WorldWideScience

Sample records for penguins carry arboviruses

  1. Ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Major

    Full Text Available Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. The nearest relative to the orbivirus (for which we propose the name Sandy Bay virus was the Scottish Broadhaven virus, and provided only the second available sequences from the Great Island orbivirus serogroup. The phlebovirus (for which we propose the name Catch-me-cave virus and the previously isolated Precarious Point virus were distinct but related, with both showing homology with the Finnish Uukuniemi virus. These penguin viruses provided the second and third available sequences for the Uukuniemi group of phleboviruses. The nairovirus (for which we propose the name Finch Creek virus was shown to be related to the North American Tillamook virus, the Asian Hazara virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus. Macquarie Island penguins thus harbour arboviruses from at least four of the seven arbovirus-containing genera, with related viruses often found in the northern hemisphere.

  2. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-02-02

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  3. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    Full Text Available A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  4. Penguin Olympics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how a second grade science unit on penguins became the ideal content to integrate with the physical education curriculum. The movement experiences reinforced the information students learned about penguins and helped students to gain a deeper understanding of penguin behaviors. Together, the physical education teacher and the…

  5. Penguin Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  6. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  7. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  8. Modeling huddling penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Waters

    Full Text Available We present a systematic and quantitative model of huddling penguins. In this mathematical model, each individual penguin in the huddle seeks only to reduce its own heat loss. Consequently, penguins on the boundary of the huddle that are most exposed to the wind move downwind to more sheltered locations along the boundary. In contrast, penguins in the interior of the huddle neither have the space to move nor experience a significant heat loss, and they therefore remain stationary. Through these individual movements, the entire huddle experiences a robust cumulative effect that we identify, describe, and quantify. This mathematical model requires a calculation of the wind flowing around the huddle and of the resulting temperature distribution. Both of these must be recomputed each time an individual penguin moves since the huddle shape changes. Using our simulation results, we find that the key parameters affecting the huddle dynamics are the number of penguins in the huddle, the wind strength, and the amount of uncertainty in the movement of the penguins. Moreover, we find that the lone assumption of individual penguins minimizing their own heat loss results in all penguins having approximately equal access to the warmth of the huddle.

  9. Penguins of the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bingham

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Magellan region, including the Falkland Islands, is one of the world´s most important areas for seabirds, and especially penguins. World-wide there are 17 species of penguin; 7 of these regularly breed around the coastal waters of South America, and 5 within the Magellan region. These are the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes c. chrysocome, Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus and Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus. During the last five years, a review of the breeding populations of penguins within the Magellan region was conducted. This work included population censuses of all the surface breeding species throughout the Falkland Islands and southern South America. The results of this work are presented, along with other cited information, to provide a summary of the current knowledge of penguin populations within the Magellan region.

  10. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  11. Electroweak penguins at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073177

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are flavour-changing neutral current processes, and are highly suppressed in the Stan- dard Model. They can only proceed via loop diagrams. Such decays may receive contributions from New Physics and change their decay behaviours like decay rate and angular distribution. Studying the properties of these decays thus provides a powerful method to probe for New Physics. In this contribution the most recent LHCb results on electroweak penguin decays are reported.

  12. Electroweak penguins at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are flavour-changing neutral current processes, and are highly suppressed in the Standard Model. They can only proceed via loop diagrams. Such decays may receive contributions from New Physics and change their decay behaviours like decay rate and angular distribution. Studying the properties of these decays thus provides a powerful method to probe for New Physics. In this contribution the most recent LHCb results on electroweak penguin decays are reported.

  13. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  14. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  15. Electroweak penguin B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Nikodem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) are sensitive probes for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), so-called New Physics. An example of a FCNC is the $b \\to s$ quark transition described by the electroweak penguin Feynman diagram shown in Figure 1. In the SM such FCNC are only allowed with a loop structure (as e:g: shown in the figure) and not by tree level processes. In the loops heavy particles appear virtually and do not need to be on shell. Therefore also not yet discovered heavy particles with up to a mass $\\mathcal{O}$(TeV) could virtually contribute significantly to observables. Several recent measurements of electroweak penguin B decays exhibit interesting tensions with SM predictions, most prominently in the angular observable $P'_5$ 5 of the decay $B^0 \\to K^{*0} \\mu^+ \\mu^1$[1], which triggered a lot of discussion in the theory community [2]-[14].

  16. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  17. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum.

  18. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, -furans, and -biphenyls in three species of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Schiamone, Alessandra; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    most abundant congeners were BDE47 in Adélie and Chinstrap penguins and BDE17 in Gentoo penguins. PCDDs were 22 +/- 32, 6.5 +/- 7.4 and 18 +/- 23 pg/g in Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively. PCDFs were higher in Adélie penguins and lower in Chinstrap penguins. PCDDs/Fs and PBDEs were higher in males than in females of Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins; differences in concentrations were likely related to the partial detoxification that occurs in females during egg formation. Of the four non-ortho PCBs measured, PCB126 occurred at the highest concentrations and contributed the majority of the non-ortho PCB-TEQ in Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins. The highest TEQs were found in the Gentoo penguin and due mainly to PCDDs and non-ortho PCBs. POP concentrations in penguins were lower than those found in seabird species from other areas of the world. Different chemical accumulation patterns were observed in relation to species and sex; the Adélie penguin showed the highest POP levels. Dissimilar ecological or metabolic features may be involved; the diverse timing of reproduction steps can be responsible for those differences; moreover, Adélie penguins feed on krill (a fatty resource) more abundantly than the other two species during the rearing period. The South Shetland Islands might be subjected to a higher chemical impact with respect to the rest of Antarctica, due to their being near South America. Because penguins are fish-eating birds showing low detoxifying capacities and key-species in Antarctic ecosystems, further studies on their xenobiotic metabolism should be carried out.

  20. To sea with the penguin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, C.; Wilson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are helping to reveal many unknown factors in the Jackass Penguin's marine ecology, vital to the preservation of a species endemic to South Africa and whose population is diminishing at an alarming rate. The radioisotope chosen was phosphorous-32. The development of a cheap, small, easy to fabricate depth gauge and velocity gauge reported here enables some aspects of the marine behaviour of the penguin to be studied

  1. Non-negligible electroweak penguin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Libo; Li Xingyi

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the leading logarithmic low energy effective Hamiltonian and the Bauer-Stech-Wirbe (BSW) model, the authors calculate the electroweak penguin effects in the two-body hadronic pure penguin processes of B-meson. In the case of B→PP and PV decay, the authors find that the processes involving external penguin diagrams receive large contribution from electroweak penguin effects which can even play dominant role

  2. (Arbo)viruses in high European Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    ELSTEROVÁ, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since an ongoing climate change covers strongly the polar areas. Higher temperatures and related climate parameters bring the emergence of new parasites and their pathogens to higher latitudes. This may influence zoonotic diseases including arthropod-transmitted diseases. The tick species Ixodes uriae, parasitizing seabirds in the Arctic, may transmit many pathogens including various arboviruses, Borrelia spirochetes and Babesia apicomplexans. In the study we diagnosed 89 individuals of seabi...

  3. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  4. Mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of Kenya; 2007 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in East Africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. A systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in Kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled bi-annually during the wet seasons and screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled by species, collection date and site and screened for arboviruses by isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR screening and sequencing. Results Over 450,000 mosquitoes in 15,890 pools were screened with 83 viruses being detected/isolated that include members of the alphavirus, flavivirus and orthobunyavirus genera many of which are known to be of significant public health importance in the East African region. These include West Nile, Ndumu, Sindbis, Bunyamwera, Pongola and Usutu viruses detected from diverse sites. Ngari virus, which was associated with hemorrhagic fever in northern Kenya in 1997/98 was isolated from a pool of Anopheles funestus sampled from Tana-delta and from Aedes mcintoshi from Garissa. Insect only flaviviruses previously undescribed in Kenya were also isolated in the coastal site of Rabai. A flavivirus most closely related to the Chaoyang virus, a new virus recently identified in China and two isolates closely related to Quang Binh virus previously unreported in Kenya were also detected. Conclusion Active transmission of arboviruses of public health significance continues in various parts of the country with possible undetermined human impact. Arbovirus activity was highest in the pastoralist dominated semi-arid to arid zones sites of the country where 49% of the viruses were isolated suggesting a role of animals as amplifiers and indicating the need for improved arbovirus disease diagnosis among pastoral communities. PMID:23663381

  5. Microculture Plaque Neutralization Test for California Group Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawright, Gary L.; Harding, Gherry; Thomas, Frederick C.; Hanson, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    A microculture plaque neutralization test is described for California-group arboviruses that is as precise and quantitative as the standard test conducted in 60-mm petri dishes. It was shown that there was no significant between-panel or between-day variation in determinations and that a single pipette could be used for all serum-dilution levels within a titration without inoculum carry-over effect. The experimental protocol and statistical methods used produce 50% neutralization end points that meet the assumptions of parametric statistics. This permits the power and versatility of the analysis of variance to be exploited in testing for treatment effects in serological and immunological studies with viruses. Images PMID:4216288

  6. The Penguin: a Low Reynolds Number Powered Glider for Station Keeping Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J. K.; Greene, D. W.; Lee, T. T.; Matier, P. T.; Mccarthy, T. R.; Mcguire, R. J.; Schuette, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Penguin is a low Reynolds number (approx. 100,000) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). It was designed to fly three laps indoors around two pylons in a figure-eight course while maximizing loiter time. The Penguin's low Reynolds number mission is an important one currently being studied for possible future flights in the atmospheres of other planets and for specialized military missions. Although the Penguin's mission seemed quite simple at first, the challenges of such low Reynolds number flight have proven to be quite unique. In addition to the constraint of low Reynolds number flight, the aircraft had to be robust in its control, highly durable, and it had to carry a small instrument package. The Penguin's flight plan, concept, performance, aerodynamic design, weight estimation, structural design, propulsion, stability and control, and cost estimate is detailed.

  7. SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF JACKASS PENGUINS AT SEA Penguins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 metres from a landing beach (Frost, Siegfried & Burger in press). These tlocks are comprised of birds about to .... of travel of jackass penguins arriving at, or departing from, a landing beach at Dassen Island. It is evident that the mean speed of ...

  8. The role of penguin-like interactions in weak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1988-10-01

    Basic properties of penguin diagrams are reviewed. Some model dependent calculations of low momentum penguin loop contributions are presented. CP-violating effects generated when penguin-like diagrams are inserted in higher loops are described

  9. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  10. A question of fishing penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between foraging penquins and their marine prey are being explored by scientists compiling facts on penguin diet, food resources and foraging behaviour. Radioisotopes are a key component of some of the remote sensing devices used to obtain valuable and unique data on the birds' marine ecology

  11. Novel Avulaviruses in Penguins, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Víctor; Tapia, Rodrigo; Verdugo, Claudio; Barriga, Gonzalo; Mor, Sunil; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; García, Victoria; Del Río, José; Rodrigues, Pedro; Briceño, Cristóbal; Medina, Rafael A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    We identified 3 novel and distinct avulaviruses from Gentoo penguins sampled in Antarctica. We isolated these viruses and sequenced their complete genomes; serologic assays demonstrated that the viruses do not have cross-reactivity between them. Our findings suggest that these 3 new viruses represent members of 3 novel avulavirus species.

  12. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid S T Willener

    Full Text Available Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg and slim (post fasting; 11 kg king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  13. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  14. Review of records and notes on King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barquete, Viviane; Bugoni, Leandro; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo P.; Adornes, Andréa C.

    2006-01-01

    A review of previous findings and new records of King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) on the Brazilian coast is presented. In total there are six records of the King Penguin and ten records of the Rockhopper Penguin. Juvenile and adults of both species were found stranded mostly on Rio Grande do Sul coast, southern Brazil. Records of King Penguins are restricted to the summer season, while records of Rockhopper Penguins are mostly during winter. ...

  15. Vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses: myth, synonym of amplifier, or reality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuno, G.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Junglen, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Plyusnin, A.; Gubler, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 185. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : insect-specific virus * arbovirus * transmission mechanism * vertebrate reservoir * origin of arbovirus * virus maintenance * zoonosis * host range Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  16. Trends in the breeding population and driving factors of Adélie penguin in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ross Sea regions have been characterized by high penguin-chick-rearing habitat suitability in the recent past. Many studies have been done to study the Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea. However, the data they used both had advantages and drawbacks. Besides, little quantitative analysis were carried out to study the impact factors on the penguin population change. In this study, penguin population data from MAPPPD (Mapping application for penguin populations and projected dynamics) and IBA (Important bird areas in Antarctica) were integrated and analyzed to study the distribution and trends in the breeding population of Adélie penguin over time in the Ross Sea. In addition, linear fitting method for spatial data in time series were used to study the driving factors such as 2m-temperature, sea ice cover and chlorophyll-a concentration which can quantify phytoplankton blooms. Results indicated that there were 45 Adélie penguin colonies in the Ross Sea. Cape Adare and Cape Crozier were two biggest colonies on which current Adélie penguin abundance were 428516 and 280787 breeding pairs, respectively. Among these colonies, penguin population on 28 colonies increased, on 5 colonies decreased and on 5 colonies remained no change over time, and there were also 5 new colonies and one colony which were extinct. It was found that Adélie penguin population in most of colonies in the Ross Sea increased, which meant that Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea were "climate change winners". The main reasons for the increase in Adélie penguin population in the Ross Sea might be the rise in 2m-temperature and the increase in sea ice cover and phytoplankton. Higher temperatures have resulted in glacial retreat and snow melting, which leads to an increase in available habitat for penguins. The increased sea ice and phytoplankton might positively affect the abundance of Antarctic krill that was the major prey item for Adélie penguins in Antarctic.

  17. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany G. Bolling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  18. Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sophia; Hart, Tom; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Trathan, Philip N; Rogers, Alex D

    2009-11-01

    We report the characterization of 25 microsatellite loci isolated from the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Thirteen loci were arranged into four multiplex sets for future genetic studies of macaroni penguin populations. All 25 loci were tested separately in each of four other penguin species [Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica), gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)]. Between eight and 12 loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are expected to be useful for studies of population genetic structure in a range of penguin species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  20. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  1. Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Kuno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view, assesses the present status of the notion in light of current knowledge, and provides options for a solution to resolve the issue.

  2. Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Goro; Mackenzie, John S; Junglen, Sandra; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Plyusnin, Alexander; Gubler, Duane J

    2017-07-13

    The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view, assesses the present status of the notion in light of current knowledge, and provides options for a solution to resolve the issue.

  3. [Arbovirus circulation in the Republic of Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, A M

    1996-01-01

    In 1978-1991 the USSR-Guinea Virological and Microbiological Laboratory functioned in Kindia, the Republic of Guinea. Arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. Their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. About 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 Ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in 1978-1989, using inoculation of new-born white mice. As a result of this work 127 strains of the following arboviruses were isolated: Chikungunia (1 strain), Dengue 2 (4), Saboya (7), Wesselsbron (1), Bunyamwera (4), M'Poko (5), Rift Valley Fever (6), CHF-Congo (9), Dugbe (22), Bhanja (6), Forecariah (2), Jos (26), Abadina (15), Kindia (2), Ark 6956 (1), Fomede (2), Bluetongue (9), Mossuril (2), AnK 6009 (1), and Kolente (2). Dengue 2, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, M'Poko, Kindia, Mossuril viruses were isolated from mosquitoes. Ixodidae ticks were sources for isolation of Chikungunia, Saboya, CCHF, Dugbe, Bhanja, Forecaciah, Jos, Abadina, Kindia, Ark 6956, Fomede, Bluetongue, and Kolente viruses. Saboya, RVF, Fomede, Kolente, AnK 6909 were isolated from bats (Chiroptera); Saboya, Abadina, and Bluetongue viruses from birds. One strain of Dugbe virus was originated from the brain of Cercopithecus patas. Bunyamwera and Abadina viruses were isolated from the blood of two febrile patients. Serological identification of many strains was kindly conducted at the Pasteur Institute, Dakar (J. P.Digoutte) and some at the YARU, USA (R. Shope). Kindia and Ark 6956 (Reovirus, gr. Palyam), Fomede (gr. Chobar Gorge), Forecariah (Bunyavirus, gr. Bhanja), Kolente (Rhabdovirus) were identified as an original type of Lagos bat virus. The results of seroepidemiological surveys are also presented.

  4. [Arboviruses also have an American dream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2017-08-01

    Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Then, Chikungunya virus arrived on Saint Martin Island in 2013 after its outbreak in Polynesia; it is now widespread in the Caribbean Islands and on the American continent from the United States to Brazil. Finally, Zika virus, already active in Asia and in the South Pacific region, was introduced in Brazil and spread between the southern part of United States and south Brazil. These unexpected emergences are the consequence of the generalization of transoceanic trading; so, it is humans who are truly responsible for such transportation of viruses from the African and Asian continents. The mechanisms of virus establishment in unusual ecosystems have to be analyzed in order to understand the conditions for the circulation of the viruses, which supposes an adaptation to new hosts and vectors that are sometimes local species (like Culex vectors of West Nile virus) but mainly previously introduced mosquitoes (like Aedes aegypti and/or Aedes albopictus). Over time, all these vectors developed a strong anthropophily and, most of them, a remarkable adaptation to urban environment; hence, these arboviruses can disseminate both in rural and urban context. This type of arboviral emergences will certainly continue in the following years and we must imperatively develop preventive strategies by detecting virus mutations with capacity for emergence, enhancing the sensibility and rapidity of epidemiological surveillance, and becoming ready to face such events that cause a truly international health crisis.

  5. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2010-01-01

    Penguins (Sphenisciformes) inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The 60+ Myr fossil record of penguins spans an interval that witnessed dramatic shifts in Cenozoic ocean temperatures and currents, indicating a long interplay between penguin evolution and environmental change. Perhaps the most celebrated example is the successful Late Cenozoic invasion of glacial environments by crown clade penguins. A major adaptation that allows penguins to forage in cold water is the humer...

  6. Prevalence of Arbovirus Infections among Pregnant Women at a Maternity Hospital School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Neves Figueiroa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survey the prevalence of arbovirus infections among pregnant women provided with care at a maternity hospital school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study, carried out with data collected from the notification forms filled in during obstetric screening between August 2015 and July 2016. Results: Positive serology was found for arboviruses in 40.2% of the 103 suspected cases. Serology was not performed or it showed inconclusive results in 59.8% of the cases. Dengue fever occurred in 44% of the cases, chikungunya in 34%, and zika fever in 22%. Infections were more frequent among pregnant women over 20 years old, with low income and low schooling levels, living in Recife (48.5% and Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil (24.3%. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were arthralgia (94%, exanthema (82%, and fever (78%. Infections occurred within the first trimester of pregnancy (54.5%, 63.3% of the pregnant women had to be hospitalized, and 45.4% of them did not undergo morphological ultrasonography. Most babies were born full-term and they had adequate weight. The prevalence of microcephaly was 9.7% when considering cases of arbovirose and 62.5% when considering specific cases of zika fever. Conclusion: The prevalence and repercussions of arboviruses justify the consolidation of actions to fight Aedes aegypti, as well as the effective deployment of clinical protocols and recommendations aimed at the mother and child care.

  7. The role of electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole QCD penguin on hadronic b Quark Decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mehrban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research, works with the effective Hamiltonian and the quark model. Using, the decay rates of matter-antimatter of b quark was investigated. We described the effective Hamiltonian theory which was applied to the calculation of current-current (Q1,2, QCD penguin (Q3,…,6, magnetic dipole (Q8 and electroweak penguin (Q7,…,10 decay rates. The gluonic penguin structure of hadronic decays b→qkg→qkqiqj was studied through the Wilson coefficients of the effective Hamiltonian. The branching ratios of the Tree-Level, effective Hamiltonian, effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin, effective Hamiltonian including magnetic dipole and the effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole b quark decays b→qiqkqj, qi{u,c}, qk{d,s}, qj{u,c} have been calculated. It was shown that, the electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole contributions in b quark decays are small and current-current operators are dominated.

  8. Penguins and their noisy world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Penguins identify their mate or chick by an acoustic signal, the display call. This identification is realized in a particularly constraining environment: the noisy world of a colony of thousands of birds. To fully understand how birds solve this problem of communication, we have done observations, acoustic analysis, propagation and playback experiments with 6 species of penguins studied in the field. According to our results, it appears that penguins use a particularly efficient ''anti-confusion'' and ''anti-noise'' coding system, allowing a quick identification and localization of individuals on the move in a noisy crowd.Os pingüins identificam seu parceiro ou seu filhote através de um sinal acústico, o grito de exibição. Esta identificação está realizada num ambiente particularmente exigente: o mundo barulhento de uma colônia de milhares de aves. Para entender totalmente como essas aves resolvem este problema de comunicação, realizamos observações, análises acústicas e experiências de propagação e de ''play-back'' com 6 espécies de pingüins estudados no campo. Segundo nossos resultados, parece que os pingüins usam um sistema de codificação ''anti-confusão'' e ''anti-barulho'' particularmente eficiente, permitindo uma rápida identificação e localização dos indivíduos em movimento numa multidão barulhenta.

  9. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sankar; Beans-Picón, Gabrielle; Swaminathan, Siva K.; Millar, Craig D.; Lambert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are a remarkable group of birds, with the 18 extant species living in diverse climatic zones from the tropics to Antarctica. The timing of the origin of these extant penguins remains controversial. Previous studies based on DNA sequences and fossil records have suggested widely differing times for the origin of the group. This has given rise to widely differing biogeographic narratives about their evolution. To resolve this problem, we sequenced five introns from 11 species representing all genera of living penguins. Using these data and other available DNA sequences, together with the ages of multiple penguin fossils to calibrate the molecular clock, we estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant penguins to be 20.4 Myr (17.0–23.8 Myr). This time is half of the previous estimates based on molecular sequence data. Our results suggest that most of the major groups of extant penguins diverged 11–16 Ma. This overlaps with the sharp decline in Antarctic temperatures that began approximately 12 Ma, suggesting a possible relationship between climate change and penguin evolution. PMID:24227045

  10. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  11. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  12. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  13. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  14. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour

  15. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour.

  16. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that compris...

  17. Biological Control Strategies for Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-02-10

    Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents. Two significant advancements are the discovery of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia bacteria, which has enhanced replacement programs, and the introduction of dominant lethal genes into local mosquito populations through the release of genetically modified mosquitoes. As various arboviruses continue to be significant public health threats, biological control strategies have evolved to be more diverse and become critical tools to reduce the disease burden of arboviruses.

  18. Biological Control Strategies for Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents. Two significant advancements are the discovery of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia bacteria, which has enhanced replacement programs, and the introduction of dominant lethal genes into local mosquito populations through the release of genetically modified mosquitoes. As various arboviruses continue to be significant public health threats, biological control strategies have evolved to be more diverse and become critical tools to reduce the disease burden of arboviruses.

  19. Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya: Emerging Arboviruses in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessica; Sammon, Maura; Garg, Manish

    2016-11-01

    The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.). In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus , the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor. Emergency physicians need to further familiarize themselves with these diseases, which have classically been considered only in returning travelers but may soon be encountered in the U.S. even in the absence of travel. In this paper, we discuss the presentation and treatment of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, as well as special challenges presented to the emergency physician in evaluating a patient with a suspected arbovirus infection.

  20. Ecological effects on arbovirus-mosquito cycles of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit many viruses to a variety of hosts. Cycles of mosquito borne arbovirus transmission are the result of complex interactions between the mosquito, the arbovirus and the host that are influenced by genetic variations in a variety of traits in each that are all influenced by many environmental factors. R 0 , the basic reproduction number or mean number of individuals infected from a single infected individual, is a measure of mosquito borne arbovirus transmission. Understanding the causes for the distribution of R 0 in any transmission cycle is a daunting challenge due to the lack of information on the genetic and environmental variances that influence R 0 . Information about the major factors influencing R 0 for specific transmission cycles is essential to develop efficient and effective strategies to reduce transmission in different cycles and locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natapong Jupatanakul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  2. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.

  3. Heterothermy in growing king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Götz; Groscolas, René; Le Glaunec, Gaële; Parisel, Camille; Arnold, Laurent; Medina, Patrice; Handrich, Yves

    2011-08-16

    A drop in body temperature allows significant energy savings in endotherms, but facultative heterothermy is usually restricted to small animals. Here we report that king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which are able to fast for up to 5 months in winter, undergo marked seasonal heterothermy during this period of general food scarcity and slow-down of growth. They also experience short-term heterothermy below 20 °C in the lower abdomen during the intense (re)feeding period in spring, induced by cold meals and adverse weather. The heterothermic response involves reductions in peripheral temperature, reductions in thermal core volume and temporal abandonment of high core temperature. Among climate variables, air temperature and wind speed show the strongest effect on body temperature, but their effect size depends on physiological state. The observed heterothermy is remarkable for such a large bird (10 kg before fasting), which may account for its unrivalled fasting capacity among birds.

  4. Spacelike penguin diagram effects in B implies PP decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, D.; Yang, M.; Zhang, D.

    1996-01-01

    The spacelike penguin diagram contributions to branching ratios and CP asymmetries in charmless decays of B to two pseudoscalar mesons are studied using the next-to-leading order low energy effective Hamiltonian. Both the gluonic penguin and the electroweak penguin diagrams are considered. We find that the effects are significant. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  5. Penguin colony attendance under artificial lights for ecotourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Holmberg, Ross; Dann, Peter; Chiaradia, André

    2018-03-30

    Wildlife watching is an emerging ecotourism activity around the world. In Australia and New Zealand, night viewing of little penguins attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year. As penguins start coming ashore after sunset, artificial lighting is essential to allow visitors to view them in the dark. This alteration of the nightscape warrants investigation for any potential effects of artificial lighting on penguin behavior. We experimentally tested how penguins respond to different light wavelengths (colors) and intensities to examine effects on the colony attendance behavior at two sites on Phillip Island, Australia. At one site, nocturnal artificial illumination has been used for penguin viewing for decades, whereas at the other site, the only light is from the natural night sky. Light intensity did not affect colony attendance behaviors of penguins at the artificially lit site, probably due to penguin habituation to lights. At the not previously lit site, penguins preferred lit paths over dark paths to reach their nests. Thus, artificial light might enhance penguin vision at night and consequently it might reduce predation risk and energetic costs of locomotion through obstacle and path detection. Although penguins are faithful to their path, they can be drawn to artificial lights at small spatial scale, so light pollution could attract penguins to undesirable lit areas. When artificial lighting is required, we recommend keeping lighting as dim and time-restricted as possible to mitigate any negative effects on the behavior of penguins and their natural habitat. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  7. Factors contributing to and strategies to combat emerging arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, David Michael

    2018-04-17

    Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes. We focus on recent outbreaks of the arthropod borne viruses (arboviruses) Zika virus and YFV. Factors contributing to the blossoming of EIDs (environmental, globalisation, and urbanisation) and combating strategies (surveillance, containment, and prevention) will be discussed. Specifically, Zika virus and YFV will be used in the context of these factors and strategies. YFV is discussed in detail as it pertains to these factors and strategies in the United States (US), 2017 Brazil Outbreak, 2016 Africa Outbreak, and global risk. Vigilance is needed to focus on, prevent, and control the current and next arbovirus EIDs.

  8. [Entomologic situation regarding arbovirus circulation in the Guajaibon area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes González, O; Fernández Martínez, A; Castex Rodríguez, M; Pelegrino Martínez, J L

    1989-01-01

    The collections of culicidae made in the Guajaibón area, North coast of Havana province, are analyzed with arbovirologic purposes. The predominance of Aedes scapularis in the human bait collections is confirmed. The possibility of arbovirus circulation in the area is suggested.

  9. Emerging and reemerging arboviruses: A new threat in Eastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Weilg, Pablo; Manrique, Carlos; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Del Valle, Luis J; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana

    2017-01-01

    Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) and a significant health problem in South America. In Peru, laboratory etiologic identification of these infections occurs in less than 50% of cases, leading to underdiagnoses of important emerging arboviruses. To assess the prevalence of the Dengue (DENV), Oropouche (OROV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in patients with acute febrile illness from Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Serum samples were obtained from patients with AFI during January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 139 specimens were analyzed for the presence of DENV, OROV, CHIKV, MAYV, and ZIKV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CHIKV in 9.4% and OROV in 8.6% were the most prevalent arboviruses, followed by DENV and ZIKV, with a prevalence of 6.5% and 5%, respectively. Among all patients, the most common symptoms accompanying fever were headaches 79.9%, muscle pain 65.5% and joint pain 63.3%. During this short 3-month period, 4 arboviruses were detected by PCR, CHIKV and OROV being the most common arboviruses in Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Thus, it is crucial to include OROV detection in the national health surveillance. Furthermore, the etiologic clinical diagnosis of arboviral infections is not possible due to the low specificity of symptoms; therefore an increase of cases confirmed by molecular diagnostic methods will enhance arboviral surveillance in Peru.

  10. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  11. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated

  12. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Chia Swee [High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  13. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  14. US and Cuban Scientists Forge Collaboration on Arbovirus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ávila, Jorge; Guzmán-Tirado, Maria G; Fraga-Nodarse, Jorge; Handley, Gray; Meegan, James; Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Jose L; Fauci, Anthony S

    2018-04-01

    After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research. The nearly 100 participants included leading arbovirus and vector transmission experts from ten US academic institutions, NIH, CDC, FDA and the US Department of Defense. Cuban participants included researchers, clinicians and students from Cuba's Ministry of Public Health, Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Center for State Control of Medicines and Medical Devices and other health research and regulatory organizations. Topics highlighted at the three-day meeting included surveillance, research and epidemiology; pathogenesis, immunology and virology; treatment and diagnosis; vector biology and control; vaccine development and clinical trials; and regulatory matters. Concurrent breakout discussions focused on novel vector control, nonvector transmission, community engagement, Zika in pregnancy, and workforce development. Following the conference, the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute and the US National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Diseases have continued to explore ways to encourage and support scientists in Cuba and the USA who wish to pursue arbovirus research cooperation to advance scientific discovery to improve disease prevention and control. KEYWORDS Arboviruses, flavivirus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, dengue virus, research, disease vectors, Cuba, USA.

  15. Ureogenesis in Aantarctic birds-Blood levels of nitrogen compounds and liver and kidney arginase in penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rodrigues

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the levels and the kinetics of liver and kidney arginase from Pygoscelis penguins, the gentoo Pygoscelis papua, the chinstrap, Pygoscelis antarctica, and the Adelie, Pygoscelis adeliae. Higher values of blood urea were found in the gentoo penguins in the native state when compared with specimens maintained in the fasting state for 24 hours. In the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica the average value for blood urea was 1.5 times higher in the native state than in the fasting condition. In the native gentoo penguin P. papua the relative increase in the blood urea concentration is as high as 3.5 times in regard to the levels found in the fasting state. In regard to the blood levels of uric acid, the difference between the native state and the fasting state is 2.0 times for P. antarctica and 4.8 times for P. papua. Specific activities of arginase assayed in penguin liver were 561 mU/mg protein and 208mU/mg protein for adult P. antarctica and P. papua respectively. Kinetic studies with arginase from penguin liver homogenates showed Km values for L-arginine of 16.0±2.0mM at pH9.5. Arginase from birds possesses in general high Km values (between 100-200mM. It seems then that the high protein diet and the high levels of blood urea of penguins are a consequence of the levels of hepatic arginase and the high affinity of this enzyme toward its substrate.

