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Sample records for pediatric vascular access

  1. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  2. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  3. Vascular access in pediatric patients in the emergency department: types of access, indications, and complications [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rachel; Langhan, Melissa; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-06-22

    Vascular access is a potentially life-saving procedure that is a mainstay of emergency medicine practice. There are a number of challenges associated with obtaining and maintaining vascular access, and the choice of the route of access and equipment used will depend on patient- and provider-specific factors. In this issue, the indications and complications of peripheral intravenous access, intraosseous access, and central venous access are reviewed. Timely and effective assessment and management of difficult-access patients, pain control techniques that can assist vascular access, and contraindications to each type of vascular access are also discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  4. Intramuscular ketamine to facilitate pediatric central vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, T Kent; Hargrove, Jenny R; Brown, Lance

    2004-07-01

    Obtaining prompt vascular access in young children presenting to the emergency department (ED) is frequently both necessary and technically challenging. The objective of our study was to describe our experience using intramuscular (IM) ketamine to facilitate the placement of central venous catheters in children presenting to our ED needing vascular access in a timely fashion. We performed a retrospective medical record review of all pediatric patients central venous catheter facilitated by the use of IM ketamine. Eleven children met our inclusion criteria. Most of the children were young and medically complicated. The children ranged in age from 6 months to 8 years. The only complication identified was vomiting experienced by an 8-year-old boy. Emergency physicians successfully obtained central venous access in all subjects in the case series. The use of IM ketamine to facilitate the placement of central venous catheters in children who do not have peripheral venous access appears to be helpful. Emergency physicians may find it useful to be familiar with this use of IM ketamine.

  5. Maintenance of vascular access patency in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, F.A.; Wyly, J.B.; Fellows, K.E.; Harmon, W.; Levey, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The patency of vascular access shunts and fistulae has been prolonged by a combined surgical and radiological approach that includes percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), surgical revision, thrombectomy, and thrombolysis. Over the last 3 years, 35 vascular accesses in 27 patients were found to have angiographic abnormality. PTA was performed 32 times of 19 accesses and 7 PTAs resulted in patent accesses by the end of the study. Surgical revision was performed 9 times on 8 accesses and 2 of the surgical revisions resulted in a patent access by the end of the study. Concerning Thomas femoral shunts, PTA prolonged the patency by 2.2 months and surgical revision by 3.8 months per procedure. Concerning arteriovenous (AV) fistulae, PTA prolonged the patency by 4.3 months and surgical revision by 3.5 months per procedure. A combination of procedures effectively doubles the duration of patency of Thomas femoral shunts and almost triples the duration of patency of AV fistulae in children. Forty-one percent of these accesses remain open 1 year following the initiation of these procedures. (orig.)

  6. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  9. Design and application of model for training ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Quevedo, O; López-Álvarez, J M; Limiñana-Cañal, J M; Loro-Ferrer, J F

    2016-01-01

    Central vascular cannulation is not a risk-free procedure, especially in pediatric patients. Newborn and infants are small and low-weighted, their vascular structures have high mobility because of tissue laxity and their vessels are superficial and with small diameter. These characteristics, together with the natural anatomical variability and poor collaboration of small children, make this technique more difficult to apply. Therefore, ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used to locate vessels and guide vascular access in this population. (a) To present a model that simulates the vascular system for training ultrasound-guided vascular access in pediatrics patients; (b) to ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in the model. The model consisted of two components: (a) muscular component: avian muscle, (b) vascular component: elastic tube-like structure filled with fluid. 864 ecoguided punctures was realized in the model at different vessel depth and gauge measures were simulated, for two medical operators with different degree of experience. The average depth and diameter of vessel cannulated were 1.16 (0.42)cm and 0.43 (0.1)cm, respectively. The average number of attempts was of 1.22 (0.62). The percentage of visualization of the needle was 74%. The most frequent maneuver used for the correct location, was the modification of the angle of the needle and the relocation of the guidewire in 24% of the cases. The average time for the correct cannulations was 41 (35.8)s. The more frequent complications were the vascular perforation (11.9%) and the correct vascular puncture without possibility of introducing the guidewire (1.2%). The rate of success was 96%. The model simulates the anatomy (vascular and muscular structures) of a pediatric patient. It is cheap models, easily reproducible and a useful tool for training in ultrasound-guided puncture and cannulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Disruptive technological advances in vascular access for dialysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Ng, Qin Xiang

    2017-11-29

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and with increasing incidence, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current available modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) include dialysis and renal transplantation. Though renal transplantation is the preferred and ideal mode of RRT, this modality may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Moreover, renal transplant recipients are constantly at risk of complications associated with immunosuppression and immunosuppressant use, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Dialysis may be the only available modality in certain patients. However, dialysis has its limitations, which include issues associated with lack of vascular access, risks of infections and vascular thrombosis, decreased quality of life, and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. In particular, the creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access in children poses a unique set of challenges to the pediatric nephrologist owing to the smaller vessel diameters and vascular hyperreactivity compared with adult patients. Vascular access issues continue to be one of the major limiting factors prohibiting the delivery of adequate dialysis in ESKD patients and is the Achilles' heel of hemodialysis. This review aims to provide a critical overview of disruptive technological advances and innovations for vascular access. Novel strategies in preventing neointimal hyperplasia, novel bioengineered products, grafts and devices for vascular access will be discussed. The potential impact of these solutions on improving the morbidity encountered by dialysis patients will also be examined.

