were chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers. The low effect of phytase action on iron and zinc solubility of bran of pearl millet grain shows that, in the case of high fiber and tannin contents, the chelating effect of these compounds was higher than that of phytates.

  10. Culture-independent molecular approaches reveal a mostly unknown high diversity of active nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with Pennisetum purpureum—a bioenergy crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, Sandy Sampaio; de Cássia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Galisa, Pericles de Souza; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Nissinen, Riitta; Baldani Divan, Vera Lucia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elephant grass is colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacterial species; however, these results were based on culture-dependent methods, an approach that introduces bias due to an incomplete assessment of the microbial community. In this study, we used culture-independent

  11. Inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobia in Sudan grass (Sorghum × sudanense (Piper Stapf cv. Sudanense and millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. cv. BRS1501

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Goulart Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are able to increase yield of non-leguminous species through production of phyto-stimulating substances. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation effect of rhizobia UFRGS Lc348 and VP16 on millet and Sudan grass yield and germination, and verify the enrichment effect of culture medium with tryptophan, which leads on the rhizobium/plant interaction. Experiments in vitro and greenhouse conditions were conducted. In millet, the inoculation with VP16 grown in culture medium with or without tryptophan induces greater length of hypocotyl and epicotyl under in vitro conditions. UFRGS Lc348 treatment induces longer hypocotyls of millet under in vitro conditions. No effects were observed with the millet inoculation in greenhouse. In Sudan grass, inoculation with VP16 enriched with tryptophan increased dry matter in shoots of adult plants. In millet seedlings had achieved an increasing in elongation in vitro conditions, which could represent an adaptive advantage in the search for water and nutrients in the rhizospheric environment during the initial growth of millet. Similarly, if verified in field conditions, Sudan grass had achieved an increasing in greenhouse conditions with the inoculation of tryptophan-enriched VP16, which could be correlated with a significant gain in crop yield. Therefore, these relationships between tryptophan-enriched VP16 and Sudan grass should be verified in subsequent studies under field conditions.

  12. CAMBIOS EN EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE NITRÓGENO Y AGUA EN EL SUELO DE UN MATORRAL DESÉRTICO TRANSFORMADO A SABANA DE BUFFEL (Pennisetum ciliare (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Celaya Michel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (NA y espacios abiertos sin cobertura vegetal aparente (NI, y en la sabana de buffel, bajo la misma especie de árbol (SA, inter-espacio (SI y bajo el pasto buffel (SB. Se analizó el nitrógeno total y las formas disponibles de este nutrimento en el suelo, así como contenido de agua en el suelo a diferentes profundidades durante cuatro años (2010 al 2013. Se encontró una pérdida anual de 12.5 kg N ha-1 debido a la transformación del ecosistema natural dominado por árboles y arbustos que generan islas de fertilidad e inter-espacios, a una sabana dominada por buffel e inter-espacios a sabana. La humedad del suelo indica que en la parte superficial del suelo, los espacios abiertos tienen más humedad, pero en la parte profunda de 150 a 200 cm la cubierta vegetal de los árboles y buffel almacenan más agua. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de matorrales a sabanas de buffel ha disminuido los reservorios de nitrógeno y agua, e impactado las propiedades físicas del suelo, la fertilidad, y los reservorios hídricos del suelo. El estudio sugiere que los cambios espaciales y temporales en nitrógeno y agua en el suelo repercutirán de manera importante en el balance hidrológico y funcionamiento del ecosistema transformado.

  13. CAMBIOS EN EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE NITRÓGENO Y AGUA EN EL SUELO DE UN MATORRAL DESÉRTICO TRANSFORMADO A SABANA DE BUFFEL (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Celaya Michel; Felipe García Oliva; Julio C. Rodríguez; Alejandro E. Castellanos Villegas

    2015-01-01

    El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS) afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (...

  14. Milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. como substituto do milho em rações para codornas-japonesas em postura (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de codornas-japonesas em postura alimentadas com níveis crescentes de milheto-grão na ração. Duzentas codornas com 70 dias de idade, submetidas a um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições de 10 aves, receberam níveis de milheto de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao milho em rações na fase de postura. Foram medidos a produção e o peso dos ovos, o consumo de ração, a mortalidade, a coloração da gema pelo leque colorimétrico, e calculada a conversão alimentar em termos de massa e de dúzia de ovos. Os índices de produtividade das codornas não foram afetados pelos diferentes níveis de substituição estudados e o milheto-grão se constituiu em uma fonte de substituição do milho para codornas-japonesas, devendo-se, porém, incluir na ração uma fonte de pigmentação para a gema dos ovos.

  15. Terminal drought-tolerant pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] have high leaf ABA and limit transpiration at high vapour pressure deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholová, Jana; Hash, C T; Kumar, P Lava; Yadav, Rattan S; Kocová, Marie; Vadez, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    It was previously shown that pearl millet genotypes carrying a terminal drought tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) had a lower transpiration rate (Tr; g cm(-2) d(-1)) under well-watered conditions than sensitive lines. Here experiments were carried out to test whether this relates to leaf abscisic acid (ABA) and Tr concentration at high vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and whether that leads to transpiration efficiency (TE) differences. These traits were measured in tolerant/sensitive pearl millet genotypes, including near-isogenic lines introgressed with a terminal drought tolerance QTL (NIL-QTLs). Most genotypic differences were found under well-watered conditions. ABA levels under well-watered conditions were higher in tolerant genotypes, including NIL-QTLs, than in sensitive genotypes, and ABA did not increase under water stress. Well-watered Tr was lower in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes at all VPD levels. Except for one line, Tr slowed down in tolerant lines above a breakpoint at 1.40-1.90 kPa, with the slope decreasing >50%, whereas sensitive lines showed no change in that Tr response across the whole VPD range. It is concluded that two water-saving (avoidance) mechanisms may operate under well-watered conditions in tolerant pearl millet: (i) a low Tr even at low VPD conditions, which may relate to leaf ABA; and (ii) a sensitivity to higher VPD that further restricts Tr, which suggests the involvement of hydraulic signals. Both traits, which did not lead to TE differences, could contribute to absolute water saving seen in part due to dry weight increase differences. This water saved would become critical for grain filling and deserves consideration in the breeding of terminal drought-tolerant lines.

  16. NÍVEIS DE LISINA E ENERGIA DIGESTÍVEL PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO/TERMINAÇÃO RECEBENDO RAÇÕES À BASE DE MILHETO GRÃO (Pennisetum americanum L. LEEKE LEVELS OF LYSINE AND DIGESTIBLE ENERGY TO GROWING/FINISHING SWINE RECEIVING PEARL MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetum americanum L. LEEKE BASED-RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romão da Cunha Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste experimento, 20 leitões mestiços Agroceres-PIC receberam rações de crescimento e terminação à base de milheto grão, formuladas com dois níveis de energia digestível (3.300 e 3.500 kcal ED/kg e dois níveis de lisina de acordo com a tabela de Rostagno et al (1994 e 10% acima desta recomendação. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições em um esquema fatorial 2x2. A suplementação de lisina proporcionou ganhos em termos de desempenho, principalmente para consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, sem alterações estatísticas para ganho de peso, comprimento de carcaça e espessura de toucinho. Para os níveis de energia digestível testados, não foram observadas alterações nos parâmetros estudados. O uso de rações contendo milheto na formulação responde, portanto, positivamente à suplementação com lisina.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Suínos; lisina; energia digestível; milheto.

    In this experiment, 20 crossbred Agroceres-PIC swine were fed with growing and finishing rations containing pearl millet grain with two levels of digestible energy (3,300 e 3,500 kcal ED/kg and two levels of lysine (according to Rostagno et al, 1994 and 10% above this recommendation. The pigs were alloted in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications in a factorial scheme 2x2. The lysine supplementation increased the performance parameters studied, specially feed intake and feed to gain ratio, but no effects were observed in body weight gain, carcass length and backfat thickness. The energy levels tested didn’t affect any of the parameters studied. Then, the use of pearl millet in swine growing/finishing rations with lysine supplementation was positively affected.

    KEY-WORDS: Swine; lysine; digestible energy; pearl millet.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE GRÃOS DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum E MILHO (Zea mays NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE PEIXES NA FASE DE RECRIA, EM SISTEMA DE POLICULTIVO EVALUATION OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum americanum AND CORN (Zea mays GRAINS IN FEEDING FOR JUVENILE FISH ON POLYCULTURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Roberto Maia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se a produção de peixes em sistema de policultivo, em tanques de terra com 40m2 de área, contendo cada um 30 tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum e 10 carpas (Cyrinus carpio, fertilizados diariamente com esterco fresco de suínos, sendo os peixes suplementados com grãos de milho e milheto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Peixes; recria; policultivo; milheto.

    Tambaqui (75% was reared in polyculture with common carp (25% from 5.5g and 3.4g mean weight respectively for a period of 505 days. Ponds of 40m2 were stocked at a total density of 10000 ha-1, and daily manured with 150 kg.ha-¹, of swine fresh manure. Fish were supplemented fed with corn or pearl millet grain, offered in submersed trays at a daily rate calculated as 3% of total biomass. The experiment polyculture had a mean net yield of 6.6; 5.2 and 2.1 t.ha-¹.year-¹ of pearl millet, corn and manure respectively. The result of this study indicates that rearing tambaqui in semi-intensive polyculture without supplementary feed had a low growth and the pearl millet fed fish showed a high performance.

    KEY-WORDS: Fishes; polyculture; pearl millet.

  18. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  19. Consumo de forrajes tropicales por vacas lecheras, mestizas Siboney, manejadas en condiciones de estabulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de tres forrajes tropicales y su consumo por animales lecheros, durante tres años, se utilizó un área total de cultivos de 4.25 hectáreas, distribuidas en 1.50 hectáreas para caña de azúcar (Sacharum officinarun, 2 hectáreas del king grass clon CT-169 (Pennisetum purpureum vc Cuba CT-169 y 0.75 hectáreas de leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala; para estimar el consumo, se utilizaron 20 vacas lecheras mestizas de Siboney, mantenidas en régimen de estabulación, con dieta semi-integral. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, en arreglo factorial. Los resultados arrojan que las disponibilidades promedio del forraje caña de azúcar fueron mayores (P<0.05 en la época poco lluviosa: 1,916.64 vs. 1,474.73 kg MS ha-1 mes-1; mientras que los forrajes de CT-169 y leucaena fueron superiores sus disponibilidades (P<0.01 en la época lluviosa: 924.76 y 519.01 vs. 649.10 y 314.20 kg MS ha-1 mes-1, respectivamente. La calidad de los forrajes fue menor (P<0.001 en la época poco lluviosa. Los consumos totales de materia seca que realizaron los animales, fue superior (P<0.001 en la época lluviosa (10.56 vs. 9.33 kg MS animal-1 día-1; mientras que los animales de ordeño realizaron un mayor (P<0.001 consumo que los secos (10.82 vs. 9.06 kg MS animal-1 día-1. Los resultados expresan la posibilidad del sistema en estabulación de mantener una carga promedio de 4.70 a 4.9 UGM ha-1, con vacas lecheras de mediano potencial y obtener un consumo adecuado de estos forrajes.