  16. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  17. Investigations into yellow fever virus and other arboviruses in the northern regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B E; Metselaar, D; Kirya, G B; Timms, G L

    1970-01-01

    Previous studies having shown an appreciable level of yellow fever immunity to exist in northern Kenya, further epidemiological and serological surveys were carried out there in 1968 in an attempt to define more clearly the distribution of yellow fever and to locate possible vector and reservoir hosts of the disease; these surveys also provided information on a number of other arboviruses.Altogether 436 sera from 5 areas in northern Kenya were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition tests with 8 antigens, and 107 of these sera by neutralization tests for Group-B arboviruses. Small numbers of yellow-fever-immune adults were found in Ileret, Garissa, Loglogo and Mikona. At Marsabit high proportions of immune adults and children were found among the Burgi tribe. As the Burgi are permanent agricultural workers on Marsabit Mountain, an entomological investigation was made, over 15 000 mosquitos being collected. From these, 13 strains of Pongola virus, 1 strain of Semliki Forest virus and an unidentified virus were isolated, but no yellow fever strains. Aedes africanus and Aedes simpsoni were not found at Marsabit; small numbers of Aedes aegypti were collected biting man. The vector potential of other mosquitos collected (particularly Mansonia africana, which is present throughout the year) is discussed.

  18. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Myoglobin production in emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; Welch, T J; Welch, L S; Stockard, T K

    2010-06-01

    Increased oxygen storage is essential to the diving capacities of marine mammals and seabirds. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptation are unknown. Myoglobin (Mb) and Mb mRNA concentrations were analyzed in emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) adults and chicks with spectrophotometric and RNase protection assays to evaluate production of their large Mb-bound O(2) stores. Mean pectoral Mb concentration and Mb mRNA content increased throughout the pre-fledging period and were 15-fold and 3-fold greater, respectively, in adults than in 3.5 month old chicks. Mean Mb concentration in 5.9 month old juveniles was 2.7+/-0.4 g 100 g(-1) muscle (44% that of wild adults), and in adults that had been captive all their lives it was 3.7+/-0.1 g 100 g(-1) muscle. The Mb and Mb mRNA data are consistent with regulation of Mb production at the level of transcription as in other animals. Significant Mb and Mb mRNA production occurred in chicks and young juveniles even without any diving activity. The further increase in adult Mb concentrations appears to require the exercise/hypoxia of diving because Mb concentration in captive, non-diving adults only reached 60% of that of wild adults. The much greater relative increase in Mb concentration than in Mb mRNA content between young chicks and adults suggests that there is not a simple 1:1 relationship between Mb mRNA content and Mb concentration. Nutritional limitation in young chicks and post-transcriptional regulation of Mb concentration may also be involved.

  20. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  1. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  2. Temperature Regulation of Young Jackass Penguins, Spheniscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... substantial part of the available energy into growth. A decrease in rectal temperature, despite the increase in heat production, is interpreted as indicative of poor insulative properties ot the down. Preliminary data on the ontogeny of thermoregulation indicate that penguin chicks may attain mature thermoregulatory abilities ...

  3. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  4. Taking a bite out of nutrition and arbovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weger-Lucarelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is a key factor in host-pathogen defense. Malnutrition can increase both host susceptibility and severity of infection through a number of pathways, and infection itself can promote nutritional deterioration and further susceptibility. Nutritional status can also strongly influence response to vaccination or therapeutic pharmaceuticals. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses have a long history of infecting humans, resulting in regular pandemics as well as an increasing frequency of autochthonous transmission. Interestingly, aside from host-related factors, nutrition could also play a role in the competence of vectors required for transmission of these viruses. Nutritional status of the host and vector could even influence viral evolution itself. Therefore, it is vital to understand the role of nutrition in the arbovirus lifecycle. This Review will focus on nutritional factors that could influence susceptibility and severity of infection in the host, response to prophylactic and therapeutic strategies, vector competence, and viral evolution.

  5. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  6. Phase transitions in huddling emperor penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S.; Gerum, R.; Winterl, A.; Houstin, A.; Seifert, M.; Peschel, J.; Fabry, B.; Le Bohec, C.; Zitterbart, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are highly adapted to the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter: they are able to fast for up to 134 days during breeding. To conserve energy, emperor penguins form tight groups (huddles), which is key for their reproductive success. The effect of different meteorological factors on the huddling behaviour, however, is not well understood. Using time-lapse image recordings of an emperor penguin colony, we show that huddling can be described as a phase transition from a fluid to a solid state. We use the colony density as order parameter, and an apparent temperature that is perceived by the penguins as the thermodynamic variable. We approximate the apparent temperature as a linear combination of four meteorological parameters: ambient temperature, wind speed, global radiation and relative humidity. We find a wind chill factor of  ‑2.9 , a humidity chill factor of  ‑0.5 rel. humidity, and a solar radiation heating factor of 0.3 . In the absence of wind, humidity and solar radiation, the phase transition temperature (50% huddling probability) is  ‑48.2 °C for the investigated time period (May 2014). We propose that higher phase transition temperatures indicate a shrinking thermal insulation and thus can serve as a proxy for lower energy reserves of the colony, integrating pre-breeding foraging success at sea and energy expenditure at land due to environmental conditions. As current global change is predicted to have strong detrimental effects on emperor penguins within the next decades, our approach may thus contribute towards an urgently needed long-term monitoring system for assessing colony health.

  7. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Camara,Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by th...

  8. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian J.; Kerlin, Tim; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Cortis, Giles; Doggett, Stephen L.; Toi, Cheryl; Fall, Ken; McMahon, Jamie L.; Townsend, Michael; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as s...

  9. Identification of Blood Meals from Potential Arbovirus Mosquito Vectors in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Pedro M.; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Zorrilla, Víctor; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Huayanay, Anibal; Guevara, Carolina; Lescano, Andrés G.; Halsey, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of many arboviruses in the Amazon Basin region have not been fully elucidated, including the vectors and natural reservoir hosts. Identification of blood meal sources in field-caught mosquitoes could yield information for identifying potential arbovirus vertebrate hosts. We identified blood meal sources in 131 mosquitoes collected from areas endemic for arboviruses in the Peruvian Department of Loreto by sequencing polymerase chain reaction amplicons of the cytochrom...

  10. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species,...

  11. Looking for new emperor penguin colonies? Filling the gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ancel

    2017-01-01

    Our analysis highlights a fundamental requirement, that in order to predict how species might respond to regional climate change, we must better understand their biogeography and the factors that lead to their occupation of particular sites. Regarding emperor penguins, remote sensing should target the identified gaps apparently devoid of penguins in order to update the total number of colonies, to re-evaluate both the regional and global population of emperor penguins, and to gain a better understanding of their biogeography.

  12. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  13. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission. PMID:23343982

  14. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-11

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  15. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  16. Another look at tarsometatarsi of early penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tarsometatarsus, a compound bone from the lower leg in birds, is the most important skeletal element in fossil penguin taxonomy, especially in the case of early members of this group. However, any attempt to go beyond the problem of mere classification obviously requires the better understanding of osteological traits under consideration. This in turn touches on the issue of interplay between bone and concomitant soft-tissue structures, such as muscles, tendons and vessels. This paper focuses on the more holistic comprehension of the tarsometatarsal section of the Eocene penguin foot, based on the analysis of the myology and the vascular system of its modern counterparts. A number of graphical reconstructions are provided with a discussion of the role of the hypotarsus and intermetatarsal foramina.

  17. Penguin loops with confined quark propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1984-12-01

    The ΔS = 1 penguin diagram is calculated by representing the internal quark lines in the loop by bag model wave functions. Because of the involved GIM-mecanism, only the lowest internal quark modes are kept in the loop. The result depends cruically on the values of the strong coupling constant and the quark energy of the bag model wave functions. With reasonable values of parameters, contributions corresponding to effective penguin coeffisient values of approximately two to five times the standard pertubative ones, have been found. Thus the theoretical value for the ratio between ΔI = 1/2 and ΔI = 3/2 amplitudes seems to be improved

  18. Glueball production via gluonic penguin B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao-Gang [INPAC, SKLPPC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences and Physics Department of National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); National Taiwan University, Department of Physics, Taipei (China); Yuan, Tzu-Chiang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China)

    2015-03-01

    We study glueball G production in gluonic penguin decay B → G + X{sub s}, using the next-to-leading order b → sg* gluonic penguin interaction and effective couplings of a glueball to two perturbative gluons. Subsequent decays of a scalar glueball are described by using techniques of effective chiralLagrangians to incorporate the interaction between a glueball and pseudoscalar mesons.Mixing effects between the pure glueball with other mesons are considered. Identifying the f{sub 0}(1710) as a scalar glueball, we find that both the top and the charm penguin are important and obtain a sizable branching ratio for B → f{sub 0}(1710) + X{sub s} of order 1.3 x 10{sup -4}(f/0.07 GeV{sup -1}){sup 2}, where the effective coupling strength f is estimated to be 0.07 GeV{sup -1} using experimental data for the branching ratio of f{sub 0}(1710) → K anti K based on a chiral Lagrangian estimate. An alternative perturbative QCD based estimation of f is a factor of 20 larger, which would imply a much enhanced branching ratio. Glueball production from this rare semi-inclusive B decay can be probed at the LHCb and Belle II to narrow down the allowed parameter space. A similar branching ratio is expected for the pseudoscalar glueball. We also briefly comment on the case of vector and tensor glueballs. (orig.)

  19. Glueball production via gluonic penguin B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    We study glueball G production in gluonic penguin decay B → G + X s , using the next-to-leading order b → sg* gluonic penguin interaction and effective couplings of a glueball to two perturbative gluons. Subsequent decays of a scalar glueball are described by using techniques of effective chiralLagrangians to incorporate the interaction between a glueball and pseudoscalar mesons.Mixing effects between the pure glueball with other mesons are considered. Identifying the f 0 (1710) as a scalar glueball, we find that both the top and the charm penguin are important and obtain a sizable branching ratio for B → f 0 (1710) + X s of order 1.3 x 10 -4 (f/0.07 GeV -1 ) 2 , where the effective coupling strength f is estimated to be 0.07 GeV -1 using experimental data for the branching ratio of f 0 (1710) → K anti K based on a chiral Lagrangian estimate. An alternative perturbative QCD based estimation of f is a factor of 20 larger, which would imply a much enhanced branching ratio. Glueball production from this rare semi-inclusive B decay can be probed at the LHCb and Belle II to narrow down the allowed parameter space. A similar branching ratio is expected for the pseudoscalar glueball. We also briefly comment on the case of vector and tensor glueballs. (orig.)

  20. Social behaviour of Jackass penguins at sea | Siegfried | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports flocking, communal feeding and other aspects of sea-based social behaviour in the jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus). Penguins tend to occur within about 15 km of the mainland, but range farther afield from the islands used for breeding and/or roosting. Relatively large groups of 50 and more birds ...

  1. ((ε')/(ε)) and the electroweak penguin contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirigliano, V.; Donoghue, J.F.; Golowich, E.; Maltman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Our dispersive sum rule calculation of the electroweak penguin contribution to ((ε')/(ε)) is reviewed. A more recent analysis based on the finite-energy sum rule approach is described. Finally, a new determination of the electroweak penguin contribution to ((ε')/(ε)) is presented

  2. Penguins and the Δ I = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.

    1980-08-01

    A discussion is presented of the role of penguin operators in the weak decays of light particles, including an extra operator, O 7 , entering in two loops. The evidence for large penguin contributions is reviewed and found to be uncompelling. 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  4. Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ian H; Manuel, Menchie; Moorthy, Mahesh; Lee, Theodore T M; Low, Dolyce H W; Missé, Dorothée; Gubler, Duane J; Ellis, Brett R; Ooi, Eng Eong; Pompon, Julien

    2017-06-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection. We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses. Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore's vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has not sustainably reduced arboviral incidence

  5. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  6. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2011-01-01

    Penguins (Sphenisciformes) inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The 60+ Myr fossil record of penguins spans an interval that witnessed dramatic shifts in Cenozoic ocean temperatures and currents, indicating a long interplay between penguin evolution and environmental change. Perhaps the most celebrated example is the successful Late Cenozoic invasion of glacial environments by crown clade penguins. A major adaptation that allows penguins to forage in cold water is the humeral arterial plexus, a vascular counter-current heat exchanger (CCHE) that limits heat loss through the flipper. Fossil evidence reveals that the humeral plexus arose at least 49 Ma during a ‘Greenhouse Earth’ interval. The evolution of the CCHE is therefore unrelated to global cooling or development of polar ice sheets, but probably represents an adaptation to foraging in subsurface waters at temperate latitudes. As global climate cooled, the CCHE was key to invasion of thermally more demanding environments associated with Antarctic ice sheets. PMID:21177693

  7. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; Ksepka, Daniel T; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2011-06-23

    Penguins (Sphenisciformes) inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The 60+ Myr fossil record of penguins spans an interval that witnessed dramatic shifts in Cenozoic ocean temperatures and currents, indicating a long interplay between penguin evolution and environmental change. Perhaps the most celebrated example is the successful Late Cenozoic invasion of glacial environments by crown clade penguins. A major adaptation that allows penguins to forage in cold water is the humeral arterial plexus, a vascular counter-current heat exchanger (CCHE) that limits heat loss through the flipper. Fossil evidence reveals that the humeral plexus arose at least 49 Ma during a 'Greenhouse Earth' interval. The evolution of the CCHE is therefore unrelated to global cooling or development of polar ice sheets, but probably represents an adaptation to foraging in subsurface waters at temperate latitudes. As global climate cooled, the CCHE was key to invasion of thermally more demanding environments associated with Antarctic ice sheets.

  8. Second generation DNA sequencing of the mitogenome of the Chinstrap penguin and comparative genomics of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sankar; Lingala, Syamala Gowri; Swaminathan, Siva; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David

    2014-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) was sequenced and compared with other penguin mitogenomes. The genome is 15,972 bp in length with the number and order of protein coding genes and RNAs being very similar to that of other known penguin mitogenomes. Comparative nucleotide analysis showed the Chinstrap mitogenome shares 94% homology with the mitogenome of its sister species, Pygoscelis adelie (Adélie penguin). Divergence at nonsynonymous nucleotide positions was found to be up to 23 times less than that observed in synonymous positions of protein coding genes, suggesting high selection constraints. The complete mitogenome data will be useful for genetic and evolutionary studies of penguins.

  9. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  10. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  11. Factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gould, Ernest A

    2015-03-01

    Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  12. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  13. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  14. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  15. Enhanced Electroweak Penguin Amplitude in B→VV Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Rohrer, J.; Yang, D.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a novel electromagnetic penguin contribution to the transverse helicity amplitudes in B decays to two vector mesons, which is enhanced by two powers of m B /Λ relative to the standard penguin amplitudes. This leads to unique polarization signatures in penguin-dominated decay modes such as B→ρK* similar to polarization effects in the radiative decay B→K*γ and offers new opportunities to probe the magnitude and chirality of flavor-changing neutral current couplings to photons

  16. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsuk, S. Ya.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B 0 → K* 0 γ, B 0 s → φγ, and B 0 → ωγ and the gluonic penguin decays B 0 → φK 0 S and B 0 s → φφ in LHCb experiments is discussed

  17. Imported Arbovirus Infections in Canada 1974-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Artsob

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1974 to 1989, sera from symptomatic patients with histories of recent travel outside Canada were tested for antibodies to several arboviruses, principally of the alphavirus and flavivirus families. Diagnostic seroconversions were documented in 84 individuals from six provinces, including one alphavirus (Chikungunya and 83 flavivirus seroconvertors. Dengue 1 virus was isolated from the blood of one patient. Most flavivirus seroconvertors were likely infected with dengue virus, but infections with tick-borne encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis and Powassan viruses were also recognized. Patients had histories of recent travel to the Caribbean, South America, Asia, Africa, North America (outside Canada, Tahiti, Fiji and Europe. Possible imported infections due to Japanese encephalitis, Ross River, western equine encephalitis and Colorado tick fever viruses were also encountered.

  18. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.

  19. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Clerc, M.; Gendner, J.-P.; Ribic, C.A.; Fraser, William R.; Woehler, Eric J.; Descamps, S.; Gilly, C.; Le, Bohec C.; Le, Maho Y.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks. ?? 2004 The Royal Society.

  20. Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Gough Island. ... to the pelage of two of the 12 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) inspected and one ... We also recorded a goose barnacle attached to a Northern rockhopper ...

  1. Rehabilitation of oiled magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clumpner, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    On September 10, 1991, the International Bird Rescue Research Center (IBRRC) was contacted by Dee Boersma, professor of zoology at the University of Washington. An oil spill from an unknown source had affected large numbers of magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) returning to breeding colonies along the coast of southern Argentina. Dr. Boersma had been studying the penguins at Punta Tombo since 1982. It wasn't unusual for some of the penguins to arrive oiled, but this year the numbers of oiled birds were up considerably. In the week of September 14 to 20, a survey of 239 kilometers of coastline (about one-third of the affected area) spotted 16,350 penguins with some degree of oiling

  2. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  3. Electroweak penguin diagrams and two-body B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; Hernandez, O.F.; London, D.; Rosner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the role of electroweak penguin diagrams in B decays to two light pseudoscalar mesons. We confirm that the extraction of the weak phase α through the isospin analysis involving B→ππ decays is largely unaffected by such operators. However, the methods proposed to obtain weak and strong phases by relating B→ππ, B→πK, and B→K bar K decays through flavor SU(3) will be invalidated if eletroweak penguin diagrams are large. We show that, although the introduction of electroweak penguin contributions introduces no new amplitudes of flavor SU(3), there are a number of ways to experimentally measure the size of such effects. Finally, using SU(3) amplitude relations we present a new way of measuring the weak angle γ which holds even in the presence of electroweak penguin diagrams

  4. Identification of Blood Meals from Potential Arbovirus Mosquito Vectors in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Pedro M; Aguilar, Patricia V; Sanchez, Juan F; Zorrilla, Víctor; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Huayanay, Anibal; Guevara, Carolina; Lescano, Andrés G; Halsey, Eric S

    2016-11-02

    The transmission dynamics of many arboviruses in the Amazon Basin region have not been fully elucidated, including the vectors and natural reservoir hosts. Identification of blood meal sources in field-caught mosquitoes could yield information for identifying potential arbovirus vertebrate hosts. We identified blood meal sources in 131 mosquitoes collected from areas endemic for arboviruses in the Peruvian Department of Loreto by sequencing polymerase chain reaction amplicons of the cytochrome b gene. Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu, Psorophora (Grabhamia) cingulata, Mansonia humeralis, Anopheles oswaldoi s.l., and Anopheles benarrochi s.l. had mainly anthropophilic feeding preferences; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus, and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus had feeding preferences for peridomestic animals; and Culex (Melanoconion) spp. fed on a variety of vertebrates, mainly rodents (spiny rats), birds, and amphibians. On the basis of these feeding preferences, many mosquitoes could be considered as potential enzootic and bridge arbovirus vectors in the Amazon Basin of Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  6. Clinical and serological tests for arboviruses in free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Alves; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chagas, Liliane Leal das; Silva, Franko de Arruda E; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Freitas, Maria Nazaré Oliveira; Alcantara, Bianca Nascimento de; Silva, Sandro Patroca da; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sepulvreda, Barbara Alves; Corrêa, Layna Thayssa Guimarães; Negrão, Andréa Maria Góes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Casseb, Alexandre do Rosário

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia) as a reservoir of arboviruses in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses. This study was aimed at evaluating some clinical and physical parameters of domestic pigeons, including the presence of antibodies to Amazon-endemic arboviruses. Eighty-five healthy pigeons were captured in Mangal das Garças Park, in Belém, and were bled. Upon capture, the birds were subjected to a clinical examination in search of alterations that could indicate the presence of arboviruses. Blood samples were converted to serum and tested using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique with a panel of 19 antigens of arboviruses circulating in the Amazon. The confirmation assay for the positive reactions to the viral species tested by HI was a neutralisation test in new-born Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) [mouse neutralisation test (MNT)]. A total of 10 (11.8%) serum samples tested positive for antiflavivirus antibodies by HI. All the samples positive for the HI test were subjected to MNT for detection of viruses and yielded negative results (logarithmic neutralisation index < 1.7). The results represent the first serological detection of antiarbovirus antibodies in domestic pigeons as potential hosts of arboviruses in Brazil. The detection of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against genus Flavivirus indicated that there was recent contact between the analysed domestic pigeons and these arboviruses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of free-living pigeons in the maintenance cycle and spread of arboviruses in the Amazon.

  7. Emerging souvenirs-clinical presentation of the returning traveller with imported arbovirus infections in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerle, I; Briciu, V T; Ergönül, Ö; Lupşe, M; Papa, A; Radulescu, A; Tsiodras, S; Tsitou, C; Drosten, C; Nussenblatt, V R; Reusken, C B; Sigfrid, L A; Beeching, N J

    2018-03-01

    Arboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a nonspecific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis, with or without neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and noninfectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the nonspecific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis. This narrative review aims to summarize the main clinical and laboratory-based findings of the three most common imported arboviruses in Europe. Evidence is extracted from published literature and clinical expertise of European arbovirus experts. We present three cases that highlight similarities and differences between some of the most common travel-related arboviruses imported to Europe. These include a patient with chikungunya virus infection presenting in Greece, a case of dengue fever in Turkey and a travel-related case of Zika virus infection in Romania. Early diagnosis of travel-imported cases is important to reduce the risk of localized outbreaks of tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya and the risk of local transmission from body fluids or vertical transmission. Given the global relevance of arboviruses and the continuous risk of (re)emerging arbovirus events, clinicians should be aware of the clinical syndromes of arbovirus fevers and the potential pitfalls in diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Structural organisation and dynamics in king penguin colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard; Richter, Sebastian; Fabry, Ben; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Nesterova, Anna; Zitterbart, Daniel P.

    2018-04-01

    During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In this study, we use the radial distribution function to analyse the spatial coordinates of penguin positions. Coordinates are obtained from aerial images of two colonies that were observed for several years. Our data demonstrate that the structural order in king penguin colonies resembles a 2D liquid of particles with a Lennard-Jones-type interaction potential. We verify this using a molecular dynamics simulation with thermally driven particles, whereby temperature corresponds to penguin movements, the energy well depth ɛ of the attractive potential corresponds to the strength of the colony-forming behaviour, and the repulsive zone corresponds to the pecking radius. We can recapitulate the liquid disorder of the colony, as measured by the radial distribution function, when the particles have a temperature of several (1.4–10) \

  9. Are penguins black-and-white?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, P.

    1995-03-01

    Contribution of low-energy ''eye'' and ''figure-eight'' quark diagrams to the K → π weak transitions are studied in a hadron-level phenomenological approach. It is shown that these contributions may be estimated by considering meson-cloud effect. If all intermediate mesons under consideration are degenerate only the ''eye'' (low-energy penguin) diagrams is nonvanishing. When allowance is made for smaller mass of pseudoscalar mesons, the contribution of ''figure-eight'' diagrams turns out to enhance the ΔI = 1/2 (suppress the ΔI = 3/2) amplitudes naturally. The overall long-distance-induced enhancement of the ratio of the Δ I = 1/2 amplitudes over the Δ I = 3/2 amplitudes is estimated at around 4-8. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. The dark penguin shines light at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primulando, Reinard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin [Department of Physics, University of California Davis,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For several types of DM-Standard Model couplings, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory, considering simplified models with light mediators. This is especially important in the case of loop-mediated interactions. In this paper we perform the first simplified model study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, by including the one-loop momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling — given by the Dark Penguin — in collider processes. We compute bounds from the monojet, monophoton, and diphoton searches at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and compare the results to those of direct and indirect detection experiments. Future searches at the 100 TeV hadron collider and at the ILC are also addressed. We find that the optimal search strategy requires loose cuts on the missing transverse energy, to capture the enhancement of the form factors near the threshold for on-shell production of the mediators. We consider both minimal models and models where an additional state beyond the DM is accessible. In the latter case, under the assumption of anarchic flavor structure in the dark sector, the LHC monophoton and diphoton searches will be able to set much stronger bounds than in the minimal scenario. A determination of the mass of the heavier dark fermion might be feasible using the M{sub T2} variable. In addition, if the Dark Penguin flavor structure is almost aligned with that of the DM mass, a displaced signal from the decay of the heavier dark fermion into the DM and photon can be observed. This allows us to set constraints on the mixings and couplings of the model from an existing search for non-pointing photons.

  11. The dark penguin shines light at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primulando, Reinard; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2015-01-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For several types of DM-Standard Model couplings, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory, considering simplified models with light mediators. This is especially important in the case of loop-mediated interactions. In this paper we perform the first simplified model study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, by including the one-loop momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling — given by the Dark Penguin — in collider processes. We compute bounds from the monojet, monophoton, and diphoton searches at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and compare the results to those of direct and indirect detection experiments. Future searches at the 100 TeV hadron collider and at the ILC are also addressed. We find that the optimal search strategy requires loose cuts on the missing transverse energy, to capture the enhancement of the form factors near the threshold for on-shell production of the mediators. We consider both minimal models and models where an additional state beyond the DM is accessible. In the latter case, under the assumption of anarchic flavor structure in the dark sector, the LHC monophoton and diphoton searches will be able to set much stronger bounds than in the minimal scenario. A determination of the mass of the heavier dark fermion might be feasible using the M T2 variable. In addition, if the Dark Penguin flavor structure is almost aligned with that of the DM mass, a displaced signal from the decay of the heavier dark fermion into the DM and photon can be observed. This allows us to set constraints on the mixings and couplings of the model from an existing search for non-pointing photons.

  12. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R. Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Tennyson, Alan J. D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the ne...

  13. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  14. The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Blair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (dsRNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (siRNA, micro (miRNA, and Piwi-interacting (piRNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  15. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. The origin of traveling waves in an emperor penguin huddle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerum, R C; Fabry, B; Metzner, C; Zitterbart, D P; Beaulieu, M; Ancel, A

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins breed during the Antarctic winter and have to endure temperatures as low as −50 °C and wind speeds of up to 200 km h −1 . To conserve energy, they form densely packed huddles with a triangular lattice structure. Video recordings from previous studies revealed coordinated movements in regular wave-like patterns within these huddles. It is thought that these waves are triggered by individual penguins that locally disturb the huddle structure, and that the traveling wave serves to remove the lattice defects and restore order. The mechanisms that govern wave propagation are currently unknown, however. Moreover, it is unknown if the waves are always triggered by the same penguin in a huddle. Here, we present a model in which the observed wave patterns emerge from simple rules involving only the interactions between directly neighboring individuals, similar to the interaction rules found in other jammed systems, e.g. between cars in a traffic jam. Our model predicts that a traveling wave can be triggered by a forward step of any individual penguin located within a densely packed huddle. This prediction is confirmed by optical flow velocimetry of the video recordings of emperor penguins in their natural habitat. (paper)

  17. Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmervoll, H; Wenker, C; Robert, N; Albini, S

    2011-03-01

    Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed.

  18. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-01-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ"1"5N and δ"1"3C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  19. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt@ahu.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yin, Xijie [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  20. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (ppenguins (ppenguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  1. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-11-25

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today.

  2. Trojan Penguins and Isospin Violation in Hadronic B Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval

    1999-01-01

    Some rare hadronic decays of B mesons, such as B → πK, are sensitive to isospin-violating contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. Although commonly referred to as electroweak penguins, such contributions can often arise through tree-level exchanges of heavy particles, or through strong-interaction loop diagrams. The Wilson coefficients of the corresponding electroweak penguin operators are calculated in a large class of New Physics models, and in many cases are found not to be suppressed with respect to the QCD penguin coefficients. Several tests for these effects using observables in B ± → πK decays are discussed, and nontrivial bounds on the couplings of the various New Physics models are derived

  3. MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN AN AFRICAN PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kristian J; Reavill, Drury; Weldy, Scott H; Bradway, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-and specifically M. genavense -in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis.

  4. Diving Simulation concerning Adélie Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinichiro; Harada, Masanori

    Penguins are sea birds that swim using lift and drag forces by flapping their wings like other birds. Although diving data can be obtained using a micro-data logger which has improved in recent years, all the necessary diving conditions for analysis cannot be acquired. In order to determine all these hard-to-get conditions, the posture and lift and drag forces of penguins were theoretically calculated by the technique used in the analysis of the optimal flight path of aircrafts. In this calculation, the actual depth and speed of the dive of an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) were utilized. Then, the calculation result and experimental data were compared, and found to be in good agreement. Thus, it is fully possible to determine the actual conditions of dive by this calculation, even those that cannot be acquired using a data logger.

  5. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  6. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yun Young; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Chong-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we mainly focus on zoonotic encephalitides caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the families Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus) and Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus) that are important in both humans and domestic animals. Specifically, we will focus on alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) and flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus). Most of these viruses were originally found in tropical regions such as Africa and South America or in some regions in Asia. However, they have dispersed widely and currently cause diseases around the world. Global warming, increasing urbanization and population size in tropical regions, faster transportation and rapid spread of arthropod vectors contribute in continuous spreading of arboviruses into new geographic areas causing reemerging or resurging diseases. Most of the reemerging arboviruses also have emerged as zoonotic disease agents and created major public health issues and disease epidemics.

  8. Penguin Mediated B Decays at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B

    2001-01-01

    We report on preliminary results of searches for penguin mediated B decays based on 20.7 fb^{-1} of data collected at the Y(4S) peak with the BABAR detector at PEP-II. The following branching fractions have been measured: BR(B+ --> phi K+) = (7.7^{+1.6}_{-1.4} +- 0.8)*10^{-6}, BR(B0 --> phi K0) = (8.1^{+3.1}_{-2.5} +- 0.8)*10^{-6}, BR(B+ --> phi K*+) = (9.7^{+4.2}_{-3.4} +- 1.7)*10^{-6}, BR(B0 --> phi K*0) = (8.7^{+2.5}_{-2.1} +- 1.1)*10^{-6}, BR(B+--> omega pi+) = (6.6^{+2.1}_{-1.8} +- 0.7)*10^{-6}, BR(B --> eta K^*0) = (19.8^{+6.5}_{-5.6} +-1.7)*10^{-6}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. For several other modes we report upper limits on their branching fractions; for example for the following flavor-changing neutral current decays, BR(B--> K l+ l-) K* l+ l-) < 2.5*10^{-6}, at 90% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  9. Non-linear effective Lagrangian treatment of 'Penguin' interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Using the non-linear effective lagrangian technique, we show explicitly that only derivative coupling is allowed for the K - π, K -> 2 π and K -> 3 π transitions induced by the ΔS = 1 Penguin operator of SVZ in agreement with chiral symmetry requirements. From a derivative coupling (3, anti 3) mass term and the SU(3) breaking effect for fsub(K)/fsub(π), we estimate the strength of the Penguin interactions and find it too small to account for the ΔI = 1/2 amplitude. (orig.)

  10. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Margreet; Ultee, Ton; Kik, Marja

    2011-12-01

    Three 1- to 3-mo-old black-footed penguins (Spheniscus Demersus) died within 24 hr of showing central nervous signs such as ataxia. The birds were housed in a baby penguin crèche. At necropsy, peritonitis, pneumonia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and renomegaly were evident. Histologically, the liver, lung, brain, and small intestine contained numerous tachyzoites and a few cysts of Toxoplasma. Immunohistochemistry identified the protozoal parasites as Toxoplasma gondii. Ultrastructurally, this was confirmed by the presence of many tachyzoites of T. gondii in the liver and lungs.