  11. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies due to unusual vascular causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Jayashri; Escolar, Diane; Ryan, Monique; Darras, Basil; Jones, H. Royden

    Four cases of pediatric sciatic neuropathies due to unusual vascular mechanisms are reported. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies were seen after umbilical artery catheterization, embolization of arteriovenous malformation, meningococcemia, and hypereosinophilic vasculitis. Electrophysiologic studies

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  13. Permanent vascular access survival in children on long-term chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Liliana; Diaz Moreno, Alexia; Sierre, Sergio; Lopez, Laura; Lipsich, José; Adragna, Marta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to report a single-center experience regarding the management and outcome of permanent vascular accesses (VA) in children on chronic hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the survival of permanent VA in 79 pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease patients on chronic HD between January 2000 and December 2008. One hundred and thirty-seven VA [89 native fistulas (AVFs) and 48 grafts (AVGs)] were created in 79 children. The creation of AVFs was significantly more frequent in children weighing >25 kg and AVGs in children weighing <25 kg (p = 0.003). The 1-year primary patency rate was 50% for AVF and 30% for AVG. The secondary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for AVFs were 73, 50, and 20% and for AVGs were 64, 36, and 20%, respectively. The total number of surgical and endovascular interventions was significantly higher in AVGs (p Access stenosis, thrombosis and infection episodes occurred more frequently in AVG (p = 0.02). VAs had a high rate of interventions. Our study demonstrated better results of AVFs formation over AVGs, for long-term HD access in pediatrics. Surveillance and radiologic procedures are necessary for early detection and treatment of access complications in order to extend access survival.

  14. Semi-elective intraosseous infusion after failed intravenous access in pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego; Weiss, Markus; Engelhardt, Thomas; Henze, Georg; Giest, Judith; Strauss, Jochen; Eich, Christoph

    2010-02-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion is a well-established intervention to obtain vascular access in pediatric emergency medicine but is rarely used in routine pediatric anesthesia. In this observational study, we report on a series of 14 children in whom semi-elective IO infusion was performed under inhalational anesthesia after peripheral intravenous (IV) access had failed. Patient and case characteristics, technical details, and estimated timings of IO infusion as well as associated complications were reviewed. Data are median and range. IO infusion was successfully established in fourteen children [age: 0.1-6.00 years (median 0.72 years); weight: 3.5-12.0 kg (median 7.0 kg)]. The majority suffered from chronic cardiac, metabolic, or dysmorphic abnormalities. Estimated time taken from inhalational induction of anesthesia until insertion of an intraosseous needle was 26.5 min (15-65 min). The proximal tibia was cannulated in all patients. The automated EZIO IO system was used in eight patients and the manual COOK system in six patients. Drugs administered included hypnotics, opioids, neuromuscular blocking agents and reversals, cardiovascular drugs, antibiotics, and IV fluids. The IO cannulas were removed either in the operating theatre (n = 5), in the recovery room (n = 5), or in the ward (n = 4), after 73 min (19-225 min) in situ. There were no significant complications except one accidental postoperative dislocation. IO access represents a quick and reliable alternative for pediatric patients with prolonged difficult or failed IV access after inhalational induction of anesthesia.

  15. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  16. Interventional Radiological Treatment of Perihepatic Vascular Stenosis or Occlusion in Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uller, Wibke; Knoppke, Birgit; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Heiss, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.; Melter, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment of vascular stenoses and occlusions in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods: Fifteen children (mean age 8.3 years) underwent interventional procedures for 18 vascular complications after liver transplantation. Patients had stenoses or occlusions of portal veins (n = 8), hepatic veins (n = 3), inferior vena cava (IVC; n = 2) or hepatic arteries (n = 5). Technical and clinical success rates were evaluated. Results: Stent angioplasty was performed in seven cases (portal vein, hepatic artery and IVC), and sole balloon angioplasty was performed in eight cases. One child underwent thrombolysis (hepatic artery). Clinical and technical success was achieved in 14 of 18 cases of vascular stenoses or occlusions (mean follow-up 710 days). Conclusion: Pediatric interventional radiology allows effective and safe treatment of vascular stenoses after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT). Individualized treatment with special concepts for each pediatric patient is necessary. The variety, the characteristics, and the individuality of interventional management of all kinds of possible vascular stenoses or occlusions after PLT are shown