  20. Produtividade do Capim-Cameroon estabelecida em duas classes de solos e submetido a doses crescentes de nitrogênio no norte tocantinense = Production of Cameroon grass in two soil classes with increasing nitrogen levels in the north of Tocantins State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Sôffa da Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o capim-elefante cv. Cameroon em função de doses de N em diferentes solos. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 5 x 2, sendo cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60, 90, e 150 kg de N ha-1, testadas em duas classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelhoeutroférrico típico e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: altura da planta, perfilhos, massa por perfilho, relação folha: colmo, matéria seca e pH do solo. Houve resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo amelhor resposta para o Argissolo. A massa dos perfilhos em gramas mostra efeito linear em função dos níveis de N e no Neossolo não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. O aumento da massa individual de perfilhos teve maior efeito na massa seca total. A adubaçãoN promoveu acidificação linear decrescente maior no Argissolo. O desenvolvimento do capim, em função dos níveis crescentes de N apresentou resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo melhor para o Argissolo em comparação ao Neossolo.The development of elephant grass at increasing nitrogen rates in two soil classes was evaluated. A totally randomized 5 x 2 design, with five nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60, 90, and 150 kg N ha-1, in two classes of soil (Oxisol and Entisol, with four repetitions, was employed. Evaluated parameters consisted of plant height, tillers, mass per tiller, leaf:stem ratio, dry matter and pH of soil. Althoughthe production of Pennisetum purpureum was positive for both types of soil, best response occurred in Oxisol. Whereas mass (in grams of the tillers had a linear effect according to nitrogen rates, there was no difference between treatments in Entisol. Increase of tillers’mass had the highest effect on total dry mass. Nitrogen fertilization promoted highest decreasing acidification in Ultisol. Due to increasing levels of nitrogen the development of

  1. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marisa A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Steele-King, Clare G; Simister, Rachael; Bernardinelli, Oigres D; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Rezende, Camila A; Labate, Carlos A; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-18

    The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily accessed and cleaved by

  2. CHANGES IN SOIL MACROFAUNA IN AGROECOSYSTEMS DERIVED FROM LOW DECIDUOUS TROPICAL FOREST ON LEPTOSOLS FROM KARSTIC ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bautista

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In Yucatan Mexico the method of slash and burn is used for the establishment of pastures. Pastures are developed for 15 to 20 years, no more because weed control is too expensive. The impact of these practices on soil macrofauna had not been evaluated. Because of its wide distribution, diverse habits and high sensitivity to disturbance, soil macrofauna is considered a valuable indicator of soil health, allowing monitoring of soil sustainability. We studied soil macrofauna communities in low deciduous tropical forest and four livestock agroecosystems with increasing management-derived disturbance including a silvopastoral system, Taiwan grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Star grass (Pennisetum purpureum pastures in order to describe community structure across systems, and evaluate disturbance sensitivity of taxonomical groups to detect taxa with potential use as biological indicators of soil health or degradation. Pitfall traps were used at each of the systems to sample soil macrofauna. We estimate their taxonomical abundance, biomass, richness (order, morphospecies, diversity, dominance and response to disturbance on agroecosystems and the forest. We found 133 macrofauna morphospecies of 15 taxa. Groups with more individuals were: Hymenoptera (64.97%, Coleoptera (22.68%, and Orthoptera (3.91%.  Agroecosystem of two-year old Taiwan-grass pasture (TP2 had the highest macrofauna abundances, biomass and richness, low diversity, and a non-homogeneous distribution of individuals among species; in contrast, silvopastoral system (SP, had low abundance and biomass, the lowest specific richness, high diversity and a homogeneous distribution of individuals among species. The discriminant analysis revealed that the agroecosystems and the forest serve to predict the macrofauna communities, since they have particular or typical soil macrofauna. The cases (sampled points with a correct assignation by agroecosystems were: Forest (70%, Sivopastoral system (70

  3. Composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante obtida em diferentes tipos de silos experimentais e no silo tipo trincheira Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silage obtained in different experimental and bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira, amostrado a 30 e 60 cm da sua superfície, para a ensilagem do capim-elefante (cv. Napier. Utilizaram-se, ainda, dois diferentes graus de compactação, correspondentes a 400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m³. O capim (33,0% de MS e 4,2% de PB foi homogeneizado e utilizado para encher quatro silos por tratamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados, para análise da composição bromatológica e do perfil fermentativo. Silagens produzidas em manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas apresentaram altos valores de pH, NIDA e lignina, baixas concentrações de ácido lático e nitrogênio amoniacal, baixo poder tampão e baixa digestibilidade in vitro. Silagens produzidas em silos experimentais apresentaram qualidade superior, quanto aos parâmetros amido, carboidratos solúveis, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, poder tampão, ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, do que aquelas produzidas no silo comercial. Silagens obtidas dos diferentes extratos do silo comercial apresentaram maior variabilidade para os parâmetros de fermentação do que aquelas obtidas entre diferentes tipos de silos experimentais.One type of commercial silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum (33.0% DM and 4.2% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600 kg of silage/m³: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 30 (top and 60 (deep cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. A completely randomized design was used. The concrete pipe silo produced silage with higher pH, ADIN and lignin values, as well as lower in vitro

  4. Seasonal variations in the availability of fodder resources and practices of dairy cattle feeding among the smallholder farmers in Western Usambara Highlands, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleko, David; Ng, Wai-Tim; Msalya, George; Mwilawa, Angello; Pasape, Liliane; Mtei, Kelvin

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects on quantity and quality of fodder resources and associated utilization practices among smallholder dairy farmers in Western Usambara Highlands (WUHs) in Tanzania. The WUHs are among the major milk producing areas under smallholder dairy farming systems (SDFS) in Tanzania. Dry season fodder scarcity is a widespread problem affecting the East African SDFS and has been shown to contribute to over 40% reduction in milk yield. There is limited information with regard to seasonal fodder fluctuation and its effects on productivity of dairy cows in different landscape levels of Tanzania. Field and household surveys were conducted in 150 dairy cattle farming households from five villages in three wards located in WUHs. Survey data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. In addition, remote sensing techniques were employed on gap-filled and smoothed Landsat data to generate land cover maps and bimonthly normalized difference vegetation index-time series for the 2009-2016. SDFS landscape was highly heterogeneous typified by crops, bushes, and forests. On average, the household landholding was 1.3 ha, while herd size was three cattle. About 87% of household land was devoted to crop growing with limited pasture along the farm margins and contour strips. Fodder scarcity was the major challenge during the dry season (July to October) as indicated by 87% of the respondents. On-farm fodder resources contributed most of the cattle diet (73%) while rangeland, forest, and purchased feed provided small amount. Natural pasture and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were the most important feeds in wet season while maize stover was most significant during the dry season. Maize stover was profusely stored for dry season feeding and neither silage nor hay making was practiced. The nutritional values of the fibrous feeds declined during the dry season, whereby the metabolizable energy and crude protein contents were 6.0 MJ/kg and

  5. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  6. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  7. Effect of secondary compounds in forages on rumen micro-organisms quantified by 16S and 18S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Muetzel, S.; Hoffman, E.; Becker, K.; Makkar, H.P.S.

    2005-01-01

    A gas syringe method was used to evaluate the effect of secondary compounds from plant materials on in vitro fermentation products and microbial biomass. The experiment used Pennisetum purpureum, Morinda citrifolia fruit, Nothopanax scutellarium leaves, Sesbania sesban LS (low saponins type), Sesbania sesban HS (high saponins type) and Sapindus rarak fruit as substrates. The incubation was conducted with and without polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) addition for 24 hours. Gas production and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were analysed. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic concentrations were measured by quantifying 16S and 18S rRNA. The percentage increase in gas production due to PEG was very small (<5%) for all plant materials, which indicated that the biological effect of tannin in these plant materials is limited. TLC analysis revealed that all materials contained saponin, but only S. rarak, followed by S. sesban, contained a high diversity of saponins. S. sesban gave the highest (234 ml/g) while S. rarak gave the lowest gas production (115 ml/g). S. rarak gave the lowest SCFA production (3.57 mmole/g) and also the lowest ratio of acetate to propionate (1.76), indicating a change in pattern of SCFA production. Total elimination of eukaryotic concentration was evident from the absence of the 18S rRNA band when S. rarak and S. sesban were used as sole substrates. S. rarak also reduced the prokaryotic concentration. To use S. rarak as a defaunating agent without affecting prokaryotes, a crude saponin extract was prepared from S. rarak for further experiment. Different concentrations of crude saponins in a methanol extract of S. rarak fruit dissolved in rumen buffer were added to a substrate consisting of elephant grass and wheat bran (7:3 w/w). Microbial biomass yield was quantified by gravimetry and using rRNA as a marker. Addition of crude saponin extract from S. rarak to a high-roughage diet increased microbial biomass (MB) yield to 1.07 and 1.14 times MB yield of the

  8. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  9. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cardona-Medina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de su importancia ancestral como colorante de alimentos y uso medicinal. Este estudio evaluó los estados de semilla, plántula y planta adulta, en presencia y ausencia de posibles hospederos para inferir sobre su tipo de parasitismo. En las semillas se evaluaron dos condiciones de luz (12 y 0 horas y temperatura (20 °C y 25 °C, el porcentaje y velocidad de germinación. Las semillas no requirieron la presencia del hospedero para germinar. El porcentaje de germinación osciló entre 66 y 85,3 % y no fue afectado por la luz o la temperatura, aunque la velocidad de germinación fue mayor a 25 °C. Las semillas con mayor tamaño presentaron mayor porcentaje de germinación y produjeron plántulas más grandes. Las plántulas sembradas sin hospedero no sobrevivieron, mientras que las sembradas con Paspalum notatum, tuvieron una sobrevivencia del 45 %, evidenciando que este estado es crítico, aún con hospedero. Las plantas de Escobedia grandiflora sembradas con pastos, iniciaron la etapa reproductiva en la semana 28, y aquellas sembradas con Pennisetum purpureum presentaron más haustorios, y mayor materia seca en la planta total, rizoma y tallos aéreos. Las plantas sembradas solas vivieron más de seis meses, pero ellas no desarrollaron flores y ni frutos. Según el comportamiento de las plántulas y las plantas, E. grandiflora es parásita obligada.

  10. Evaluación de los riesgos económicos y los costos de la calidad en la actividad ganadera de la CCSF Victoria de Girón, Matanzas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Ramos

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar los riesgos económicos y los costos de la calidad, en una finca perteneciente a la Cooperativa de Créditos y Servicios Fortalecida (CCSF Victoria de Girón, del municipio Unión de Reyes (provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. El estudio se sustentó en el trabajo grupal, mediante la tormenta de ideas y la revisión de documentos, y se compararon los periodos: noviembre de 2011-abril de 2012 y noviembre de 2012-abril de 2013. En el primero, los mayores riesgos identificados fueron la muerte del ganado (por desnutrición y atascamiento y la baja producción de leche, con costos asociados de $ 21 404,75 y $ 5454,00 CUP, respectivamente. Después de un análisis causal se tomaron las siguientes medidas: sembrar caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum, de acuerdo con los estándares establecidos (22 m² por animal; así como aislar los terrenos pantanosos con alta incidencia en el atascamiento, y aumentar la exigencia del cumplimiento de las normas zootécnicas recomendadas para aprovechar el potencial lechero de los animales gestados. Finalmente se actualizaron las partidas de costos en el segundo periodo, y se analizó el comportamiento dinámico del riesgo y de los costos de la calidad. Las muertes disminuyeron en un 51,83 %, lo que ocasionó un decremento de $ 15 853,85 en el costo asociado. Se sobrecumplió el plan de entrega de leche, con lo cual aumentaron los ingresos por venta de leche y ganado en $ 32 323,90; esto también se justifica a partir de la ganancia de PV y en correspondencia con las tarifas de precio vigentes. Los resultados evidenciaron la utilidad de este tipo de análisis en la mejora de la gestión de la actividad ganadera.

  11. Parâmetros da degradação protéica ruminal de diferentes alimentos e rações estimados por técnica in vitro Parameters of ruminal protein degradation of different feeds and diets estimated by an in vitro method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Lana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos para estudar os parâmetros de degradação protéica ruminal. No primeiro, foram incubadas, em líquido ruminal de bovinos, dietas isoprotéicas contendo capim-elefante, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, em cinco níveis de concentrado (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 e 100:0, adicionado ou não de monensina (5µM. Houve efeito linear decrescente do nível de concentrado sobre a concentração de amônia e degradabilidade da proteína bruta (DPB, e efeito cúbico sobre a concentração de proteína solúvel, com máximo valor em dieta com 25% de concentrado. A monensina diminuiu a DPB e a concentração de proteína solúvel, sem afetar a produção de amônia. No segundo experimento, foram incubados cinco diferentes volumosos (silagens de milho - Zea mays L. e de capim-elefante - Pennisetum purpureum, silagem pré-secada de braquiária -Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Tifton 85 -Cynodon sp. amonizado e feno de Tifton 85. A silagem pré-secada de capim-braquiária e o feno de Tifton 85 amonizado apresentaram as maiores concentrações de amônia (8,7 e 5,3mg/dl e proteína solúvel (5,4 e 7,0mg/dl, devido aos seus maiores teores de PB, seguidos da silagem de capim-elefante e feno de Tifton 85. A DPB variou de 29,6 a 80,6%, para a silagem pré-secada de braquiária e para o feno de Tifton 85, e a degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca de 40,1 a 64,3%, para a silagem de capim-elefante e silagem pré-secada de braquiária, respectivamente. A degradabilidade efetiva da proteína bruta apresentou baixos valores devido à baixa taxa de degradação da fração insolúvel. No terceiro experimento, foram incubados diferentes tipos de camas de frango (casca de café, capim-elefante seco picado, sabugo de milho ou cepilho, contendo ou não monensina (5µM. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de amônia entre as diferentes camas de frango, na ausência de monensina. Entretanto, com monensina, a cama de capim