  11. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Kerlin, Tim; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Cortis, Giles; Doggett, Stephen L; Toi, Cheryl; Fall, Ken; McMahon, Jamie L; Townsend, Michael; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-10-06

    Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light traps in our trials. The trap efficacy of the SMACK was assessed against Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light traps (standard and ultraviolet) and the Encephalitis Vector Survey (EVS) trap in a series of Latin square field trials conducted in North Queensland, Australia. The ability of the SMACK to serve as a sentinel arbovirus surveillance tool was assessed in comparison to Passive Box Traps (PBT) during the 2014 wet season in the Cairns, Australia region and individually in the remote Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Australia during the 2015 wet season. The SMACK caught comparable numbers of mosquitoes to both CDC light traps (mean capture ratio 0.86: 1) and consistently outperformed the EVS trap (mean capture ratio 2.28: 1) when CO2 was supplied by either a gas cylinder (500 ml/min) or dry ice (1 kg). During the 2014 arbovirus survey, the SMACK captured significantly (t 6 = 2.1, P = 0.04) more mosquitoes than the PBT, and 2 and 1 FTA® cards were positive for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, respectively, while no arboviruses were detected from PBTs. Arbovirus activity was detected at all three surveillance sites during the NPA survey in 2015 and ca. 27 % of FTA® cards tested positive for either Murray Valley encephalitis virus (2 detections), West Nile virus (Kunjin subtype; 13 detections), or both viruses on two occasions. These results demonstrate that the SMACK is a versatile, simple, and effective passive arbovirus

  12. Trace elements in soft tissue of Papua penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in Rey Jorge island, Antartic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzetta, G.; Grillo, B.; Odino, R.; Delmonte, D.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue concentrations of heavy metals(copper, zinc, iron, manganese, selenium, bromine and rubidium)were determined in the liver, kidney and pectoral muscle of several adult individuals of Gentoo penguin(Pygoscelis papua) collected ar Suffield Point, King George Island, south Shetland Islands, Antarctica during the 1995-1996 breeding season. Heavy metal determinations were carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Of the metals determined, tissue concentrations of the essential elements zinc, iron, manganese and selenium would appear to be closely regulated metabolically and these elements are, therefore, unlikely to be serious pollution threats in general terms.Also, there is some evidence that bromine and rubidium shows signs of being regulated to a small extent.Copper concentrations in liver tissues would appear to show the most variation with an extremely high level being reported in the male individual (240 ppm dry weight). Among wholly marine or coastal birds.Gentoo penguin may thus be the best potential indicator of coastal pollution by copper. On the other hand, distinct inter-tissue differences in the metal concentrations were observed; liver had the greatest mean concentrations of iron and copper, while kidney was characterized by the highest mean concentrations of zinc, selenium and bromide.

  13. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, J Paul; Dalton, Desiré L

    2014-01-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. The molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. The size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. Comparison with the mitochondrial DNA of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; Little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) and the Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). This analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial DNA characteristics. The S. demersus mtDNA genome is very similar, both in composition and length to both the E. chrysocome and E. minor genomes. The gene content of the African penguin mitochondrial genome is typical of vertebrates and all three penguin species have the standard gene order originally identified in the chicken. The control region for S. demersus is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe and all three species of penguins contain two sets of similar repeats with varying copy numbers towards the 3' end of the control region, accounting for the size variance. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence for the mitochondrial genome of the African penguin, S. demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex identification of four penguin species using locus-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peijun; Han, Jiabo; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Junxin; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for sex identification are not applicable to sexually monomorphic species, leading to difficulties in the management of their breeding programs. To identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds, molecular methods have been established. Two established primer pairs (2550F/2718R and p8/p2) amplify the CHD1 gene region from both the Z and W chromosomes. Here, we evaluated the use of these primers for sex identification in four sexually monomorphic penguin species: king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). For all species except rockhopper penguins, primer pair 2550F/2718R resulted in two distinct CHD1Z and CHD1W PCR bands, allowing for sex identification. For rockhopper penguins, only primer pair p8/p2 yielded different CHD1Z and CHD1W bands, which were faint and similar in size making them difficult to distinguish. As a result, we designed a new primer pair (PL/PR) that efficiently determined the gender of individuals from all four penguin species. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed that they were from the CHD1 gene region. Primer pair PL/PR can be evaluated for use in sexing other penguin species, which will be crucial for the management of new penguin breeding programs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Tennyson, Alan J D

    2017-12-12

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins. It is phylogenetically separated from giant Eocene and Oligocene penguin species by various smaller taxa, which indicates multiple origins of giant size in penguin evolution. That a penguin rivaling the largest previously known species existed in the Paleocene suggests that gigantism in penguins arose shortly after these birds became flightless divers. Our study therefore strengthens previous suggestions that the absence of very large penguins today is likely due to the Oligo-Miocene radiation of marine mammals.

  16. Penguin Promises: Encouraging Aquarium Visitors to Take Conservation Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Judy Brenda; Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of an innovative conservation action campaign called "Penguin Promises" implemented at uShaka Sea World in Durban, South Africa. Communication tools included interpretive signage, exhibits with and without animals, presentations, and personal interactions, along with a specially designed postcard, on…

  17. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua and Crozet shags Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis breeding annually at Marion Island, one of South Africa's Prince Edward Islands in the South-West Indian Ocean, were strongly correlated over 19 split-years from 1994/1995 to 2012/2013. Both species decreased ...

  18. Breeding success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island from 1994 to 2000 was variable, but much higher than previously reported figures for the species. Breeding success was positively related to the abundance of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardinops sagax, and the high ...

  19. Ornamental colors reveal age in the king penguin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Le Bohec, Celine; Nolan, Paul M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Le Maho, Yvon; Komdeur, Jan; Jouventin, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether delayed plumage maturation occurred in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Therefore we examined the relationships between age and sex on spectral properties and size of two colored plumage patches and a UV-reflective beak spot, using known-age cohorts. Unlike the

  20. The macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus has a subantarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Key words: breeding, diet, Eudyptes chrysolophus, macaroni penguin, Marion Island, population, Subantarctic ... Sea Elephant Bay. Van den Boogaard River. Ship's Cove (south). Macaroni Bay (north). Archway Bay (north). East Cape (a). Bullard Beach North (a) ... of breeding birds at these two colonies were mapped.

  1. Restoration of oiled African penguins Spheniscus demersus a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a negative relationship between breeding and subsequent survival and breeding, suggesting a cost of reproduction for de-oiled birds. Keywords: African penguin; Apollo Sea; breeding; capture-mark-recapture; Dassen Island; de-oiling; oiling; rehabilitation; restoration; South Africa; Spheniscus demersus

  2. Health evaluation of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nola J. Parsons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre. There were 68 penguins that were seropositive for at least one of seven pathogens tested: avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. All samples were seronegative for avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The apparent prevalence of Babesia sp. and Borrelia sp. in blood smears was consistent with previous studies. Babesia-infected individuals had a regenerative response of the erythrocytic lineage, an active inflammatory response and hepatic function impairment. These findings indicate that African penguins may be exposed to conservation-significant pathogens in the wild and encourage further studies aiming for the direct detection and/or isolation of these microorganisms.

  3. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  4. The rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome has a circumpolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    lation of northern rockhopper penguins decreased at a rate of 2.7% per year between 1971 and 1993. ... accessible colonies by counting nesting birds in a visi- ble section of the colony and multiplying by a factor ... ber. Laying takes place in late November and early. December, and chicks hatch in late December and early.

  5. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  6. The African penguin Spheniscus demersus is endemic to the coasts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    By the early 1990s, Mercury and. Ichaboe islands ... to estimate the number of birds moulting per year. Counts of active ... Mercury Island is the only Namibian breeding site where penguin numbers are .... Numbers fell abruptly in 1994, increased in 1995 and .... low levels of oxygen off central Namibia in 1994 caused fish ...

  7. The Role of Interferon Antagonist, Non-Structural Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Emergence of Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha S. Soldan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of factors favor the emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including migration, climate change, intensified livestock production, an increasing volume of international trade and transportation, and changes to ecosystems (e.g., deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, arboviruses are distributed worldwide and represent over 30% of all emerging infectious diseases identified in the past decade. Although some arboviral infections go undetected or are associated with mild, flu-like symptoms, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illnesses such as arthritis, gastroenteritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever and devastating economic loss as a consequence of lost productivity and high mortality rates among livestock. One of the most consistent molecular features of emerging arboviruses, in addition to their near exclusive use of RNA genomes, is the inclusion of viral, non-structural proteins that act as interferon antagonists. In this review, we describe these interferon antagonists and common strategies that arboviruses use to counter the host innate immune response. In addition, we discuss the complex interplay between host factors and viral determinants that are associated with virus emergence and re-emergence, and identify potential targets for vaccine and anti-viral therapies.

  8. Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

  9. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  10. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    and pooled (1 to 25 mosquitoes per pool) by species, sex and collection sites using mosquito identification keys by [23-26] and preserved in 1.5 ml...reference and research on arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Pasteur de Dakar; 2000. 8. Kalunda M, Lwanga-Ssozi C

  11. Adélie penguin foraging location predicted by tidal regime switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator.

  12. Possibility of a large electroweak penguin contribution in B→Kπ modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of a large electroweak penguin contribution in B→Kπ from recent experimental data. The several relations among the branching ratios which realize when the contributions from tree type and electroweak penguin contributions are small compared with the gluon penguin can be treated as the expansion parameters do not satisfy the data. The difference comes from the r 2 term which is the square of the ratio with the gluon penguin diagram and the main contribution comes from the electroweak penguin diagram. We find that the electroweak penguin contribution may be too large to explain the experimental data. If the magnitude estimated from experiment is quite large compared with the theoretical estimation, then it may be including some new physics effects

  13. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.

  14. Fossil evidence for evolution of the shape and color of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali J; Shawkey, Matthew D; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; DeVries, Thomas J; Baby, Patrice

    2010-11-12

    Penguin feathers are highly modified in form and function, but there have been no fossils to inform their evolution. A giant penguin with feathers was recovered from the late Eocene (~36 million years ago) of Peru. The fossil reveals that key feathering features, including undifferentiated primary wing feathers and broad body contour feather shafts, evolved early in the penguin lineage. Analyses of fossilized color-imparting melanosomes reveal that their dimensions were similar to those of non-penguin avian taxa and that the feathering may have been predominantly gray and reddish-brown. In contrast, the dark black-brown color of extant penguin feathers is generated by large, ellipsoidal melanosomes previously unknown for birds. The nanostructure of penguin feathers was thus modified after earlier macrostructural modifications of feather shape linked to aquatic flight.

  15. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua. The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9% in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3 in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%, and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%. Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population.

  16. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Santamans

    Full Text Available The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica. This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins' faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa

  17. Are environmental factors responsible for changed breeding behaviour in emperor penguins?

    OpenAIRE

    Zitterbart, Daniel; Richter, Sebastian; Spiekermann, Georg; Behrens, Lisa Katharina; Regnery, Julia; Fontes, René Pascal; Hänssler, Thedda; König-Langlo, Gert; Weller, Rolf; Fabry, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri Gray) are the only vertebrate species that breed during the Antarctic winter. From the beginning of the breeding season in April until fledging of the chicks in January, emperor penguins rely on the stability of sea (fast) ice. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has recently listed the species as ‘near threatened’ because the habitat of emperor penguins may deteriorate significantly over the coming years with the anticipated change...

  18. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  19. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan L Dewar

    Full Text Available Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2% and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11% decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29% and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20% were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  20. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. On the short-distance double penguin contribution to the K0 - anti K0 mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-04-01

    The short-distance contribution of the double penguin box diagram to the K 0 - anti K 0 mixing is investigated. Compared with previous work of other authors, the present paper takes into account the momentum dependence of the box loop, both the non-local part of the penguin and the previously considered local part and the crossed diagrams, which make a class of double penguin diagrams complete. With such new ingredients, is is concluded that the short-distance part of the double penguin is physically irrelevant. After eliminating this particular mechanism for the K 0 - anti K 0 mixing, other potentially relevant mechanisms are pointed out

  2. Charming penguin contributions in B→K*π, K(ρ,ω,φ) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isola, Claudia; Ladisa, Massimo; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate the decays B→K*π, K(ρ,ω,φ) adding the long distance charming penguin contributions to the short distance: tree+penguin amplitudes. We estimate the imaginary part of the charming penguin contribution by an effective field theory inspired by heavy quark effective theory and parametrize its real part. The final results for branching ratios depend on only two real parameters and show a significant role of the charming penguin contributions. The overall agreement with the available experimental data is satisfactory

  3. On the short-distance double penguin contribution to the K0-anti K0 mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the short-distance contribution of the double penguin box diagram to the K 0 -anti K 0 mixing. Compared with previous work of other authors, the present paper takes into account (i) the momentum dependence of the box loop, (ii) both the non-local part of the penguin and the previously considered local part and (iii) the crossed diagrams, which make a class of double penguin diagrams complete. With such new ingredients, we arrive at the conclusion that the SD part of the double penguin is physically irrelevant. After eliminating this particular mechanism for the K 0 -anti K 0 mixing, we point out other potentially relevant mechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Isolation of arboviruses, their identification and the identification of their culicoides vectors in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of the two-week mission were to provide assistance in studies to determine the incidence and importance of arbovirus infection in ruminants in Indonesia, specifically to help with identification of the vectors tat transmit bluetongue and related arbovirus infections, and to develop work plans for future studies under the project. The report contains detailed information on handling systems for Culicoides species, on identification of Culicoides to be used for viral isolation and on the isolation of virus from Culicoides

  5. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamans, Anna C.; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R.; Benayas, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins’ faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  7. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Vargas, F Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. Lack of MHC variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. It relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe population declines when ocean temperatures rise during El Niño events. These bottlenecks, occurring in an already small population, have likely resulted in reduced genetic diversity in this species. In this study, we used MHC class II exon 2 sequence data from a DRB1-like gene to characterize the amount of genetic variation at the MHC in 30 Galápagos penguins, as well as one Magellanic penguin (S. magellanicus) and two king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and compared it to that in five other penguin species for which published data exist. We found that the Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Galápagos penguin MHC sequences are most closely related to Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) sequences, its putative sister species based on other loci. An excess of non-synonymous mutations and a pattern of trans-specific evolution in the neighbor-joining tree suggest that selection is acting on the penguin MHC.

  8. Two Antarctic penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Zhang, Yong; Li, Jianwen; Kong, Lesheng; Hu, Haofu; Pan, Hailin; Xu, Luohao; Deng, Yuan; Li, Qiye; Jin, Lijun; Yu, Hao; Chen, Yan; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Yongshan; Xia, Jinquan; He, Weiming; Shi, Qiong; Subramanian, Sankar; Millar, Craig D; Meader, Stephen; Rands, Chris M; Fujita, Matthew K; Greenwold, Matthew J; Castoe, Todd A; Pollock, David D; Gu, Wanjun; Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans; Ho, Simon Yw; Burt, David W; Ponting, Chris P; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Lambert, David M; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-01-01

    Penguins are flightless aquatic birds widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distinctive morphological and physiological features of penguins allow them to live an aquatic life, and some of them have successfully adapted to the hostile environments in Antarctica. To study the phylogenetic and population history of penguins and the molecular basis of their adaptations to Antarctica, we sequenced the genomes of the two Antarctic dwelling penguin species, the Adélie penguin [Pygoscelis adeliae] and emperor penguin [Aptenodytes forsteri]. Phylogenetic dating suggests that early penguins arose ~60 million years ago, coinciding with a period of global warming. Analysis of effective population sizes reveals that the two penguin species experienced population expansions from ~1 million years ago to ~100 thousand years ago, but responded differently to the climatic cooling of the last glacial period. Comparative genomic analyses with other available avian genomes identified molecular changes in genes related to epidermal structure, phototransduction, lipid metabolism, and forelimb morphology. Our sequencing and initial analyses of the first two penguin genomes provide insights into the timing of penguin origin, fluctuations in effective population sizes of the two penguin species over the past 10 million years, and the potential associations between these biological patterns and global climate change. The molecular changes compared with other avian genomes reflect both shared and diverse adaptations of the two penguin species to the Antarctic environment.

  9. Thermal strategies of king penguins during prolonged fasting in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Bonnet, Batshéva; Bost, Caroline; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2017-12-15

    Most animals experience periods of unfavourable conditions, challenging their daily energy balance. During breeding, king penguins fast voluntarily for up to 1.5 months in the colony, after which they replenish their energy stores at sea. However, at sea, birds might encounter periods of low foraging profitability, forcing them to draw from previously stored energy (e.g. subcutaneous fat). Accessing peripheral fat stores requires perfusion, increasing heat loss and thermoregulatory costs. Hence, how these birds balance the conflicting demands of nutritional needs and thermoregulation is unclear. We investigated the physiological responses of king penguins to fasting in cold water by: (1) monitoring tissue temperatures, as a proxy of tissue perfusion, at four distinct sites (deep and peripheral); and (2) recording their oxygen consumption rate while birds floated inside a water tank. Despite frequent oscillations, temperatures of all tissues often reached near-normothermic levels, indicating that birds maintained perfusion to peripheral tissues throughout their fasting period in water. The oxygen consumption rate of birds increased with fasting duration in water, while it was also higher when the flank tissue was warmer, indicating greater perfusion. Hence, fasting king penguins in water maintained peripheral perfusion, despite the associated greater heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs, probably to access subcutaneous fat stores. Hence, the observed normothermia in peripheral tissues of king penguins at sea, upon completion of a foraging bout, is likely explained by their nutritional needs: depositing free fatty acids (FFA) in subcutaneous tissues after profitable foraging or mobilizing FFA to fuel metabolism when foraging success was insufficient. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific vari...

  11. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak.

  12. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  13. Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Page, Brady L; Greninger, Alexander L; Herring, Belinda L; Russell, Richard C; Doggett, Stephen L; Haniotis, John; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L

    2014-01-05

    Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  15. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina.

  16. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  17. The Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) Rete Tibiotarsale - A supreme biological heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazas, Shaked; Benelly, Moran; Golan, Saar

    2017-07-01

    Humans are unable to survive low temperature environments without custom designed clothing and support systems. In contrast, certain penguin species inhabit extremely cold climates without losing substantial energy to self-heating (emperor penguins ambient temperature plummets to as low as -45°C). Penguins accomplish this task by relying on distinct anatomical, physiological and behavioral adaptations. One such adaptation is a blood vessel heat exchanger called the 'Rete Tibiotarsale' - an intermingled network of arteries and veins found in penguins' legs. The Rete existence results in blood occupying the foot expressing a lower average temperature and thus the penguin loosing less heat to the ground. This study examines the Rete significance for the species thermal endurance. The penguin anatomy (leg and main blood vessels) is reconstructed using data chiefly based on the Humboldt species. The resulting model is thermally analyzed using finite element (COMSOL) with the species environment used as boundary conditions. A human-like blood vessel configuration, scaled to the penguin's dimensions, is used as a control for the study. Results indicate that the Rete existence facilitates upkeep of 25-65% of the species total metabolic energy production as compared with the human-like configuration; thus making the Rete probably crucial for penguin thermal endurance. Here, we quantitatively link for the first time the function and structure of this remarkable physiological phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Save the Penguins: Teaching the Science of Heat Transfer through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittka, Christine; Bell, Randy; Richards, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Engineers, scientists, and environmental groups around the globe are hard at work finding solutions to mitigate or halt global warming. One major goal of the curriculum described here, Save the Penguins, is to help students recognize that what we do at home can affect how penguins fare in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, students learn how…

  19. Impact of flipper-banding on breeding success of African penguins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 2001 to 2006, two new designs of flipper bands made from silicone rubbers were tested on African penguins Spheniscus demersus at 365 nests on Robben Island, South Africa. We compared, over six years, the breeding success, from hatching to fledging, of three different groups of penguins: those with rubber bands ...

  20. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp. in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood parasites are potential threats to the health of penguins and to their conservation and management. Little penguins Eudyptula minor are native to Australia and New Zealand, and are susceptible to piroplasmids (Babesia, hemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma. We studied a total of 263 wild little penguins at 20 sites along the Australian southeastern coast, in addition to 16 captive-bred little penguins. Babesia sp. was identified in seven wild little penguins, with positive individuals recorded in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. True prevalence was estimated between 3.4% and 4.5%. Only round forms of the parasite were observed, and gene sequencing confirmed the identity of the parasite and demonstrated it is closely related to Babesia poelea from boobies (Sula spp. and B. uriae from murres (Uria aalge. None of the Babesia-positive penguins presented signs of disease, confirming earlier suggestions that chronic infections by these parasites are not substantially problematic to otherwise healthy little penguins. We searched also for kinetoplastids, and despite targeted sampling of little penguins near the location where Trypanosoma eudyptulae was originally reported, this parasite was not detected.

  1. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp. in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vertigan, Peter; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Finger, Annett; Dann, Peter; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Thompson, Paul; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Braga, Érika M.; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Blood parasites are potential threats to the health of penguins and to their conservation and management. Little penguins Eudyptula minor are native to Australia and New Zealand, and are susceptible to piroplasmids (Babesia), hemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium) and kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma). We studied a total of 263 wild little penguins at 20 sites along the Australian southeastern coast, in addition to 16 captive-bred little penguins. Babesia sp. was identified in seven wild little penguins, with positive individuals recorded in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. True prevalence was estimated between 3.4% and 4.5%. Only round forms of the parasite were observed, and gene sequencing confirmed the identity of the parasite and demonstrated it is closely related to Babesia poelea from boobies (Sula spp.) and B. uriae from murres (Uria aalge). None of the Babesia-positive penguins presented signs of disease, confirming earlier suggestions that chronic infections by these parasites are not substantially problematic to otherwise healthy little penguins. We searched also for kinetoplastids, and despite targeted sampling of little penguins near the location where Trypanosoma eudyptulae was originally reported, this parasite was not detected. PMID:25853053

  2. Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer; Ranieri, Tani; Favreto, Cátia; Nunes, Zenaida Marion Alves; Tumioto Giannini, Gabriela Luchiari; Sanberg, Nara Druck; da Rosa, Marilda Tereza Mar; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described; cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were analyzed. Results show that CHIKV and ZIKV entered RS in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with imported cases confirmed. Autochthonous infections occurred in 2016 for both viruses, with a total of 5 autochthonous cases for CHIKV and 44 for ZIKV. Most patients were older than 21 years; the main symptoms were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache; rash, conjunctivitis, and pruritus were also reported in ZIKV cases. Three cases of congenital Zika syndrome were confirmed in our study, while another 20 cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were confirmed (10 positive for syphilis, 6 for toxoplasmosis and 4 for cytomegalovirus). Considering co-circulation of different arbovirus in RS, including Dengue virus, CHIKV, and ZIKV, and the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the area, surveillance of patients infected by these viruses contributes to the control and prevention of such diseases. Practical difficulties in diagnosing these infections are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Arbovirus infections on the island of Nosy-Be; serologic and entomologic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Rodhain, F; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    Since 1977, the Pasteur Institute of madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of Nosy-Be area, in the north-west of Madagascar. 47.2 p. 100 out of 271 human sera and 11.3 p. 100 out of 150 animal sera (mostly from Lemurs), tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. The results show an important prevalence of Flaviviruses. West-Nile and Dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. Antibodies against Sindbis and Rift Valley Fever viruses, were found only in few subjects. Bunyamwera and Tahyna viruses are absent. The rate of positive Lemurs is weak, particularly in Lemur macaco species. Flaviviruses are the most frequent. 12262 haematophagous diptera (11965 Culicidae belonging to 40 species) were caught . Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both present. Arbovirus isolation attempts from 394 mosquito pools failed; only Mengo virus was isolated from four pools of Erethmapodites quinquevittatus and one pool of Aedes (Skusea) sp.

  4. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Severson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  5. Ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism in pygoscelid penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism of chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins was studied on King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. The major findings of this study are: Chinstrap and gentoo penguin chicks hatched completely poikilothermic, due to their poor heat-production ability at low ambient temperatures. They were able to maintain high body temperatures and metabolic rates only by being brooded by adults. Newly hatched chinstrap penguin chicks had, at a specified ambient temperature, significantly higher metabolic rates than newly hatched gentoos. Moreover, chinstrap chicks maintained a significantly higher body temperature. It is suggested that this is a non-acclimatory metabolic adaptation of chinstrap penguin chicks to the lower mean temperatures of their breeding areas. On the 15th day after hatching, chinstrap chicks were completely, and gentoo chicks almost completely, homeothermic. In spite of their high thermogenic capacity from about day 10, chicks were not at that time capable of controlling heat dissipation, and were still dependent on their parents. In older downy chicks and fledglings, heat loss at low temperatures, expressed as heat conductance (CA), was similar to that found for the adults of other penguin species. Just before moulting the CA of chicks was lower than after moulting. Moulting alone did not cause a clear increase in CA. Towards the end of their stay on land the CA of pre-fledged gentoos decreased by 31%. This decrease was not connected with the development of feathers or growth in the chicks' weight. The combination of the low CA and high SMR of chicks gave very low lower critical temperatures, near -15 degrees C. The wide thermoneutral zones of the chicks covered the whole range of air temperature variations in the breeding colonies of both species studied on King George Island. The CA values of homeothermic chinstrap chicks were not lower than those of gentoos

  6. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  7. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  8. Penguin Proxies: Deciphering Millennial-Scale Antarctic Ecosystem Change using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.; McMahon, K.; Emslie, S. D.; Patterson, W. P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid environmental change due to ongoing and historic anthropogenic impacts such as climate change and marine mammal harvesting. These disturbances may have cascading effects through the Antarctic food webs, resulting in profound shifts in the sources and cycling of organic matter supporting higher-trophic organisms, such as penguins. For example, bulk stable isotope analyses of modern and ancient preserved penguin tissues suggest variations in penguin feeding ecology throughout the Holocene with dramatic isotopic shifts in the last 200 years. However, it is not clear whether these isotopic shifts resulted from changes at the base of the food web, dietary shifts in penguins, or some combination of both factors. Newly developed compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) may provide a powerful new tool to tease apart these confounding variables. Stable nitrogen isotope values of trophic amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid) increase substantially with each trophic transfer in the food web, while source amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine) stable nitrogen isotope values remain relatively unchanged and reflect ecosystem baselines. As such, we can use this CSIA-AA approach to decipher between baseline and dietary shifts in penguins over time from modern and ancient eggshells of Pygoscelis penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea regions of Antarctica. In order to accurately apply this CSIA-AA approach, we first characterized the trophic fractionation factors of individual amino acids between diet and penguin consumers in a long-term controlled penguin feeding experiment. We then applied these values to modern and ancient eggshells from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ross Sea to evaluate shifts in penguin trophic dynamics as a function of climate and anthropogenic interaction throughout much of the Holocene. This work develops a cutting edge new molecular geochemistry approach

  9. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Paul Scofield, R

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  10. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Paul Scofield, R.

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  11. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  12. Low momentum penguin contributions in a chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-11-01

    It has been shown that penguin diagram contributions corresponding to u-quark loop momenta below a scale Λsub(x) approximately= 1 GeV are enhanced and could at least partly explain the ΔI=1/2 rule. Thus a previous calculation within the bag model is confirmed. The present caluculation is performed wihtin an effective chiral theory with pions and kaons coupled to quarks. It has been found that low momentum left-left loop contributions are important, while left-right contributions can be neglected

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGoverin, Cushla M; McGraw, Kevin J; James, Helen F; Madden, Odile

    2013-06-06

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed 'spheniscin', is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm(-1). Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds.

  14. Charming penguin contributions to charmless B decays into two pseudoscalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isola, C.; Pham, T.N.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Santorelli, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present estimates of the charming penguin contribution to B→Kπ,ππ,Kη,Kη ' decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. We find that this contribution is indeed significant for B→Kπ decays, and its inclusion, together with the tree and penguin terms, produces large branching ratios in agreement with data, though the analysis is affected by large theoretical uncertainties. On the other hand, for B→ππ, Kη, Kη ' decays, the effect of the charming penguin contribution is more modest. We also compute CP asymmetries for B→Kπ, ππ decays, and we obtain rather large results

  15. Electroweak penguin contributions in charmless B→VV decays beyond leading logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongsheng Du; Libo Guo

    1997-01-01

    Using the next-to-leading-order, low-energy effective Hamiltonian for vertical bar ΔB vertical bar = 1, ΔC = ΔU = 0 transitions, the contributions of electroweak penguin operators in charmless B→VV decays are estimated in the standard model. We find that, for some channels, the electroweak penguin effects can enhance or reduce the QCD penguin and/or tree-level contributions by at least 20%, and can even play a dominant role in decay widths and CP-asymmetries, but the corrections to the angular distribution are negligible. (author)

  16. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  17. Emergent and Reemergent Arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean: Why So Many and Why Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Contigiani, Marta; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones. Se han documentado cambios en la patogenicidad de algunos virus que conducen a enfermedades inesperadas. Una fauna diversa de mosquitos, cambios climáticos y en la vegetación, aumento de los viajes, y urbanizaciones no planificadas que generan condiciones adecuadas para la proliferación de Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say y otros mosquitos vectores, se han combinado para influir fuertemente en los cambios en la distribución y la incidencia de varios arbovirus. Se enfatiza la necesidad de realizar estudios exhaustivos de la fauna de mosquitos y modificaciones de las condiciones ambientales, sobre todo en las zonas urbanas fuertemente influenciadas por factores sociales, políticos y económicos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ocular findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Cassandra D; Aquino, Susette; Woodhouse, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To describe ophthalmic examination findings and standard diagnostic test results in 2 penguin species. Macaroni & Southern Rockhopper Penguins. Complete ophthalmic examinations including Schirmer tear test (STT), modified phenol red thread test (PTT), tonometry, and echobiometry were performed on penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Mean and standard deviation of ophthalmic tests are reported and compared for significance using two sample t-tests with significance set at P Penguins, and 68% of Rockhopper Penguins. There were anterior segment anomalies in all eyes with cataracts consistent with lens-induced uveitis. The mean modified PTT for the Macaronis was 24.7 ± 6.37 mm/15 s and 25.1 ± 7.07 mm/15 s in the Rockhoppers. The mean STT value for the Macaronis was 12.1 ± 5.43 mm/min and 11.0 ± 3.96 mm/min in the Rockhoppers. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) for the Macaronis was 21.9 ± 7.05 mmHg measured by applanation tonometry and 29.1 ± 7.16 mmHg using rebound tonometry. The Rockhoppers had a mean IOP of 20.0 ± 5.77 mmHg and 24.1 ± 5.09 mmHg for applanation and rebound tonometry, respectively. In both populations, there was a significant difference in IOP measurement between the two instruments. In the Macaroni penguins, the presence of cataracts correlated significantly with increased age and lower IOP readings. Anterior chamber distance and axial globe length were significantly greater in males than in females in both penguin species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  20. Risk factors for arbovirus infections in a low-income community of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2015-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics have occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil since 1986. In the year 2015, Zika and chikungunya viruses were introduced in the city, causing sequential and simultaneous epidemics. Poor socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as contributing factors of arboviral infection.To describe the spatial distribution of human cases of symptomatic arboviral infections and to identify risk factors for infection in a poor community of Rio de Janeiro in the years 2015 and 2016.We built thematic maps of incidence rates for 78 micro-areas in the Manguinhos neighborhood. The micro-areas congregate about 600 inhabitants. Simple and multiple multilevel logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the incidence of arboviral diseases and socio-demographic factors at both the individual and micro-area levels.From 2015 to 2016, 370 human cases of arbovirus infection were reported in the Manguinhos community: 123 in 2015 and 247 in 2016. There was a significant difference in the risk of arbovirus diseases among different micro-areas, but this was not explained by water and sanitation indicators. The cumulative incidence rate was 849/100,000 in two years. The incidence was greater in those individuals with familiar vulnerability (1,156/100,000 vs. 794/100,000. The multilevel adjusted model showed that the odds of acquiring an arbovirus infection was 55% greater in those with familiar vulnerability.Arbovirus infections cause a high burden of disease in Brazilian urban centers. Our results suggest that even in poor neighborhoods, there is a high spatial variability in the risk of acquiring an arbovirus infection. The conditions that favor vector proliferation and infection by arboviruses are complex and involve both individual and environmental characteristics that vary from place to place. To reduce the burden of arboviral diseases, continued public health policies and basic services should be provided to the

  1. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  2. Right Heart Failure in an African Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lara; Field, Cara; McDermott, Alexa; Pogue, Brandon; Clauss, Tonya; Bossart, Gregory; Camus, Alvin

    2016-09-01

    A 19-year-old male African penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was presented with coelomic distention after a 6-week history of lethargy and decreased appetite. Results of radiographs showed loss of coelomic detail, and ultrasound and computed tomography results revealed coelomic fluid and dilated hepatic veins. Echocardiography revealed moderate right atrial enlargement. Findings were consistent with right-sided cardiac disease. Treatment with furosemide initially reduced ascites, but the clinical condition worsened weeks later and enalapril, pimobendan, and sildenafil were added to the medical therapy. At 12 weeks after presentation, results of an echocardiogram revealed persistent right atrioventricular valve regurgitation, moderate ascites, and dilation of hepatic veins. Clinical signs of right heart failure were managed through adjustments in medical therapy and coelomic fluid aspiration, but the bird died 18 weeks after initial presentation. Gross and microscopic findings were consistent with valvular insufficiency and right-sided heart failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first documented report of cardiac disease in an African penguin.