  17. Evaluation of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in pediatric body vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the pediatric body vascular lesions. This study examined the usefulness of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D-enhanced MRA) for pediatric body vascular lesions. Fifteen 3D-enhanced MRAs were performed on fourteen pediatric patients aged from one month to fifteen years, using a 3D fast SPGR sequence. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images were obtained from the imaging data in all cases, and eleven MIP images were obtained after subtraction of precontrast-enhanced imaging data from postcontrast-enhanced imaging data. In six cases, MIP and MPR images were correlated with cine or digital subtraction angiographies, and the eleven subtracted MIP images were compared with those before subtraction. Clinical usefulness was demonstrated in fourteen (93%) of the fifteen cases, and in seven (64%) of the eleven cases in which subtraction was performed, image quality was improved. In comparison with cine or digital subtraction angiographies, however, only one (17%) MRA was superior. It was considered that 3D-enhanced MRA was useful for pediatric body vascular lesions because of advantages such as lower invasiveness compared with that of conventional angiography, absence of radiation exposure, safety of contrast media, easy availability of MPR images, and short scanning time. In conclusion, if a pediatric body vascular lesion is suspected, 3D-enhanced MRA should be performed before conventional angiography. It also seems that 3D-enhanced MRA may be useful for follow-up. (author)

  18. Evaluation of ultrasound-guided vascular access in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Scott C; Sullivan, Lauren A; Morley, Paul S; Boscan, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    To describe the technique and determine the feasibility, success rate, perceived difficulty, and time to vascular access using ultrasound guidance for jugular vein catheterization in a cardiac arrest dog model. Prospective descriptive study. University teaching hospital. Nine Walker hounds. A total of 27 jugular catheterizations were performed postcardiac arrest using ultrasound guidance. Catheterizations were recorded based on the order in which they were performed and presence/absence of a hematoma around the vein. Time (minutes) until successful vascular access and perceived difficulty in achieving vascular access (scale of 1 = easy to 10 = difficult) were recorded for each catheterization. Mean time to vascular access was 1.9 minutes (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4 min) for catheterizations without hematoma, versus 4.3 minutes (1.8-10.1 min) for catheterizations with hematoma (P = 0.1). Median perceived difficulty was 2 of 10 (range 1-7) for catheterizations without hematoma, versus 2 of 10 (range 1-8) for catheterizations with hematoma (P = 0.3). A learning curve was evaluated by comparing mean time to vascular access and perceived difficulty in initial versus subsequent catheterizations. Mean time to vascular access was 2.5 minutes (1.0-6.4 min) in the initial 13 catheterizations versus 3.3 minutes (1.5-7.5 min) in the subsequent 14 catheterizations (P = 0.6). Median perceived difficulty in the first 13 catheterizations (3, range 1-8) was significantly greater (P = 0.049) than median perceived difficulty in the subsequent 14 catheterizations (2, range 1-6). Ultrasound-guided jugular catheterization is associated with a learning curve but is successful in obtaining rapid vascular access in dogs. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this technique in a clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  19. Features and selection of vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Gail Egan

    2010-05-01

    To review venous anatomy and physiology, discuss assessment parameters before vascular access device (VAD) placement, and review VAD options. Journal articles, personal experience. A number of VAD options are available in clinical practice. Access planning should include comprehensive assessment, with attention to patient participation in the planning and selection process. Careful consideration should be given to long-term access needs and preservation of access sites. Oncology nurses are uniquely suited to perform a key role in VAD planning and placement. With knowledge of infusion therapy, anatomy and physiology, device options, and community resources, nurses can be key leaders in preserving vascular access and improving the safety and comfort of infusion therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  1. [Fistulae or catheter for elderly who start hemodialysis without permanent vascular access?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cortés, Ma J; Viedma, G; Sánchez Perales, M C; Borrego, F J; Borrego, J; Pérez del Barrio, P; Gil Cunquero, J M; Liébana, A; Pérez Bañasco, V

    2005-01-01

    Autologous access is the best vascular access for dialysis also in older patients and it should be mature when patient needs hemodialysis. It is not always possible. Surgeon availability and demographic characteristics of patients (age, diabetes, vascular disease...) are factors that determine primary vascular access. To analyse outcome and vascular access complications in elderly who start hemodialysis without vascular access. All patients older than 75 years who initiated hemodialysis without vascular access between January 2000 and June 2002 were included, They were divided en two groups depending on primary vascular access. GI: arterio-venous fistulae. GIIl: Tunnelled cuffed catheter. Epidemiological and analytical data, vascular access complications related, as well as patient and first permanent vascular access survival from their inclusion in dialysis up to December 2002 were analysed and compared in both groups. 32 patients were studied. GI: n = 17 (4 men) and GIIl: n =1 5 (8 men), age: 79.9 +/- 3.8 and 81.7 +/- 4 years respectively (ns). There were no differences in sex and comorbidity (diabetes, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension). It took GI 3 months to get a permanent vascular access suitable for using, while it took GIIl 1.3 months (p catheters was higher in GI (3.35 vs 1.87 p central venous thrombosis happen in GI (I: 25 CVT/100 patients-year) vs 30% in GIIl (I = 14.4/100 patients-year) (ns). No significant differences neither in bleeding (66.7% vs 33.3%) nor ischemia (75% vs 25%) were found. Dialysis dose (Kt/V) as well as anaemia degree were similar in both groups. Permanent vascular access survival after 2 years was 45.8% in GI and 24% in GII (ns). Patient survival was similar in GI and GII (72% vs 51% ns). Elderly who start hemodialysis without vascular access took longer to get a suitable permanent vascular access when arterio-venous fistulae is placed than with a tunnelled cuffed hemodialysis catheter. As a