  12. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  13. Uso do abate comparativo na determinação da exigência de energia de mantença de gado de corte pastejando capim-elefante: descrição da metodologia e dos resultados Use of comparative slaughter to set maintenance energy requirements of beef cattle grazing elephantgrass: description of methodology and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Alencar Fontes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o requerimento líquido de energia de mantença de novilhos mantidos em regime exclusivo de pastejo, em capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cv. Napier. O experimento teve duração de 175 dias, utilizando-se nove piquetes, estabelecidos em terreno plano, com área individual de 0,5 ha, sob pastejo rotacionado. Foram utilizados 36 novilhos ¾Gir-Holandês com 332 ± 37 kg e média de 20 meses de idade inicial. Metade dos animais teve o tempo de pastejo restrito a quatro horas por dia, de forma a se limitar o consumo de energia a pouco acima do nível de mantença, e metade teve acesso irrestrito à pastagem. Seis novilhos foram abatidos no início do experimento, para se determinar a composição corporal inicial (grupo referência e seis (três de cada tratamento a intervalos sucessivos de 35 dias. A composição corporal dos animais abatidos foi determinada por análise química de amostras representativas de todo o corpo. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença foram estimadas como o calor produzido em nível zero de ingestão de energia metabolizável, ajustando-se equações do logaritmo da produção de calor em função do consumo de energia metabolizável, por dia e por unidade de tamanho metabólico (kg0,75. Foi ajustada uma equação, calculando-se o tamanho metabólico em função do peso vivo (PV e outra em função do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. O consumo e a digestibilidade da forragem ingerida (extrusa foram determinados mensalmente. O tempo de pastejo limitado a quatro horas diárias assegurou ingestão de energia em nível pouco acima da mantença, conforme indicaram os ganhos de peso individuais, evidenciando que este procedimento pode ser recomendado para trabalhos futuros. A exigência de energia de mantença encontrada foi de 57 kcal/kg PV0,75 ou 63,27 kcal/kg PCVZ0,75. Os valores obtidos estão dentro da faixa de resultados obtidos no Brasil, sendo mais baixos que os valores recomendados no

  14. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  15. Changes in soil organic matter under different land management in misiones province (Argentina Mudanças na matéria orgânica edafica sob diferentes manejos de solo na província de misiones (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Agustín Piccolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly weathered tropical soils rapidly loose soil organic matter (SOM and may be affected by water erosion and soil compaction after deforestation and intensive cultivation. With the main objective to estimate the SOM balances in a subtropical soil we determined the dynamics of SOM in a degraded yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis Saint Hil. plantation introduced after deforestation and with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum L. as a cover crop. The study site was in Misiones, Argentina, and we use the natural 13C abundance methodology and a descriptive model. The study was conducted on three contiguous 50 x 100 m plots of a typic Kandihumult soil with: (i native forest, (ii 50 years of continuous yerba mate monoculture with intensive tillage, and (iii yerba mate associated with elephant grass as a cover crop and no tillage. We determined bulk density, carbon (C, nitrogen (N and 13C content of the soil (0 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.15 m layers and the grass biomass. Yerba mate monoculture reduced soil C and N content as well as porosity at 0 - 0.15 m depth by 43 and 23%, respectively, as compared to the native forest. After ten years of yerba mate - elephant grass association soil C and N contents at the same depth increased by 19 and 12%, respectively, compared to the yerba mate monoculture, while soil porosity remained similar. Total C input,13C, and soil organic C were incorporated into a three compartment model to evaluate elephant grass C dynamics. Through the natural 13C abundance methodology we tracked the elephant grass C incorporation and the "old" soil C loss, and determined the model parameters - humification (k1 and mineralization (k coefficients and stable C (Cs- unambiguously. The high k1 and k predicted by the model are probably explained by elephant grass root system incorporation under no tillage and humid subtropical climate, respectively. In soil under yerba mate monoculture, Cs was counted as 91% of the total soil organic C.Os solos

  16. Lâminas de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio em pastagem de capim-elefante no período seco do ano no norte de Minas Gerais Irrigation depth and nitrogen doses on elephant-grass pastures during the dry season in the north of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se durante o período seco do ano o efeito de quatro doses de nitrogênio (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1.ano e de seis lâminas d'água (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 e 120% da evapotranspiração de referência sobre o rendimento forrageiro, a densidade de perfilhos, a relação folha/colmo, a altura de plantas e os teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Como fonte de adubo nitrogenado utilizou-se ureia, aplicada a lanço. O controle do nível de água e a definição do momento de irrigar foram estabelecidos com base na curva de retenção de água no solo e no teor de água, pelo método gravimétrico de amostras de solo. As lâminas d'água e as doses de nitrogênio aumentaram linearmente a altura das plantas, a produção de matéria seca e a densidade de perfilhos, mas diminuíram os teores de PB. A irrigação teve efeito quadrático no teor FDN, cujo percentual máximo, 69,38%, foi observado quando foi aplicada lâmina d'água de 72,88% da evapotranspiração. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu linearmente o teor de FDN. A menor relação folha/colmo obtida foi de 1,98 quando aplicada lâmina d'água de 65,5% da evapotranspiração com a dose de 300 kg.ha-1.ano de nitrogênio. As lâminas d'água associadas às doses de nitrogênio elevam a produção de MS de 2.539,08 kg/corte para 6.445,72 kg/corte, diminuindo o efeito da estacionalidade de produção do capim-elefante "pioneiro" no norte de Minas Gerais.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of nitrogen (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1.year and six water depth (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120% of the reference evapotranspiration on the forrage yield, tillers density, relationship leaf/stem, plants height and crude protein content and neutral detergent fiber of the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum, during the dry

  17. Lâminas de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio em pastagem de capim-elefante no período chuvoso no norte de Minas Gerais Irrigation depth and nitrogen doses on elephant-grass pastures during the rainy season in the north of Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se durante o período das águas no Norte de Minas Gerais o efeito de quatro doses de nitrogênio (100; 300; 500 e 700kg/ha/ano e seis lâminas de água (0%; 20%; 40%; 80%; 100% e 120% da evapotranspiração de referência,ou ETo sobre o rendimento forrageiro, densidade de perfilhos, relação folha/colmo, altura de plantas e teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x4 (seis níveis de lâminas de irrigação e quatro de adubação nitrogenada com quatro repetições. As lâminas de água e as doses de nitrogênio aumentaram linearmente a produção de matéria seca e a densidade de perfilhos. Comportamento semelhante foi verificado para a altura das plantas frente a aplicação de lâminas de irrigação. Os teores de proteína bruta diminuiram linearmente com o aumento da lâmina de irrigação e aumentaram na proporção direta às doses de nitrogênio. Efeito quadrático foi proporcionado pela irrigação quanto aos teores de detergente neutro, com percentual máximo de 72,26%, quando foi aplicada lâmina de água de 96,25% da ETo. Já a adubação nitrogenada reduziu linearmente os teores de fibra em detergente neutro. Tanto a aplicação das lâminas de irrigação quanto a aplicação da adubação nitrogenada agindo isoladamente ou em interação, não afetaram o comportamento da relação folha/colmo, no período das águas. As lâminas de água associadas às doses de nitrogênio elevaram a produção de matéria seca, evidenciando assim a diminuição do efeito da estacionalidade de produção do capim-elefante “pioneiro” (lançamento da EMBRAPA–COOPAGRO no Norte de Minas Gerais.Palavras-chave: estacionalidade, evapotranspiração, lâmina d’água, nitrogênioIt was evaluated during the rainy season in North of Minas Gerais the effect of four levels of nitrogen (100; 300; 500 and

  18. Structural modelling and phylogenetic analyses of PgeIF4A2 (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor) from Pennisetum glaucum reveal signature motifs with a role in stress tolerance and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aakrati; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pandey, Saurabh; Fartyal, Dhirendra; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is an indispensable component of the translation machinery and also play a role in developmental processes and stress alleviation in plants and animals. Different eIF4A isoforms are present in the cytosol of the cell, namely, eIF4A1, eIF4A2, and eIF4A3 and their expression is tightly regulated in cap-dependent translation. We revealed the structural model of PgeIF4A2 protein using the crystal structure of Homo sapiens eIF4A3 (PDB ID: 2J0S) as template by Modeller 9.12. The resultant PgeIF4A2 model structure was refined by PROCHECK, ProSA, Verify3D and RMSD that showed the model structure is reliable with 77 % amino acid sequence identity with template. Investigation revealed two conserved signatures for ATP-dependent RNA Helicase DEAD-box conserved site (VLDEADEML) and RNA helicase DEAD-box type, Q-motif in sheet-turn-helix and α-helical region respectively. All these conserved motifs are responsible for response during developmental stages and stress tolerance in plants.

  19. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  20. Milheto-grão (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. como substituto do milho em rações para poedeiras comerciais Pearl millet grain as corn substitute in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Café

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com milheto como substituto do milho em rações de postura. Duzentas poedeiras comerciais, da linhagem LSL Lohmann branca, com 30 semanas de idade, receberam rações com níveis crescentes de substituição da energia metabolizável fornecida pelo milho por milheto. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e 10 aves por repetição. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de postura, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar em termos de dúzias e de massa de ovos, o peso médio de ovos, a porcentagem de casca e de gema, e a porcentagem de clara. Não se observou diferença estatística significativa em todas as características. O índice de coloração de gema, pelo leque colorimétrico Roche, apresentou pior coloração à medida que os níveis de milheto foram crescentes nas rações. Os resultados indicam que o milheto não afetou o desempenho produtivo das aves, devendo-se recomendar o seu uso com pigmentantes sintéticos ou naturais.The production performance and egg quality of laying hens receiving increasing levels of pearl millet grain in rations were studied. Two hundred 30-week-old LSL Lohmann white hens, allotted in a completely randomized design with five treatments, five replicates with 10 hens, were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of pearl millet grain in rations as corn substitute. The performance was evaluated by egg production, feed intake, feed conversion in terms of dozen eggs and egg mass, and egg quality measured as egg weight, shell, albumen and yolk porcentages. No differences among treatments were observed for all characteristics, but the yolk color index measured by the Roche fan indicated decreasing in yolk colour as the level of pearl millet increased. Pearl millet did not affect the production performance, and a synthetic or natural pigment should be included in rations.

  1. Ovid MEDLINE Instruction can be Evaluated Using a Validated Search Assessment Tool. A Review of: Rana, G. K., Bradley, D. R., Hamstra, S. J., Ross, P. T., Schumacher, R. E., Frohna, J. G., & Lypson, M. L. (2011. A validated search assessment tool: Assessing practice-based learning and improvement in a residency program. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(1, 77-81. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.1.013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the construct validity of a search assessment instrument that is used to evaluate search strategies in Ovid MEDLINE. Design – Cross-sectional, cohort study. Setting – The Academic Medical Center of the University of Michigan. Subjects – All 22 first-year residents in the Department of Pediatrics in 2004 (cohort 1; 10 senior pediatric residents in 2005 (cohort 2; and 9 faculty members who taught evidence based medicine (EBM and published on EBM topics. Methods – Two methods were employed to determine whether the University of Michigan MEDLINE Search Assessment Instrument (UMMSA could show differences between searchers’ construction of a MEDLINE search strategy.The first method tested the search skills of all 22 incoming pediatrics residents (cohort 1 after they received MEDLINE training in 2004, and again upon graduation in 2007. Only 15 of these residents were tested upon graduation; seven were either no longer in the residency program, or had quickly left the institution after graduation. The search test asked study participants to read a clinical scenario, identify the search question in the scenario, and perform an Ovid MEDLINE search. Two librarians scored the blinded search strategies.The second method compared the scores of the 22 residents with the scores of ten senior residents (cohort 2 and nine faculty volunteers. Unlike the first cohort, the ten senior residents had not received any MEDLINE training. The faculty members’ search strategies were used as the gold standard comparison for scoring the search skills of the two cohorts.Main Results – The search strategy scores of the 22 first-year residents, who received training, improved from 2004 to 2007 (mean improvement: 51.7 to 78.7; t(14=5.43, PConclusion – According to the authors, “the results of this study provide evidence for the validity of an instrument to evaluate MEDLINE search strategies” (p. 81, since the instrument under investigation was able to measure improvements and differences in the search performances of the study’s participants. A validated search assessment instrument can effectively measure improvements in residents’ search skills to demonstrate training effectiveness, as well as satisfy practice-based learning competency requirements from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  2. Temporary Vs. Permanent Sub-Slab Ports: A Comparative Performance Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Tables from Published Article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Zimmerman, J., C. Lutes, B. Cosky, B. Schumacher, D. Salkie, and R....