  3. Tracking the Polar Front south of New Zealand using penguin dive data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Serguei; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Wienecke, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    Nearly 36,000 vertical temperature profiles collected by 15 king penguins are used to map oceanographic fronts south of New Zealand. There is good correspondence between Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) front locations derived from temperatures sampled in the upper 150 m along the penguin tracks and front positions inferred using maps of sea surface height (SSH). Mesoscale features detected in the SSH maps from this eddy-rich region are also reproduced in the individual temperature sections based on dive data. The foraging strategy of Macquarie Island king penguins appears to be influenced strongly by oceanographic structure: almost all the penguin dives are confined to the region close to and between the northern and southern branches of the Polar Front. Surface chlorophyll distributions also reflect the influence of the ACC fronts, with the northern branch of the Polar Front marking a boundary between low surface chlorophyll to the north and elevated values to the south.

  4. Foraging plasticity of breeding Northern Rockhopper Penguins, Eudyptes moseleyi, in response to changing energy requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Booth, Jenny Marie; Steinfurth, Antje; Fusi, Marco; Cuthbert, Richard J.; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2018-01-01

    During the breeding season, seabirds must balance the changing demands of self- and off-spring provisioning with the constraints imposed by central-place foraging. Recently, it was shown that Northern Rockhopper Penguins at Tristan da Cunha

  5. QCD light-cone sum rule estimate of charming penguin contributions in B→ππ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjamirian, A.; Mannel, Th.; Melic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Employing the QCD light-cone sum rule approach we calculate the B→ππ hadronic matrix element of the current-current operator with c quarks in the penguin topology (''charming penguin''). The dominant contribution to the sum rule is due to the c-quark loop at short distances and is of O(α s ) with respect to the factorizable B→ππ amplitude. The effects of soft gluons are suppressed at least by O(α s m b -2 ). Our result indicates that sizable nonperturbative effects generated by charming penguins at finite m b are absent. The same is valid for the penguin contractions of the current-current operators with light quarks

  6. Simrad em3002d Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  7. QCD light-cone sum rule estimate of charming penguin contributions in B→ππ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjamirian, A.; Mannel, Th.; Melic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Employing the QCD light-cone sum rule approach we calculate the B→ππ hadronic matrix element of the current-current operator with c quarks in the penguin topology ('charming penguin'). The dominant contribution to the sum rule is due to the c-quark loop at short distances and is of O(α s ) with respect to the factorizable B→ππ amplitude. The effects of soft gluons are suppressed at least by O(α s m b -2 ). Our result indicates that sizable nonperturbative effects generated by charming penguins at finite m b are absent. The same is valid for the penguin contractions of the current-current operators with light quarks

  8. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin | Earlé | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors.

  9. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  10. First report in italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Veneto region (north-eastern Italy an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus in 1991. During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna. Findings At the end of May 2011, twelve larvae and pupae were collected in a small village in Belluno province (Veneto region from a single manhole. Ten adults reared in the laboratory were morphologically and genetically identified as Aedes (Finlaya koreicus (Edwards, 1917, a species native to Southeast Asia. The subsequent investigations carried out in the following months in the same village provided evidence that this species had become established locally. Entomological and epidemiological investigations are currently ongoing in the surrounding area, to verify the eventual extension of the species outside the village and to trace back the route of entry into Italy. Conclusions This is the first report in Italy of the introduction of the exotic mosquito Ae. koreicus. This species has been shown experimentally to be competent in the transmission of the Japanese encephalitis virus and of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and is considered a potential vector of other arboviruses. Thus, the establishment of this species may increase the current risk or pose new potential threats, for human and animal health. This finding considerably complicates the entomological monitoring of the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus in Italy and stresses the importance of implementing the entomological surveillance for the early detection of and the rapid response against invasive mosquito species.

  11. International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Vincent; Fonseca, Dina M; Weetman, David; Pinto, João; Achee, Nicole L; Chandre, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Dusfour, Isabelle; Grieco, John; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Lenhart, Audrey; Martins, Ademir J; Moyes, Catherine; Ng, Lee Ching; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Vatandoost, Hassan; Vontas, John; Muller, Pie; Kasai, Shinji; Fouque, Florence; Velayudhan, Raman; Durot, Claire; David, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-02

    Vector-borne diseases transmitted by insect vectors such as mosquitoes occur in over 100 countries and affect almost half of the world's population. Dengue is currently the most prevalent arboviral disease but chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever show increasing prevalence and severity. Vector control, mainly by the use of insecticides, play a key role in disease prevention but the use of the same chemicals for more than 40 years, together with the dissemination of mosquitoes by trade and environmental changes, resulted in the global spread of insecticide resistance. In this context, innovative tools and strategies for vector control, including the management of resistance, are urgently needed. This report summarizes the main outputs of the first international workshop on Insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5-8 December 2016. The primary aims of this workshop were to identify strategies for the development and implementation of standardized insecticide resistance management, also to allow comparisons across nations and across time, and to define research priorities for control of vectors of arboviruses. The workshop brought together 163 participants from 28 nationalities and was accessible, live, through the web (> 70,000 web-accesses over 3 days).

  12. Responding to Climate Change: Adelie Penguins Confront Astronomical and Ocean Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Trathan, Phil N.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Ad lie penguin spans 22 deg. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adelies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a 3-yr period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated migratory routes and characteristics and wintering locations of Adelie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 Geolocation Sensors affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12,760 km, with the longest being 17,600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75-85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 hr with sun greater than 6 below horizon). We review how Adelie Penguin migration has likely changed since withdrawal of the West Antarctic Ice 35 Sheet across the Ross Sea beginning 12,000 yBP. If sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases, as predicted by climate models, we can expect change in wintering areas, the location of which ultimately may be limited more by the availability of adequate light for visual foraging than by the availability of suitable pack-ice.

  13. Two-loop current–current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current–current operators Q1,2 and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b→s transitions.

  14. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  15. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  16. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  17. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  18. Ultrastructural aspects of the tongue in Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster, 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Plácido Guimarães

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tongue of birds presents diversified morphologic characteristics, related directly their feeding habits and may be adapted to food capture. Penguins of the Spheniscidae family are pelagic birds that are totally adapted to the marine environment.  The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the tongue in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus. In order to investigate these characteristics, six tongues of juvenile S. magellanicus were collected and their morphology analyzed macroscopically and microscopically.  The tongue of the Magellanic penguin has a fusiform shape with a round apex that is narrower than the root, following the shape of the beak.  The epithelium of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be stratified and very keratinized, with the presence of lingual papillae that showed a caudally inclined apex. The neighboring connective tissue showed absence of mucous glands. The cartilaginous skeleton was observed in the medial region of the tongue, extending from the base to the apex. The structure of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be similar to that of other penguin species, but also showed peculiar characteristics that were not observed in other bird families.

  19. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-07-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (Vo2; -33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1-alpha) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (-54%, -36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting Vo2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting.

  20. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  1. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied.

  2. Diversity in the Toll-Like Receptor Genes of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré Lee; Vermaak, Elaine; Roelofse, Marli; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. To date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-MHC genes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now increasingly being studied in a variety of taxa as a broader approach to determine functional genetic diversity. In this study, we confirm low genetic diversity in the innate immune region of African penguins similar to that observed in New Zealand robin that has undergone several severe population bottlenecks. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity across TLRs varied between ex situ and in situ penguins with the number of non-synonymous alterations in ex situ populations (n = 14) being reduced in comparison to in situ populations (n = 16). Maintaining adaptive diversity is of vital importance in the assurance populations as these animals may potentially be used in the future for re-introductions. Therefore, this study provides essential data on immune gene diversity in penguins and will assist in providing an additional monitoring tool for African penguin in the wild, as well as to monitor diversity in ex situ populations and to ensure that diversity found in the in situ populations are captured in the assurance populations.

  3. Continental-Scale Mapping of Adelie Penguin Colonies from Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breeding distribution of the Adlie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, was surveyed with Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data in an area covering approximately 330 of longitude along the coastline of Antarctica.An algorithm was designed to minimize radiometric noise and to retrieve Adlie penguin colony location and spatial extent from the ETM+data. In all, 9143 individual pixels were classified as belonging to an Adlie penguin colony class out of the entire dataset of 195 ETM+ scenes, where the dimension of each pixel is 30 m by 30 m,and each scene is approximately 180 km by 180 km. Pixel clustering identified a total of 187 individual Adlie penguin colonies, ranging in size from a single pixel (900 sq m) to a maximum of 875 pixels (0.788 sq km). Colony retrievals have a very low error of commission, on the order of 1% or less, and the error of omission was estimated to be 3% to 4% by population based on comparisons with direct observations from surveys across east Antarctica. Thus, the Landsat retrievals successfully located Adlie penguin colonies that accounted for 96 to 97% of the regional population used as ground truth. Geographic coordinates and the spatial extent of each colony retrieved from the Landsat data are available publically. Regional analysis found several areas where the Landsat retrievals suggest populations that are significantly larger than published estimates. Six Adlie penguin colonies were found that are believed to be previously unreported in the literature.

  4. Do blood parasites infect Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the wild? Prospective investigation and climatogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Uhart, Marcela; Rago, Virginia; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.

  5. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of arbovirus dual-infections among persons during a chikungunya fever outbreak, Haiti 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of recent arbovirus epidemics, questions about the frequency of simultaneous infection of patients with different arbovirus species have been raised. In 2014, a major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV epidemic impacted the Caribbean and South America. As part of ongoing screening of schoolchildren presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Haiti, we used RT-PCR to identify CHIKV infections in 82 of 100 children with this diagnosis during May-August 2014. Among these, eight were infected with a second arbovirus: six with Zika virus (ZIKV, one with Dengue virus serotype 2, and one with Mayaro virus (MAYV. These dual infections were only detected following culture of the specimen, suggesting low viral loads of the co-infecting species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ZIKV and MAYV strains differ from those detected later in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Moreover, CHIKV and ZIKV strains from co-infected patients clustered monophyletically in their respective phylogeny, and clock calibration traced back the common ancestor of each clade to an overlapping timeframe of introduction of these arboviruses onto the island.

  6. Testing QCD factorization and charming penguins in charmless B -> PV

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksan, Roy; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Safir, A S

    2002-01-01

    We try a global fit of the experimental branching ratios and CP-asymmetries of the charmless B -> PV decays according to QCD factorization. We find it impossible to reach a satisfactory agreement, the confidence level (CL) of the best is smaller than .1 %. The main reason for this failure is the difficulty to accommodate several large experimental branching ratios of the strange channels. Furthermore, experiment was not able to exclude a large direct CP asymmetry in B-bar0 -> rho sup +pi sup - which is predicted very small by QCD factorization. Trying a fit with QCD factorization complemented by a charming-penguin inspired model we reach a best fit which is not excluded by experiment (CL of about 8 %) but is not fully convincing. These negative results must be tempered by the remark that some of the experimental data used are recent and might still evolve significantly.

  7. Search for Penguin Decays of $B$ Mesons at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordas, Kostas [McGill U.

    2000-01-01

    Using a data sample of integrated luminosity $\\int$ Ldt = 28.9 $\\pm$ 1.2 $pb^{-1}$ of proton antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV collected with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we searched for "penguin" radiative decays of $B^0_d$ and $B^0_s$ mesons which involve the flavor-changing neutral-current transition of a $b$ quark into an $s$ quark with the emission of a photon, $b \\to s\\gamma$ . Speciffcally, we searched for the decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0}$, $K^{*0} \\to K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B^0_s \\to \\phi\\gamma, \\phi \\to K^+ K^-$, as well as for the charge conjugate chains....

  8. King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vaillant, Maryline; Wilson, Rory P; Kato, Akiko; Saraux, Claire; Hanuise, Nicolas; Prud'homme, Onésime; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Increasing experience in long-lived species is fundamental to improving breeding success and ultimately individual fitness. Diving efficiency of marine animals is primarily determined by their physiological and mechanical characteristics. This efficiency may be apparent via examination of biomechanical performance (e.g. stroke frequency and amplitude, change in buoyancy or body angle, etc.), which itself may be modulated according to resource availability, particularly as a function of depth. We investigated how foraging and diving abilities vary with age in a long-lived seabird. During two breeding seasons, small accelerometers were deployed on young (5 year old) and older (8/9 year old) brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean. We used partial dynamic body acceleration (PDBA) to quantify body movement during dive and estimate diving cost. During the initial part of the descent, older birds exerted more effort for a given speed but younger penguins worked harder in relation to performance at greater depths. Younger birds also worked harder per unit speed for virtually the whole of the ascent. We interpret these differences using a model that takes into account the upthrust and drag to which the birds are subjected during the dive. From this, we suggest that older birds inhale more at the surface but that an increase in the drag coefficient is the factor leading to the increased effort to swim at a given speed by the younger birds at greater depths. We propose that this higher drag may be the result of young birds adopting less hydrodynamic postures or less direct trajectories when swimming or even having a plumage in poorer condition.

  9. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  10. Neglected Australian Arboviruses and Undifferentiated Febrile Illness: Addressing Public Health Challenges Arising From the 'Developing Northern Australia' Government Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S; Aaskov, John G; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses. Combined with an apparent rise in the number and impact of dramatic climate events, such as tropical cyclones and floods caused by torrential monsoonal rainfall, this heightens the potential for viral transmission to humans. More than 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are associated with human disease but for which routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. Here, we describe briefly the neglected Australian arboviruses that are most likely to emerge as significant agents of human disease in the coming decades. We also advocate the establishment of a thorough surveillance and diagnostic protocol, including developing new pan-viral rapid tests for primary care use to assist in the early diagnosis and correct treatment of affected patients. We propose that the implementation of these activities will enhance our understanding of the geographical range, prevalence, identification and control of neglected Australian arboviruses. This would minimise and limit the possibility of large-scale outbreaks with these agents as population and economic growth expands further into Australia's tropical north.

  11. Climate-driven Sympatry does not Lead to Foraging Competition Between Adélie and Gentoo Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, M. A.; Moline, M. A.; Fraser, W.; Patterson-Fraser, D.; Oliver, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Climate-driven sympatry may lead to competition for food resources between species, population shifts and changes in ecosystem structure. Rapid warming in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is coincident with increasing gentoo penguin and decreasing Adélie penguin populations, suggesting that competition for food may exacerbate the Adélie penguin decline. At Palmer Station, we tested for foraging competition between these species by comparing their prey, Antarctic krill, distributions and penguin foraging behaviors on fine scales. To study these predator-prey dynamics, we simultaneously deployed penguin satellite transmitters, and a REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle that acoustically detected krill aggregations and measured physical and biological properties of the water column. We detected krill aggregations within the horizontal and vertical foraging ranges of Adélie and gentoo penguin. In the upper 100 m of the water column, the distribution of krill aggregations were mainly associated with CHL and light, suggesting that krill selected for habitats that balance the need to consume food and avoid predation. Adélie and gentoo penguins mainly had spatially segregated foraging areas but in areas of overlap, gentoo penguins switched foraging behavior by foraging at deeper depths, a strategy which limits competition with Adélie penguins. This suggests that climate-driven sympatry does not necessarily result in competitive exclusion. Contrary to a recent theory, which suggests that increased competition for krill is the major driver of Adélie penguin population declines, we suggest that declines in Adélie penguins along the WAP are more likely due to direct and indirect climate impacts on their life histories.

  12. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels

    Full Text Available Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28 of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18 of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9 of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28 penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to

  13. South Polar Skua breeding populations in the Ross Sea assessed from demonstrated relationship with Adélie Penguin numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah J.; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Greene, Terry C.; Whitehead, Amy L.; Dugger, Catherine; Karl, Brian J.; Barringer, James R. F.; McGarry, Roger; Pollard, Annie M.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-01-01

    In the Ross Sea region, most South Polar Skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki) nest near Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies, preying and scavenging on fish, penguins, and other carrion. To derive a relationship to predict skua numbers from better-quantified penguin numbers, we used distance sampling to estimate breeding skua numbers within 1000 m of 5 penguin nesting locations (Cape Crozier, Cape Royds, and 3 Cape Bird locations) on Ross Island in 3 consecutive years. Estimated numbers of skua breeding pairs were highest at Cape Crozier (270,000 penguin pairs; 1099 and 1347 skua pairs in 2 respective years) and lowest at Cape Royds (3000 penguin pairs; 45 skua pairs). The log–log linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) between pairs of skuas and penguins was highly significant, and most historical estimates of skua and penguin numbers in the Ross Sea were within 95 % prediction intervals of the regression. Applying our regression model to current Adélie Penguin colony sizes at 23 western Ross Sea locations predicted that 4635 pairs of skuas now breed within 1000 m of penguin colonies in the Ross Island metapopulation (including Beaufort Island) and northern Victoria Land. We estimate, using published skua estimates for elsewhere in Antarctica, that the Ross Sea South Polar Skua population comprises ~50 % of the world total, although this may be an overestimate because of incomplete data elsewhere. To improve predictions and enable measurement of future skua population change, we recommend additional South Polar Skua surveys using consistent distance-sampling methods at penguin colonies of a range of sizes.

  14. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Connan

    Full Text Available Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa. These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  15. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasso, Rebecka L., E-mail: rlb1196@uncw.edu [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Polito, Michael J. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Lynch, Heather J. [Ecology and Evolution Department, 640 Life Sciences Bldg., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Naveen, R. [Oceanites Inc., PO Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825 (United States); Emslie, Steven D. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adelie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell {delta}{sup 15}N or {delta}{sup 13}C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three species of Pygoscelis

  16. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  17. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.; Lynch, Heather J.; Naveen, R.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ 15 N or δ 13 C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: ► We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. ► Three species of Pygoscelis penguins were used as biomonitors. ► Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher mercury

  18. Mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal Mississippi community after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Evans, Christopher L; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the Gulf Coast in August 2005. We collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. The most abundant mosquito species was Culex nigripalpus, which constituted 73.6% of all specimens. No arboviruses were detected in any of the mosquitoes collected in this survey, which did not support the assertion that human risk for arboviral infection was increased in the coastal community 6 wk after the hurricane.

  19. PIWIs Go Viral: Arbovirus-Derived piRNAs in Vector Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Miesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector mosquitoes are responsible for transmission of the majority of arthropod-borne (arbo- viruses. Virus replication in these vectors needs to be sufficiently high to permit efficient virus transfer to vertebrate hosts. The mosquito immune response therefore is a key determinant for arbovirus transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. Besides this well-established antiviral machinery, the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway processes viral RNA into piRNAs. In recent years, significant progress has been made in characterizing the biogenesis and function of these viral piRNAs. In this review, we discuss these developments, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest directions for future research.

  20. Comprehensive proteome profiling in Aedes albopictus to decipher Wolbachia-arbovirus interference phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucereau, Yoann; Valiente Moro, Claire; Dieryckx, Cindy; Dupuy, Jean-William; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Girard, Vincent; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses that cause severe diseases in humans such as Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika fevers. The vector competence of Ae. albopictus varies depending on the mosquito population involved and the virus transmitted. Wolbachia infection status in believed to be among key elements that determine viral transmission efficiency. Little is known about the cellular functions mobilized in Ae. albopictus during co-infection by Wolbachia and a given arbovirus. To decipher this tripartite interaction at the molecular level, we performed a proteome analysis in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells mono-infected by Wolbachia wAlbB strain or Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and bi-infected. We first confirmed significant inhibition of CHIKV by Wolbachia. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 600 unique differentially expressed proteins mostly related to glycolysis, translation and protein metabolism. Wolbachia infection had greater impact on cellular functions than CHIKV infection, inducing either up or down-regulation of proteins associated with metabolic processes such as glycolysis and ATP metabolism, or structural glycoproteins and capsid proteins in the case of bi-infection with CHIKV. CHIKV infection inhibited expression of proteins linked with the processes of transcription, translation, lipid storage and miRNA pathways. The results of our proteome profiling have provided new insights into the molecular pathways involved in tripartite Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction and may help defining targets for the better implementation of Wolbachia-based strategies for disease transmission control.

  1. Genetic evidence for a worldwide chaotic dispersion pattern of the arbovirus vector, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosè Manni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species represent a global concern for their rapid spread and the possibility of infectious disease transmission. This is the case of the global invader Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV, dengue (DENV and Zika (ZIKV. The reconstruction of the complex colonization pattern of this mosquito has great potential for mitigating its spread and, consequently, disease risks.Classical population genetics analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approaches were combined to disentangle the demographic history of Aedes albopictus populations from representative countries in the Southeast Asian native range and in the recent and more recently colonized areas. In Southeast Asia, the low differentiation and the high co-ancestry values identified among China, Thailand and Japan indicate that, in the native range, these populations maintain high genetic connectivity, revealing their ancestral common origin. China appears to be the oldest population. Outside Southeast Asia, the invasion process in La Réunion, America and the Mediterranean Basin is primarily supported by a chaotic propagule distribution, which cooperates in maintaining a relatively high genetic diversity within the adventive populations.From our data, it appears that independent and also trans-continental introductions of Ae. albopictus may have facilitated the rapid establishment of adventive populations through admixture of unrelated genomes. As a consequence, a great amount of intra-population variability has been detected, and it is likely that this variability may extend to the genetic mechanisms controlling vector competence. Thus, in the context of the invasion process of this mosquito, it is possible that both population ancestry and admixture contribute to create the conditions for the efficient transmission of arboviruses and for outbreak establishment.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...

  3. Orientation in a crowded environment: can King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chicks find their creches after a displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Mardon, Jérôme; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    For seabird species, the presence of conspecifics in a crowded breeding colony can obstruct locally available orientation cues. Thus, navigation to specific locations can present a challenging problem. We investigated short-range orientation in King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chicks that live in a large and densely populated colony. The two main objectives were to determine whether chicks displaced to a novel location away from the colony (i) can orient towards the colony and return to their crèche and (ii) rely on visual or non-visual cues for orientation. To address these questions, a circular arena was constructed 100 m away from the colony. Chicks were released in the arena during the day and at night. After the orientation experiment in the arena, chicks were allowed to return to their home crèche, if they could. Our results showed that, during day trials, chicks preferred the half of the arena closer to the colony, but not at night. However, at night, birds spent more time on ;the colony half' of the arena if the wind blew from the colony direction. When animals were allowed to leave the arena, 98% of chicks homed during the day but only 62% of chicks homed at night. Chicks that homed at night also took longer to find their crèche. The experiments suggest that King Penguin chicks can find their crèche from a novel location. Visual cues are important for homing but, when visual cues are not present, animals are able to make use of other information carried by the wind.

  4. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  5. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  6. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metals and metalloids in Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) prey, blood and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Scarpaci, Carol; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D

    2017-04-01

    Piscivorous species like the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) are particularly at risk of being negatively impacted by pollution due to their heightened exposure through aquatic food chains. Therefore, determining the concentration of heavy metals in the fish prey of seabirds is an essential component of assessing such risk. In this study, we report on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and selenium concentrations in three fish species, which are known to comprise a substantial part of the diet of Little Penguins at the urban colony of St Kilda, Melbourne, Australia. Metal concentrations in the fish sampled were generally within the expected limits, however, arsenic and mercury were higher than reported elsewhere. Anchovy (Engraulis australis) and sandy sprat (Hyperlophus vittatus) contained higher Hg concentrations than pilchard (Sardinops sagax), while sandy sprat and pilchard contained more selenium. We present these findings together with metal concentrations in Little Penguin blood and faeces, sampled within weeks of the fish collection. Mercury concentrations were highest in the blood, while faeces and fish prey species contained similar concentrations of arsenic and lead, suggesting faeces as a primary route of detoxification for these elements. We also investigated paired blood - faecal samples and found a correlation for selenium only. Preliminary data from stable isotope ratios in penguin blood indicate that changes in penguin blood mercury concentrations cannot be explained by trophic changes in their diet alone, suggesting a variation of bioavailable Hg within this semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  9. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000-3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400-800 years required for sustainable recovery.

  10. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.

  11. Charming penguin and direct CP-violation in charmless B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the study of two-body charmless B decays as a mean of looking for direct CP-violation and measuring the CKM mixing parameters in the standard Model, the short-distance penguin contribution with its absorptive part generated by charm quark loop seems capable of producing sufficient B → Kπ decays rates, as obtained in factorization and QCD-improved factorization models. However there are also long-distance charming penguin contributions which could give rise to a strong phase due to the rescattering D * D * → Kπ etc. In this talk, I would like to discuss recent works on the charming penguin contribution as a different approach to the calculation of these contributions in two-body charmless B decays. We find that the charming penguin contribution is significant for B → Kπ decays and, together with the tree and penguin terms, produces large branching ratios in agreement with data, though the analysis is affected by large theoretical uncertainties. The absorptive part due to the charmed meson intermediate states is found to produce large CP asymmetries for B → Kπ, ππ decays

  12. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D.; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. - Highlights: • Trace metals measured in blood and feathers. • Arsenic, Mercury and Lead significantly higher at urban colony. • Correlations found between trace metals in feathers and blood. • Little Penguins are suitable bioindicators for coastal metal pollution. - This study confirms the suitability of the Little Penguin as a bioindicator of coastal metal pollution in coastal areas using non-destructive sampling methods

  13. THE CORACOIDS IN FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PENGUINS (AVES, SPHENISCIDAE OF THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The partial articulated skeleton MLP 77-V-10-1 comes from the upper levels of La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica at the southwestern slope of the plateau. These remains were found in the Submeseta Allomember, within the Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone, dated at 34.2 Ma using strontium isotope ratios from shells. MLP 77-V-10-1 is a giant penguin, probably the largest ever described, whose coracoids are strikingly wide at the distal surface. The present contribution is a study of this new fossil penguin, with particular emphasis on the coracoids. The osteography and associated muscles are described. Functional connotations of coracoid morphology are thoroughly discussed and its implications on the mechanics of diving are explored. We concluded that the coracoid morphology suggests a change in diving strategy from the earliest penguins until the living representatives. In the oldest penguins, the improvement of diving capacity would have been linked to the development of stronger bone and probably muscular structures enabling endurance of greater forces operating in a denser medium. In contrast, the Neogene penguins would have optimized the force action of the flight apparatus by developing more precise movements, adjusting the angle of attack of each of the effective forces. 

  14. Malignant melanoma in the penguin: characterization of the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of malignant melanoma in 10 individuals from three species of penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ann E; Smedley, Rebecca; Anthony, Simon; Garner, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanomas are aggressive neoplasms that are relatively common in penguins compared to other avian species. In this study, the clinical and pathologic characteristics of melanocytic neoplasms in five macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus), three rock hopper (Eudyptes chrysocome), and two Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins are described. Tumors most commonly occurred in the skin of the foot or hock, and were seen in the subcutaneous muscle, especially near the beak/oral cavity. Gross lesions were usually heavily pigmented, becoming raised and ulcerated over time. Humboldt penguins had a unique presentation, forming variably pigmented, cornified lesions in the inguinal area. Original case materials were obtained from all but two cases, and were assessed to define the characteristics of malignancy, evaluate four immunohistochemical markers for melanoma, and look for factors useful to informing prognosis and clinical decisions. Diagnosis was made histologically, based on morphologic features and pigmentation. Though not necessary for diagnosis, PNL-2 was found to be a useful immunohistochemical marker. HMB-45 showed unreliable positive labelling and S-100, Melan-A and Ki67 were not useful. Several factors were associated with prognosis, including gross surface dimension, mitotic index, depth of neoplastic cell invasion, and degree of surface ulceration. Metastatic spread occurred to the liver, lung, adrenal gland, brain, and bone; all lesions showed positive labelling to PNL-2. The average survival after diagnosis was 7 mo, though complete surgical excision of tumors less than 2.0 cm was curative in two cases and radiation therapy prolonged survival in one penguin. The underlying pathogenesis associated with the high prevalence of melanocytic neoplasms in captive penguins could not be identified. Three different molecular methods were performed to look for viral particles and results were negative. Advanced age is the most probable associated risk factor

  15. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arboviruses in 196 horses, 1442 dogs and 485 humans. Sera were screened by a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and positive samples confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests. The percentage of seropositive samples was 83·7%, 16·5%, 7·1% in horses, 18·8%, 0·6%, 0% in humans, 11·7%, 3·1%, 0% in adult dogs and 2·9%, 0·3%, 0% in juvenile dogs for CSGV, WNV and EEEV, respectively. Serological results in horses and dogs appeared to provide a meaningful assessment of risk to public health posed by multiple arboviruses.

  17. Spectator scattering at NLO in non-leptonic B decays: Leading penguin amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Jaeger, S.