  2. Spanish Clinical Guidelines on Vascular Access for Haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeas, José; Roca-Tey, Ramon; Vallespín, Joaquín; Moreno, Teresa; Moñux, Guillermo; Martí-Monrós, Anna; Del Pozo, José Luis; Gruss, Enrique; Ramírez de Arellano, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Arenas, María Dolores; Merino, José Luis; García-Revillo, José; Caro, Pilar; López-Espada, Cristina; Giménez-Gaibar, Antonio; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Valdés, Pablo; Fernández-Quesada, Fidel; de la Fuente, Natalia; Hernán, David; Arribas, Patricia; Sánchez de la Nieta, María Dolores; Martínez, María Teresa; Barba, Ángel

    2017-11-01

    Vascular access for haemodialysis is key in renal patients both due to its associated morbidity and mortality and due to its impact on quality of life. The process, from the creation and maintenance of vascular access to the treatment of its complications, represents a challenge when it comes to decision-making, due to the complexity of the existing disease and the diversity of the specialities involved. With a view to finding a common approach, the Spanish Multidisciplinary Group on Vascular Access (GEMAV), which includes experts from the five scientific societies involved (nephrology [S.E.N.], vascular surgery [SEACV], vascular and interventional radiology [SERAM-SERVEI], infectious diseases [SEIMC] and nephrology nursing [SEDEN]), along with the methodological support of the Cochrane Center, has updated the Guidelines on Vascular Access for Haemodialysis, published in 2005. These guidelines maintain a similar structure, in that they review the evidence without compromising the educational aspects. However, on one hand, they provide an update to methodology development following the guidelines of the GRADE system in order to translate this systematic review of evidence into recommendations that facilitate decision-making in routine clinical practice, and, on the other hand, the guidelines establish quality indicators which make it possible to monitor the quality of healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric central venous access devices: nursing interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy EA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Duffy, Kathryn N Nelson Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: A central venous catheter (CVC is an indwelling catheter that provides permanent or temporary stable venous access for both acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. These catheters provide stable venous access that can be used for a variety of medical purposes including drawing blood, hemodynamic monitoring, infusion of intravenous medications, infusion of intravenous fluids, chemotherapy, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Each day, nurses access and care for CVCs in infants, children, and adolescents; the precision of this care can prevent life-threatening complications. The purpose of this review and the case study is to highlight the importance and components of evidence-based nursing practice in pediatric CVC care. A historical perspective of CVC care is provided in conjunction with current national initiatives to improve patient outcomes for children with CVCs. Infection prevention, clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement, and evidence-based care bundles are discussed. Keywords: pediatric nursing, central venous catheters, central line-associated bloodstream infection, care bundles, pediatric case study 

  4. [Thrombosis in vascular accesses for haemodialysis: rescue treatment using invasive vascular radiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Medina, J; Lacasa Pérez, N; Muray Cases, S; Pérez Garrido, I; García Medina, V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to communicate our experience in the salvage of thrombosed haemodialysis vascular accesses using interventional radiology techniques. In the last four years, we have treated, by radiological means, 101 thrombosed haemodialysis vascular accesses. There were 44 autologous arteriovenous fistulas (43.56%) and 57 PTFE grafts (56.44%). There were 69 men (68.3%) and 32 women (31.7%). The mean age was 67.73 years (range 33-84). The mean vascular access age was 23.79 months (range 1-132). Manual catheter-directed aspiration was used. Fragmented, triturated or pushed the thrombus against the pulmonary circulation was avoided in all cases. 78 accesses were salvaged (77.2%). Autologous fistulas average and PTFE grafts success rate were 84.44% and 71.42% respectively. Angioplasty in one or more lesions after thromboaspiration was performed in all accesses, except six (5.9%). Metallic endoprostheses were implanted in 14 accesses (13.9%). Mean follow-up was 9 months (range 0-44). Primary patency was 42.3% +/- 5 at 6 months and 32% +/- 4 at one year. Autologous fistulas patency was better than PTFE grafts patency (p better than PTFE grafts. This justifies interventional radiology techniques in these situations.