  3. Territorija kino / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filmidest : Joel Schumacher "Ooperifantoom", Kim Ki-duk "Tühi maja", Matthew Vaughn "Kihiline kook", Marco Bellocchio "Tere hommikust, öö", Oliver Hirschbiegel "Allakäik", Dmitri Meshijev "Omad"

  4. Published journal article with data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — published journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Schumacher, B., J. Zimmerman, J. Elliot, and G. Swanson. The Effect of...

  5. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti – inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tetrapleura Tetraptera (Schumach ... Anticoagulant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae) ... Evaluation of viability of lactic acid bacteria in a Nigerian commercial yogurt and its ...

  6. 50 CFR 665.421 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... harlequin tuskfish, red-breasted wrasse Cheilinus fasciatus. ring-tailed wrasse Oxycheilinus unifasciatus... margaritacous. three-spot wrasse Halichoeres trimaculatus. surge wrasse Thalassoma purpureum. red ribbon wrasse... javanicus. undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) gamsun octopus Octopus cyanea...

  7. Agronomical characteristics of elephant grass variety “roxo” in different cut ages in Cuiabana Lowlands Características agronômicas do capim-elefante roxo em diferentes idades de corte na Depressão Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available At this work was evaluated the effect of cut age variation of “Roxo” elephant grass under its agronomical parameters, as yield, height, stem:leave relation and leave proportion. The grass was cultivated on farm located in Santo Antonio of Leverger – MT. The area was divided in paddocks with 10, 40m2, that were submitted to different cut age, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days, during the dry and rainy season, in a randomized block arrange, with four repetions by treatment. After cut, data of yield/ha, height, leave proportion and leave:stem relation were collected. On each age, the paddock grass was cut, weighted and guided to the animal nutrition laboratory at UFMT for dry matter determination. In the dry season, the increase on elephant grass cut age caused quadratic effect in all variables evaluated, except for the grass height, that was linearly incremented. On rainy season, the advance in grass cut age affected, in a linear way, the analyzed variables and promoted increase on dry matter production and height of grass, but reduction at the leaf percentage and leaf/steam ration.Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da variação na idade de corte do capim elefante variedade roxa (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier roxo sobre as suas características agronômicas, como produtividade, altura, relação colmo:folha e diâmetro do colmo. O capim foi cultivado em área de capineira, localizada no município de Santo Antônio do Leverger – MT. A área foi dividida em parcelas com área útil de 10,40m² cada, submetidas a diferentes idades de corte, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 e 105 dias, durante as épocas das águas e de seca, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Após o corte efetuado rente ao solo, foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: produtividade/ha, altura médias das plantas, relação folha:colmo, diâmetro dos colmos e percentagem de folhas. Em cada idade, o capim proveniente da área útil da parcela foi

  8. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  9. Carcass and non carcass components characteristics of lambs fed with diets containing castor mea Características da carcaça e dos componentes não-carcaça em ovinos alimentados com rações à base de farelo de mamona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner José Girão Meneses

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of substitution of soybean meal by detoxified castor meal on carcass characteristics of sheep. Twenty crossbred lambs weighting 19.3 kg and averaging 7 months of age were randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 50, 75 and 100% of substitution on DN basis. The roughage used was elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. hay. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and fed twice daily. In the following day, orts were collected, being kept around 15%. The experiment lasted 70 days, when animals were slaughtered in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. No significantly differences were observed among the levels of substitution for body weight (BW, weight of slaughter (WS, losses due to fasting (LDF, hot carcass weight (HCW, cold carcass weight (CCW, cooling losses (CL, length of carcass (LC, hip of perimeter (HP, hip width (HW and degree of resignation (DR. The regression analysis showed a quadratic effect for real and biological yields, with a better organic level of 100% substitution. In non carcass components, no significantly differences were registered for viscera, full gastrointestinal tract, empty gastrointestinal tract, genitals, head and legs. For the variable skin, the regression analysis showed a quadratic effect, presenting a point of maximum at 44% for replacement. The detoxified castor meal can substitute 100% of the soybean meal.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado sobre as características da carcaça e dos componentes não-carcaça. Foram utilizados 20 borregos, machos, com peso vivo de 19,3kg e 7 meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos de 0, 50, 75 ou 100% de substituição, com base na matéria seca. O volumoso utilizado foi o feno de capim-elefante. As rações foram fornecidas diariamente em duas refeições e coletaram-se, no dia seguinte

  10. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  11. Alimentación de bovinos con ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo y ráquis en diferentes proporciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. De la Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de bovinos consumiendo ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo como fruta y ráquis en diferentes proporciones, se realizó una prueba de alimentación con 12 bovinos cebú comercial, machos, enteros, con un peso promedio de 168±17 kg, a los que se les asignó, de manera aleatoria, cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: I ensilado con 50% banano y 50% ráquis; II ensilado con 75% banano y 25% ráquis; y III un grupo testigo con zacate Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum. Los animales recibieron, además, 1.1 kg de pasta de soya como fuente proteica y 50 g de una premezcla comercial de minerales y sal común. La prueba tuvo una duración de 120 días, más un tiempo de adaptación de 15, periodo en el que las dietas se ofrecieron a libertad. Los animales fueron pesados cada 30 días y se les llevó diariamente el control de consumo de alimento. Las mejores (P0.05 entre ellos. El consumo de alimento base húmeda (CABH no presentó diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre tratamientos; sin embargo, el consumo de alimento base seca (CABS fue mayor (P<0.05 en el tratamiento ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 comparado con el de 50:50 (6.433 vs. 4.308 kg. El consumo de materia seca/100 kg de peso vivo fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 (2.334 y 1.990, comparados con los del ensilado 50:50 (1.413. El consumo de proteína cruda en kg fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales alimentados con zacate Taiwán. Porcentualmente, el consumo de proteína cruda fue mayor (P<0.05 en los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50 (16.99 y 17.36 %. La mayor eficiencia alimenticia (P<0.05 la obtuvieron los animales que consumieron el ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50. El análisis económico de este sistema de alimentación nos indica que se obtuvieron las mayores ganancias con el uso de los ensilados, siendo el mejor

  12. Desempenho ponderal de novilhas mestiças Holandês × Zebu submetidas a duas estratégias de suplementação mineral Ponderal performance of crossbred Holstein × Zebu heifers submitted to two mineral supplementations strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nogueira Domingues

    2008-02-01

    test animals, was divided into four treatments: mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum, CV. Mombaça with selective salt (MSS, mombaçagrass with commercial salt (MSC, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, CV. Napier with selective salt (ESS and elephantgrass with commercial salt (ESC. Average daily live weight gain (DWG was calculated by weighing the test animal every 28 days after fasting of 16 hours. Dry matter intake (CMSLFV and apparent digestibility (DMSLFV of green leaf blade were evaluated with chromium oxide and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, as external and internal markers, respectively. Mineral supplement intake was measured and the levels of dry matter, crude protein, and of Ca. P, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn only in grass leaves samples. A completely randomized design in 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (grass and mineral mix, was used. Each treatment was composed by four animals, and each animal as considered a experimental unit. Only Cu, Na and Zn were deficient in the forages. The CMSLFV were not affected by the studied variables and no significant interactions were observed. There was interaction between salt mix and grass for DMSLF. The DWG was affected only by grasses, the performance that ingested elephantgrass was higher. The nutritional composition of the elephantgrass was slightly better than that of mombaçagrass what probably provided better weight gains for the animals in this treatment.

  13. Soil fertility and 137 Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-01

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km 2 ), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using 137 Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical

  14. Preliminary Evaluation on Nutritional Value for Ramie [ Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2%“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻营养价值的初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛涛; 喻春明; 王延周; 陈继康; 熊和平; 陈平; 谭龙涛; 卢凌霄; 郑建树

    2014-01-01

    本研究的目的是对“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻的营养价值进行初步评价,为苎麻作牧草利用提供参考。试验结果表明,苎麻的营养品质优于黑麦草和象草,和苜蓿相近;80 cm收割高度下苎麻的叶、茎粗蛋白含量和叶茎比均显著高于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05)的收割高度,叶、茎粗纤维含量则显著低于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05),同时干物质产量和粗蛋白产量均显著高于60 cm ( P<0.05),生长时间相对100 cm和120 cm分别缩短了8 d和13 d。此外,“中苎1号”在80 cm收割高度下的粗蛋白日增产速率显著高于其他收割高度( P<0.05)。综上可知,“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”可以做牧草开发利用。综合考虑干物质产量、营养品质、生产时间及成本,“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”在“二麻”高温期间整株收获作为反刍动物的饲草开发利用时,80 cm左右是最佳的收割高度。%The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the nutritional value of two ramie varieties Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2 and provide a reference for ramie as a forage crop.The results showed that the nutritional quality of ramie [ Boehmeria nivea ( L.) Gaud.] was better than that of pe-rennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Pennisetum purpureum Schum.Besides, the nutritional quality of ramie was comparable to that found in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) .The crude protein content and leaf-stem ratio of ramie at 80 cm reaping height were significantly higher ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.The crude fiber content at 80 cm reaping height was significantly lower ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.DM yield and gross protein yield at 80 cm were obviously higher than 60 cm ( P<0.05 ) .The growth period at 80 cm height was 8 and 13 days less than 100 cm and 120 cm respectively , In addi-tion, the daily growth rate of crude protein of Zhongzhu No.1 at 80cm reaping height was significantly

  15. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  16. Desempenho animal e produtividade de pastagens tropicais no noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul Animal performance and productivity of tropical pasture in Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Maixner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produtividade do capim-elefante anão e do tifton 85 sob pastejo contínuo no noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando-se 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas e com cerca de 100 dias de lactação. Foi aplicada a técnica dos animais reguladores para ajustes da carga animal de forma a manter a oferta de lâminas foliares de 4%. No primeiro ano experimental, o capim-elefante anão e o tifton 85 apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto às taxas médias de acúmulo de lâminas foliares (31,2 vs 22,6kg/ha/dia e produção animal (17,4 vs 20kg de leite/vaca/dia. No segundo, o tifton 85 foi superior ao capim-elefante anão quanto à taxa de acúmulo de matéria seca de lâminas foliares (38,8 vs 21,9kg/ha/dia, capacidade de suporte (2157 vs 1084kg de peso vivo/ha e produções por área (70 vs 41,3kg de leite/ha/dia. No segundo ano, em relação ao primeiro, o tifton 85 manteve 88% da capacidade de suporte e 80% da produção por área, enquanto o capim-elefante anão apenas 46% e 56%. A produção média de 17kg de leite/vaca/dia indica um potencial pouco explorado das gramíneas tropicais em sistemas de produção de leite, especialmente na região Sul do Brasil.Productivity of dwarf elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott and tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures was evaluated under continuous grazing, in the Northwest area of Rio Grande do Sul. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows, at 100 days of lactation were evaluated and the put-and-take technique was used to regulate the stocking rate to maintain 4% of leaf lamina on offer. In the first year, dwarf elephantgrass and tifton 85 were different in leaf accumulation rates (31.2 vs 22.6kg/ha/day and animal production (17.4 vs 20kg of milk/cow/day. In the second year, tifton 85 had higher leaf accumulation rates (38.8 vs 21.9kg/ha/day, stocking rate (2,157 vs 1,084kg of live weight/ha, and production per area (70 vs 41.3kg of milk/ha/day than

  17. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  18. Degradação ruminal de silagem de capim-elefante com adição de vagem de algaroba triturada Ruminal degradation of elephant grass silage with mesquite pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada visando-se avaliar a degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN de silagens de capim-elefante colhido aos 70; 90 e 110 dias após rebrota, com inclusão de 0; 5; 10 e 15% de vagem de algaroba triturada, com base na matéria natural, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado arranjado em parcelas subdivididas. Amostras de cada silagem foram incubadas no rúmen de duas vacas Jersey por 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 e 96 h, sendo os saquinhos referentes ao tempo zero apenas lavados em água para determinação da fração solúvel. Não houve interação (P > 0,05 tempo de incubação x inclusão de vagem de algaroba x idade de corte para degradabilidade da MS, embora tenha ocorrido interação destes fatores para degradabilidade da PB e FDN. A maior degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS (42,54% foi observada para 15% de inclusão de vagem de algaroba. A DE da PB foi maior (69,04% para silagem de capim-elefante com 70 dias de idade com 15% de vagem de algaroba. A inclusão de vagem de algaroba triturada à silagem de capim-elefante melhora a degradabilidade da MS, PB e FDN, enquanto o avanço da idade após rebrota resulta em redução destes parâmetros.This research was carried out to evaluate the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of silages of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cutting in 70; 90 and 110 days after regrowth with inclusion of 0; 5; 10 and 15% of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora meal, based on natural matter in a completely randomized design, in split plot arrangement. Samples of silages were incubated in the rumen of two Jersey cows for 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 and 96 h, and the bags at time "zero" were only washed with water to determine the soluble fraction. There was not interaction (P > 0.05 incubation time × inclusion of mesquite pods × cutting age of the grass for DM degradability, there was only