    2007-01-01

    We complete the computation of the 1-loop (α s 2 ) corrections to hard spectator scattering in non-leptonic B decays at leading power in Λ/m b by evaluating the penguin amplitudes. This extends the knowledge of these next-to-next-to-leading-order contributions in the QCD factorization formula for B decays to a much wider class of final states, including all pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar, pseudoscalar-vector, and longitudinally polarized vector-vector final states, except final states with η or η ' mesons. The new 1-loop correction is significant for the colour-suppressed amplitudes, but turns out to be strongly suppressed for the leading QCD penguin amplitude α 4 p . We provide numerical values of the phenomenological P/T and C/T amplitude ratios for the ππ, πρ and ρρ final states, and discuss corrections to several relations between electroweak penguin and tree amplitudes

  18. The process Ω->γΨ as a possible test of the penguin diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ω->γΨ is a convenient process for testing the ΔS=1 penguin diagram. The analysis is based on the standard pole model, including negative parity resonances. Using bag model matrix elements and standard values of the penguin operator coefficients, it is found that the branching ratio for Ω->γΨ is of order 10 -5 to 10 -4 . The weak matrix element for Ω->γΨ estimated by means of soft pion and current algebra techniques is found to be proportional7 times bigger than the corresponding bag model result. This implies a branching ratio close to the experimental upper limit if standard values of the penguin coefficients are used. (orig.)

  19. Exclusive radiative and electroweak b→d and b→s penguin decays at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Seidel, D.; Feldmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    We provide standard model expectations for the rare radiative decays B→K * γ, B→ργ and B→ωγ, and the electroweak penguin decays B→K * l + l - and B→ρl + l - at the next-to-leading order (NLO), extending our previous results to b→d transitions. We consider branching fractions, isospin asymmetries and direct CPasymmetries. For the electroweak penguin decays, the lepton-invariant mass spectrum and forward-backward asymmetry is also included. Radiative and electroweak penguin transitions in b→d are mainly interesting in the search for new flavor-changing neutral current interactions, but in addition the B→ργ decays provide constraints on the CKM parameters (anti ρ, anti η). The potential impact of these constraints is discussed. (orig.)

  20. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  1. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Yellow fever virus, dengue 2 and other arboviruses isolated from mosquitos, in Burkina Faso, from 1983 to 1986. Entomological and epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Lhuillier, M; Meunier, D; Sarthou, J L; Monteny, N; Digoutte, J P; Cornet, M; Germain, M; Cordellier, R

    1993-01-01

    An arbovirus surveillance was carried out in Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1986. It was based on crepuscular catches of mosquitoes on human bait in some wooded areas and in one town. The total collection was 228 catches with an average of 8 men per catch. The total number of mosquitoes caught was 44,956 among which 32,010 potential vector of yellow fever; all these mosquitoes were analysed for arbovirology. In the south-western part of the country (region of Bobo-Dioulasso), surveillance was conducted each year from August to November, whilst the circulation of Aedes-borne arboviruses is well known to be favoured. In 1983, 1984 and 1986, seven strains of yellow fever virus were isolated in circumstances remarkably similar. They came from selvatic areas and never from the town. They concerned only Aedes (Stegomyia) luteocephalus which is the very predominant potential vector of yellow fever in the region. They were obtained in low figure, between 1 and 4 per year. They occurred from 27th of October to 21th of November. These observations confirm that the southern portion of the Sudan savanna zone of West Africa is the setting of a customary circulation of yellow fever virus and therefore belongs to the endemic emergence zone. In 1986, two strains of dengue 2 virus were isolated. One concerned Ae. luteocephalus from the selvatic area, the other Ae. (St.) aegypti from the heart of town. These data suggest two distinct cycles for dengue 2 virus, one urban and one selvatic, which could coexist simultaneously in the same region. In the south-eastern part of the country (region of Fada-N'Gourma) a yellow fever epidemic occurred between September and December 1983; its study has enable to precise their entomological aspects. The entomological inoculation rate of yellow fever virus has been evaluated to 22 infected bites per man during the month of october, for a man living close to forest gallery. 25 strains of yellow fever virus strains was isolated from Ae. (Diceromyia

  3. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  4. FA composition of heart and skeletal muscle during embryonic development of the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrock, Frederic; Groscolas, Rene; Speake, Brian K

    2002-04-01

    Since the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) naturally contain the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA yet reported for the eggs of any avian species, the effects of this (n-3)-rich yolk on the FA profiles of the embryonic heart and skeletal muscle were investigated. The concentrations (mg/g wet tissue) of phospholipid (PL) in the developing heart and leg muscle of the penguin doubled between days 27 and 55 from the beginning of egg incubation (i.e., from the halfway stage of embryonic development to 2 d posthatch), whereas no net increase occurred in pectoral muscle. During this period, the concentration of TAG in heart decreased by half but increased two- and sixfold in leg and pectoral muscle, respectively. The most notable change in cholesteryl ester concentration occurred in pectoral muscle, increasing ninefold between days 27 and 55. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was the major polyunsaturate in PL of the penguin's heart, where it formed about 20% (w/w) of FA at day 55. At the equivalent developmental stage, the heart PL of the chicken contained a 1.3-fold greater proportion of ARA, contained a fifth less DHA, and was almost devoid of EPA, whereas the latter FA was a significant component (7% of FA) of penguin heart PL. Similarly, in PL of leg and pectoral muscle, the chicken displayed about 1.4-fold more ARA, up to 50% less DHA, and far less EPA in comparison with the penguin. Thus, although ARA-rich PL profiles are achieved in the heart and muscle of the penguin embryo, these profiles are significantly affected by the high n-3 content of the yolk.

  5. Adelie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Jarman

    Full Text Available The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  6. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  7. Signatures of CP-Violating Electroweak Penguins in K and B Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The B->πK decays with significant electroweak penguin contributions show a puzzling pattern. We explore this ''B->πK puzzle'' through a systematic strategy. The starting point, which is essentially unaffected by electroweak penguins, is the determination of the angle γ of the unitarity triangle through the CP-violating B d 0 ->π + π - , B d 0 ->π - K + asymmetries, yielding γ=(73.9 -6.5 +5.8 ) o , and the extraction of hadronic parameters through the measured B->ππ branching ratios. Using arguments related to the SU(3) flavor symmetry, we convert the hadronic B->ππ parameters into their B->πK counterparts, allowing us to predict the B->πK observables in the Standard Model. We find agreement with the data for those quantities that are only marginally affected by electroweak penguins, while this is not the case for the observables with sizeable electroweak penguin contributions. Since we may also perform a couple of internal consistency checks of our working assumptions, which are nicely satisfied for the current data, and find a small sensitivity of our results to large non-factorizable SU(3)-breaking corrections, the ''B->πK'' puzzle may be due to new physics in the electroweak penguin sector. We show that it can indeed be resolved through such a kind of new physics with a large CP-violating phase. Further insights into the electroweak penguins are provided by the B + ->π 0 K + and B d 0 ->π 0 K S CP asymmetries, and in particular through correlations with various rare K and B decays

  8. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Phil N; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, Dee; Bost, Charles-André; Crawford, Robert J M; Crossin, Glenn T; Cuthbert, Richard J; Dann, Peter; Davis, Lloyd Spencer; De La Puente, Santiago; Ellenberg, Ursula; Lynch, Heather J; Mattern, Thomas; Pütz, Klemens; Seddon, Philip J; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Wienecke, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human impacts are greater. Our review was based on an expert assessment and literature review of all 18 penguin species; 49 scientists contributed to the process. For each penguin species, we considered their range and distribution, population trends, and main anthropogenic threats over the past approximately 250 years. These threats were harvesting adults for oil, skin, and feathers and as bait for crab and rock lobster fisheries; harvesting of eggs; terrestrial habitat degradation; marine pollution; fisheries bycatch and resource competition; environmental variability and climate change; and toxic algal poisoning and disease. Habitat loss, pollution, and fishing, all factors humans can readily mitigate, remain the primary threats for penguin species. Their future resilience to further climate change impacts will almost certainly depend on addressing current threats to existing habitat degradation on land and at sea. We suggest protection of breeding habitat, linked to the designation of appropriately scaled marine reserves, including in the High Seas, will be critical for the future conservation of penguins. However, large-scale conservation zones are not always practical or politically feasible and other ecosystem-based management methods that include spatial zoning, bycatch mitigation, and robust harvest control must be developed to maintain marine biodiversity and ensure that ecosystem functioning is maintained across a variety of scales. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  9. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g −1 dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g −1 dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ 15 N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ 13 C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults displayed

  10. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ{sup 15}N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ{sup 13}C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults

  11. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  13. Testing optimal foraging theory in a penguin-krill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Ito, Motohiro; Takahashi, Akinori

    2014-03-22

    Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to the technical difficulties in recording foraging behaviour in the wild, it has been inadequately examined in natural predator-prey systems, especially those in the three-dimensional marine environment. Using animal-borne accelerometers and video cameras, we collected a rare dataset in which the behaviour of a marine predator (penguin) was recorded simultaneously with the capture timings of mobile, patchily distributed prey (krill). We provide qualitative support for the MVT by showing that (i) krill capture rate diminished with time in each dive, as assumed in the MVT, and (ii) dive duration (or patch residence time, controlled for dive depth) increased with short-term, dive-scale krill capture rate, but decreased with long-term, bout-scale krill capture rate, as predicted from the MVT. Our results demonstrate that a single environmental factor (i.e. patch quality) can have opposite effects on animal behaviour depending on the time scale, emphasizing the importance of multi-scale approaches in understanding complex foraging strategies.

  14. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.

  15. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

    1989-10-01

    The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation.

  16. Distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2011-05-01

    Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of China-Myanmar-Laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the China-Myanmar-Laos border region.

  17. Newcastle disease virus in penguins from King George Island on the Antarctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomazelli, Luciano M; Araujo, Jansen; Oliveira, Danielle B; Sanfilippo, Luiz; Ferreira, Carolina S; Brentano, Liana; Pelizari, Vivian H; Nakayama, Cristiane; Duarte, Rubens; Hurtado, Renata; Branco, Joaquim O; Walker, David; Durigon, Edison L

    2010-11-20

    Here we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from cloacal swabs obtained from penguins in the South Atlantic Antarctic region (62°08S, 58°25W). Samples of 100 penguins from King George Island were tested by real-time PCR, of which 2 (2%) were positive for NDV. The positive samples were isolated in embryonated chicken eggs and their matrix and fusion proteins genes were partially sequenced. This was complemented by the serological study performed on the blood of the same specimens, which resulted in a 33.3% rate of positivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Penguin effects induced by the two-Higgs-doublet model and charmless B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.J.; Joshi, G.C.; Matsuda, M.

    1991-01-01

    Nonstandard physical effects through the penguin diagram induced by the charged Higgs scalar contribution in the two-Higgs-doublet model are analysed. Since non-leptonic B-decay processes to final states consisting of s+s+anti s are induced only through the penguin diagram they are important tests of such contributions. We compare these decays including the non-standard two-Higgs-doublet contribution with the standard model results, which arise from the magnetic gluon transistion term. The charged Higgs contribution can give a sizable enhancement to the branching fraction of B-meson charmless decay. (orig.)

  19. A Case of endoscopic retrieval of a long bamboo stick from a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Ko, Minho; Cho, Hyun Kee; Kang, Byung-Jae; Choi, Jung Hoon; Chung, Jin-Young

    2017-02-28

    An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps. A long bamboo stick (29 × 1 cm) was removed from the stomach, and the penguin fully recovered.

  20. Can there be any new physics in b→d penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Anjan K.; Mohanta, Rukmani

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of observing new physics effects in the b→d penguin amplitudes. For this purpose, we consider the decay mode B d 0 →K 0 K-bar 0 , which has only b→d penguin contributions. Using the QCD factorization approach, we find very tiny CP violating effects in the standard model for this process. Furthermore, we show that the minimal supersymmetric standard model with LR mass insertion and R-parity violating supersymmetric model can provide substantial CP violation effects. Observation of sizable CP violation in this mode would be a clear signal of new physics. (author)

  1. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  2. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Barbara; González-Acuña, Daniel; Loyola, David E; Johnson, Warren E; Parker, Patricia G; Massaro, Melanie; Dantas, Gisele P M; Miranda, Marcelo D; Vianna, Juliana A

    2018-01-16

    Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin species distributed from the equator to Antarctica. Signatures of selection of 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were evaluated by comparing among species within and among genera (Spheniscus, Pygoscelis, Eudyptula, Eudyptes and Aptenodytes). The genetic data were correlated with environmental data obtained through remote sensing (sea surface temperature [SST], chlorophyll levels [Chl] and a combination of SST and Chl [COM]) through the distribution of these species. We identified the complete mtDNA genomes of several penguin species, including ND6 and 8 tRNAs on the light strand and 12 protein coding genes, 14 tRNAs and two rRNAs positioned on the heavy strand. The highest diversity was found in NADH dehydrogenase genes and the lowest in COX genes. The lowest evolutionary divergence among species was between Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) and Galapagos (S. mendiculus) penguins (0.004), while the highest was observed between little penguin (Eudyptula minor) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) (0.097). We identified a signature of purifying selection (Ka/Ks penguins. In contrast, COX1 had a signature of strong negative selection. ND4 Ka/Ks ratios were highly correlated with SST (Mantel, p-value: 0.0001; GLM, p-value: 0.00001) and thus may be related to climate adaptation throughout penguin speciation. These results identify mtDNA candidate genes under selection which could be involved in broad-scale adaptations of penguins to their environment. Such knowledge may be

  3. Electroweak penguin decays as probes of physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are sensitive to new, virtual particles and therefore offer a unique window on any physics beyond the Standard Model. In the B sector, penguin decays such as B0->K*0mu+mu- give a number of measurable quantities which can be precisely predicted by theory. The LHCb experiment has made the world's most precise measurements of this and several other related decays. These measurements give constraints on any new physics phenomena contributing to the relevant loop processes at mass scales well in excess of those that can be accessed by direct searches. The recent experimental progress of such measurements will be presented.

  4. [Use of energy reserves during the breeding fast of the emperor penguin, Aptenodvtes forsteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, R; Clément, C

    1976-01-19

    During the breeding fasting of the emperor penguin, the lipid and protein stores are steadily used to meet the metabolic needs; they represent respectively 93 and 7% of the energy production in the animal. The role of the glucid stores are quantitively negligible. Loss of tissue water represents 35,3% of body weight loss. Increased weight loss below 20 kg a "critical weight", is associated with a conversion to protein catabolism when lipid supplies are exhausted. These results allow the estimation of the metabolism when the body weight loss is considered in this antartic penguin.

  5. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno Von

    2017-04-10

    Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures. RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da aus

  6. Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2018-03-01

    Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39 T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39 T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39 T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739 T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008 T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain WV39 T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739 T , 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008 T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T . The DNA G+C content of strain WV39 T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39 T (=KCTC 42908 T =CECT 9085 T ).

  7. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  8. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter.

  9. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter. PMID:29561876

  10. Oceanographic mechanisms and penguin population increases during the Little Ice Age in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjiao; Sun, Liguang; Emslie, Steven D.; Xie, Zhouqing; Huang, Tao; Gao, Yuesong; Yang, Wenqing; Chu, Zhuding; Wang, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is a well-known indicator for climate and environmental changes. Exploring how large-scale climate variability affects penguin ecology in the past is essential for understanding the responses of Southern Ocean ecosystems to future global change. Using ornithogenic sediments at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica, we inferred relative population changes of Adélie penguins in the southern Ross Sea over the past 500 yr, and observed an increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1850 AD). We used cadmium content in ancient penguin guano as a proxy of ocean upwelling and identified a close linkage between penguin dynamics and atmospheric circulation and oceanic conditions. During the cold period of ∼1600-1825 AD, a deepened Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) led to stronger winds, intensified ocean upwelling, enlarged Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound polynyas, and thus higher food abundance and penguin populations. We propose a mechanism linking Antarctic marine ecology and atmospheric/oceanic dynamics which can help explain and predict responses of Antarctic high latitudes ecosystems to climate change.

  11. Climate Change and the Arboviruses: Lessons from the Evolution of the Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-09-29

    The impact of anticipated changes in global climate on the arboviruses and the diseases they cause poses a significant challenge for public health. The past evolution of the dengue and yellow fever viruses provides clues about the influence of changes in climate on their future evolution. The evolution of both viruses has been influenced by virus interactions involving the mosquito species and the primate hosts involved in virus transmission, and by their domestic and sylvatic cycles. Information is needed on how viral genes in general influence phenotypic variance for important viral functions. Changes in global climate will alter the interactions of mosquito species with their primate hosts and with the viruses in domestic cycles, and greater attention should be paid to the sylvatic cycles. There is great danger for the evolution of novel viruses, such as new serotypes, that could compromise vaccination programs and jeopardize public health. It is essential to understand (a) both sylvatic and domestic cycles and (b) the role of virus genetic and environmental variances in shaping virus phenotypic variance to more fully assess the impact of global climate change.

  12. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J

    1992-07-01

    During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

  13. Aedes Mosquitoes and Aedes-Borne Arboviruses in Africa: Current and Future Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Shearer, Freya M.; Coulibaly, Mamadou

    2018-01-01

    The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain. Issues such as genetic and ecological diversity, and opportunities for integration with malaria control, are primarily African; others such as ever-increasing urbanization, insecticide resistance and lack of evidence for most control-interventions reflect problems throughout the tropics. We identify key knowledge gaps and future research areas, and in particular, highlight the need to improve knowledge of the distributions of disease and major vectors, insecticide resistance, and to develop specific plans and capacity for arboviral disease surveillance, prevention and outbreak responses. PMID:29382107

  14. Dengue and Zika viruses: lessons learned from the similarities between these Aedes mosquito-vectored arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanee, San; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-02-01

    The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. ZIKV, which was discovered in 1952, is another important arthropod-borne flavivirus. The neurotropic role of ZIKV has been reported in infected newborns with microcephaly and in adults with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite DENV and ZIKV sharing the same viral vector, their complex pathogenic natures are poorly understood, and the infections they cause do not have specific treatments or effective vaccines. Therefore, this review will describe what is currently known about the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis mechanisms, and transmission of these two viruses. Better understanding of the interrelationships between DENV and ZIKV will provide a useful perspective for developing an effective strategy for controlling both viruses in the future.

  15. Mosquitoes used to draw blood for arbovirus viremia determinations in small vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C Kading

    Full Text Available Serial samples from the same individuals may be required for certain virological studies, however, some small animals cannot easily be blood-sampled. Therefore, we evaluated the use of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes as "biological syringes" to draw blood for virus titer determinations in small vertebrates. Groups of chicks (Gallus gallus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, and house sparrows (Passer domesticus were experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV or Highlands J virus (HJV. In general, good correlation was seen between mosquito- and syringe-derived blood samples at titers ≥5.0 log10 pfu/mL serum as compared with titers 105 pfu/mL serum had mosquito- and syringe-derived titers within one log of each other. Sparrow viremia profiles generated from single mosquito blood meals and syringe were not significantly different (p>0.05. This technique is valuable for assessing the roles of small vertebrates in the ecologies of arboviruses, and could be used in applications beyond virology and infectious diseases, when <10 µL of whole blood is required.

  16. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak.

  17. Low momentum penguin contributions - towards a better understanding of the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1986-05-01

    It is assumed that the ''penguin'' interaction, introduced to explain the ΔI=1/2 rule, is not short distance dominated. An effective shiral field theory, including mesons coupling to quarks, is used to calculate the penguin loop contributions below a scale approximately=1 GeV. It is found that such contributions are enhanced and can probably account for half of the needed ΔI=1/2 enhancement. However, additional (non-penguin) effects have to be considered before any conclusion can be drawn within the considered chiral model

  18. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Three Species of Antarctic Penguins in Different Geographic Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Llorente, M T; Serrano, T; Ruano, M J; Belliure, J; Benzal, J; Herrera-León, S; Vidal, V; D'Amico, V; Pérez-Boto, D; Barbosa, A

    2017-03-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua)], and six colonies were rarely visited [Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island (P. papua); Cierva Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua); Rongé Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Yalour Island (P. adeliae); and Avian Island (P. adeliae)]. A total of 23 strains were isolated from penguins from nine different rookeries. Campylobacter lari subsp. lari was isolated from eight samples (seven from P. papua and one from P. adeliae); C. lari subsp. concheus from 13 (ten from P. adeliae and three from P. antarctica) and C. volucris from two samples (both from P. papua). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. between the populations in highly and rarely visited areas. This is the first report of C. lari subsp. concheus and C. volucris isolation from penguins in the Antarctic region.

  19. African penguins as predators and prey — coping (or not) with change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to both the extinction and formation of colonies. Food now may limit colonies at relatively small sizes, a fact attributable to industrial fisheries reducing the densities of forage fish. African penguins share their habitat with several other predators, with which they compete for food and breeding space. One of these ...

  20. K → ππ Electroweak penguins in the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirigliano, V.; Donoghue, J.F.; Golowich, E.; Maltman, K.

    2003-01-01

    We report on dispersive and finite energy sum rule analyses of the electroweak penguin matrix elements 2 vertical bar Q 7,8 vertical bar K 0 > in the chiral limit. We accomplish the correct perturbative matching (scale and scheme dependence) at NLO in α s , and we describe two different strategies for numerical evaluation

  1. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Group foraging increases foraging efficiency in a piscivorous diver, the African penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeorge, Cuan; Ginsberg, Samuel; Pichegru, Lorien; Pistorius, Pierre A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine piscivores have evolved a variety of morphological and behavioural adaptations, including group foraging, to optimize foraging efficiency when targeting shoaling fish. For penguins that are known to associate at sea and feed on these prey resources, there is nonetheless a lack of empirical evidence to support improved foraging efficiency when foraging with conspecifics. We examined the hunting strategies and foraging performance of breeding African penguins equipped with animal-borne video recorders. Individuals pursued both solitary as well as schooling pelagic fish, and demonstrated independent as well as group foraging behaviour. The most profitable foraging involved herding of fish schools upwards during the ascent phase of a dive where most catches constituted depolarized fish. Catch-per-unit-effort was significantly improved when targeting fish schools as opposed to single fish, especially when foraging in groups. In contrast to more generalist penguin species, African penguins appear to have evolved specialist hunting strategies closely linked to their primary reliance on schooling pelagic fish. The specialist nature of the observed hunting strategies further limits the survival potential of this species if Allee effects reduce group size-related foraging efficiency. This is likely to be exacerbated by diminishing fish stocks due to resource competition and environmental change. PMID:28989785

  3. Quenched penguin operators and the Delta I=1/2 rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, M.; Pallante, E.

    2006-01-01

    The transformation properties of strong penguin operators under the action of the flavor group change when they are considered as operators in (partially) quenched QCD instead of the unquenched theory. As a result, additional operators and new low-energy constants appear in the effective theory

  4. The efficacy of translocating little penguins Eudyptula minor during an oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Cindy L.; Hindell, Mark A.; Moyle, Diane I.; Gales, Rosemary P.; Brothers, Nigel P.; Meggs, Ross A.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of the ship The Iron Baron running aground at Low Head in northern Tasmania, Australia, an unknown number of little penguins Eudyptula minor were contaminated with bunker fuel oil. Of these, 1894 were brought into captivity and cleaned of oil. The area was still contaminated with oil when the penguins were ready for release and, rather than prolong captivity with its associated risk of disease and stress at a time when breeding was imminent, a translocation strategy was trialled, the results of which are reported here. Twenty-five penguins equipped with VHF transmitters were translocated 360 km to the east coast of Tasmania, and their movements tracked from the air. Two birds returned to the capture site in 3 days, insufficient time for clean-up to be completed, prompting a new release site 120 km further south. A further six penguins were tracked at nearby Ninth Island to monitor foraging behaviour. Fifty-six per cent of the birds released at the translocation sites returned to Low Head in 4 months. This is a conservative estimate, and subsequent monitoring found no differences in the survival rate of translocated and control birds. (author)

  5. Migratory life histories explain the extreme egg-size dimorphism of Eudyptes penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony D.

    2016-01-01

    When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of Eudyptes penguins, where the first-laid A-egg is approximately 18–57% smaller than the second-laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled data on ESD and estimates of migration–reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration–reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD. We show that migration overlap is generally restricted to Eudyptes relative to non-Eudyptes penguins, and that this overlap (defined as the amount of time that egg production occurs on land versus at sea during homeward migration) is significantly and positively correlated with the degree of ESD in Eudyptes. In the non-Eudyptes species, however, ESD was unrelated to migration overlap as these species mostly produce their clutches on land. Our results support the recent hypothesis that extreme ESD of Eudyptes penguins evolved, in part, as a response to selection for a pelagic overwinter migration behaviour. This resulted in a temporal overlap with, and thus a constraint on, the physiology of follicle development, leading to smaller A-egg size and greater ESD. PMID:27708146

  6. The electromagnetic penguin contribution to ε'/ε for large top quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.M.; Randall, L.

    1989-04-01

    We evaluate the electromagnetic penguin contribution to ε' under the assumption that the top quark mass can be large. We find a significant effect for top masses larger than the mass of the W. We also consider other operators which can affect the standard model prediction for ε'. (author)

  7. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  9. Purposes for Literacy in Children's Use of the Online Virtual World "Club Penguin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the purposes for literacy discernible in young children's use of the virtual world, "Club Penguin." Twenty-six children aged between 5 and 11 took part in semi-structured interviews in which their use of virtual worlds was explored. Further, three 11-year-old children were filmed using "Club…

  10. Effects of (partial) quenching on penguin contributions to K→ππ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we pointed out that chiral transformation properties of strong penguin operators change in the transition from unquenched to (partially) quenched QCD. As a consequence, new penguinlike operators appear in the (partially) quenched theory, along with new low-energy constants, which should be

  11. Projected continent-wide declines of the emperor penguin under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenouvrier, S.; Holland, M.; Stroeve, J.; Serreze, M.; Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H.; Caswell, H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been projected to affect species distribution1 and future trends of local populations2, 3, but projections of global population trends are rare. We analyse global population trends of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), an iconic Antarctic top predator, under the influence

  12. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  13. Gridded multibeam bathymetry and SHOALS LIDAR bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  14. Electroweak penguin contributions to non-leptonic ΔF=1 decays at NNLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gambino, Paolo; Haisch, Ulrich A.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the O(α s ) corrections to the Z 0 -penguin and electroweak box diagrams relevant for non-leptonic ΔF=1 decays with F=S,B. This calculation provides the complete O(α W α s ) and O(α W α s sin 2 θ W m t 2 ) corrections (α W =α/sin 2 θ W ) to the Wilson coefficients of the electroweak penguin four quark operators relevant for non-leptonic K- and B-decays. We argue that this is the dominant part of the next-next-to-leading (NNLO) contributions to these coefficients. Our results allow us to reduce considerably the uncertainty due to the definition of the top quark mass present in the existing NLO calculations of non-leptonic decays. The NNLO corrections to the coefficient of the color singlet (V-A)x(V-A) electroweak penguin operator Q 9 relevant for B-decays are generally moderate, amount to a few percent for the choice m t (μ t =m t ) and depend only weakly on the renormalization scheme. Larger NNLO corrections with substantial scheme dependence are found for the coefficients of the remaining electroweak penguin operators Q 7 , Q 8 and Q 10 . In particular, the strong scheme dependence of the NNLO corrections to C 8 allows us to reduce considerably the scheme dependence of C 8 8 > 2 relevant for the ratio ε'/ε

  15. Effects of quenching and partial quenching on QCD penguin matrix elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2002-01-01

    We point out that chiral transformation properties of penguin operators change in the transition from unquenched to (partially) quenched QCD. The way in which this affects the lattice determination of weak matrix elements can be understood in the framework of (partially) quenched chiral perturbation

  16. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations.

  17. Electroweak and strong penguins in B±,0 →ππ,πK and KK decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate CP-violating rates and asymmetry parameters in charged and neutral B→ππ, πK and anti KK decays arising from the interference of tree and penguin (strong and electroweak) amplitudes with different strong and CKM phases. The perturbative strong (electroweak) phases develop at order α s (α em ) from absorptive parts of one-loop matrix elements of the next-to-leading (leading) logarithm corrected effective Hamiltonian. The BSW model is used to estimate the hadronic matrix elements. Based on this model, we find that the effect of strong phases and penguins is substantial in most channels, drastic in many. However, a measurement of the time dependence parameter α ε+ε' in the π + π - channel is only influenced at the 20% level by the complication of the penguins. Recent flavor sum rules developed for B 0,± →ππ, πK, K anti K amplitudes are tested in this model. Some are well satisfied, others badly violated, when electroweak penguins are included. (orig.)

  18. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez, Silvia [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Motas, Miguel, E-mail: motas@um.es [Area de Toxicologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres [Departamento de Ecologia Funcional y Evolutiva, Estacion Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 La Canada de San Urbano, Almeria (Spain); Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: > We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. > Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. > Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. > Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. > Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  19. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins.

  20. studies of radiative penguin decays at BaBar (*) + - * -6 * ' * * * -E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We summarize results on a number of observations of penguin dominated radiative decays of the B meson. Such decays are forbidden at tree level and proceed via electroweak loops. As such they may be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The observations have been made at the BaBar experiment at PEP-II, ...

  1. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: Geographical and interspecific differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Palacios, Maria Jose; Valera, Francisco; Cuervo, Jose Javier; Barbosa, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is often considered as one of the last pristine regions, but it could be affected by pollution at global and local scale. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determinated by ICP-MS in feathers (n = 207 individuals) of gentoo, chinstrap and Adelie penguin collected in 8 locations throughout the Antarctic Peninsula (2006-2007). The highest levels of several elements were found in samples from King George Island (8.08, 20.29 and 1.76 μg g -1 dw for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively) and Deception Island (203.13, 3.26 and 164.26 μg g -1 dw for Al, Mn and Fe, respectively), where probably human activities and large-scale transport of pollutants contribute to increase metal levels. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Cu, Se or Pb, which are similar to others found in different regions of the world, show that some areas in Antarctica are not utterly pristine. - Highlights: → We study levels of trace elements in feathers of Antarctic penguins. → Eight different rookeries throughout the Antarctic Peninsula were sampled. → Interspecific (gentoo, chinstrap, Adelie) and geographical differences were tested. → Relatively high metal levels were found in areas with major human presence. → Penguin feather can be useful for metals monitoring in the Antarctic environment. - Trace element levels in feathers of three penguin species from the Antarctic Peninsula indicate the presence of pollution in certain locations.

  2. The Black-footed Penguin Spheniscus demersus in Artiszoo Amsterdam, 1961-1982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloup, Marie-Josée A.E.

    1982-01-01

    Black-footed Penguins, Spheniscus demersus, have been living in an open air enclosure in Artiszoo since 1961. Their numbers varied from 7 to 103 in the period under study extending from 1961 to 1982. The information used in this survey is derived from records made by the zoo keepers and from a study

  3. Modeling the marine resources consumed in raising a king penguin chick: an energetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Bost, C-A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of penguin energetics would represent an important contribution to our understanding of the trophodynamics of the Southern Ocean ecosystem and our ability to predict effects of environmental change on these species. We used the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption technique to estimate rate of energy expenditure in adult king penguins raising a chick, in combination with data from the literature on changes in adult mass, chick energy requirements, and prey energy density. Our model estimated a variety of energetic costs and quantities of prey consumption related to raising a king penguin chick during the austral summer. The total energy requirements of a king penguin chick at the Crozet Archipelago from hatching until reaching a mass of 8 kg 90 d later is 271 MJ, representing the consumption of 38.4 kg of myctophid fish. A successfully breeding male requires 0.78 kg d(-1) of fish during the entirety of the incubation period and 1.14 kg d(-1) during the subsequent 90 d of chick rearing. Assuming the same energy requirements for females, the estimated 580,000 pairs of king penguins that breed successfully at Crozet each year, together with their chicks, consume a total of around 190,000 tons of fish during the incubation and summer rearing periods combined. If, due to depletion of fish stocks, the diet of breeders and chicks during the summer becomes identical to the typical diet of adults during the austral winter, the mass of prey required by both adults and chicks combined (where the chick still reaches 8 kg after 90 d) would increase by more than 25%.