  5. Vascular access for home haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Day, C; Inston, N

    2018-03-01

    Home haemodialysis has been advocated due to improved quality of life. However, there are very little data on the optimum vascular access for it. A retrospective cohort study was carried on all patients who initiated home haemodialysis between 2011 and 2016 at a large university hospital. Access-related hospital admissions and interventions were used as primary outcome measures. Our cohort consisted of 74 patients. On initiation of home haemodialysis, 62 individuals were using an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access, while the remaining were on a tunnelled dialysis catheter. Of the 12 patients who started on a tunnelled dialysis catheter, 5 were subsequently converted to either an arteriovenous fistula ( n = 4) or an arteriovenous graft ( n = 1). During the period of home haemodialysis use, four arteriovenous fistula failed or thrombosed with patients continuing on home haemodialysis using an arteriovenous graft ( n = 3) or a tunnelled dialysis catheter ( n = 1). To maintain uninterrupted home haemodialysis, interventional rates were 0.32 per arteriovenous fistula/arteriovenous graft access-year and 0.4 per tunnelled dialysis catheter access-year. Hospital admission rates for patients on home haemodialysis were 0.33 per patient-year. Our study has shown that home haemodialysis can be safely and independently performed at home within a closely managed home haemodialysis programme. The authors also advocate the use of arteriovenous fistulas for this cohort of patients due to both low complication and intervention rates.

  6. 2015 Relaunch as Open Access Pediatric Neurology Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, John J; Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric Neurology Briefs (PNB) has been published monthly since 1987 as a continuing education service designed to expedite and facilitate review of current medical literature concerning pediatric neurology. In 2015, PNB is relaunched as an open access, peer-reviewed, journal with an expanded editorial board. PNB has a new website and content management system capable of organizing peer-review and providing improved indexing, DOI assignment, and online full-text article view. Digitization of back issues, archiving, and inclusion in PubMed are future goals. The new online open access PNB aims to reach more physicians, researchers, and other healthcare providers with highlights of the latest advances in pediatric neurology and commentaries by specialists in the field.

  7. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for long-term chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, Oleksiy O; Kostyuk, Oleksandr G; Tkachuk, Tetyana V

    To provide long-term vascular access in clinical oncology peripheral forearm veins (up to 95% of patients in Ukraine), central venous access and "complete implanted vascular systems" are used most often. Many oncology patients have contraindications to catheterization of superior vena cava. Besides, exploitation of central veins is associated with potential technical and infectious complications. The aim - to study short-term and long-term results of arteriovenous fistula exploitation as vascular access for continuous anticancer therapy. Peripheral venous bed status in 41 oncology patients taking long-term chemotherapy treatment is analyzed in the article. Doppler sonography, morphologic and immune histochemical analyses were used in the study. Doppler sonography found qualitative and quantitative changes in forearm veins at different time periods after initiation of chemotherapy in the majority of patients. The major morphologic manifestations of venous wall damage were chemical phlebitis, local or extended hardening of venous wall, venous thrombosis and extravasations with necrosis and subsequent paravasal tissue sclerosis. Alternative vascular access created in 12 patients completely met the adequacy criteria (safety, multiple use, longevity, realization of the designed therapy program). The conclusion was made about inapplicability of forearm veins for long-term administration of cytostatic agents. If it is impossible to use central veins, arteriovenous fistula can become an alternative vascular access.

  8. Straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to popliteal artery for vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caco, Gentian; Golemi, Dhurata; Likaj, Eriola

    2017-03-21

    The saphenous vein is commonly used as a vascular graft in peripheral artery surgery but rarely used for vascular access. The literature on straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery is scarce. Here we present two cases of straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery for vascular access, the surgical technique and respective follow-up. Two young men, aged 29 and 36 years, were chosen for lower-limb vascular access for hemodialysis. The first patient was paraplegic since birth. He used his arms to move so upper extremity vascular access was avoided. The second patient presented with an infected upper extremity arteriovenous graft (AVG) and after multiple closed AVFs he had no more available arm veins. Both patients received autologous lower extremity straight configuration saphenous vein transpositions to the popliteal artery under spinal anesthesia in May and October 2012, respectively. Cannulation of the fistula was allowed after one month. There were no early complications. Slight swelling on the leg appeared in one of the patients. Both fistulas were still functional after 36 and 32 months, respectively. The straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to popliteal artery is simple to perform, offers a long and straight segment for cannulation and may be a suitable autologous vascular access in selected patients.

  9. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  10. 2015 Relaunch as Open Access Pediatric Neurology Briefs

    OpenAIRE

    Millichap, John J.; Millichap, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric Neurology Briefs (PNB) has been published monthly since 1987 as a continuing education service designed to expedite and facilitate review of current medical literature concerning pediatric neurology. In 2015, PNB is relaunched as an open access, peer-reviewed, journal with an expanded editorial board.  PNB has a new website and content management system capable of organizing peer-review and providing improved...

  11. Vascular access: a never-ending story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, U

    2014-12-01

    Vascular surgeons are more and more becoming responsible for "life-line" creation well functioning and maintenance of hemodialysis patients and to provide a well functioning and multidisciplinary access service together with nefrologists, dialysis staff, and interventional radiology. For many, this sometimes arduous surgery with associated complicated clinical decision making, becomes a constant and challenging burden but much through the appearance of national and international guidelines and especially the endovascular technology, feasible solutions are easily at hand and the life as an access surgeon more pleasant. Here, basics in dialysis access care are presented together with some examples of novel available solutions to troublesome clinical problems.