  19. Fotossensibilização em ovinos associada à ingestão de Brachiaria brizantha no estado do Pará Photosensitization of sheep kept on Brachiaria brizantha pasture in the state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Teles Albernaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dois surtos e realizado um experimento de fotossensibilização associada à ingestão por Brachiaria brizantha em ovinos mestiços de Santa Inês e Dorper, com idade variando de dois a três meses, em uma fazenda no município de Santa Luzia do Pará. Esses animais foram mantidos desde o nascimento até aproximadamente dois meses de idade, em apriscos suspensos do chão, recebendo capim-elefante roxo (Pennisetum purpureum cv. roxo, concentrado, sal mineral e água ad libitum. Após esse período foram introduzidos em um piquete de B. brizantha. Na ocasião dos surtos e do experimento a fazenda foi visitada para observação dos dados epidemiológicos, avaliação clínica dos animais, colheita de amostras de sangue para dosagem de GGT, AST, BD, BI, BT, ureia e creatinina e colheita de pastagem para pesquisa de Pithomyces chartarum e saponinas. Também foi realizada necropsia com colheita de material para estudo histológico. O surto 01 ocorreu na época de escassez de chuva, com taxa de morbidade e letalidade de 43,4% e 81,6%, respectivamente. O surto 02 aconteceu no início da época chuvosa, com taxas de morbidade e letalidade de 16,3% e 76,9%, respectivamente. Em ambos os surtos o capim encontrava-se com massa residual reduzida e senescente. Dos 50 animais do experimento, 10 receberam 200ml de fluido ruminal retirado de ovelhas mães do mesmo lote, a primeira administração foi feita um dia antes da introdução desses animais na pastagem, e mais duas subsequentes com intervalo de uma semana. Após 15 dias de pastejo, os animais começaram a apresentar inquietação, procura por sombra, edema nas orelhas, mucosas amareladas, apatia, anorexia e desprendimento da pele seguido por formação de crostas em algumas áreas do corpo. Tanto os animais dos surtos quanto do experimento apresentaram aumento nos níveis de GGT, AST, BD, BI, BT, ureia e creatinina. Os valores de ureia e GGT dos animais que receberam fluido ruminal e dos

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 437 of 437 ... (Ranunculaceae) seeds on hematological and biochemical parameters ... pubescens and Pennisetum purpereum in west African dwarf sheep, Abstract ... Insect Infestation And Organoleptic Properties Of Heterobranchus ...

  1. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capparis deciduas) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was assessed and defined by culture-dependent and cultureindependent approaches on the basis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The average ...

  3. 1733-IJBCS-Article-Koura Kourouma++

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    identifiées sur la base de leurs relations spatio-temporelles en cinq phytocoenoses : phytocoenoses à ..... Synusie annuelle à Pennisetum pedicellatum et Hyparrhenia involucrata. 22 .... biglobosa traduisent l'impact de la gestion des parcs à.

  4. Relationships between food quality and fitness in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and its distribution over habitats on the Red Sea coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Woldewahid, G.; Toleubayev, K.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of millet, Pennisetum typhoideum Rich. (Poaceae), leaf nitrogen content on fitness parameters of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), was studied under laboratory conditions. Locusts reared on high-nitrogen leaves were larger, developed faster, had

  5. Influence of ginger on sensory properties and shelf-life of ogi, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... corn (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum typho- denum). It serves as supplement for infant's feeding, consumed as breakfast meal by many and is also ... agar. improves the sensory and nutritional qualities, availability.

  6. Résultats de recherche | Page 54 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des feuilles et de la transplantation des jeunes plants sur la consommation hydrique et la croissance du mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) au Niger : mémoire de fin de cycle. Le mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) est la plante alimentaire la plus cultivée dans la zone sahélienne du Niger. Published date. 1 janvier 2013.

  7. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  8. Publications | Page 75 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effets de la coupe des feuilles et de la transplantation des jeunes plants sur la consommation hydrique et la croissance du mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) au Niger : mémoire de fin de cycle (restricted access). Le mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) est la plante alimentaire la plus cultivée dans la zone sahélienne du ...

  9. Résultats de recherche | Page 53 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effets de la coupe des feuilles et de la transplantation des jeunes plants sur la consommation hydrique et la croissance du mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) au Niger : mémoire de fin de cycle. Le mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) est la plante alimentaire la plus cultivée dans la zone sahélienne du Niger. Published ...

  10. Résultats de recherche | Page 54 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effets de la coupe des feuilles et de la transplantation des jeunes plants sur la consommation hydrique et la croissance du mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) au Niger : mémoire de fin de cycle. Le mil (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) est la plante alimentaire la plus cultivée dans la zone sahélienne du Niger. Published ...

  11. EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de souza França

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The adoption of a system in de cerrado region, specially in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, increased the millet grain and forage production in this region, because of its high biomass production potential, which is used as a soil covering in this system. Besides increasing the grain production, considered as a wastage, the millet has been tested as an ingredient in feed formulation to production animals. This research was carried out in the goat production section of the Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, and the aim was to evaluate the substitution of corn by millet grain in the rations formulated to dairy goats. Sixteen alpine dairy goats were distributed in Latin square design and alloted in four treatments with increasing levels of substitution: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66%; T4 - 99%. The data collected were analysed in ANOVA system that indicated no significant effects (P> 0.05 on milk production , milk fat (M.G, ash (MM, total dry extract (EST, unfatty dry extract (ESD, acidity (AC and crioscopy (CRIO, except for the milk protein that was linearly affected (P>0.05.

    KEY-WORDS: Millet; rations; goats; lactation.

    A adoção do sistema de plantio direto na região Centro-Oeste, notadamente nos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, fez com que a cultura do milheto se expandisse na região, tendo em vista o seu alto potencial de produção de biomassa, a qual é utilizada para cobertura morta do solo no referido sistema. Entretanto, além da biomassa, a cultura considerada como um excedente ou subproduto, vem sendo testada na formulação de ração para animais domésticos. O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Caprinocultura da Escola de Veterinária / UFG, tendo como objetivo avaliar a substituição do milho pelo grão de rnilheto, na formulação de rações para cabras em lactação. Dezesseis cabras da raça Alpina foram distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino e submetidas a quatro tratamentos com níveis crescentes de substituição, assim constituídos: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66% e T4 - 99%. Os resultados obtidos pelas análises foram tabulados e, posteriormente, submetidos à análise de variância, que evidenciou efeito não significativo (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite, matéria graxa (MG, matéria mineral (MM, extrato seco total (EST, extrato seco desengordurado (ESD, acidez (AC e crioscopia (CRIO, enquanto a proteína bruta não foi influenciada (P>0,05.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; ração; cabras; lactação.

  12. Catalogue of the genera Melongena and Semifusus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Ch.

    1952-01-01

    Melongena Schumacher, 1817 (= Galeodes Röding) Thiele (1931, p. 320) gives the name Galeodes (Bolten) Röding, 1798, to this genus. This name, however, was already used by Olivier in the Encyclopédic méthodique, Insectes (1791, vol. 6, p. 578) for a genus of the Solifugidae. The author gave a

  13. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity ...

  14. Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.

    2011-01-01

    Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…

  15. NOAA Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Corporate Services, Staff and Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Officer (CFO) 301-444-2132 Jerry McNamara FOIA Liaison Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Chief Administrative Officer (OCAO) 301-713-0850 x195 Sharon Daniels FOIA Liaison Chief ; tITLE Line/Staff Office Phone Number Wendy Schumacher FOIA and Privacy Act Officer NOAA Corporate

  16. Neueste Forschung in musiktherapeutischer Diagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2012-01-01

    responsivem Verhalten. In der Musiktherapie sind mehrere Assessmentmodelle entwickelt worden, unter anderem der IAP von Kenneth Bruscia, AQR von Karin Schumacher und Claudine Calvet-Kruppa oder das Assessment von Kontaktniveaus bei Anne Steen. Nach dieser Einführung des Assessmentbegriffes werden zusätzlich...

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On most longer courses transferable Masters Level Credits are available. Schumacher College runs one to five-week courses on: ecological economics and development issues; the links between philosophy, psychology & ecology; and the new understandings emerging from recent scientific discoveries. For further details ...

  18. Can This Marriage Be Saved? The Future of "Neuro-Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Neuro-education, a new frontier for educational researchers, has its passionate advocates and equally passionate detractors. Some philosophers, including Noel Purdy and Hugh Morrison, Andrew Davis, and Ralph Schumacher, have argued that the entire enterprise is misguided. I evaluate and challenge their arguments. This permits me to articulate my…

  19. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    10 oct. 2011 ... Schumacher MJ, Tveten MS, Egen NB. Rate and quantity of delivery of venom from honeybee stings. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;93:831-835. This article on PubMed. 11. Franca FO, Benvenuti LA, Fan HW, Dos Santos DR, Haim SH. Severe and fatal mass attacks by “killer bees” (Africanized honey bees- ...

  20. cas du cordon littoral Port-Bouët-Grand-Bassam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formations végétales. Espèces. Familles. Cocoteraie. Fourré littoral. Jachère. Saccharum officinarum L. Poaceae x. Salacia baumannii Loes. Celastraceae x. Sansevieria liberica Gérôme & Labroy. Agavaceae x. Sauvagesia erecta L. Ochnaceae x. Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae x x. Sesamum radiatum Schumacher.

  1. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia Bark Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) bark, including aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane extracts, were tested for their antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B, using both agar diffusion and broth dilution methods.

  2. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 3 (2011) - Articles Involvement of cholinergic-muscarinic receptor in Anaphe venata-induced stretching-ataxia behavioral effects in rats. Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 6 (2011) - Articles Neuropharmacological effects of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) in mice

  4. Effect Of Intraruminal Infussion Of Saturated And Unsaturated Fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of diferent proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid) on rumen degradability of organic matter fraction of Pennisetium purpureum, total volatile fatty acid and total methane productions in West African Dwarf sheep. Five combination ...

  5. 50 CFR 665.121 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... margaritaceus. uloulo-gatala, patagaloa surge wrasse Thalassoma purpureum. lape-moana red ribbon wrasse... undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) fe'e fe'e octopus octopus Octopus cyanea, Octopus ornatus. Polynemidae umiumia, i'ausi threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis. Pricanthidae (Bigeye...

  6. Influence of nitrogen fertilization and green manure on the economic feasibility of no-tilled wheat in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for higher profitability in wheat crop with cost reduction technologies that may promote sustainability is an important matter in Brazilian agriculture. This study evaluated the profitability of no-tilled wheat, reducing nitrogen topdressing doses with the cultivation of green manure before the wheat crop. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria (MS, Brazil, in 2009/10. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 36 treatments in splitplots and four replicates. The plots were formed by six types of green manure: Cajanus cajan L. BRS Mandarin, Crotalaria juncea L., Pennisetum americanum L. BRS 1501, fallow area and mixed cropping of Pennisetum americanum L. + Cajanus cajan L. and Pennisetum americanum L. + crotalaria which provided straw for no-tilled wheat in the winter, following the rice crop in the summer. The subplots were formed by six levels of topdressing nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha-1 using urea as a nitrogen source. The wheat grown after green manure in the previous winter crop, with no nitrogen topdressing and a rate of 25 kg ha-1 N, had more frequently production costs above the gross income. Wheat production cost after the mixed cropping Pennisetum americanum L. + Cajanus cajan L. and Pennisetum americanum L. + Crotalaria juncea L. from the previous winter crop, combined with nitrogen rates of 50 and 75 kg N ha-1, provided better profitability compared with the other green manures evaluated.