  4. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Sala

    Full Text Available Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles' for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus by Simeone and Wilson (2003. Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN, Bahía Bustamente (BB, Puerto Deseado (PD and Puerto San Julián (PSJ, all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies. We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.

  5. Corticosterone and foraging behavior in a diving seabird: the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Bost, Charles-André; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bouteloup, Guillaume; Dano, Stéphanie; Chastel, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Because hormones mediate physiological or behavioral responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, they can help us understand how animals adapt their foraging decisions to energetic demands of reproduction. Thus, the hormone corticosterone deserves specific attention because of its influence on metabolism, food intake and locomotor activities. We examined the relationships between baseline corticosterone levels and foraging behavior or mass gain at sea in a diving seabird, the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae. Data were obtained from free-ranging penguins during the brooding period (Adélie Land, Antarctica) by using satellite transmitters and time-depth-recorders. The birds were weighed and blood sampled before and after a foraging trip (pre-trip and post-trip corticosterone levels, respectively). Penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels spent less time at sea and stayed closer to the colony than penguins with low pre-trip corticosterone levels. These short trips were associated with a higher foraging effort in terms of diving activity and a lower mass gain at sea than long trips. According to previous studies conducted on seabird species, these results suggest that penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels might maximize the rate of energy delivery to the chicks at the expense of their body reserves. Moreover, in all birds, corticosterone levels were lower post-foraging than pre-foraging. This decrease could result from either the restoration of body reserves during the foraging trip or from a break in activity at the end of the foraging trip. This study demonstrates for the first time in a diving predator the close relationships linking foraging behavior and baseline corticosterone levels. We suggest that slight elevations in pre-trip corticosterone levels could play a major role in breeding effort by facilitating foraging activity in breeding seabirds.

  6. Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, L Alex; Schofield, Oscar; Fraser, William R

    2010-12-01

    Despite their strong dependence on the pelagic environment, seabirds and other top predators in polar marine ecosystems are generally studied during their reproductive phases in terrestrial environments. As a result, a significant portion of their life history is understudied which in turn has led to limited understanding. Recent advances in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed satellite-tagged Adélie penguins to guide AUV surveys of the marine environment at the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Near real-time data sent via Iridium satellites from the AUVs to a centralized control center thousands of miles away allowed scientists to adapt AUV sampling strategies to meet the changing conditions of the subsurface. Such AUV data revealed the water masses and fine-scale features associated with Adélie penguin foraging trips. During this study, the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was between 30 and 50 m deep. Encompassing this peak in the chlorophyll concentration, within the water-column, was a mixture of nutrient-laden Upper Circumpolar Deep (UCDW) and western Antarctic Peninsula winter water (WW). Together, data from the AUV survey and penguin dives reveal that 54% of foraging by Adélie penguins occurs immediately below the chlorophyll maximum. These data demonstrate how bringing together emerging technologies, such as AUVs, with established methods such as the radio-tagging of penguins can provide powerful tools for monitoring and hypothesis testing of previously inaccessible ecological processes. Ocean and atmosphere temperatures are expected to continue increasing along the western Antarctic Peninsula, which will undoubtedly affect regional marine ecosystems. New and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individually mounted satellite tracking devices will provide the tools critical to documenting and understanding the widespread ecological change

  7. Project CONVERGE: Impacts of local oceanographic processes on Adélie penguin foraging ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, J. T.; Bernard, K. S.; Fraser, W.; Oliver, M. J.; Statscewich, H.; Patterson-Fraser, D.; Winsor, P.; Cimino, M. A.; Miles, T. N.

    2016-02-01

    During the austral summer of 2014-2015, project CONVERGE deployed a multi-platform network to sample the Adélie penguin foraging hotspot associated with Palmer Deep Canyon along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The focus of CONVERGE was to assess the impact of prey-concentrating ocean circulation dynamics on Adélie penguin foraging behavior. Food web links between phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and penguin behavior were examined to better understand the within-season variability in Adélie foraging ecology. Since the High Frequency Radar (HFR) network installation in November 2014, the radial component current data from each of the three sites were combined to provide a high resolution (0.5 km) surface velocity maps. These hourly maps have revealed an incredibly dynamic system with strong fronts and frequent eddies extending across the Palmer Deep foraging area. A coordinated fleet of underwater gliders were used in concert with the HFR fields to sample the hydrography and phytoplankton distributions associated with convergent and divergent features. Three gliders mapped the along and across canyon variability of the hydrography, chlorophyll fluorescence and acoustic backscatter in the context of the observed surface currents and simultaneous penguin tracks. This presentation will highlight these synchronized measures of the food web in the context of the observed HFR fronts and eddies. The location and persistence of these features coupled with ecological sampling through the food web offer an unprecedented view of the Palmer Deep ecosystem. Specific examples will highlight how the vertical structure of the water column beneath the surface features stack the primary and secondary producers relative to observed penguin foraging behavior. The coupling from the physics through the food web as observed by our multi-platform network gives strong evidence for the critical role that distribution patterns of lower trophic levels have on Adélie foraging.

  8. Technique, postoperative complications, and visual outcomes of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in 21 penguins (27 eyes): 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Melanie L; Priehs, Daniel R; Denis, Heidi; Croft, Lara; DiRocco, Stacy; Davis, Michelle

    2018-02-06

    To describe surgical technique, postoperative complications, and visual outcome in penguins after phacoemulsification lens extraction surgery. Twenty-one penguins (27 eyes) that had phacoemulsification from 2011 to 2015 at Animal Eye Associates. Species included are as follows: 14 southern Rockhopper (18 eyes, 66.6%), 4 Gentoo (4 eyes, 19%), 2 King (3 eyes, 9.5%), and 1 Chinstrap penguin (2 eyes, 4.8%). Eleven of the penguins were females, and 10 were males with average age at the time of surgery being 27.5 years (range of 22-31 years). This is a retrospective study of phacoemulsification cataract surgery patients from 2011 to 2015. Visual outcome was evaluated by veterinary ophthalmologists at postoperative recheck examinations and subjectively by penguin keepers using individual bird surveys and paired t tests for statistical analysis. All eyes were functionally visual after surgery and at the time of last follow-up. Based on keeper surveys, 81% (17/21) of penguins showed immediate improvements in overall quality of life and 90% (19/21) of penguins exhibited improvement in mobility and behavior within their exhibit following cataract removal. Of the 14 penguins that received 1:5 intracameral atracurium during surgery, 10 (71.4%) had moderate mydriasis, 1 (7.1%) had minimal mydriasis, and 3 (21.4%) showed no effect to the pupil. Seventy percent of the cases had phacoemulsification times less than 60 seconds/eye; the mean time was 72 seconds. Sixteen eyes (59.3%) underwent anterior capsulotomy only, planned anterior and posterior capsulotomies were performed in 3 eyes (11.1%), and the entire lens capsule was removed due to capsular fibrosis and wrinkling in 8 eyes (29.6%). The most common short-term postoperative complication was temporary mild blepharospasm and/or epiphora, reported in 8 eyes (29.6%) from 7 penguins (33.3%). Long-term complications, 2-6 years postoperatively, included posterior synechiation resulting in dyscoria (10 of 24 eyes, 41.7%) and

  9. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Catherine L; Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-07-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  10. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J.; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-01-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance. PMID:28727779

  11. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Moyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  12. Survey of UK horse owners' knowledge of equine arboviruses and disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gail Elaine; Baylis, Matthew; Archer, Debra C

    2018-05-15

    Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners. The questionnaire was distributed using social media and a press release and was active between May and July 2016. There were 466 respondents, of whom 327 completed the survey in full. High proportions of respondents correctly identified photographic images of biting midges (71.2 per cent) and mosquitoes (65.4 per cent), yet few were aware that they transmit equine infectious diseases (31.4 per cent and 35.9 per cent, respectively). Of the total number of respondents, only 7.4 per cent and 16.2 per cent correctly named a disease transmitted by biting midges and mosquitoes, respectively. Only 13.1 per cent and 12.5 per cent of participants identified specific clinical signs of African horse sickness (AHS) and West Nile virus (WNV), respectively. This study demonstrates that in the event of heightened disease risk educational campaigns directed towards horse owners need to be implemented, focussing on disease awareness, clinical signs and effective disease prevention strategies. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Plasma chemistry of the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica during fasting periods: A case of poor adaptation to food deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Álvarez, Carlos; Ferrer, Miguel; Viñuela, Javier; Amat, Juan A.

    2003-01-01

    The chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) is the smallest penguin species to be used to study the physiology of fasting. We analysed body-mass change and plasma chemistry of five non-breeding chinstraps during an experimental fasting period in the breeding season. We also analysed the same parameters in six fasting birds under natural conditions (during an incubation shift, which lasts about 10 days). Both groups presented similar patterns of change, showing a rapid increase in urea and u...

  14. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  15. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  16. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  17. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, C S; Iversson, L B; de Mendonça, J S; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Granato, C F

    1989-01-01

    280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the peri-urban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and peri-urban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag) was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory). The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche). A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36.1%) when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5.6%), peri-urban (6/89 = 6.7%) or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%). The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  18. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rey; Cyril Dégletagne; Claude Duchamp

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, ?Transcriptome analysis in non-model s...

  19. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate).

  20. Blood-specific isotopic discrimination factors in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Javier E; Righi, Carina; Faiella, Adrián; Frere, Esteban

    2016-08-30

    The use of stable isotopes for ecological studies has increased exponentially in recent years. Isotopic trophic studies are based on the assumption that animals are what they eat plus a discrimination factor. The discrimination factor is affected by many variables and can be determined empirically. The Magellanic penguin is a highly abundant marine bird that plays a key role in the southern oceans. This study provides the first estimation of the Magellanic penguin blood discrimination factor for (13) C and (15) N. A two and a half month feeding experiment was performed, in which ten captive penguins were fed their main natural prey (anchovy Engraulis anchoita). The discrimination factors were estimated by comparing anchovy δ(13) C and δ(15) N values (obtained with isotope ratio mass spectrometry using lipid-extracted and bulk anchovy muscle) with penguin blood δ(13) C and δ(15) N values. Penguin blood was shown to be enriched, compared with anchovies, for (13) C and (15) N. No changes were observed in the stable isotope ratios of anchovies and discrimination factors during the experiment. The overall discrimination factors were 0.93 ± 0.12 (bulk) and 0.41 ± 0.12 (lipid-free) for (13) C; and 2.81 ± 0.17 (bulk) and 2.31 ± 0.17 (lipid-free) for (15) N. Having an accurate discrimination factor for the studied species is key in any trophic or food web isotopic study. Comparisons of estimated diet-to-blood discrimination factors with published values of aquatic piscivore birds showed that the (13) C discrimination factor is particularly variable, and therefore ecologists should be cautious when using a surrogate value from other species. In this study, the Magellanic penguin discrimination factor of a tissue that does not require euthanasia was obtained, a fundamental input for trophic isotopic modeling of the species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A review on Zika virus, a re-emerging arbovirus: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Khodakhah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Before the recent outbreaks of Zika virus, few people have ever heard of its name. Even virologists had paid little attention to this member of the Flaviviridae family. Hence, up to January 2016, only 269 articles about Zika virus had been indexed in PubMed compared to the 9187 articles related to dengue virus. However, declaration of the World health organization (WHO about the global Zika virus spreading, which has been associated with birth defects and some neurological problems, diverted more attention to this forgotten virus. Afterwards, the virus hit the headlines and became a research interest. Since then, up to 9 August 2017, the number of Zika related articles indexed in PubMed reached to 3214. Zika virus is a re-emerging arbovirus. The First detection of Zika virus was in Uganda in 1947. It belongs to the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. Zika can typically cause a mild and self-limiting disease in a healthy person. However, in pregnant women, it might cause birth defects and occasionally it can be associated with peripheral neuropathy such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Although many research have been conducted to find out the casual link between this virus and these disorders but this relationship is still dim and controversial. Considering its recent epidemics in 2015 and 2016 the geographical distribution of Zika virus seems to expand all over the world progressively. Interaction between virus and vector is dynamic. Variety of competent vectors and adaptability of virus to new arthropod vectors are the two major factors for this process. According to the last report published by WHO, 84 countries/territories in five continents have reported the circulation of Zika virus in their area. In the recent outbreak, WHO regional office in our region (EMRO have reported no case of Zika virus transmission from this region. Nonetheless, because specific and competent vectors exist in some countries, this region has a potential of

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Inés Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about parasitic organisms in Antarctica is scarce and fragmentary. The study reported here adds to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae (Sphenisciformes, from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Bahia Esperanza (Hope Bay and Avian Island (Antarctica. Thirty-five freshly dead specimens (20 chicks and 15 adults were collected from December 2007 to December 2014 and examined for internal macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda, Parorchites zederi, and two Nematoda, Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres sp. Immature Tetrabothrius sp. were found in hosts from Avian Island. Helminth communities are known to be related to host feeding behaviours. Low parasite richness observed in Adélie penguins could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species, which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  3. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  4. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin.

  5. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.

  6. A non-marine source of variability in Adélie Penguin demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    A primary research objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has been to identify and understand the factors that regulate the demography of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). In this context, our work has been focused on variability in the marine environment on which this species depends for virtually all aspects of its life history (Ainley, 2002). As we show here, however, there are patterns evident in the population dynamics of Adélie penguins that are better explained by variability in breeding habitat quality rather than by variability in the marine system. Interactions between the geomorphology of the terrestrial environment that, in turn, affect patterns of snow deposition, drive breeding habitat quality.

  7. Measurement of branching fractions, isospin asymmetries and angular observables in exclusive electroweak penguin decays

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Patrick Haworth

    This thesis describes measurements of rare electroweak penguin decays performed with data collected by the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment corresponding to 3 $\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. The purpose of these measurements is to search for physics beyond the theoretical framework known as the Standard Model (SM). Electroweak penguin decays are sensitive to virtual particles in extensions to the SM whose influence on the decay amplitude can be of similar strength to the SM contribution. The particular measurements that are described in this thesis are the differential branching fractions and isospin asymmetries of $B\\to K^{(*)}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays as well as the angular observables in $B\\to K\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays. Although results are consistent with the SM, all the branching fractions of $B\\to K^{(*)}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays tend to favour a lower value than theoretical predictions.

  8. The myoglobin of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): amino acid sequence and functional adaptation to extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    1999-02-01

    In the framework of a study on molecular adaptations of the oxygen-transport and storage systems to extreme conditions in Antarctic marine organisms, we have investigated the structure/function relationship in Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) myoglobin, in search of correlation with the bird life style. In contrast with previous reports, the revised amino acid sequence contains one additional residue and 15 differences. The oxygen-binding parameters seem well adapted to the diving behaviour of the penguin and to the environmental conditions of the Antarctic habitat. Addition of lactate has no major effect on myoglobin oxygenation over a large temperature range. Therefore, metabolic acidosis does not impair myoglobin function under conditions of prolonged physical effort, such as diving.

  9. Is fledging in king penguin chicks related to changes in metabolic or endocrinal status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Hélène; Morlon, Francis; Groscolas, René

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the possibility that metabolic or endocrinal factors initiate fledging in the king penguin, a semi-altricial seabird species breeding a single chick on the ground. Chick fledging (departure to sea) occurred 5d after completion of the molt. It was preceded by a 16d fasting period and by a 7-fold increase in locomotor activity. From the measurement of the plasma concentration of metabolites and of glucagon and insulin, pre-fledging king penguin chicks were found to adapt to fasting in a classical way, i.e. by sparing body protein and mobilizing fat stores. At fledging, chicks were in phase II of fasting and their departure to sea was not stimulated by reaching critical energy depletion (phase III), in contrast to that which has been reported in breeding-fasting adults. The plasma level of corticosterone remained unchanged throughout the whole pre-fledging period, providing no support for a role of this stress-hormone in the facilitation of fledging. Thus, king penguin fledglings did not appear to be environmentally or nutritionally stressed. The plasma levels of thyroid hormones were elevated during the pre-fledging molt, in accordance with their key role in molt control in adult penguins. These levels declined by the time of the molt end, the plasma level of T4 thereafter being directly related to the time left before fledging. These results do not support the view that chronically elevated levels of thyroid hormones are required for the energy-demanding transition between being ashore and in cold water, but they suggest that the maintenance of high T4 levels may delay fledging.

  10. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper

  11. Magellanic penguin telomeres do not shorten with age with increased reproductive effort, investment, and basal corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-08-01

    All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival. High basal corticosterone is indicative of stressful conditions. Corticosterone, and stress, has been linked to telomere shortening in other species. Magellanic penguins are a particularly good model organism for this question as they are an unusually long-lived species, exceeding their mass-adjusted predicted lifespan by 26%. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found adults aged 5 years to over 24 years of age had similar telomere lengths. Telomeres of adults did not shorten over a 3-year period, regardless of the age of the individual. Neither telomere length, nor the rate at which the telomeres changed over these 3 years, correlated with breeding frequency or investment. Older females also produced larger volume clutches until approximately 15 years old and larger eggs produced heavier fledglings. Furthermore, reproductive success ( chicks fledged/eggs laid ) is maintained as females aged. Basal corticosterone, however, was not correlated with telomere length in adults and suggests that low basal corticosterone may play a role in the telomere maintenance we observed. Basal corticosterone also declined during the breeding season and was positively correlated with the age of adult penguins. This higher basal corticosterone in older individuals, and consistent reproductive success, supports the prediction that Magellanic penguins invest more in reproduction as they age. Our results

  12. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Past Penguin Colony Linkages to Climate Change and Catastrophic Volcanism on the Northern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S. J.; Monien, P.; Foster, L. C.; Loftfield, J.; Schnetger, B.; Pearson, E. J.; Hocking, E. P.; Fretwell, P.; Ireland, L.; Ochyra, R.; Haworth, A.; Allen, C. S.; Brumsack, H. J.; Bentley, M.; Hodgson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent warming and reductions in sea-ice in some parts of Antarctica are thought to be having a negative impact on populations of `ice-dependent' penguin species (e.g., Emperor, Adélie) that feed at the sea-ice edge because populations of `ice-avoiding'/more `adaptable' species (e.g., Gentoo, Chinstrap) have remained stable or increased, and some Adélie colonies located in areas of sea-ice expansion have increased. This hypothesis is based on short observational records and limited subfossil evidence, but has not been tested over longer, mid-late Holocene, timescales on the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1950-1997, the northern Antarctic Peninsula was one of the most rapidly warming regions in the Southern Hemisphere and, over the last 30 years, the largest breeding population of Gentoo penguins in Antarctica on Ardley Island, north-western Antarctic Peninsula, has increased. We tracked past changes in the Ardley Island penguin colony size by comparing detailed biogeochemical analysis of an 8,500-year Ardley Lake sediment profile with past records of penguin presence, climate and sea-ice extent across the Antarctic Peninsula and found that the colony also responded positively during some local-regionally warmer parts of the late Holocene. However, at least three large volcanic eruptions from nearby Deception Island had a devastating impact on the colony between 7000-2000 years ago, with colony recovery taking up to 800 years following the most disruptive period of volcanic activity c. 5500-5000 years ago.

  14. Penguin effects induced by the two-Higgs-doublet model and charmless B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.J.; Joshi, G.C.; Matsuda, M.

    1991-03-01

    Nonstandard physical effects through the penguin diagram induced by the charged Higgs scalar contribution in the two-Higgs-doublet model are analysed. The non-leptonic β-decay processes including the non-standard two-Higgs-doublet contribution are compared with the standard model results, which arise from the magnetic gluon transition term. The charged Higgs contribution gives a sizable enhancement to the branching fractions of β-meson charmless decay. 13 refs., 4 figs

  15. Differing foraging strategies influence mercury (Hg) exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Michael J; Brasso, Rebecka L; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Karnovsky, Nina; Patterson, William P; Emslie, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Seabirds are ideal model organisms to track mercury (Hg) through marine food webs as they are long-lived, broadly distributed, and are susceptible to biomagnification due to foraging at relatively high trophic levels. However, using these species as biomonitors requires a solid understanding of the degree of species, sexual and age-specific variation in foraging behaviors which act to mediate their dietary exposure to Hg. We combined stomach content analysis along with Hg and stable isotope analyses of blood, feathers and common prey items to help explain inter and intra-specific patterns of dietary Hg exposure across three sympatric Pygoscelis penguin species commonly used as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. We found that penguin tissue Hg concentrations differed across species, between adults and juveniles, but not between sexes. While all three penguins species diets were dominated by Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and to a lesser extent fish, stable isotope based proxies of relative trophic level and krill consumption could not by itself sufficiently explain the observed patterns of inter and intra-specific variation in Hg. However, integrating isotopic approaches with stomach content analysis allowed us to identify the relatively higher risk of Hg exposure for penguins foraging on mesopelagic prey relative to congeners targeting epipelagic or benthic prey species. When possible, future seabird biomonitoring studies should seek to combine isotopic approaches with other, independent measures of foraging behavior to better account for the confounding effects of inter and intra-specific variation on dietary Hg exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-03

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  17. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Barbara; González-Acuña, Daniel; Loyola, David E.; Johnson, Warren E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Massaro, Melanie; Dantas, Gisele P. M.; Miranda, Marcelo D.; Vianna, Juliana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin...

  18. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  19. Adaptation to the aquatic environment: from penguin heart rates to cetacean brain morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary process of adaptation to the aquatic environment has dramatically modified the anatomy and physiology of secondarily-aquatic, air-breathing seabirds and marine mammals to address oxygen constraints and unique sensorimotor conditions. As taxa that have arguably undergone significant evolutionary transformations, deep-diving sphenisciforms (penguins) and obligatorily aquatic cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) provide an excellent opportunity to study such physiological...

  20. Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

  1. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  2. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  3. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events. PMID:19019791

  4. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Polito

    Full Text Available Stomach content analysis (SCA and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo (P. papua penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1 selecting appropriate prey sources, 2 weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3 refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  5. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-11-25

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species.

  6. Probing the 'Penguin' contribution in B→ππ at an asymmetric B meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Gaidot, A.; Vasseur, G.

    1992-09-01

    We study the experimental sensitivity to 'penguin' contributions in the decays B→ππ. The detection efficiencies for the three decay modes B 0 (anti B 0 )→π + π - , B 0 (anti B 0 )→π neutral π neutral and B ± →π ± π neutral are 0.63, 0.45 and 0.54 respectively. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 100fb -1 collected at the Υ (4S) energy using an asymmetric e + e - B factory, the efficiencies allow one to probe direct CP violation induced by the interference of the spectator and the 'penguin' diagrams by measuring the asymmetry R +- =(|A +- |-| anti A +- |)/(|A +- |+| anti A +- |) of the integrated rates B 0 →π + π - and anti B 0 →π + π - with an experimental sensitivity of σ R +- =6.5%. This decay mode further allows one to measure the parameter sin2α characterizing CP violation induced by the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing. We show that this parameter can be determined even when the 'penguin' diagrams cannot be neglected using an isospin analysis. However, we find that there is a sizeable increase of the measurement error σ(sin2α) since this error becomes of the order of 0.16 instead of 0.10 for the ideal case where only the spectator diagrams are contributing

  7. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-09-30

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ¹⁵N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans.

  8. Probing new physics in electroweak penguins through Bd and Bs decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Lars; Scherer, Dominik; Vernazza, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced electroweak penguin amplitude due to the presence of unknown new physics can explain the discrepancies found between theory and experiment in the B → πK decays, in particular in A CP (B - → π 0 K - ) - A CP ( B-bar 0 → π + K - ), but the current precision of the theoretical and experimental results does not allow to draw a firm conclusion. We argue that the B-bar s → φρ 0 and B-bar s → φπ 0 decays offer an additional tool to investigate this possibility. These purely isospin-violating decays are dominated by electroweak penguins and we show that in presence of a new physics contribution their branching ratio can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude, without violating any constraints from other hadronic B decays. This makes them very interesting modes for LHCb and future B factories. In [1] we have performed both a model-independent analysis and a study within realistic New Physics models such as a modified-Z 0 -penguin scenario, a model with an additional Z' boson and the MSSM. In this article we summarise the most important results of our study.

  9. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and biochemical characteristics of locomotory muscles of emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; Costello, M L; Starke, L N; Mathieu-Costello, O; Kooyman, G L

    1997-07-01

    Structural and biochemical characteristics of the primary muscles used for swimming (pectoralis, PEC and supracoracoideus, SC) were compared to those of leg muscles in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). The mass of PEC-SC was four times that of the leg musculature, and mitochondrial volume density in PEC and SC (4%) was two-thirds that in sartorius (S) and gastrocnemius. The differences in muscle mass and mitochondrial density yielded a 2.2-fold greater total mitochondrial content in PEC-SC than leg muscles, which appears to account for the 1.8-fold greater whole-body highest oxygen consumption previously recorded in emperor penguins during swimming compared to walking. Calculation of maximal mitochondrial O2 consumption in PEC-SC and leg muscle yielded value of 5.8-6.9 ml O2 ml-1 min-1, which are similar to those in locomotory muscles of most mammals and birds. A distinct feature of emperor penguin muscle was its myoglobin content, with concentrations in PEC-SC (6.4 g 100 g-1 among the highest measured in any species. This resulted in a PEC-SC O2 store greater than that of the entire blood. In addition, ratios of myoglobin content to mitochondrial volume density and to citrate synthase activity were 4.4 and 2.5 times greater in PEC than in S, indicative of the significant role of myoglobin in the adaptation of muscle to cardiovascular adjustments during diving.

  11. Adaptation to extreme environments: structure-function relationships in Emperor penguin haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Condò, S G; di Prisco, G; Giardina, B

    1994-04-15

    The functional properties of the single haemoglobin (Hb) of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) have been investigated at different temperatures as a function of proton and organic phosphate concentration. The complete amino acid sequence has been established. Comparison with that of human HbA shows 12 substitutions in the contact regions of alpha beta dimers. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the avian Hbs previously described, this Hb shows significant differences, which could be related to the peculiar behaviour of this penguin. In particular we may consider that: (1) the shape of the Bohr effect curve seems well adapted for gas exchange during very prolonged dives, preserving penguin Hb from a sudden and not controlled stripping of oxygen; (2) the very minor enthalpy change observed at lower pH could be an example of molecular adaptation, through which oxygen delivery becomes essentially insensitive to exposure to the extremely low temperatures of the environment. Moreover, the small alkaline Bohr effect has been found to be only chloride-linked, since the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity is totally abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha and beta-chains.

  12. Contrasting patterns of selection between MHC I and II across populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; González-Acuña, Daniel; Padilla, Pamela; Dantas, Gisele P M; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Frere, Esteban; Valdés-Velásquez, Armando; Vianna, Juliana A

    2016-10-01

    The evolutionary and adaptive potential of populations or species facing an emerging infectious disease depends on their genetic diversity in genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In birds, MHC class I deals predominantly with intracellular infections (e.g., viruses) and MHC class II with extracellular infections (e.g., bacteria). Therefore, patterns of MHC I and II diversity may differ between species and across populations of species depending on the relative effect of local and global environmental selective pressures, genetic drift, and gene flow. We hypothesize that high gene flow among populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins limits local adaptation in MHC I and MHC II, and signatures of selection differ between markers, locations, and species. We evaluated the MHC I and II diversity using 454 next-generation sequencing of 100 Humboldt and 75 Magellanic penguins from seven different breeding colonies. Higher genetic diversity was observed in MHC I than MHC II for both species, explained by more than one MHC I loci identified. Large population sizes, high gene flow, and/or similar selection pressures maintain diversity but limit local adaptation in MHC I. A pattern of isolation by distance was observed for MHC II for Humboldt penguin suggesting local adaptation, mainly on the northernmost studied locality. Furthermore, trans-species alleles were found due to a recent speciation for the genus or convergent evolution. High MHC I and MHC II gene diversity described is extremely advantageous for the long-term survival of the species.

  13. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Strœve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962–2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from ≈6,000 to ≈400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth. PMID:19171908

  14. Aerial photography based census of Adélie Penguin and its application in CH4 and N2O budget estimation in Victoria Land, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Xianglan; Zhu, Renbin; Hui, Fengming; Wu, Wenhui; Zhao, Tiancheng; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-10-11

    Penguin guano provides favorable conditions for production and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Many studies have been conducted to determine the GHG fluxes from penguin colonies, however, at regional scale, there is still no accurate estimation of total GHG emissions. We used object-based image analysis (OBIA) method to estimate the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population based on aerial photography data. A model was developed to estimate total GHG emission potential from Adélie penguin colonies during breeding seasons in 1983 and 2012, respectively. Results indicated that OBIA method was effective for extracting penguin information from aerial photographs. There were 17,120 and 21,183 Adélie penguin breeding pairs on Inexpressible Island in 1983 and 2012, respectively, with overall accuracy of the estimation of 76.8%. The main reasons for the increase in Adélie penguin populations were attributed to increase in temperature, sea ice and phytoplankton. The average estimated CH 4 and N 2 O emissions tended to be increasing during the period from 1983 to 2012 and CH 4 was the main GHG emitted from penguin colonies. Total global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions was 5303 kg CO 2 -eq in 1983 and 6561 kg CO 2 -eq in 2012, respectively.

  15. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury concentrations documented for 10 species of penguins (26 breeding populations). • Mercury concentrations ⩽2.00 ppm in feathers from 18/26 penguin populations. • Trophic level calculations revealed source of population-level variation in mercury. • First documentation of geographic mercury ‘hotspots’ for penguin populations. - Abstract: The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00 ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic ‘hot spots’ of mercury availability

  16. Use of Anthropomorphic Brand Mascots for Student Motivation and Engagement: A Promotional Case Study with Pablo the Penguin at the University of Portsmouth Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David E.; Thompson, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A case study demonstrating how an online narrative featuring the adventures of a cuddly toy penguin, Pablo Penguin (@uoppenguin on Twitter) has been introduced at the University of Portsmouth Library to build trust and engagement between university students and library services and facilities. Evidence for the benefits of anthropomorphic brand…

  17. Both natural selection and isolation by distance explain phenotypic divergence in bill size and body mass between South Australian little penguin colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins ( Eudyptula minor ) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by penguin colonies.

  18. Morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with Plasmodium DNA detected in captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Antoine; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Landau, Irène; Snounou, Georges; Petit, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    A morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of Plasmodium infections at La Palmyre Zoo (France). Each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from April to November. Although Plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) and carrion crows (Corvus corone) sampled at the same time in the study area. These parasites consisted of several Plasmodium spp. (P. lenoblei, P. dorsti, P bioccai, P. relictum, P. dherteae, P. beaucournui, P. maior, P. tranieri, and P. snounoui), Parahaemoproteus spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. On the other hand, nested polymerase chain reaction enabled detection of Plasmodium DNA in 28/44 (64%) penguins, 15/25 (60%) magpies, and 4/9 (44%) crows. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the parasite DNA amplified from the penguins, magpies, and crows were similar. Magpies and crows could therefore act as a reservoir for penguin Plasmodium infections, which may be more prevalent than previously thought. Morphologic characterization of the Plasmodium spp. detected in the penguins, as well as further biological and epidemiologic studies, are needed to fully understand the transmission of Plasmodium parasites to captive penguins.