  12. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vascular access choice in incident hemodialysis patients: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David A; Lok, Charmaine E; Cohen, Joshua T; Wagner, Martin; Tangri, Navdeep; Weiner, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access recommendations promote arteriovenous (AV) fistulas first; however, it may not be the best approach for all hemodialysis patients, because likelihood of successful fistula placement, procedure-related and subsequent costs, and patient survival modify the optimal access choice. We performed a decision analysis evaluating AV fistula, AV graft, and central venous catheter (CVC) strategies for patients initiating hemodialysis with a CVC, a scenario occurring in over 70% of United States dialysis patients. A decision tree model was constructed to reflect progression from hemodialysis initiation. Patients were classified into one of three vascular access choices: maintain CVC, attempt fistula, or attempt graft. We explicitly modeled probabilities of primary and secondary patency for each access type, with success modified by age, sex, and diabetes. Access-specific mortality was incorporated using preexisting cohort data, including terms for age, sex, and diabetes. Costs were ascertained from the 2010 USRDS report and Medicare for procedure costs. An AV fistula attempt strategy was found to be superior to AV grafts and CVCs in regard to mortality and cost for the majority of patient characteristic combinations, especially younger men without diabetes. Women with diabetes and elderly men with diabetes had similar outcomes, regardless of access type. Overall, the advantages of an AV fistula attempt strategy lessened considerably among older patients, particularly women with diabetes, reflecting the effect of lower AV fistula success rates and lower life expectancy. These results suggest that vascular access-related outcomes may be optimized by considering individual patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    -functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has...... proven to be more precise, when performing single repeated instantaneous measurements. Three patients with AVF were monitored with UDT and VFI monthly for five months. A commercial ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer with integrated VFI was used to obtain data. UDT values were...... be used for surveillance of volume flow....

  15. [Initial experiences with a new painless vascular approach in hemodialysis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, B; Kemkes, B M

    1982-09-09

    The necessity of hemodialysis in children is pointed out to be treated at specialized pediatric dialysis centers. In this connection a new vascular access is presented. The device is made from vitreous carbon and is mounted on a PTFE vascular prosthesis. By means of disposable connectors it can be dialysed without puncturing the implant. The device was implanted for the first time in the world in a small boy of 19 kg bodyweight. Our conclusion is that the biocarbon device is a welcome alleviation and an alternative for angio-access in children.

  16. Emergency pediatric anesthesia - accessibility of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hannah; Pipe, Georgina E M; Linford, Sarah L; Moppett, Iain K; Armstrong, James A M

    2015-03-01

    Emergency pediatric situations are stressful for all involved. Variation in weight, physiology, and anatomy can be substantial and errors in calculating drugs and fluids can be catastrophic. To evaluate the reliability of information resources that anesthetic trainees might use when faced with common pediatric emergencies. Anesthetic trainees from a single UK deanery were recruited and timed while they identified 18 predetermined pieces of information from three Advanced Pediatric Life Support (APLS) scenarios. The two most popular smartphone applications identified from a previous survey, PaedsED (PaedsED. iED limited, Version 1.0.8, Updated March 2011. ©2009) and Anapaed (AnaPaed. Thierry Girard, Version 1.4.2, Updated Nov 2, 2012. ©Thierry Girard), the British National Formulary for Children (cBNF) and trainee's inherent knowledge were compared with a local, check-list style, handbook of pediatric emergency algorithms - Pediatric Anesthetic Emergency Data sheets (PAEDs). Twenty anesthetic trainees were recruited. The fastest source of information was the trainees own knowledge (median 61 s, IQR 51-83 s). Second fastest was PAEDs (80, [59-110] s), followed by PaedsED (84, [65-111]). The most accurate source overall was PaedsED (100, [83-100]) although the accuracy varied between scenarios. The handbook was rated as the most popular resource by the trainees. Although fastest, trainees own knowledge is inaccurate, highlighting the need for additional, rapidly accessible, information. Of the two smartphone applications, PaedsED proved to be fast, accurate, and more popular, while Anapaed was accurate but slow to use. The PAEDs handbook, with its checklist-style format, was also fast, accurate and rated the most popular information source. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Use of vascular access for haemodialysis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Jager, Kitty J; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are actively promoted, their use at the start of haemodialysis (HD) seems to be decreasing worldwide. In this paper, we describe recent trends in incidence and prevalence of vascular access types in Europe from 2005 to 2009 and their relationship...