  7. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maza Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método: doce sementales ovinos Pelibuey, de 24±3 meses de edad, con un peso de 44±5 kg y una condición corporal de 2.3 +0.3 en una escala de 1 a 5 fueron asignados a 2 tratamientos (n=6 durante 45 días. En dietas con base en pasto de corte (Pennisetum purpureum x P. Typhoides var. CT-115, para el tratamiento 1 (T1, se utilizó alimento comercial (500 g d-1 por ovino con 16% de PC; y para el tratamiento 2 (T2, 20% de Tulipán (451 g MS/ kg MV, ~1.6 kg d-1 por ovino. Al finalizar la prueba se evaluó la calidad seminal, las variables de respuesta fueron: volumen del eyaculado (Vol, ml y a través del Análisis de Semen Asistido por Computadora (CASA la concentración espermática (CE, Millones por ml y ocho parámetros de motilidad individual: velocidad curvilínea (VCL, μ/s, velocidad rectilínea (VSL, μ/s, velocidad promedio (VAP, μ/s, índice de linealidad (LIN, %, índice de rectitud (STR, %, índice de oscilación (WOB, %, amplitud media del desplazamiento lateral de la cabeza (ALH, μ y frecuencia de batido de cola (BCF, Hz. Para determinar las diferencias entre las medias para tratamientos para Vol y CE, VCL, VSL y VAP se utilizó una t de Student; para los parámetros de motilidad individual se realizó una reducción de factores y una clasificación en dos fases de los índices obtenidos para caracterizar las subpoblaciones espermáticas por motilidad. Los análisis fueron realizados con el software SPSS 15.0 para Windows Resultados: no se

  8. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density

  9. Produção de matéria seca e valor nutritivo de pastagem de capim-elefante sob irrigação e adubação nitrogenada Dry matter production and nutritional value of elephant grass pasture under irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Manoel Teixeira Vitor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de quatro doses de nitrogênio (100, 300, 500 ou 700 kg/ha e seis lâminas d'água (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 ou 120% da evapotranspiração na produção de matéria seca, nos teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum durante os períodos seco e chuvoso. As doses de nitrogênio constituíram as parcelas e as lâminas d'água, as subparcelas, segundo delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A produção de matéria seca acumulada no ano experimental e durante o período chuvoso aumentou linearmente em relação às doses de nitrogênio e às lâminas d'água aplicadas. Durante o período seco, a produção do capim-elefante aumentou linearmente de acordo com as doses de nitrogênio, mas ajustou-se ao modelo quadrático com as lâminas d'água aplicadas. O teor de PB de lâminas foliares + pseudocolmo aumentou linearmente com as doses de nitrogênio, tanto no ano experimental quanto nos períodos seco e chuvoso, e não foi influenciado pelas lâminas d'água aplicadas. O teor de FDN nas lâminas foliares + pseudocolmo das plantas foi influenciado negativamente pelas doses de nitrogênio durante o ano experimental e no período seco, positivamente pela irrigação no período chuvoso. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de lâminas foliares + pseudocolmo ajustou-se ao modelo quadrático de regressão de acordo com as doses de nitrogênio apenas no ano experimental e no período chuvoso e não foi influenciada pelas lâminas d'água aplicadas. No período seco, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca não foi influenciada por nenhuma das lâminas d'água nem pelas doses de nitrogênio avaliadas.The effect of four nitrogen (N doses (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg/ha and six water depths (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120% of evapotranspiration on elephant grass dry mass yield in

  10. Ecological reconstruction of older buildings. Munich, Pariser Str. 10. Oekologische Sanierung. Beispiel: Muenchen, Pariser Str. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, R.

    1990-04-01

    In response to an initiative of the Ernst Friedrich Schumacher Gesellschaft fuer politische Oekologie e.V., the Muenchener Gesellschaft fuer Stadterneuerung GmbH (MGS) carried out a model project for an ecological reconstruction of an older building. Apart from the energy conservation effect, practical experience was to be gained on the ecological and energy efficient application of different measures. The project is to serve as a model for future sanitation projects. (orig./KW).

  11. Impact of total organic carbon (in sediments) and dissolved organic carbon (in overlying water column) on Hg sequestration by coastal sediments from the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakrabortya, P.; Sharma, B.M.; Babu, P.V.R.; Yao, K.M.; Jaychandran, S.

    , 1991; Liu et al., 2006; Tack and Verloo, 1995). Mercury accumulates in sediment globally from many physical, chemical, biological, geological and anthropogenic environmental processes. Thus, sediment can be a good indicator of water quality of a...-Black method (Schumacher, 2002). This method has been widely used for the determination of total organic carbon in the soil and sediments. 3.0 Results and discussion The general description and texture analysis of the studied sediments are presented...

  12. Transforming from a Service-Centric to a Joint Recruiting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    stewards, it is paramount that DoD identify cost savings and revaluate the policies of acquiring military manpower in support of the AVF. Military...strategic level there is growing concern of the financial cost associated with an AVF by rising health costs , pay raises, wartime recruiting, and...exists at recruiting events hosted by the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA). Tony Schumacher is a remarkable driver and role model for the United

  13. The Pasquich affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkós, Laszló

    The history of scientific research and particularly the history of astronomy is sometimes shaded by some people who tried to make forging and fraud instead of working hard. There are well-known sad stories, but there are also some with a positive end. One of them is the forging charge against Johann Pasquich, the director of St. Gellert Hill Observatory in Buda. He measured positions of the bright comet of 1821 and published his results in Astronomische Nachrichten Vol. 1, No. 2, 1821. His assistant Daniel Kmeth accused him with fraud, first in a letter written to the editor of Astronomische Nachrichten, Ch. Schumacher. Despite Schumacher's doubts, Kmeth repeated his accusations in the prestigious Hungarian periodical Tudományos Gyüjtemény, and moreover in Zach's Correspondance Astronomique. As the result of a long and careful investigation, Pasquich was discharged. The calculations which proved that Pasquich was right were carried out by the most famous scientists of the era: Ch. Schumacher, C.F. Gauss, J.F. Encke, W. Olbers and F.W. Bessel

  14. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  15. A model of tree-crop competition for windbreaks systems in the Sahel : description and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayus, M.; Keulen, van H.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1999-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate the effects of competition for soil water and radiation between windbreaks and pearl millet crops in the Sahel. These effects on millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) growth were simultaneously simulated for each millet row parallel to the windbreak with small

  16. Diversity of archaea and bacteria in a biogas reactor fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of archaea and bacteria in a biogas reactor fed with Pennisetum sinese ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... rumen microbial community in a biogas reactor by 16S rRNA gene analysis, ...

  17. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...

  18. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 50 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alleviation of salinity effects by exogenous applications of salicylic acid in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) seedlings · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Hussain, K Nawaz, A Majeed, F Khan, F Lin, A Ghani, G Raza, S Afghan, ...

  20. Immobilization of starch phosphorylase from seeds of Indian millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Starch phosphorylase has been isolated from the seeds of millet (Pennisetum typhoides) variety KB560 and partially .... After storage for 5 h, it was centrifuged at 15000 x g for 20 ..... The property of reuse up to so many times.

  1. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    glyptosperma ribseed sandmat 0 Euphorbia maculata Spotted Spurge 0 Euthamia graminifolia Flat-top Goldentop 6 Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry 4...Foxtail UK Setaria viridis Pennisetum viridis Green Foxtail 0 Silene sp. Catchfly UK Sisyrinchium campestre White-eyed Grass 10 Sium suave

  2. response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Izge, U., Kadams, A.M. and Gungula, D.T. 2006. Studies on character association and path analysis of certain quantitative characters among parental lines of pearl millet. (Pennisetum glaucum ) and their F1 hybrids in a diallel cross. African Journal of. Agricultural Research 1:194-198. Kannan, B., Senapathy, S., Raj, A.G.B., ...

  3. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Izge AU, Kadams AM and Gungula DT (2006). Studies on character association and path analysis of certain quantitative characters among parental lines of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ) and their F1 hybrids in a diallel cross. African Journal of Agricultural. Research Vol. 1 (5), pp. 194-198. Khatun F, Begum S, Motin A, ...

  4. Combining ability and heterosis for phenologic and agronomic traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Izge AU, Kadams AM, Gungula DT (2007). Heterosis and inheritance of quantitative characters in diallel cross of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucam L.). J. Agron. 62:278-285. Jaliya MM, Babaji BA, Sani BM, Aminu D, Ibrahim A (2011). Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilizers on sulfur content in soil, ear leaf, ...

  5. The utilization by sheep of winter and spring Smuts finger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on Smuts finger (Digitaria eriantha ssp. eriantha) and Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures during a winter and spring period to study the effect of postruminal energy and/or protein supplementation on the selection pattern and performance of sheep. In a further experiment the digestion ...

  6. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding xyloglucan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolutionary studies using phylogenetic tree indicated its grouping with XETs from maize (with >95% bootstrap support), barley, rice, etc. This is the first report on cloning and characterization of an XET (PgXET1) from pearl millet, an important dual-purpose crop. Key words: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, Pennisetum ...

  7. Response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the semi-arid zones of Uganda, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is mainly grown for food and income; but rust (Puccinia substriata var indica (L.) R. Br.) is the main foliar constraint lowering yield. The objective of the study was to genetically improve grain yield and rust resistance of two locally adapted ...

  8. Comparison and suitability of genotype by environment analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is an important food security and income crop for households living in semi-arid zones in Uganda. However, the genotype by environment interaction, in addition to the several methods used for its assessment, complicates selection of varieties adapted to such semi-arid areas.

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... that biological phenomena occur at diverse levels of organization (from molecule to ecosystem). .... Three-dimensional structure of heat shock protein 90 from Plasmodium ... Polyglutamine expansion in Drosophila: thermal stress and Hsp70 as .... Functional validation of a novel isoform of Na/H antiporter from Pennisetum ...

  10. The influence of ruminant digestion on the germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately half of the viable Pennisetum clandestinum seed fed to sheep was found to be viable after passing through the digestive system. 82% of the viable seed was excreted within 28 hours of ingestion with no viable seed being excreted after 52 hours after ingestion. These results have important implications for the ...

  11. Biolistic-mediated transformation protocols for maize and pearl millet using pre-cultured immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal food crop in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and a key feed crop in Asia, whereas pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple food that supplies a major proportion of calories...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 1346 ... Vol 10, No 1 (1993), Estimating seasonal herbage production of a semi-arid grassland based on veld condition, rainfall and evapotranspiration, Abstract .... Vol 10, No 3 (1993), Factors affecting the voluntary feed intake of sheep grazing Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu) pastures: observations from ...

  13. Genetic diversity among pentaploid buffelgrass accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) is an important range and pasture grass that grows in the arid tropics and semi-tropics. It has excellent drought tolerance but lacks winter hardiness. Even though the grass reproduces primarily by apomixis, it is highly polymorphic. A range of chromosome numbers ...

  14. Novel application of ALMANAC: Modelling a functional group, exotic warm-season perennial grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduced perennial C4 grasses such buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare [(L.) Link]) and old world bluestems (OWB), including genera such as Bothriochloa Kuntze, Capillipedium Stapf, and Dichanthium Willemet have the potential to dominate landscapes. A process-based model that realistically simulates ...

  15. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  16. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  17. An appraisal of irrigated temperate and tropical millet varieties in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L). R. Br.) constitutes a major food crop in the semiarid region of West Africa but yields are extremely low in subsistence cropping systems because of inappropriate management and scarcity of water. This study was designed to see if pearl millet could become a component of crop rotation ...

  18. Nutritional composition of a full diallel-crossed forage pearl millet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productivity of local cattle depends mainly on the quality of forage they consume, the search of which induces conflicts between herdsmen and farmers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of 'maiwa' Pennisetum glaucum, for forage, in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three inbred lines, namely, 25-2, 28-1 ...

  19. Influence of variety and management level on pearl millet production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.)R. Br.] is generally grown on nutrient-poor soils and low rainfall conditions in Niger. Nitrogen and P accumulation and utilisation are very important factors in pearl millet growth, and are affected by environment and management. An understanding of seasonal N and P accumulation is ...

  20. Species of the genus Uromyces (Basidiomycota: Pucciniales) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of rust fungi from Leepa Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ and K), Pakistan, four species of Uromyces were found parasitizing four plant species. These include Uromyces appendiculatus on Vigna mungo, Uromyces capitatus on Desmodium elegans, Uromyces penniseti on Pennisetum lanatum and ...

  1. Exotic plants along roads near La Paz, Bolivia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Murillo, M. P.; Rico, Adriana; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2015), s. 565-573 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : exotic species * roads * altitude * distribution * Pennisetum clandestinum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  2. Characterization of Azotobacter from roots of a weed growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    asdf

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... produced by Azospirillum brasilense and their effect on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 1016-1024. Tilak KVBR, Sigh CS, Roy NK, Subba Rao NS (1982). Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter chrococum inoculum: Effect on yield of maize (Zea mays) ...

  3. Effect of nitrogen concentration of urea ammonium nitrate, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to dryland Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu (Chiov)) and Cynodon hybrid (Coastcross II (L.) (Pers.)) pastures at two levels (207 and 414 kg N/ha/season) and at three concentrations (10, 5; 21 and 42% N) of nitrogen. The degree of leaf scorch increased as both the amount ...