  19. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  20. How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Fahlman, Andreas; Handrich, Yves; Schmidt, Alexander; Woakes, Anthony J; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) are one of the greatest consumers of marine resources. However, while their influence on the marine ecosystem is likely to be significant, only an accurate knowledge of their energy demands will indicate their true food requirements. Energy consumption has been estimated for many marine species using the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption (f(H) - V(O2)) technique, and the technique has been applied successfully to answer eco-physiological questions. However, previous studies on the energetics of king penguins, based on developing or applying this technique, have raised a number of issues about the degree of validity of the technique for this species. These include the predictive validity of the present f(H) - V(O2) equations across different seasons and individuals and during different modes of locomotion. In many cases, these issues also apply to other species for which the f(H) - V(O2) technique has been applied. In the present study, the accuracy of three prediction equations for king penguins was investigated based on validity studies and on estimates of V(O2) from published, field f(H) data. The major conclusions from the present study are: (1) in contrast to that for walking, the f(H) - V(O2) relationship for swimming king penguins is not affected by body mass; (2) prediction equation (1), log(V(O2) = -0.279 + 1.24log(f(H) + 0.0237t - 0.0157log(f(H)t, derived in a previous study, is the most suitable equation presently available for estimating V(O2) in king penguins for all locomotory and nutritional states. A number of possible problems associated with producing an f(H) - V(O2) relationship are discussed in the present study. Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained.

  1. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  2. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  3. Reabilitação psicológica de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus Psychological rehabilitation of patients with sequelae due to encephalitis caused by arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anency Giannotti Hallage

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o possível comprometimento psíquico de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus, do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, com a finalidade de definir o papel do psicólogo, em um programa de reabilitação física e psicossocial. A presença das seqüelas era encarada de forma depreciativa e observou-se que essa percepção comprometeu fundamentalmente a identidade do paciente como ser humano, trazendo uma série de respostas emocionais desadaptadas e impossibibilitando a convivência satisfatória consigo e com o próximo. Os resultados analisados, em seu aspecto psicossociológico, revelaram que as dificuldades psíquicas observadas eram originárias da maneira como a deficiência física é encarada no meio social.The possibility of psychological damage in patients with sequelae from encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the southern section of the coastal area of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil was investigated for the purpose of defining the role of the psychologist in a programme of physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. The presence of the sequelae was regarded depreciatively by the patients and this attitude affected their self-regard as human beings. The result was a series of emotional maladjustments which made it impossible for the patients to live with themselves or maintain a satisfactory relationship with others. The results analyzed from a psychosocial standpoint revealed that the psychological problems observed arose from the way in which the physical deficiency is regarded within the social context.

  4. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  6. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Seasonal variation and annual trends of metals and metalloids in the blood of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Orbell, John D; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Scarpaci, Carol

    2016-09-15

    Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are high-trophic coastal feeders and are effective indicators of bioavailable pollutants in their foraging zones. Here, we present concentrations of metals and metalloids in blood of 157 Little Penguins, collected over three years and during three distinct seasons (breeding, moulting and non-breeding) at two locations: the urban St Kilda colony and the semi-rural colony at Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. Penguin metal concentrations were foremostly influenced by location (St Kilda>Phillip Island for non-essential elements) and differed among years and seasons at both locations, reflecting differences in seasonal metal bioaccumulation or seasonal exposure through prey. Mean blood mercury concentrations showed an increasing annual trend and a negative correlation with flipper length at St Kilda. Notably, this study is the first to report on blood metal concentrations during the different stages of moult, showing the mechanism of non-essential metal mobilisation and detoxification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  9. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  10. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  11. Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rose, Michelle; Desjardins, Danielle R; Agnew, Dalen W

    2015-03-01

    A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.

  12. CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated, hadronic B{sub d} decays: Constraining new physics at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, Stefan [Excellence Cluster Universe, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated, hadronic B{sub d} decays into CP eigenstates ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}', {phi}, {omega}, {rho})Ks are predicted to be small in the standard model. These observables will be measured in future facilities (Belle II, SuperB) with very high precision and therefore could be used to test CP violating couplings beyond the Standard Model. We investigate such additional contributions for a general class of models in the framework of QCD factorization at next-to-leading order precision. As an example, we demonstrate how these observables can constrain the parameter space of a generic modification of the Z-penguin.

  13. Penguin b → sℓ‧+ℓ‧- and B-meson anomalies in a gauged Lμ - Lτ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2018-02-01

    The Z‧-gauge boson in an U(1) Lμ -Lτ gauge symmetry has two interesting features: one is its vector couplings to the charged leptons, and the other is the decoupling from the electron. Based on these properties, we investigate the feasibility to simultaneously resolve the R K (*) = BR (B →K (*)μ+μ-) / BR (B →K (*)e+e-) and R D (*) = BR (B bar →D (*) τνbarτ) / BR (B bar →D (*) ℓνbarℓ) anomalies in an U(1) Lμ -Lτ model, where the former is expected to arise from the Z‧-penguin-induced b → sμ+μ- process and the latter from the tree-level b → cτνbarτ decay. In order to achieve the intended purpose, we employ one vector-like doublet lepton and one singlet scalar leptoquark (LQ), in which the new particles all carry the U(1) Lμ -Lτ charges; the b → sZ‧ effective interaction is generated from the vector-like lepton and LQ loop, and the b → cτνbarτ decay is induced from the LQ. When the constraints from the b → sγ, B+ →K+ ν ν bar , Bc- → τνbarτ, ΔF = 2, and τ → μℓ ℓ bar processes are included, it is found that RD and RD* can be enhanced to fit the experimental data, and the Wilson coefficient C9 from the LQ-loop can reach C9LQ, μ ∼ - 1, which can explain the RK and RK* anomalies. In addition, in this simple model, the Higgs lepton-flavor violating h → μτ decay can occur at the tree level, and its branching ratio can be as large as the current experimental upper limit.

  14. Evaluating the impact of handling and logger attachment on foraging parameters and physiology in southern rockhopper penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ludynia

    Full Text Available Logger technology has revolutionised our knowledge of the behaviour and physiology of free-living animals but handling and logger attachments may have negative effects on the behaviour of the animals and their welfare. We studied southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome females during the guard stage in three consecutive breeding seasons (2008/09-2010/11 to evaluate the effects of handling and logger attachment on foraging trip duration, dive behaviour and physiological parameters. Smaller dive loggers (TDRs were used in 2010/11 for comparison to larger GPS data loggers used in all three seasons and we included two categories of control birds: handled controls and PIT control birds that were previously marked with passive integrative transponders (PITs, but which had not been handled during this study. Increased foraging trip duration was only observed in GPS birds during 2010/11, the breeding season in which we also found GPS birds foraging further away from the colony and travelling longer distances. Compared to previous breeding seasons, 2010/11 may have been a period with less favourable environmental conditions, which would enhance the impact of logger attachments. A comparison between GPS and TDR birds showed a significant difference in dive depth frequencies with birds carrying larger GPS data loggers diving shallower. Mean and maximum dive depths were similar between GPS and TDR birds. We measured little impact of logger attachments on physiological parameters (corticosterone, protein, triglyceride levels and leucocyte counts. Overall, handling and short-term logger attachments (1-3 days showed limited impact on the behaviour and physiology of the birds but care must be taken with the size of data loggers on diving seabirds. Increased drag may alter their diving behaviour substantially, thus constraining them in their ability to catch prey. Results obtained in this study indicate that data recorded may also not represent their

  15. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  16. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  17. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua populations in Antarctica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Peña M

    Full Text Available The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae. Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP, causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP. Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  18. A space oddity: geographic and specific modulation of migration in Eudyptes penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J M; Makhado, Azwianewi B; Trathan, Philip N; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual's migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality's paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals' wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World's seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent migration

  19. Marked phylogeographic structure of Gentoo penguin reveals an ongoing diversification process along the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Juliana A; Noll, Daly; Dantas, Gisele P M; Petry, Maria Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés; González-Acuña, Daniel; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Poulin, Elie

    2017-02-01

    Two main hypotheses have been debated about the biogeography of the Southern Ocean: (1) the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), acting as a barrier between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic provinces, and (2) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), promoting gene flow among sub-Antarctic areas. The Gentoo penguin is distributed throughout these two provinces, separated by the APF. We analyzed mtDNA (HVR1) and 12 microsatellite loci of 264 Gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, from 12 colonies spanning from the Western Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands (WAP) to the sub-Antarctic Islands (SAI). While low genetic structure was detected among WAP colonies (mtDNA Ф ST =0.037-0.133; microsatellite F ST =0.009-0.063), high differentiation was found between all SAI and WAP populations (mtDNA Ф ST =0.678-0.930; microsatellite F ST =0.110-0.290). These results suggest that contemporary dispersal around the Southern Ocean is very limited or absent. As predicted, the APF appears to be a significant biogeographical boundary for Gentoo penguin populations; however, the ACC does not promote connectivity in this species. Our data suggest demographic expansion in the WAP during the last glacial maximum (LGM, about 20kya), but stability in SAI. Phylogenetic analyses showed a deep divergence between populations from the WAP and those from the SAI. Therefore, taxonomy should be further revised. The Crozet Islands resulted as a basal clade (3.57Mya), followed by the Kerguelen Islands (2.32Mya) as well as a more recent divergence between the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and the WAP (1.27Mya). Historical isolation, local adaptation, and past climate scenarios of those Evolutionarily Significant Units may have led to different potentials to respond to climate changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  1. A space oddity: geographic and specific modulation of migration in Eudyptes penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Thiebot

    Full Text Available Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual's migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality's paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals' wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi, the main marine prey consumers amongst the World's seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of

  2. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  3. Club Penguin de Disney: los nuevos modos de construcción social de la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarado Vivas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Producto de cierta ambigüedad histórica respecto del lugar de los niños en la sociedad, en el siglo XX se edificó una noción de infancia asociada a la promoción de espacios seguros para su desarrollo personal, social y educativo. En ese contexto, surge el emporio mediático Disney, el cual apunta en el nuevo milenio a nuevos horizontes: las MMO (Massively Multiplayer Online para niños. Prueba de ello ha sido la adquisición, por parte de dicha compañía, del Club Penguin, una plataforma que posee más de 12 millones de usuarios registrados. En el presente trabajo, se analiza la construcción de realidad que hacen los niños en Club Penguin, así como sus formas de interactuar y comunicarse en un mundo virtual mediado por el consumo, el control y múltiples concepciones de territorio. De igual forma, el estudio aborda cómo los padres de familia entienden el ciberespacio y por qué Disney se configura como un sinónimo de confianza o de protección para sus hijos. El análisis del Club Penguin se hace desde una postura crítica, con el objetivo de evidenciar el grado de penetración del discurso Disney en edades tempranas, el cual se enmascara en una MMO que pese a ofrecer altos grados de seguridad ante peligros como el ciberacoso, también transmite componentes ideológicos que pueden llegar a ser nocivos.

  4. At the root of the early penguin neck: a study of the only two cervicodorsal spines recovered from the Eocene of Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jadwiszczak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spinal column of early Antarctic penguins is poorly known, mainly due to the scarcity of articulated vertebrae in the fossil record. One of the most interesting segments of this part of the skeleton is the transitional series located at the root of the neck. Here, two such cervicodorsal series, comprising reinterpreted known material and a new specimen from the Eocene of Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula, were investigated and contrasted with those of modern penguins and some fossil bones. The new specimen is smaller than the counterpart elements in recent king penguins, whereas the second series belonged to a large-bodied penguin from the genus Palaeeudyptes. It had been assigned by earlier researchers to P. gunnari (a species of “giant” penguins and a Bayesian analysis—a Bayes factor approach based on size of an associated tarsometatarsus—strongly supported such an assignment. Morphological and functional studies revealed that mobility within the aforementioned segment probably did not differ substantially between extant and studied fossil penguins. There were, however, intriguing morphological differences between the smaller fossil specimen and the comparative material related to the condition of the lateral excavation in the first cervicodorsal vertebra and the extremely small size of the intervertebral foramen located just prior to the first “true” thoracic vertebra. The former feature could have resulted from discrepancy in severity of external pneumatization. Both fossils provided valuable insights into the morphology and functioning of the axial skeleton in early penguins.

  5. Measurement of CP violating phase $\\phi_s$ and control of penguin pollution at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Kanso, Walaa

    2014-01-01

    The study of CP violation in \\Bs\\, oscillations is a key measurement at the LHCb experiment. In this document, we discuss the latest LHCb results on the CP-violating phase, called $\\phi_s$, using \\BsJKK\\, and \\BsJpipi\\, channels. To conclude on the presence of New Physics in $\\phi_s$, the estimation of the sub-dominant contributions from the Standard Model becomes crucial now. We outline a method to estimate the contribution of penguin diagrams in $\\phi_s$. Branching fractions and upper limits of \\BdKshh\\,($ h^{(')}=K,\\pi)$\\, modes are presented.

  6. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  7. Selection for protection from insolation results in the visual isolation of Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes nests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clark, RD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concealed and widely dispersed nests of the rare and endangered Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes, or “hoiho”, have been considered to reflect an essential requirement for the visual isolation of nest sites from conspecifics. However...

  8. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsting, A.M.H.; Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Avian Paramyxoviruses of Serotype 10 Isolated from Rockhopper Penguins on the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Sharma, Poonam; Miller, Patti J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first complete genome sequences of four avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 (APMV-10) isolates are described here. The viruses were isolated from rockhopper penguins on the Falkland Islands, sampled in 2007. All four genomes are 15,456 nucleotides in length, and phylogenetic analyses show them to be closely related.

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Avian Paramyxoviruses of Serotype 10 Isolated from Rockhopper Penguins on the Falkland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Sharma, Poonam; Miller, Patti J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first complete genome sequences of four avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 (APMV-10) isolates are described here. The viruses were isolated from rockhopper penguins on the Falkland Islands, sampled in 2007. All four genomes are 15,456 nucleotides in length, and phylogenetic analyses show them to be closely related. PMID:28572332

  11. Projected poleward shift of king penguins' (Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Clara; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2012-07-07

    Seabird populations of the Southern Ocean have been responding to climate change for the last three decades and demographic models suggest that projected warming will cause dramatic population changes over the next century. Shift in species distribution is likely to be one of the major possible adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Habitat models based on a unique long-term tracking dataset of king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding on the Crozet Islands (southern Indian Ocean) revealed that despite a significant influence of primary productivity and mesoscale activity, sea surface temperature consistently drove penguins' foraging distribution. According to climate models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the projected warming of surface waters would lead to a gradual southward shift of the more profitable foraging zones, ranging from 25 km per decade for the B1 IPCC scenario to 40 km per decade for the A1B and A2 scenarios. As a consequence, distances travelled by incubating and brooding birds to reach optimal foraging zones associated with the polar front would double by 2100. Such a shift is far beyond the usual foraging range of king penguins breeding and would negatively affect the Crozet population on the long term, unless penguins develop alternative foraging strategies.

  12. Changes in dive profiles as an indicator of feeding success in king and Adélie penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, C. A.; Handrich, Y.; Butler, P. J.; Fahlman, A.; Halsey, L. G.; Woakes, A. J.; Ropert-Coudert, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Determining when and how deep avian divers feed remains a challenge despite technical advances. Systems that record oesophageal temperature are able to determine rate of prey ingestion with a high level of accuracy but technical problems still remain to be solved. Here we examine the validity of using changes in depth profiles to infer feeding activity in free-ranging penguins, as more accessible proxies of their feeding success. We used oesophageal temperature loggers with fast temperature sensors, deployed in tandem with time-depth recorders, on king and Adélie penguins. In the king penguin, a high correspondence was found between the number of ingestions recorded per dive and the number of wiggles during the bottom and the ascent part of the dives. In the Adélie penguins, which feed on smaller prey, the number of large temperature drops was linearly related to the number of undulations per dive. The analysis of change in depth profiles from high-resolution time-depth recorders can provide key information to enhance the study of feeding rate and foraging success of these predators. Such potential is especially relevant in the context of using Southern marine top predators to study change in availability of marine resources.

  13. The rise and fall of an ancient Adélie penguin 'supercolony' at Cape Adare, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D; McKenzie, Ashley; Patterson, William P

    2018-04-01

    We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP. Our results suggest that the new colony at Cape Adare continued to grow, expanding to a large upper terrace above Ridley Beach, until it exceeded approximately 500 000 breeding pairs (a 'supercolony') by approximately 1200 BP. The high marine productivity associated with the Ross Sea polynya and continental shelf break supported this growth, but the colony collapsed to its present size for unknown reasons after approximately 1200 BP. Ridley Beach will probably be abandoned in the near future due to rising sea level in this region. We predict that penguins will retreat to higher elevations at Cape Adare and that the Scott Coast will be reoccupied by breeding penguins as fast ice continues to dissipate earlier each summer, restoring open-water access to beaches there.

  14. The rise and fall of an ancient Adélie penguin `supercolony' at Cape Adare, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D.; McKenzie, Ashley; Patterson, William P.

    2018-04-01

    We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP. Our results suggest that the new colony at Cape Adare continued to grow, expanding to a large upper terrace above Ridley Beach, until it exceeded approximately 500 000 breeding pairs (a `supercolony') by approximately 1200 BP. The high marine productivity associated with the Ross Sea polynya and continental shelf break supported this growth, but the colony collapsed to its present size for unknown reasons after approximately 1200 BP. Ridley Beach will probably be abandoned in the near future due to rising sea level in this region. We predict that penguins will retreat to higher elevations at Cape Adare and that the Scott Coast will be reoccupied by breeding penguins as fast ice continues to dissipate earlier each summer, restoring open-water access to beaches there.

  15. Odor-based recognition of familiar and related conspecifics: a first test conducted on captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Coffin

    Full Text Available Studies of kin recognition in birds have largely focused on parent-offspring recognition using auditory or visual discrimination. Recent studies indicate that birds use odors during social and familial interactions and possibly for mate choice, suggesting olfactory cues may mediate kin recognition as well. Here, we show that Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti, a natally philopatric species with lifetime monogamy, discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar non-kin odors (using prior association and between unfamiliar kin and non-kin odors (using phenotype matching. Penguins preferred familiar non-kin odors, which may be associated with the recognition of nest mates and colony mates and with locating burrows at night after foraging. In tests of kin recognition, penguins preferred unfamiliar non-kin odors. Penguins may have perceived non-kin odors as novel because they did not match the birds' recognition templates. Phenotype matching is likely the primary mechanism for kin recognition within the colony to avoid inbreeding. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide evidence of odor-based kin discrimination in a bird.

  16. Surgical Removal of a Ventricular Foreign Body in a Captive African Black-footed Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Jiménez, Paula A; Trent, Ava M; Bueno, Irene

    2016-03-01

    Anterior gastrointestinal tract obstruction by a foreign body has been reported in several avian species, most commonly in captive birds. It is often associated with behavioral issues that lead to compulsive consumption of bedding materials or bright moving objects. In penguins, foreign bodies are most commonly identified at necropsy and often are found in the ventriculus because of anatomic characteristics of the species. A captive African black-footed penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was diagnosed with a ventricular foreign body. The anatomic and physiologic differences that should be taken into account when surgically removing a ventricular foreign body in a penguin are described. These differences include the caudal location in the coelom and the large size of the ventriculus in proportion to the penguin's body size; the presence of a simple stomach, uniform in thickness and lacking muscular development; a simple gastrointestinal cycle (gastric contraction); and variability in pH of stomach contents. No complications were observed after surgery, and the bird recovered completely. Management of foreign bodies in birds should be based on the clinical signs of the individual bird, the species affected and its anatomic characteristics, the nature and location of the foreign body, available tools, and the preference and experience of the surgeon. This particular case demonstrates that the most indicated and preferred method is not always possible and that knowledge of biologic, anatomic, and physiologic differences of the species may allow the use of an alternative and more invasive approach with favorable outcomes.

  17. Sexual and individual foraging segregation in Gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua from the Southern Ocean during an abnormal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Philip N.; Ceia, Filipe R.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Adlard, Stacey; Fox, Derren; Edwards, Ewan W. J.; Vieira, Rui P.; Medeiros, Renata; De Broyer, Claude; Cherel, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the “Intersexual Competition Hypothesis” for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures) in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia. Through conventional (i.e. stomach contents) and stable isotopic values from red blood cells, plasma and feathers of both male and female Gentoo penguins, we showed that there were significant differences between sexes, with males feeding mainly on fish (54% by mass) followed by crustaceans (38%) whereas females fed mainly on crustaceans (89% by mass) followed by fish (4%). Themisto gaudichaudii was the most important crustacean prey for males (64% by mass; 82% by number; 53% by frequency of occurrence) and females (63% by mass; 77% by number; 89% by frequency of occurrence), contrasting with all previous studies that found Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were generally the main prey. Stable isotopic data showed that, in terms of habitat use (based on δ 13C), there were significant differences in short-term carbon signatures between males and females (based on plasma and red blood cells), suggesting that both sexes explored different habitats, with females exploring more offshore pelagic waters and males feeding more in coastal benthic waters. Based on δ 15N, males fed on significantly higher trophic level than females (based on plasma and red blood cells), in agreement with our diet results., Thus, Gentoo penguins behave in a similar manner to other non-breeding penguins species (e.g. king, macaroni and rockhopper penguins), albeit at a smaller spatial scale (as they do not disperse as these other penguins do

  18. Sexual and individual foraging segregation in Gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua from the Southern Ocean during an abnormal winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Xavier

    Full Text Available Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the "Intersexual Competition Hypothesis" for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia. Through conventional (i.e. stomach contents and stable isotopic values from red blood cells, plasma and feathers of both male and female Gentoo penguins, we showed that there were significant differences between sexes, with males feeding mainly on fish (54% by mass followed by crustaceans (38% whereas females fed mainly on crustaceans (89% by mass followed by fish (4%. Themisto gaudichaudii was the most important crustacean prey for males (64% by mass; 82% by number; 53% by frequency of occurrence and females (63% by mass; 77% by number; 89% by frequency of occurrence, contrasting with all previous studies that found Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were generally the main prey. Stable isotopic data showed that, in terms of habitat use (based on δ 13C, there were significant differences in short-term carbon signatures between males and females (based on plasma and red blood cells, suggesting that both sexes explored different habitats, with females exploring more offshore pelagic waters and males feeding more in coastal benthic waters. Based on δ 15N, males fed on significantly higher trophic level than females (based on plasma and red blood cells, in agreement with our diet results., Thus, Gentoo penguins behave in a similar manner to other non-breeding penguins species (e.g. king, macaroni and rockhopper penguins, albeit at a smaller spatial scale (as they do not disperse as these other penguins

  19. Fine structural dependence of ultraviolet reflections in the King Penguin beak horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Langley, Keith

    2006-03-01

    The visual perception of many birds extends into the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and ultraviolet is used by some to communicate. The beak horn of the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) intensely reflects in the ultraviolet and this appears to be implicated in partner choice. In a preliminary study, we recently demonstrated that this ultraviolet reflectance has a structural basis, resulting from crystal-like photonic structures, capable of reflecting in the near-UV. The present study attempted to define the origin of the photonic elements that produce the UV reflectance and to better understand how the UV signal is optimized by their fine structure. Using light and electron microscopic analysis combined with new spectrophotometric data, we describe here in detail the fine structure of the entire King Penguin beak horn in addition to that of its photonic crystals. The data obtained reveal a one-dimensional structural periodicity within this tissue and demonstrate a direct relationship between its fine structure and its function. In addition, they suggest how the photonic structures are produced and how they are stabilized. The measured lattice dimensions of the photonic crystals, together with morphological data on its composition, permit predictions of the wavelength of reflected light. These correlate well with experimentally observed values. The way the UV signal is optimized by the fine structure of the beak tissue is discussed with regard to its putative biological role.

  20. Recovery from swimming-induced hypothermia in king penguins: effects of nutritional condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Handrich, Y; Rey, B; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (V O2) and body temperature of wild king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in different nutritional conditions during recovery after exposure to cold water. Over time, birds undertook an identical experiment three times, each characterized by different nutritional conditions: (1) having recently completed a foraging trip, (2) after fasting for many days, and (3) having been refed one meal after the fast. The experiments consisted of a 2-h session in a water channel followed by a period of recovery in a respirometer chamber on land. Refed birds recovered significantly more quickly than fed birds, in terms of both time to reach resting V O2 on land and time to reach recovery of lower abdominal temperature. Previous work found that when penguins are in cold water, abdominal temperatures decrease less in refed birds than in fed or fasted birds, suggesting that refed birds may be vasoconstricting the periphery while perfusing the gut region to access nutrients. This, alongside an increased resting [V O2], seems the most reasonable explanation for why refed birds recovered more quickly subsequent to cold-water exposure in this study; that is, vasoconstriction of the insulative periphery meant that they lost less heat generated by the body core.

  1. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Célia; Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Beaugey, Magali; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009) in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males), and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%). Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally), suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  2. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Colour-producing [beta]-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D; Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A.; Vinther, Jakob A.; Prum, Richard O.; Shawkey, Matthew D. (Yale); (Akron); (Texas)

    2012-03-26

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel {beta}-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of {beta}-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly.

  4. Searching for penguin footprints: Towards high precision CP violation measurements in the B meson systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)691953; Koppenburg, Patrick

    In the quark-flavour sector of the Standard Model (SM), measurements of CP violation in the $B^0_d\\to J/\\psi K_{\\rm S}^0$ and $B^0_s\\to J/\\psi \\phi$ decays play key roles in the search for signs of beyond the SM physics. For these observables, large deviations from the SM expectation have now been ruled out, but the quest for new physics still continues as the forthcoming physics runs at the LHC and KEKB super B-factory promise to reduce the experimental uncertainties even further. These prospects make it mandatory to improve the theoretical interpretation of the measurements, which is limited by uncertainties from doubly Cabibbo-suppressed penguin topologies. To get a handle on these penguin contributions, which cannot be calculated reliably in QCD, we explore a strategy that relies on the $SU(3)$ flavour symmetry of QCD and data from decays with similar dynamics. The research reported in this thesis is a shared project between theoretical and experimental particle physics. On the theoretical side, we explo...

  5. Bilateral coxofemoral degenerative joint disease in a juvenile male yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Kelly N; Alley, Maurice R

    2011-08-01

    A juvenile, male, yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) with abnormal stance and decreased mobility was captured, held in captivity for approximately 6 weeks, and euthanized due to continued clinical signs. Radiographically, there was bilateral degenerative joint disease with coxofemoral periarticular osteophyte formation. Grossly, the bird had bilaterally distended, thickened coxofemoral joints with increased laxity, and small, roughened and angular femoral heads. Histologically, the left femoral articular cartilage and subchondral bone were absent, and the remaining femoral head consisted of trabecular bone overlain by fibrin and granulation tissue. There was no gross or histological evidence of infection. The historic, gross, radiographic, and histopathologic findings were most consistent with bilateral aseptic femoral head degeneration resulting in degenerative joint disease. Although the chronicity of the lesions masked the initiating cause, the probable underlying causes of aseptic bilateral femoral head degeneration in a young animal are osteonecrosis and osteochondrosis of the femoral head. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral coxofemoral degenerative joint disease in a penguin.

  6. Charm Penguin in B± → K±K+K-: Partonic and hadronic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, I.; Frederico, T.; Magalhães, P. C.

    2018-05-01

    Charm penguin diagrams are known to be the main contribution to charmless B decay process with strangeness variation equal to minus one, which is the case of B± →K±K+K- decay. The large phase space available in this and other B three-body decays allows non trivial final state interactions with all sort of rescattering processes and also access high momentum transfers in the central region of the Dalitz plane. In this work we investigate the charm Penguin contribution to B± →K±K+K-, described by a hadronic triangle loop in nonperturbative regions of the phase space, and by a partonic loop at the quasi perturbative region. These nonresonant amplitudes should have a particular structure in the Dalitz plane and their contributions to the final decay amplitude can be confirmed by a data amplitude analysis in this channel. In particular, the hadronic amplitude has a changing sign in the phase at D D bar threshold which can result in a change of sign for the CP asymmetry.

  7. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  8. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Gratton, Paolo; Whittington, Jason D; Cristofari, Robin; Le Maho, Yvon; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-07-22

    How natural climate cycles, such as past glacial/interglacial patterns, have shaped species distributions at the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere is still largely unclear. Here, we show how the post-glacial warming following the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 18 000 years ago), allowed the (re)colonization of the fragmented sub-Antarctic habitat by an upper-level marine predator, the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and standard mitochondrial data, we tested the behaviour of subsets of anonymous nuclear loci in inferring past demography through coalescent-based and allele frequency spectrum analyses. Our results show that the king penguin population breeding on Crozet archipelago steeply increased in size, closely following the Holocene warming recorded in the Epica Dome C ice core. The following population growth can be explained by a threshold model in which the ecological requirements of this species (year-round ice-free habitat for breeding and access to a major source of food such as the Antarctic Polar Front) were met on Crozet soon after the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  10. Colour-producing β-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A.; Vinther, Jakob A.; Prum, Richard O.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel β-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of β-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly. PMID:21307042

  11. The eye of the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus): structure of the anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suburo, A M; Scolaro, J A

    1990-11-01

    We undertook a light and scanning electron microscopic study of the eye in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). The anatomical peculiarities of the eyeball shape in Sphenisciformes have been previously described by others; here, we show that they are accompanied by several modifications in the organization of the anterior segment of the eye. The main change was found in the portion of opaque sclera extending from the cornea to the anterior border of the scleral ossicles, which was much broader than in other avian eyes. This scleral region was made of a very dense fibrous tissue and was as difficult to cut as the ossicles. The corneo-scleral boundary was also different from that of other birds, since the aqueous humor channel and the pectinate ligament were located 1.0-1.5 mm posterior to the cornea. The osseous ring was formed by 13 bones, including three pairs of over- and underplates. There was a single ciliary muscle, with meridionally oriented striated fibers. They were inserted on a circumference along the boundary between the fibrous sclera and the ossicles, far away from the wall of the aqueous humor channel. On their posterior end, the muscle fibers formed a tendinous structure attached to the inner surface of the sclera and to the outer surface of the ciliary body. Only short zonular fibrils were observed. These anatomical features are probably relevant for the adaptation of penguin eyes to vision on land and in the aquatic environment.

  12. Fasting in king penguin. II. Hormonal and metabolic changes during molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Y; Leloup, J; Le Maho, Y

    1988-02-01

    The coincidence of fast and molt in penguins is an interesting condition for investigating the factors controlling protein metabolism; avian molt involves the utilization of amino acids for synthesis of new feathers, whereas a major factor for adaptation to fasting in birds, as for mammals, is reduction in net protein breakdown. Hormonal and biochemical changes were studied in seven molting king penguins. Their initial body mass was 18 kg. It decreased by 58% over 41 days of fasting. Feather synthesis lasted for the first 3 wk of the fast. It was marked by plasma concentrations of alanine and uric acid 1.5 to 2 times those for nonmolting fast, and plasma thyroxine was increased five times. At the completion of molt all these values returned to levels comparable to those in nonmolting fast. As indicated by high plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, lipid stores were mobilized readily during molting. The fast ended by a phase of enhancement in protein utilization that was characterized by a fivefold increase in uricacidemia and coincided with an 80% drop in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and a fourfold increase in plasma corticosterone. These data suggest that two different hormones control the two successive periods marked by an increased protein mobilization during the molting fast, i.e., thyroxine during feather growth and corticosterone toward the end of the fast, when the molt is completed.