  18. Validity of administrative database code algorithms to identify vascular access placement, surgical revisions, and secondary patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Moist, Louise M; Oliver, Matthew J; Nash, Danielle M; Fleet, Jamie L; Garg, Amit X; Lok, Charmaine E

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the validity of physician billing codes and hospital admission using International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes to identify vascular access placement, secondary patency, and surgical revisions in administrative data. We included adults (≥18 years) with a vascular access placed between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2013 at the University Health Network, Toronto. Our reference standard was a prospective vascular access database (VASPRO) that contains information on vascular access type and dates of placement, dates for failure, and any revisions. We used VASPRO to assess the validity of different administrative coding algorithms by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of vascular access events. The sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of the best performing algorithm to identify arteriovenous access placement was 86% (83%, 89%) and specificity was 92% (89%, 93%). The corresponding numbers to identify catheter insertion were 84% (82%, 86%) and 84% (80%, 87%), respectively. The sensitivity of the best performing coding algorithm to identify arteriovenous access surgical revisions was 81% (67%, 90%) and specificity was 89% (87%, 90%). The algorithm capturing arteriovenous access placement and catheter insertion had a positive predictive value greater than 90% and arteriovenous access surgical revisions had a positive predictive value of 20%. The duration of arteriovenous access secondary patency was on average 578 (553, 603) days in VASPRO and 555 (530, 580) days in administrative databases. Administrative data algorithms have fair to good operating characteristics to identify vascular access placement and arteriovenous access secondary patency. Low positive predictive values for surgical revisions algorithm suggest that administrative data should only be used to rule out the occurrence of an event.

  19. A-Frame free Vascularized Fibular Graft and Femoral Lengthening for Osteosarcoma Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Megan; Coombs, Christopher; Torode, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric limb reconstruction after resection of a malignant tumor presents specific challenges. Multiple surgical techniques have been used to treat these patients. This paper describes a staged surgical technique for the reconstruction of large distal femoral defects due to tumor resection in skeletally immature patients. Three pediatric patients with osteosarcoma of the distal femur underwent staged reconstruction. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was followed by en bloc tumor resection and immediate reconstruction of the distal femoral defect with a vascularized free fibular autograft utilizing a unique A-frame construct combined with intramedullary nail fixation. The second stage was a planned gradual lengthening of the healed construct, over a custom-made magnetically driven expandable intramedullary nail. All patients achieved bony union and satisfactory length with minimal complications. The patients all returned to full, unlimited physical activities. The early results confirm that the described technique is a safe and reliable procedure for the reconstruction of large femoral defects in pediatric patients with osteosarcoma. Level IV-therapeutic.

  20. Frequency of nursing care of vascular access in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Taghizade Firoozjayi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis is a critical treatment method, which depends on the vascular access route. Lack of care for the vascular access route could diminish its efficiency in a short time. Regarding this, the present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of nursing care for vascular access route in the hemodialysis patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 nurses and 120 hemodialysis patients, who referred to the Hemodialysis Department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran, in 2015. The method of nursing care for vascular access route was evaluated using a researcher-made checklist. The data analysis was performed using the descriptive statistics in the SPSS version 16. Results: In total, 14 cases of nursing care were evaluated, in 100% of which all the caring steps, including wearing gloves and a mask, early bolus injections of heparin, washing the catheter tubing, frequent monitoring of blood pressure, rinsing the catheter tubing, returning the blood to the body after hemodialysis, and sterile covering of the puncture site, were observed. However, some of the other techniques, such as the care related to appropriate pump speed when starting the dialysis machine (81.66%, observance of the needle distance from fistula (75.83%, appropriate placement of catheter (75%, pressing the injection site (54.17%, blood pressure monitoring at the end of dialysis (50%, and change of the needle site between two sessions (27.5%, were not adhered to by the nurses. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, some of the nursing care steps, which are necessary in the beginning and end of the hemodialysis, were not accurately followed by the nurses. It is recommended that constant training courses be held for the nurses in this regard.

  1. [Reason for "choosing" peritoneal dialysis: exhaustion of vascular access for hemodialysis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paulo Novis; Sallenave, Mila; Casqueiro, Verena; Campelo Neto, Bolivar; Presídio, Sérgio

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the prognosis of patients beginning peritoneal dialysis (PD) as their last alternative. To describe the clinical-demographic profile of patients switching from hemodialysis (HD) to PD, due to exhaustion of the HD vascular access, and the occurrence of peritonitis among them. Review of the medical records of all patients in the PD program of the Hospital Roberto Santos in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study comprised 22 patients (median age, 47.9 years), 54.5% of whom were men, 84.2%, black or mulattoes, and 68.2% originated from the inner Bahia state. Peritoneal dialysis was the initial modality of renal substitutive therapy (RST) in only four of those patients. The remaining 18 patients began RST through HD, mainly on an emergency basis and by using double-lumen catheter (DLC). In a median of 7.7 months on HD, most patients (64.7%) used four or more DLCs. In only 7/18 (39%) patients, the switch from HD to PD was based on the patient';s choice; in most cases, 11/18 (61%), the reason for switching to PD was exhaustion of HD vascular access. Peritonitis was more frequent in patients switching to PD due to exhaustion of HD vascular access than in the rest of the group. Initiating RST on an emergency basis through HD and using DLC may lead to a fast exhaustion of vascular access, leaving PD as the only viable option. This inadequate mode of patient "selection" for PD is associated with a higher risk for peritonitis.