  4. Effects of cattle grazing, glyphosate, and prescribed burning on fountaingrass fuel loading in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Castillo; G. Enriques; M. Nakahara; D. Weise; L. Ford; R. Moraga; R. Vihnanek

    2007-01-01

    Crimson fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum) is a nonnative invasive grass that has occupied a significant portion of the western side of the island of Hawai`i. As a result, several fires in excess of 4,049 ha have occurred in the area over the past 20 y. We are studying the effectiveness of cattle grazing, aerial application of glyphosate herbicide, and prescribed...

  5. PLANT REGENERATION THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE OF PEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Pennisetum Glaucum (L) R.) K.TIECOURA 1, L. LEDOUX.2 AND M. DINANT.2. 1 Laboratoire de Génétique et amélioration des plantes, UFR de Biosciences, Université de Cocody,. B.P.582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire. 2 Laboratoire de Génétique ...

  6. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\TIECOURA K..xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    APEX CAULINAIRE DE MIL (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.) K. TIECOURA1, A. B. KOUASSI1, O. N'NAN-ALLA1, M. DINANT2 et L. LEDOU2. 1Laboratoire de Génétique, UFR Biosciences, Université Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY, 22 BP 582 Abidjan ...

  7. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions onto different microalgae and siliceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Müller, A; Csögör, Z; Frimmel, F H; Posten, C

    2001-03-01

    In the present work the adsorption kinetics of the six metal ions aluminum, zinc, mercury, lead, copper, and cadmium onto living microalgae were measured. The freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus, the brackish water diatom Cyclotella cryptica, the seawater diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the seawater red alga Porphyridium purpureum were the subject of investigation. In most cases the adsorption rate of the metals could be well described by using the equation of the Langmuir adsorption rate expression. Inverse parameter estimation allowed the determination of the rate constants of the adsorption process and the maximum metal content of the algae. The highest values for the rate constant were obtained for Porphyridium purpureum followed by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. High values for the maximum content were obtained for Cyclotella cryptica and Scenedesmus subspicatus. The maximum rate constant was 24.21 h-1 for the adsorption of Hg to Porphyridium purpureum whereas the maximum metal content (0.243 g g-1) was obtained for Zn on Cyclotella cryptica. A comparison of these values with those obtained for the mineral siliceous earth exhibiting low maximum content and high adsorption rates reveals that the mechanism of adsorption onto the algae is a mixture of adsorption and accumulation.

  8. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P

  9. Desempenho ponderal, aspectos econômicos, nutricionais e clínicos de caprinos submetidos a dois esquemas de suplementação mineral Daily weight gain, economic, nutritional and clinical aspects of goats receiving two types of mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Malafaia

    2004-03-01

    maiores e, em relação à ingestão de fósforo, apenas o consumo da ração concentrada foi suficiente para suprir os requerimentos dos dois grupos de animais. As exigências de zinco foram supridas pela ingestão da ração e do volumoso. Além dos cálculos sobre o consumo de fósforo, cálcio, cobalto e zinco demonstrarem que as exigências desses minerais foram totalmente atendidas apenas com a ingestão da ração concentrada e do volumoso; clinicamente os animais não apresentaram quaisquer sinais diretos ou indiretos de deficiência desses elementos. Esses fatos reforçam a hipótese de que quando os animais são alimentados com rações concentradas e volumosos de boa qualidade, poucos serão os elementos minerais a serem supridos - especificamente, neste sistema de criação desta região, apenas o sódio e o cobre. Os resultados desse estudo endossam a idéia de que a suplementação seletiva, conceito que significa fornecer apenas os elementos minerais que efetivamente estão em falta na dieta dos animais, está correta, e implica em marcada redução nos custos com a suplementação mineral do rebanho.Daily weight gain, economic, nutritional and clinical aspects of goats receiving two types of mineral supplements were evaluated during 148 days in Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The animals were daily fed with fresh and chopped Andropogon gayanus or Pennisetum purpureum; the concentrate ration was formulated without a mineral mixture and was offered together with the forage of 300 up to 500 g/animal/day. Sixteen goats were divided into two groups of 8 animals each (4 small and 4 larger goats. For one group a commercial mineral mixture was used, and to the other group a selective mineral mixture containing only Na, P and Cu was offered. The animals were weighed every 30 days and the mineral supplement intake was measured monthly. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. There was no difference in daily

  10. "Word of Discovery": A Planetary Example from Volume I of the Astronomical Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, T.

    1998-09-01

    In 1850, William Lassell (1799-1880) discovered a series of bright white spots, in the south temperate latitudes of Jupiter, unlike any that that been seen before. Lassell's note on these STZ features is a useful example of how astronomical discoveries of the day were communicated among astronomers. Word of Lassell's Spots spread quickly by nineteenth-century standards. This was due, in part, to the recent appearance of journals devoted exclusively to astronomy. The transition from letters as a means of conveying scientific information to journals is reflected in the propagation of Lassell's announcement: a report of Lassell's description of the white spots to the Royal Astronomical Society appeared in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society along with a woodblock print of one of his drawings. This report reappeared shortly thereafter in German translation. It was part of a letter to the editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Heinrich Schumacher (1780-1850), from an English correspondent of his, the Reverend Richard Sheepshanks (1974-1855). (Sheepshanks was himself editor of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.) It then made its way across the Atlantic as a letter from Schumacher to Benjamin Gould (1824-1896), who published it in the first volume of his upstart Astronomical Journal. There it appears in English, again, as Schumacher quoting Sheepshanks quoting Lassell! The observations by Lassell and William Dawes (1799-1868) of this phenomenon also were the first major planetary discovery made using a silvered-glass reflecting telescope. Lassell's Spots have remained in the "astronomical news" of the last 150 years: Most recently, they appeared worldwide in images showing the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact sites.

  11. Beams 92. Proceedings of the International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams (9th) held in Washington, DC on May 25-29 1992. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-29

    Schumacher, J. Hyman, J. Santoru, R.M. Watkins, R.J. Harvey, F.A. Dolezal, R.L. Eisenhart , A.J. Schneider.......1637 THEORY OF THE INTERACTION OF...I theo . = 0.4 A measured deflections with the calculated values for 2.0 different probe beam energies. The best fit to the 1experimental data was...M.E. - 1715 Eisenhart R.L. - 1637 Fukuzawa T. - 627 Cook D.L. - 31 Ekdahl C. -1887 Furman E.G. - 1870 Cooksey N. - 203 Eliezer S. - 995 Furuuchi S

  12. Structure of the displacement field of substitutionally dissolved Bi in Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, E.

    1975-03-01

    In order to describe measurements of the coherent diffuse scattering of neutrons from Pb-Bi within the single defect approximation, Schumacher (1969) introduced a model in which the displacement field of the host lattice caused by a given Bismuth atom has trigonal symmetry. In an attempt to decide which model for the displacement field is correct, new measurements over an extended range were carried out with an improved resolution, using the D7 diffractometer at the High Flux Reactor in Grenoble. Taking the different resolutions into account, agreement between the present and previous data is good, both as to absolute intensity and scattering pattern. (orig./HPoe) [de

  13. Entanglement in the XY spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Its, A R; Jin, B-Q; Korepin, V E

    2005-01-01

    We consider the entanglement in the ground state of the XY model of an infinite chain. Following Bennett, Bernstein, Popescu and Schumacher, we use the entropy of a sub-system as a measure of entanglement. Vidal, Latorre, Rico and Kitaev have conjectured that the von Neumann entropy of a large block of neighbouring spins approaches a constant as the size of the block increases. We evaluate this limiting entropy as a function of anisotropy and transverse magnetic field. We use the methods based on the integrable Fredholm operators and the Riemann-Hilbert approach. It is shown how the entropy becomes singular at the phase transition points

  14. A Study to Develop a Case Mix Model for the Allocation of Impatient Workload for Silas B. Hays Army Community Hospital Fort Ord, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-26

    Development Research Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C. Evans, R.G. and H.D. Walker (1972). Information theory and the analysis of hospital cost...system. Medical Care 14: 185-201. Horn, S.D. and D.N. Schumacher (1979). An analysis of case mix complexity using information theory and diagnosis...REL UGT 459 HA 1 1.0 RETINAL PROCEDURES 0.7101 460 HA 3 1.0 OTHER DISORDERS OF JHE EYE AGE 0-17 0.4018 460 HB 7 2.4 T & A PROC EXCEPT TONSILLECTOMY

  15. Mesalazine in treating diverticular disease of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of: Kruis W, Meier E, Schumacher M, Mickisch O, Greinwald R, Mueller R; German SAG-20 Study Group. Randomised clinical trial: mesalazine (Salofalk granules) for uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon - a placebo-controlled study. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 37(7), 680-690 (2013). Although diverticular disease (DD) is one of the commonest diseases in the western world, robust evidences about its treatment are lack so far. A recent, placebo-controlled study found mesalazine effective in obtaining pain relief in patients suffering from DD. A brief comment is provided herein in order to assess the rationale of this drug in treating DD.

  16. Minutes of the Fiber Optics Standardization Planning Meeting Held at Dayton, Ohio on 1-3 August 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-12

    produced. Cable was made in continuous 2 km lengths. The final cable was connectorized by Hughes with 6 terminal connectors. Figure 2. This is a...Bill Schumacher Ish Aggarwal Bill Jackman This task group is charged with rewrite of DOD-C-85045 cable spec as one of the detailed specs under the EIA...Pat Isaacs B.F. Goodrich 6100 Oaktree Blvd. 216-447-7642 Cleveland, OH 44131 Terry Jarnigan Hughes Aircraft 17150 VON Karman 714-660-5769 Irvine, CA

  17. News

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Physics on Stage: Physics on the political stage Women in Physics: Allez les girls! Curriculum: Students want ethics debate in school science Physics on Stage: Buzzing around the tulips Events: GIREP 2002 Competition: Schumacher in the shower! Higher Education: Universities consider conceptual physics courses Resources: Evaluation of Advancing Physics Research Frontiers: Physics Teachers @ CERN 2002 UK Curriculum: Preparing useful citizens China: Changing the approach NSTA Annual Convention: Innovations and simplicity Europe: European Community Science and Society Action Plan Citizenship: ASE-Wellcome Trust citizenship education initiative

  18. Postweaning growth of performance-tested buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Artiodactyla, Bovidae) reared under no-milking versus a dual-purpose system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Vergara, Diana M; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario F; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: the objective of this study was to compare growth traits in buffaloes reared in farms using a pre-weaning management system with no milking (NM), or a dual-purpose system (DP: meat and milk production). Methods: performance tests were conducted at the Experimental Station of the University of Antioquia, located in Barbosa (Antioquia, Colombia). Buffaloes were confined and fed with fresh Maralfalfa grass (Pennisetum sp.) ad libitum, plus two kilograms of mixed plus two 2 kilograms o...

  19. Positive Analysis of Invasive Species Control as a Dynamic Spatial Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buyuktahtakin, Esra; Feng, Zhuo; Olsson, Aaryn; Frisvold, George B.; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This paper models control of invasive buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare), a fire-prone African bunchgrass spreading rapidly across the southern Arizona desert as a spatial dynamic process. Buffelgrass spreads over a gridded landscape. Weed carrying capacity, treatment costs, and damages vary over grid cells. Damage from buffelgrass depends on its spatial distribution in relation to valued resources. We conduct positive analysis of recommended heuristic strategies for buffelgrass control, evalua...

  20. Feasibility of Invasive Grass Detection in a Desertscrub Community Using Hyperspectral Field Measurements and Landsat TM Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Leeuwen, Willem J.D. van; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species’ phenologies often contrast with those of native species, representing opportunities for detection of invasive species with multi-temporal remote sensing. Detection is especially critical for ecosystem-transforming species that facilitate changes in disturbance regimes. The African C4 grass, Pennisetum ciliare, is transforming ecosystems on three continents and a number of neotropical islands by introducing a grass-fire cycle. However, previous attempts at discriminating P. c...

  1. 2083-IJBCS-Article-Mariema BA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    productivité et assurer leur exploitation durable. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'évaluer l'influence des bois raméaux fragmentés (BRF) de G. senegalensis et de P. reticulatum sur la productivité du mil, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) en station. Un dispositif expérimental a été mis en place avec dix traitements composés de ...

  2. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS) MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jayanegara; A. Sofyan

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS) model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum pur...