  13. Tactile arousal threshold of sleeping king penguins in a breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewasmes, G; Telliez, F

    2000-09-01

    The tactile arousal threshold of sleeping birds has not been investigated to date. In this study, the characteristics of this threshold were assessed by stimulating either the upper back or a foot of two groups (one cutaneous site per group) of 60 sleeping king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica) in the breeding colony of Baie du Marin (Crozet Archipelago). Increasing weights were put onto one of the feet or the upper back of individuals that had been sleeping for more than 5 min until they showed behavioural signs of arousal (head raising). The weight applied to the upper back that was needed to awaken a sleeper (837 +/- 73 g) was 20 times greater than that applied to a foot (38 +/- 6 g). In terms of pressure, the difference remained five times higher for the back (209 +/- 18 g/cm(2)) than the foot (40 g +/- 7 g/cm(2)). Because the king penguin incubates its single egg and rears its young chick on its feet, the low threshold measured at this level could be viewed as an adaptation against progeny predation. Sleepers are frequently bumped by conspecifics walking through the colony. The increased arousal threshold associated with tactile stimulation of the back may help to preserve sleep continuity under these conditions.

  14. Does foraging performance change with age in female little penguins (Eudyptula minor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Zimmer

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in breeding performance are likely to be mediated through changes in parental foraging performance. We investigated the relationship of foraging performance with age in female little penguins at Phillip Island, Australia, during the guard phase of the 2005 breeding season. Foraging parameters were recorded with accelerometers for birds grouped into three age-classes: (1 young, (2 middle age and (3 old females. We found the diving behaviour of middle-aged birds differed from young and old birds. The dive duration of middle age females was shorter than that of young and old birds while their dive effort (measure for dive and post-dive duration relation was lower than that of young ones, suggesting middle-aged birds were in better physical condition than other ones. There was no difference in prey pursuit frequency or duration between age classes, but in the hunting tactic. Females pursued more prey around and after reaching the maximum depth of dives the more experienced they were (old > middle age > young, an energy saving hunting tactic by probably taking advantage of up-thrust momentum. We suggest middle age penguins forage better than young or old ones because good physical condition and foraging experience could act simultaneously.

  15. Antarctic Climate Change: Extreme Events Disrupt Plastic Phenotypic Response in Adélie Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroël, Amélie; Ballard, Grant; Grémillet, David; Authier, Matthieu; Ainley, David G.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC) on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding in the Ross Sea. A ‘natural experiment’ brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The ‘natural experiment’ uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise. PMID:24489657

  16. Model-Independent Lower Bounds for $b \\to d$ Penguin Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert; Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    For the exploration of flavour physics, b -> d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of \\bar B^0_d -> K^0 \\bar K^0. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the Standard Model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that \\bar B^0_d -> K^0 \\bar K^0 should soon be observed. In fact, the BaBar collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for \\bar B -> \\rho \\gamma decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the Standard Model for b -> d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B^\\pm -> K^{(\\ast)\\pm} K^{(\\ast)} and B^\\pm -> \\pi^\\pm \\ell^+ \\ell^-, \\rho^\\pm \\ell^+ \\ell^-.

  17. Antarctic climate change: extreme events disrupt plastic phenotypic response in Adélie penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Lescroël

    Full Text Available In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae breeding in the Ross Sea. A 'natural experiment' brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The 'natural experiment' uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise.

  18. Experimental assessment of the effects of gastrointestinal parasites on offspring quality in chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M J; Valera, F; Barbosa, A

    2012-05-01

    Parasites reduce host fitness and consequently impose strong selection pressures on their hosts. It has been hypothesized that parasites are scarcer and their overall effect on hosts is weaker at higher latitudes. Although Antarctic birds have relatively low numbers of parasites, their effect on host fitness has rarely been investigated. The effect of helminth parasitism on growth rate was experimentally studied in chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) nestlings. In a total of 22 two-nestling broods, 1 nestling was treated with anthelminthics (for cestodes and nematodes) while its sibling was left as a control. Increased growth rate was predicted in de-wormed nestlings compared to their siblings. As expected, 15 days after treatment, the experimental nestlings had increased body mass more than their siblings. These results show a non-negligible negative effect of helminth parasites on nestling body condition that would presumably affect future survival and thus fitness, and it has been suggested there is a strong relationship between body mass and mortality in chinstrap penguins.

  19. Penguin-dominated B→PV decays in NLO perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hsiangnan; Mishima, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study the penguin-dominated B→PV decays, with P (V) representing a pseudoscalar (vector) meson, in the next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative QCD (PQCD) formalism, concentrating on the B→Kφ, πK*, ρK, and ωK modes. It is found that the NLO corrections dramatically enhance the B→ρK, ωK branching ratios, which were estimated to be small under the naive factorization assumption. The patterns of the direct CP asymmetries A CP (B 0 →ρ ± K ± )≅A CP (B ± →ρ 0 K ± ) and A CP (B 0 →π ± K* ± )>A CP (B ± →π 0 K* ± ) are predicted, differing from A CP (B 0 →π ± K ± )>>A CP (B ± →π 0 K ± ). The above patterns, if confirmed by data, will support the source of strong phases from the scalar penguin annihilation in PQCD. The results for the mixing-induced CP asymmetries S f are consistent with those obtained in the literature, except that our S ρ 0 K S is as low as 0.5

  20. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Pütz

    Full Text Available Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18 from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF, a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  1. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Klemens; Trathan, Phil N; Pedrana, Julieta; Collins, Martin A; Poncet, Sally; Lüthi, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18) from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia) migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  2. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  3. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattern

    Full Text Available Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  4. Exogenous corticosterone and nest abandonment: a study in a long-lived bird, the Adélie penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spée, Marion; Marchal, Lorène; Lazin, David; Le Maho, Yvon; Chastel, Olivier; Beaulieu, Michaël; Raclot, Thierry

    2011-09-01

    Breeding individuals enter an emergency life-history stage when their body reserves reach a minimum threshold. Consequently, they redirect current activity toward survival, leading to egg abandonment in birds. Corticosterone (CORT) is known to promote this stage. How and to what extent CORT triggers egg abandonment when breeding is associated with prolonged fasting, however, requires further investigation. We manipulated free-living male Adélie penguins with CORT-pellets before their laying period. We then examined their behavioral response with respect to nest abandonment in parallel with their prolactin levels (regulating parental care), and the subsequent effects of treatment on breeding success in relieved birds. Exogenous CORT triggered nest abandonment in 60% of the treated penguins ~14 days after treatment and induced a concomitant decline in prolactin levels. Interestingly, prolactin levels in treated penguins that did not abandon their nest were higher at the point of implantation and also after being relieved by females, when compared with abandoning penguins. Among successful birds, the treatment did not affect the number of chicks, nor the brood mass. Our results show the involvement of CORT in the decision-making process regarding egg abandonment in Adélie penguins when incubation is associated with a natural long fast. However, we suggest that CORT alone is not sufficient to trigger nest abandonment but that 1) prolactin levels need to reach a low threshold value, and 2) a rise in proteolysis (i.e. utilization of protein as main energy substrate) seems also to be required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Poverty and Arbovirus Outbreaks: When Chikungunya Virus Hits More Precarious Populations Than Dengue Virus in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifay, Timothée; Douine, Maylis; Bonnefoy, Clémence; Hurpeau, Benoit; Nacher, Mathieu; Djossou, Félix; Epelboin, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, 3 successive arbovirus outbreaks, dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika virus, have occurred in French Guiana (FG). The primary objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic indicators of the first patients infected with CHIKV during the outbreak of 2014. The secondary objective was to compare those patients with patient infected by DENV and with the local population. A monocentric, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in Cayenne hospital in FG comparing a group of patients infected with CHIKV in 2014 with a group infected with DENV in 2013. Children aged less than 15 years and pregnant women were excluded. A total of 168 CHIKV patients were compared with 168 DENV patients. Factors associated with CHIKV were living in poor neighborhoods (82% vs 44%; odds ratio [OR], 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.35-10.2), having a precarious status (54% vs 33%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49-3.78), and being born abroad (70% vs 35%; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.69-7.06). The present results suggest that early in the epidemic, the populations most at risk for CHIKV infection were the most socially vulnerable populations in the poorest neighborhoods, whereas DENV appeared to have affected a richer population and richer areas.

  6. Climate-driven range shifts of the king penguin in a fragmented ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Liu, Xiaoming; Bonadonna, Francesco; Cherel, Yves; Pistorius, Pierre; Le Maho, Yvon; Raybaud, Virginie; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2018-03-01

    Range shift is the primary short-term species response to rapid climate change, but it is often hampered by natural or anthropogenic habitat fragmentation. Different critical areas of a species' niche may be exposed to heterogeneous environmental changes and modelling species response under such complex spatial and ecological scenarios presents well-known challenges. Here, we use a biophysical ecological niche model validated through population genomics and palaeodemography to reconstruct past range shifts and identify future vulnerable areas and potential refugia of the king penguin in the Southern Ocean. Integrating genomic and demographic data at the whole-species level with specific biophysical constraints, we present a refined framework for predicting the effect of climate change on species relying on spatially and ecologically distinct areas to complete their life cycle (for example, migratory animals, marine pelagic organisms and central-place foragers) and, in general, on species living in fragmented ecosystems.

  7. Gluino-mediated electroweak penguin with flavor-violating trilinear couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Motoi; Goto, Toru; Kitahara, Teppei; Mishima, Satoshi; Ueda, Daiki; Yamamoto, Kei

    2018-04-01

    In light of a discrepancy of the direct CP violation in K → ππ decays, ɛ ' /ɛ K , we investigate gluino contributions to the electroweak penguin, where flavor violations are induced by squark trilinear couplings. Top-Yukawa contributions to Δ S = 2 observables are taken into account, and vacuum stability conditions are evaluated in detail. It is found that this scenario can explain the discrepancy of ɛ ' /ɛ K for the squark mass smaller than 5 .6 TeV. We also show that the gluino contributions can amplify B(K\\to π ν \\overline{ν}) , ℬ( K S → μ + μ -)eff and Δ A CP( b → sγ). Such large effects could be measured in future experiments.

  8. Bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Winker, Henning; Altwegg, Res; van der Lingen, Carl D; Votier, Stephen C; Crawford, Robert J M

    2015-07-01

    Marine no-take zones can have positive impacts for target species and are increasingly important management tools. However, whether they indirectly benefit higher order predators remains unclear. The endangered African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) depends on commercially exploited forage fish. We examined how chick survival responded to an experimental 3-year fishery closure around Robben Island, South Africa, controlling for variation in prey biomass and fishery catches. Chick survival increased by 18% when the closure was initiated, which alone led to a predicted 27% higher population compared with continued fishing. However, the modelled population continued to decline, probably because of high adult mortality linked to poor prey availability over larger spatial scales. Our results illustrate that small no-take zones can have bottom-up benefits for highly mobile marine predators, but are only one component of holistic, ecosystem-based management regimes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. arXiv Charmless B decays in modes with similar tree and penguin contributions

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00065546

    2014-01-01

    Charmless $B$ decays are dominated by contributions from the short distance amplitudes from tree level and penguin loop-level amplitudes. The Tree contribution presents a weak phase $\\gamma$. The relationship between these two amplitudes can generated a CP asymmetry depending from the relative amount among them in a particular decay. In multi-body charmless $B$ decays, these relative contribution can change along the phase space, given a non isotropic distribution of CP asymmetries in the Dalitz plot. Two recent LHCb analyses involving charmless multi-body B decays are discussed: the obsevation of CP asymmetries in the phase space of the three-body decays $B^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $B^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm K^+ K^-$; and the angular analysis of the $B^0 \\to \\phi K^*(892)^0$ decay.

  10. Stable isotope analyses of feather amino acids identify penguin migration strategies at ocean basin scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Michael J; Hinke, Jefferson T; Hart, Tom; Santos, Mercedes; Houghton, Leah A; Thorrold, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales. In addition, we use this isotopic approach across multiple breeding colonies in the Scotia Arc to evaluate migration trends at a regional scale that would be logistically challenging using direct tracking alone. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Effect of walking speed on the gait of king penguins: An accelerometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2015-12-21

    Little is known about non-human bipedal gaits. This is probably due to the fact that most large animals are quadrupedal and that non-human bipedal animals are mostly birds, whose primary form of locomotion is flight. Very little research has been conducted on penguin pedestrian locomotion with the focus instead on their associated high energy expenditure. In animals, tri-axial accelerometers are frequently used to estimate physiological energy cost, as well as to define the behaviour pattern of a species, or the kinematics of swimming. In this study, we showed how an accelerometer-based technique could be used to determine the biomechanical characteristics of pedestrian locomotion. Eight king penguins, which represent the only family of birds to have an upright bipedal gait, were trained to walk on a treadmill. The trunk tri-axial accelerations were recorded while the bird was walking at four different speeds (1.0, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6km/h), enabling the amplitude of dynamic body acceleration along the three axes (amplitude of DBAx, DBAy and DBAz), stride frequency, waddling and leaning amplitude, as well as the leaning angle to be defined. The magnitude of the measured variables showed a significant increase with increasing speed, apart from the backwards angle of lean, which decreased with increasing speed. The variability of the measured variables also showed a significant increase with speed apart from the DBAz amplitude, the waddling amplitude, and the leaning angle, where no significant effect of the walking speed was found. This paper is the first approach to describe 3D biomechanics with an accelerometer on wild animals, demonstrating the potential of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, René; Fréchard, Françoise; Decrock, Frédéric; Speake, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the metabolic fate of total and individual yolk fatty acids (FA) during the embryonic development of the king penguin, a seabird characterized by prolonged incubation (53 days) and hatching (3 days) periods, and a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA ratio in the egg. Of the approximately 15 g of total FA initially present in the egg lipid, 87% was transferred to the embryo by the time of hatching, the remaining 13% being present in the internalized yolk sac of the chick. During the whole incubation, 83% of the transferred FA was oxidized for energy, with only 17% incorporated into embryo lipids. Prehatching (days 0-49), the fat stores (triacylglycerol) accounted for 58% of the total FA incorporated into embryo lipid. During hatching (days 49-53), 40% of the FA of the fat stores was mobilized, the mobilization of individual FA being nonselective. At hatch, 53% of the arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) of the initial yolk had been incorporated into embryo lipid compared with only 15% of the total FA and 17-24% of the various n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Similarly, only 32% of the yolk's initial content of 20:4n-6 was oxidized for energy during development compared with 72% of the total FA and 58-66% of the n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The high partitioning of yolk FA toward oxidization and the intense mobilization of fat store FA during hatching most likely reflect the high energy cost of the long incubation and hatching periods of the king penguin. The preferential partitioning of 20:4n-6 into the structural lipid of the embryo in the face of its low content in the yolk may reflect the important roles of this FA in tissue function.

  13. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Bordier

    Full Text Available As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009 in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males, and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%. Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally, suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  14. Foraging plasticity of breeding Northern Rockhopper Penguins, Eudyptes moseleyi, in response to changing energy requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Booth, Jenny Marie

    2018-04-02

    During the breeding season, seabirds must balance the changing demands of self- and off-spring provisioning with the constraints imposed by central-place foraging. Recently, it was shown that Northern Rockhopper Penguins at Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean switch diet from lower to higher trophic level prey throughout their breeding cycle. Here, we investigated if this switch is reflected in their foraging behaviour, using time-depth recorders to study the diving behaviour of 27 guard and 10 crèche birds during the breeding season 2010 at Tristan da Cunha and obtaining complementary stomach contents of 20 birds. While no significant effects of breeding stage were detected on any foraging trip or dive parameters, stage/prey had a significant effect on feeding dive parameters, with dive duration, bottom time, and maximum depth explaining the majority of the dissimilarity amongst categories. We verified the previously shown dietary shift from zooplankton and cephalopods during the guard stage to a higher-energy fish-based diet during the crèche stage, which was reflected in a change in dive behaviour from shorter, shallower to longer, deeper dives. This prey switching behaviour may reflect preferential selection to account for the increased physiological needs of chicks or simply mirror changes in local prey abundance. Nonetheless, we show that Northern Rockhopper Penguins demonstrate behavioural plasticity as a response to their changing energy requirements, which is a critical trait when living in a spatio-temporally heterogeneous environment. This ability is likely to be particularly important under extrinsic constraints such as long-term environmental change.

  15. Mutation and evolutionary rates in adélie penguins from the antarctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Millar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise estimations of molecular rates are fundamental to our understanding of the processes of evolution. In principle, mutation and evolutionary rates for neutral regions of the same species are expected to be equal. However, a number of recent studies have shown that mutation rates estimated from pedigree material are much faster than evolutionary rates measured over longer time periods. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we have examined the hypervariable region (HVR I of the mitochondrial genome using families of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from the Antarctic. We sequenced 344 bps of the HVR I from penguins comprising 508 families with 915 chicks, together with both their parents. All of the 62 germline heteroplasmies that we detected in mothers were also detected in their offspring, consistent with maternal inheritance. These data give an estimated mutation rate (micro of 0.55 mutations/site/Myrs (HPD 95% confidence interval of 0.29-0.88 mutations/site/Myrs after accounting for the persistence of these heteroplasmies and the sensitivity of current detection methods. In comparison, the rate of evolution (k of the same HVR I region, determined using DNA sequences from 162 known age sub-fossil bones spanning a 37,000-year period, was 0.86 substitutions/site/Myrs (HPD 95% confidence interval of 0.53 and 1.17. Importantly, the latter rate is not statistically different from our estimate of the mutation rate. These results are in contrast to the view that molecular rates are time dependent.

  16. Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2005-09-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. Vo(2) was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass (M(b)) was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting Vo(2) was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml/min; water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml/min, P water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml O(2)/min; water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml O(2)/min, P > 0.6). In air, Vo(2) decreased with M(b), while it increased with M(b) in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air, whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water.

  17. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  18. Reassessment of the cardio-respiratory stress response, using the king penguin as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán; Enstipp, Manfred R; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Research in to short-term cardio-respiratory changes in animals in reaction to a psychological stressor typically describes increases in rate of oxygen consumption (V̇(O2)) and heart rate. Consequently, the broad consensus is that they represent a fundamental stressor response generalizable across adult species. However, movement levels can also change in the presence of a stressor, yet studies have not accounted for this possible confound on heart rate. Thus the direct effects of psychological stressors on the cardio-respiratory system are not resolved. We used an innovative experimental design employing accelerometers attached to king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to measure and thus account for movement levels in a sedentary yet free-to-move animal model during a repeated measures stress experiment. As with previous studies on other species, incubating king penguins (N = 6) exhibited significant increases in both V̇(O2) and heart rate when exposed to the stressor. However, movement levels, while still low, also increased in response to the stressor. Once this was accounted for by comparing periods of time during the control and stress conditions when movement levels were similar as recorded by the accelerometers, only V̇(O2) significantly increased; there was no change in heart rate. These findings offer evidence that changing movement levels have an important effect on the measured stress response and that the cardio-respiratory response per se to a psychological stressor (i.e. the response as a result of physiological changes directly attributable to the stressor) is an increase in V̇(O2) without an increase in heart rate.

  19. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  1. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  2. Population regulation in Magellanic penguins: what determines changes in colony size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M Pozzi

    Full Text Available Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ∼600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 41°26´S, 65°01´W to 45°11´S, 66°30´W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the north--which were established during the last decades--increased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results

  3. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  4. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  5. Gastrointestinal helminths of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from Stranger Point, 25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Julia Inés; Fusaro, Bruno; Longarzo, Lucrecia; Coria, Néstor Rubén; Vidal, Virginia; Jerez, Silvia; Ortiz, Juana; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 37 fresh dead individuals (21 chicks, 10 juveniles, and 6 adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2012 and examined for macroparasites. Four adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi), two Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres wetzeli), and one Acanthocephalan (Corynosoma shackletoni). Two species of immature acanthocephalans, Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma bullosum, were found in a single host. This is the first record of Tetrameres wetzeli in Gentoo penguins. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  6. Change in N and P Concentrations in Antarctic Streams as a Response to Change in Penguin Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nędzarek, Arkadiusz

    2010-01-01

    This study presents changes in the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in two streams in Western Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands) that differ in trophic status. The results suggest a decline in concentrations of the determined forms of N and P between 2001 and 2005. The decrease ranged from 9.3% for reactive phosphorus to 73.2% for ammonium-nitrogen. Such inferred declines in N and P concentrations are considered to reflect reduced deposition on land of organic matter brought in from the seas by the penguins nesting in the area. The ultimate cause of this is in turn the steady decline in abundance that is being noted for these penguins.

  7. Use of Propofol for Induction and Maintenance of Anesthesia in a King Penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Sarah E; Carter, Jennifer E; Bauquier, Sébastien; Beths, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures. This protocol provided a rapid and smooth induction and calm recovery in the penguin. When ventilation control is possible, propofol TIVA may be a superior choice to inhalant agents for anesthesia of birds with potential intracranial lesions.

  8. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Penguin loops with confined quark propagators - the ΔI=1/2 rule as a long distance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    We calculate the ΔS=1 penguin diagram by representing the internal quark lines in the loop by bag model wave functions. Because of the involved GIM mechanism we keep only the lowest internal quark modes in the loop, that is with quark momenta of order msub(c) and lower. Our results depends crucially on the values of the strong coupling constant and on the quark energy of the bag model wavefunctions. With reasonable values of parameters, we find contributions corresponding to effective penguin coefficients proportional2-5 times the standard perturbative ones. Thus the theoretical value for the ratio between ΔI=1/2 and ΔI=3/2 amplitudes seem to be improved. (orig.)

  10. Salt gland adenitis associated with bacteria in Blue Penguins (Eudyptula minor) from Hauraki Gulf (auckland, New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suepaul, R B; Alley, M R; van Rensburg, M Jansen

    2010-01-01

    Three Blue Penguins (Eudyptula minor) were rescued between July 2006 and January 2007 off the east coast of Auckland, New Zealand. They were taken to a rehabilitation center, where they subsequently died in May 2007 and were submitted for necropsy. There was unilateral enlargement of the salt glands with disseminated small, pale, and firm foci in all birds. Histologic examination of the affected glands demonstrated the presence of multifocal granulomas and areas of severe squamous metaplasia of the collecting ducts. The remaining gland had areas of hyperplasia, dysplasia, and necrosis with a severe granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Intralesional gram-negative bacteria were detected, but, unfortunately, bacterial culture was unrewarding. No further cases were observed in penguins in the subsequent year, and the primary cause of the salt gland adenitis remains uncertain.

  11. Oviposition ecology and species composition of Aedes spp. and Aedes aegypti dynamics in variously urbanized settings in arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Utzinger, Jürg; Adja, Maurice A; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2016-09-29

    Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification. Aedes spp. oviposition ecology significantly varied from rural-to-urban areas and according to the ecozones and the seasons. Species richness of Aedes spp. gradually decreased from rural (eight species) to suburban (three species) and urban (one species) areas. Conversely, emerged adult Aedes spp. mean numbers were higher in the urban (1.97 Aedes/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.44 Aedes/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.89 Aedes/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes aegypti was the only species in the urban setting (100 %), and was also the predominant species in suburban (85.5 %) and rural (63.3 %) areas. The highest Ae. aegypti mean number was observed in the urban (1.97 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.20 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.57 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes africanus (9.4 %), Ae. dendrophilus (8.0 %), Ae. metallicus (1.3 %) in the rural, and Ae. vittatus (6.5 %) and Ae. metallicus (1.2 %) in the suburban areas each represented more than 1 % of the total Aedes fauna. In all areas, Aedes species richness and abundance were higher in the peridomestic zones and during the rainy season, with stronger variations in species richness in the rural and in abundance in the urban areas. Besides, the highest Culex quinquefasciatus abundance was found in the urban areas, while Eretmapodites chrysogaster was restricted to the rural areas. Urbanization correlates with a substantially higher abundance in Aedes mosquitoes and

  12. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  13. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Younger, Jane L; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Handley, Jonathan; Miller, Gary D; Jouventin, Pierre; Nolan, Paul; Gharbi, Karim; Miller, Karen J; Hart, Tom

    2016-10-13

    Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion. We investigated the genetic population structure and patterns of colonisation of king penguins across their current range using a dataset of 5154 unlinked, high-coverage single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Despite breeding at a small number of discrete, geographically separate sites, we find only very slight genetic differentiation among colonies separated by thousands of kilometers of open-ocean, suggesting migration among islands and archipelagos may be common. Our results show that the South Georgia population is slightly differentiated from all other colonies and suggest that the recently founded Falkland Island colony is likely to have been established by migrants from the distant Crozet Islands rather than nearby colonies on South Georgia, possibly as a result of density-dependent processes. The observed subtle differentiation among king penguin colonies must be considered in future conservation planning and monitoring of the species, and demographic models that attempt to forecast extinction risk in response to large-scale climate change must take into account migration. It is possible that migration could buffer king penguins against some of the impacts of climate change where colonies appear panmictic, although it is unlikely to protect them completely given the widespread physical changes projected for their Southern Ocean foraging grounds

  14. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; McKinlay, John; Newbery, Kym; Takahashi, Akinori; Kato, Akiko; Barbraud, Christophe; DeLord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are considered to be useful and practical indicators of the state of marine ecosystems because they integrate across changes in the lower trophic levels and the physical environment. Signals from this key group of species can indicate broad scale impacts or response to environmental change. Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine environments have profound effects on biota at high trophic levels. Large populations of the circumpolar-breeding Adélie penguin occur in East Antarctica, but direct, standardized population data across much of this vast coastline have been more limited than in other Antarctic regions. We combine extensive new population survey data, new population estimation methods, and re-interpreted historical survey data to assess decadal-scale change in East Antarctic Adélie penguin breeding populations. We show that, in contrast to the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea where breeding populations have decreased or shown variable trends over the last 30 years, East Antarctic regional populations have almost doubled in abundance since the 1980's and have been increasing since the earliest counts in the 1960's. The population changes are associated with five-year lagged changes in the physical environment, suggesting that the changing environment impacts primarily on the pre-breeding age classes. East Antarctic marine ecosystems have been subject to a number of changes over the last 50 years which may have influenced Adélie penguin population growth, including decadal-scale climate variation, an inferred mid-20th century sea-ice contraction, and early-to-mid 20th century exploitation of fish and whale populations.

  15. A novel papillomavirus in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faeces sampled at the Cape Crozier colony, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Jennings, Scott; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Pollard, Annie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2014-06-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic viruses that have circular dsDNA genomes encapsidated in non-enveloped virions. They have been found to infect a variety of mammals, reptiles and birds, but so far they have not been found in amphibians. Using a next-generation sequencing de novo assembly contig-informed recovery, we cloned and Sanger sequenced the complete genome of a novel papillomavirus from the faecal matter of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) nesting on Ross Island, Antarctica. The genome had all the usual features of a papillomavirus and an E9 ORF encoding a protein of unknown function that is found in all avian papillomaviruses to date. This novel papillomavirus genome shared ~60 % pairwise identity with the genomes of the other three known avian papillomaviruses: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1 (FcPV1), Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1 (FlPV1) and Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus 1. Pairwise identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein gene clearly indicated that it represents a novel species, which we named Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus 1 (PaCV1). No evidence of recombination was detected in the genome of PaCV1, but we did detect a recombinant region (119 nt) in the E6 gene of FlPV1 with the recombinant region being derived from ancestral FcPV1-like sequences. Previously only paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses and avian pox viruses have been genetically identified in penguins; however, the majority of penguin viral identifications have been based on serology or histology. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a papillomavirus associated with a penguin species. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Southwell

    Full Text Available Seabirds are considered to be useful and practical indicators of the state of marine ecosystems because they integrate across changes in the lower trophic levels and the physical environment. Signals from this key group of species can indicate broad scale impacts or response to environmental change. Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine environments have profound effects on biota at high trophic levels. Large populations of the circumpolar-breeding Adélie penguin occur in East Antarctica, but direct, standardized population data across much of this vast coastline have been more limited than in other Antarctic regions. We combine extensive new population survey data, new population estimation methods, and re-interpreted historical survey data to assess decadal-scale change in East Antarctic Adélie penguin breeding populations. We show that, in contrast to the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea where breeding populations have decreased or shown variable trends over the last 30 years, East Antarctic regional populations have almost doubled in abundance since the 1980's and have been increasing since the earliest counts in the 1960's. The population changes are associated with five-year lagged changes in the physical environment, suggesting that the changing environment impacts primarily on the pre-breeding age classes. East Antarctic marine ecosystems have been subject to a number of changes over the last 50 years which may have influenced Adélie penguin population growth, including decadal-scale climate variation, an inferred mid-20th century sea-ice contraction, and early-to-mid 20th century exploitation of fish and whale populations.

  17. An Object-Based Image Analysis Approach for Detecting Penguin Guano in very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chandi Witharana; Heather J. Lynch

    2016-01-01

    The logistical challenges of Antarctic field work and the increasing availability of very high resolution commercial imagery have driven an interest in more efficient search and classification of remotely sensed imagery. This exploratory study employed geographic object-based analysis (GEOBIA) methods to classify guano stains, indicative of chinstrap and Adélie penguin breeding areas, from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite imagery and closely examined the transferability of knowle...

  18. CP violation in b → s penguin decays and T, CPT violation at BaBar and BELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery-Schrenk, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first direct observation of time reversal violation at BABAR in the interference between direct decay and decay with B 0 - B-bar 0 mixing, as well as on the most precise search for CPT violation in B 0 - B-bar 0 mixing at BELLE. We then present recent CP violation studies at BABAR in rare b → s penguin decays B → KKK and B → K*l + l - . (author)

  19. Bacterial diversity in Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, guano: molecular and morpho-physiological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Marek K; Weglenski, Piotr; Golik, Pawel; Sasin, Joanna M; Borsuk, Piotr; Zmuda, Magdalena J; Stankovic, Anna

    2004-11-01

    The total number of bacteria and culturable bacteria in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) guano was determined during 42 days of decomposition in a location adjacent to the rookery in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Of the culturable bacteria, 72 randomly selected colonies were described using 49 morpho-physiological tests, 27 of which were subsequently considered significant in characterizing and differentiating the isolates. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene in each of 72 pure isolates, three major phylogenetic groups were identified, namely the Moraxellaceae/Pseudomonadaceae (29 isolates), the Flavobacteriaceae (14), and the Micrococcaceae (29). Grouping of the isolates on the basis of morpho-physiological tests (whether 49 or 27 parameters) showed similar results to those based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clusters were characterized by considerable intra-cluster variation in both 16S rRNA gene sequences and morpho-physiological responses. High diversity in abundance and morphometry of total bacterial communities during penguin guano decomposition was supported by image analysis of epifluorescence micrographs. The results indicate that the bacterial community in penguin guano is not only one of the richest in Antarctica, but is extremely diverse, both phylogenetically and morpho-physiologically.

  20. Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

    2004-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time.