  3. Effectiveness of narrow grass hedges in reducing atrazine runoff under different slope gradient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghai; Li, Cui; Chen, Chao; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Ruilun; Que, Xiaoe

    2018-03-01

    Atrazine is frequently detected in surface runoff and poses a potential threat to the environment. Grass hedges may minimize runoff loss of atrazine from crop fields. Therefore, the effectiveness of two grass hedges (Melilotus albus and Pennisetum alopecuroides) in controlling atrazine runoff was investigated using simulated rainfall on lands at different slope gradients (15 and 20%) in northern China. Results showed that a storm (40 mm in 1 h), occurring 4 h after atrazine application, caused a loss of 3% of the applied amount. Atrazine loss under 20% slope was significantly greater than that under 15% slope in control plots. Atrazine exports associated with the water fraction accounted for the majority of total loss. Pennisetum hedges were more efficient in controlling atrazine loss with runoff compared to Melilotus hedges. No significant difference in the capacity of grass hedges to reduce atrazine exports was observed between 15 and 20% slopes. These findings suggest grass hedges are effective in minimizing atrazine runoff in northern China, and Pennisetum hedges should be preferentially used on sloping croplands in similar climatic regions.

  4. The Importance of some weeds for the survival of Fusarium oxysporum Schl. f.sp. lini (Boll. Snyd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The studies were caried out to determine the importance of some weeds occurrence in the flax monoculture the survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini. It appearet that the roots of Veronica persica, Stellaria media, Lamium purpureum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Sonchus arvensis were colonized by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini. V. persica especially has, a profitable influence on the survival of F. oxysporum f. sp. lini. However. C. hursa-pastoris and S. arvensis stimulate the growth of fungi of the genera Trichoderma. which limites the occurrence of F. oxysporum f. sp. lini in the soil.

  5. Modelo para calculo estimación del carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí-Coigüe en la Reserva Nacional Malleco: Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Moreno Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la selección de un modelo para estimación de carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí y Coigüe. La recolección de datos se realizo en la Reserva Nacional Malleco. Cada sitio fue representado por un grupo de 5 parcelas (cuadradas, de lado 35m, superficie 1225m2, ubicadas en un transecto según la pendiente más fuerte. Fueron estimados los volúmenes de madera con y sin corteza de la totalidad de los individuos por medio de funciones para cada especie del tipo forestal en estudio. La cantidad de carbono almacenado a nivel de fuste de las parcelas fue estimada aplicando la función universal de carbono. En cada parcela se contabilizaron los árboles por clase diamétrico de DAP, siendo definidas las clases a partir del DAP mínimo de 3 cm y con una amplitud de 5 cm. Fueron ajustados los modelos de Spurr, Meyer, Stoate, Naslund y Schumacher-Hall. El modelo Schumacher-Hall presento el mejor ajuste de acuerdo a los indicadores estadísticos considerados, además de una mejor distribución de residuales.

  6. Quantum Communication Using Coherent Rejection Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul

    2017-09-01

    Compression of a message up to the information it carries is key to many tasks involved in classical and quantum information theory. Schumacher [B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2738 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2738] provided one of the first quantum compression schemes and several more general schemes have been developed ever since [M. Horodecki, J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter, Commun. Math. Phys. 269, 107 (2007); , 10.1007/s00220-006-0118-xI. Devetak and J. Yard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230501 (2008); , 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2009.0202]. However, the one-shot characterization of these quantum tasks is still under development, and often lacks a direct connection with analogous classical tasks. Here we show a new technique for the compression of quantum messages with the aid of entanglement. We devise a new tool that we call the convex split lemma, which is a coherent quantum analogue of the widely used rejection sampling procedure in classical communication protocols. As a consequence, we exhibit new explicit protocols with tight communication cost for quantum state merging, quantum state splitting, and quantum state redistribution (up to a certain optimization in the latter case). We also present a port-based teleportation scheme which uses a fewer number of ports in the presence of information about input.

  7. Transformative Learning for a Sustainable Future: An Exploration of Pedagogies for Change at an Alternative College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Blake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators and policy makers have long recognised the central role that education can play in creating a more sustainable and equitable world. Yet some question whether current processes across mainstream higher education prepare learners sufficiently to graduate with the capabilities or motivation to shape and create a future that is life-sustaining. This paper presents findings from a qualitative research project carried out by Plymouth University in association with Schumacher College, Devon, UK. Schumacher College is an alternative, civil society college, owned by the Dartington Hall Trust that claims to provide transformative learning opportunities within a broad context of sustainability. The study explored the nature and application of transformative learning as a pedagogical approach to advance change towards sustainability. If learners claimed transformational learning experiences, the research asked whether, and to what extent, this transformation could be attributed to the pedagogies employed at the College. The paper begins by setting out the broad background to the relationship between marginal and mainstream educational settings, and definitions and theoretical underpinnings of transformative learning, and then leads into the research design and findings. The potential for transformative pedagogies to be applied to and employed within the wider higher education (HE sector is then discussed, and the overall findings and conclusions are presented.

  8. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  9. MODELAGEM VOLUMÉTRICA PARA Eucalyptus urograndis NO MUNICÍPIO DE PORTO GRANDE, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo dos Santos Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho testou seis modelos matemáticos, sendo três de simples e três de dupla entrada, para estimar o volume de árvores de Eucalyptus urograndis, com o objetivo de selecionar o melhor modelo para as condições edafoclimáticas do município de Porto Grande, Amapá. Foram cubadas 218 árvores cobrindo uma variação de 4 a 34,21 cm de DAP, nas quais foram determinados seus respectivos DAP, comprimento real do fuste e o volume real obtido pela metodologia de Smalian. Dentre os modelos testados, foi selecionado o modelo de dupla entrada Schumacher-Hall na forma logarítmica. Baseado nos critérios estatísticos, tais como: maiores valores de R² e R² ajustados, menores valores de Sxy e Sxy%, o IF- Índice de Furnival para as comparações com os modelos logarítmicos, por esses resultados podemos concluir que o modelo de Schumacher-Hall na forma logarítmica, e recomendo para estimativa com precisão da volumetria de fuste com casca de Eucalyptus urograndis no município de Porto Grande, Amapá, Brasil. Palavras-chave: cubagem rigorosa, análise de regressão, mensuração florestal, manejo florestal, estatística.

  10. Curvas de índice de sítio para leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit] no agreste de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuell Florencio Passos Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to set and compare site index curves for leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit] variety Hawaii (cv K8 in Agreste of Pernambuco. The data set came from Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, Experimental Station of Caruaru, in which 544 trees cultivated with and without organic compound were measured 19 times during the period of 1990 – 2003. The models of Schumacher, Chapman-Richards, Silva-Bailey, Mitscherlich, Weibull and Clutter-Jones were tested and compared. To select the best equations, the Index of Fit (IF, standard error of estimate (S yx %, identity model test and the graphic of residuals distribution were used and results show that the model of Clutter-Jones provided a better IF for both treatments. The graphic of residual distribution did not show tendency among the models. The model identity test showed no differences among the models tested. As Schumacher is model has been used frequently in forestry and presented the smallest number of parameters, it deserves special focus in studies of site index.

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  12. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  13. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  14. Variation in storage alpha-glucans of the Porphyridiales (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonaga, Takahiro; Konishi, Mai; Oyama, Yasunori; Fujiwara, Shoko; Satoh, Aya; Fujita, Naoko; Colleoni, Christophe; Buléon, Alain; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Ball, Steven G; Yokoyama, Akiko; Hara, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasunori; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    Storage glucans were analyzed in the Porphyridiales which include the most primitive and phylogenetically diverged species in the Rhodophyta, to understand early evolution of the glucan structure in the Rhodophyta. The storage glucans of both Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidium caldarium consisted of glycogen, while those of Rhodosorus marinus, Porphyridium purpureum, P. sordidum and Rhodella violacea could be defined as semi-amylopectin. X-ray diffraction analysis of the glucans demonstrated variation in the crystalline structure: the patterns in P. purpureum and R. violacea were of A- and B-types, respectively, while alpha-glucans of R. marinus and P. sordidum displayed structures with lower crystallinity. Electron microscopic observations indicated that the alpha-glucans of P. sordidum consisted of two kinds of granules; a minor component of more dense granules with crystalline leaflets and a major component of softer ones without crystalline structure. Gel permeation chromatography showed that all the species containing the semi-amylopectin-type glucans also contained amylose, although the relative amounts of this fraction were different depending on the species. Our results are consistent with two distinct evolution scenarios defined either by the independent acquisition of semi-crystalline starch-like structures in the different plant lineages or more probably by the loss of starch and reversion to glycogen synthesis in cyanidian algae growing in hot and acid environments.

  15. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  16. Coeficiente de repetibilidade e parâmetros genéticos em capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cavalcante

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os coeficientes de repetibilidade de caracteres morfofisiológicos em genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum spp., a partir de dados obtidos durante seis ciclos de avaliação. Foram estimados: número mínimo de medições e parâmetros genéticos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro níveis de N (controle, 30, 60 e 90 kg ha‑1 por corte e 16 genótipos de Pennisetum (11 híbridos interespecíficos e cinco cultivares. Os ciclos consistiram de avaliações em 2010 (21/4, 19/7 e 28/9 e 2011 (6/1, 7/4 e 3/8. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram de média‑alta magnitude para todas as variáveis, o que indica que houve regularidade entre as medidas repetidas. Para as variáveis massa de forragem, altura da planta, comprimento e largura da folha, diâmetro do colmo, clorose e índice de área foliar, três ciclos de avaliação são suficientes para obter R² de 90%, pela análise de componentes principais. Para o comprimento do entrenó, o mínimo de sete avaliações é necessário para predizer o valor real dos genótipos. Os parâmetros genéticos das variáveis massa de forragem, comprimento e largura da folha, diâmetro do colmo e clorose foliar são de alta magnitude, o que favorece a seleção de genótipos superiores de Pennisetum.

  17. Plantas de cobertura no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do tomate em plantio direto Cover crops used to control weeds under the no-tillage tomato production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Silva Hirata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O plantio direto do tomateiro é um sistema que busca maior sustentabilidade, porém são escassas as informações sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas nessa nova modalidade de cultivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco tipos de cobertura do solo (Brachiaria decumbens, B. ruziziensis, Pennisetum glaucum, comunidade infestante e tratamento sem cobertura vegetal para plantio direto do tomateiro rasteiro, conduzido no sistema meia estaca, em complementação ao controle químico com herbicidas. P. glaucum foi a espécie que proporcionou maior cobertura do solo até a colheita do tomate; todavia, a taxa de decomposição da palha foi maior que a das demais coberturas. As coberturas de solo compostas pelas gramíneas forrageiras B. decumbens, B. ruziziensis e Pennisetum glaucum reduziram a densidade e a massa seca das plantas daninhas. O uso da comunidade infestante para obtenção de palha promoveu reduzida cobertura do solo e elevada emergência de plantas daninhas, semelhantes às do solo sem cobertura. B. decumbens apresentou rebrota durante o ciclo do tomateiro, o que não ocorreu com B. ruziziensis.Tomato no tillage system is a more sustainable system. However, information about weed management in this new cultivation modality is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate five vegetation covers (Brachiaria decumbens, B. ruziziensis, Pennisetum glaucum, community weed and the treatment without vegetable covering for no tillage system of the staked processing tomato crop combined with weed chemical control. P. glaucum provided the most soil cover to the tomato crop, although straw decomposition rate was higher than those of the other covers. The soil cover by the forage grasses B. decumbens, B. ruziziensis and Pennisetum glaucum reduced the density and dry mass of the weeds. The use of the community weeds for straw obtaining promoted reduced covering of the soil and larger emergency of weeds, similar to the treatment without

  18. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santakumari, M.; Rama Das, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14 CO 2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO 2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  19. EFECTO DEL CARBONATO DE POTASIO EN LA EVOLUCIÓN DE LOS GRUPOS FUNCIONALES DE LOS BIOCRUDOS DE CONVERSIÓN HIDROTÉRMICA DE BIOMASA LIGNOCELULÓSICA ALREDEDOR DEL PUNTO CRÍTICO DEL AGUA

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Alejandro A; Anzola, Andrés; Cagua, Iván; Rodríguez, Luis I; Agámez, Yazmín; Hernández, Orlando; Díaz, José de J

    2008-01-01

    Un tipo de biomasa pobre en lignina, del género Pennisetum, fue sometida al proceso de conversión hidrotérmica en presencia de carbonato de potasio como catalizador. Las reacciones se llevaron a cabo en ambientes cercanos al punto crítico del agua. Los productos de reacción no acuosos (biocrudo) se separaron por decantación y se analizaron por espectrometría infrarroja. Los biocrudos obtenidos contienen compuestos con funcionalidades aromáticas, olefínicas, hidroxiladas, éteres, y para el cas...

  20. Development of innovative technique that may be used as models for the increase of biomass production with grasses and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. W.; Hanna, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Techniques for biomass increase are discussed: irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants to maximize metabolizable energy in sorghum; interspecific crosses in Pennisetum; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to induce and transfer reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radiation induced mutations.