  2. CO2 angiography of vascular access in hemodialysis: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Yan Bing; Dong Sheng; Li Wentao; Dong Yonghua; Ye Chaoyang; Rong Shu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the technique and value of CO 2 angiography in surveillance of vascular access in hemodialysis. Methods: CO 2 angiography was undertaken in 10 chronic renal failure (CRF) patients with native arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. The injection sites were the vein dorsale manus (n=7) and the fistula (n=3). The whole draining veins were obtained using a Toshiba DSA unit, when 40-60 ml gas were injected by hands every time. The compression on elbow and image stacking technique were used. Results: All patients had a safe examination, and the vessels on the CO 2 venogram were tubular or bubble-flow. A significant draining vein was revealed in 4 cases (3 of them injection from fistula). The elbow compression had the effect on venogram in 2 cases. All of the draining veins above the elbow were clearly visualized, and the stacking technique imp roved the display of veins. Conclusion: Internal fistula CO 2 angiography is safe, cheap, and efficacy for dialysis access surveillance. The draining veins of vascular access in CRF patients have their own characteristics, and can be best revealed by direct internal fistula CO 2 venography. CO 2 angiogram of the vascular access can be improved with various kinds of skills. (authors)

  3. The Biocarbon vascular access device (DiaTAB) for haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, P J; Slooff, M J; Lichtendahl, D H; van der Hem, G K

    1985-01-01

    The Biocarbon vascular access device (DiaTAB) is a relatively new method in secondary access surgery. Punctures, often the cause of complications can be avoided because it is a no-needle method of dialysis. However thrombosis due to stenosis of the venous anastomosis or of the efferent vein is a continuing problem. A new experience is the fibrin flap formation under the plug of the device, which can be removed easily.

  4. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  7. Incidence of vascular complications during lateral lumbar interbody fusion: an examination of the mini-open access technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Fantini, Gary A; Walker, Brendon R; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the incidence and management of vascular injury during Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF). The details of the mini-open access technique are presented. A total of 900 patients who underwent a LLIF at an average 1.94 levels (range: 1-5 levels) by one of six fellowship trained surgeons on 1,754 levels from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence of intraoperative vascular injury was retrospectively determined from the Operative Records. The management of vascular injury was evaluated. The mini-open access adapted by our institution for LLIF is described. The incidence of major vascular complication in our series was 1/900. The incidence of minor vascular injury was 4/900. The overall incidence of vascular injury was calculated to be 0.056 % per case and 0.029 % per level. All minor vascular injuries were identified to be segmental vessel lacerations, which were readily ligated under direct visualization without further extension of the incision with no clinical sequelae. The laceration of the abdominal aorta, the major vascular complication of this series, was emergently repaired through an exploratory laparotomy. None of the patients suffered long-term sequelae from their intraoperative vascular injuries. The mini-open lateral access technique for LLIF provides for minimal risk of vascular injury to the lumbar spine. In the rare event of minor vascular injury, the mini-open access approach allows for immediate visualization, confirmation and repair of the vessel with no long-term sequelae.

  8. Utilization of a biomedical device (VeinViewer® ) to assist with peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion for pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Heidi L; Ream, Theresa L; Thrasher, Jodi M; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Callahan, Tiffany J

    2018-04-01

    Vascular access in pediatric patients can be challenging even with the currently available technological resources. This nurse-driven research study explored time, cost, and resources for intravenous access to determine if a biomedical device, VeinViewer ® Vision, would facilitate improvements in pediatric access. In addition, this study looked at nurse perceptions of skills and confidence around intravenous insertion and if the use of the VeinViewer ® impacted these perceptions. Literature examining pediatric intravenous access success rates compared with nurse perceived skills and confidence is lacking. Nonblinded randomized control trial of pediatric nurses working in an acute care hospital setting. A preliminary needs assessment solicited feedback from nurses regarding their practice, perceived skills, and confidence with placing peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVs). Due to the results of the preliminary needs assessment, a research study was designed and 40 nurses were recruited to participate. The nurses were randomized into either a VeinViewer ® or standard practice group. Nurse participants placed intravenous catheters on hospitalized pediatric patients using established procedures while tracking data for the study. Needs assessment showed a majority of nurses felt a biomedical device would be helpful in building their intravenous insertion skills and their confidence. The study results did not demonstrate any clinically significant differences between VeinViewer ® use and standard practice for intravenous catheter insertion in pediatric patients for success of placement, number of attempts, or overall cost. In addition, no difference was noted between nurses in either group on perceived skills or confidence with insertion of PIVs. The ongoing need for resources focused on building nurse skills and confidence for PIV insertion was highlighted and organizations should continue to direct efforts toward developing skills and competency for staff that

  9. The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliusz Kolonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM indexed for body surface area (BSA and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P=0.02. OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76, P=0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.

  10. [Recurrent vascular access trombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A in a adult patient in haemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, L F; Coll, E; Monteagudo, I; Collado, S; López-Pedret, J; Cases, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications are a frequent cause of morbidity in haemodialysis patients and generate high costs. We present the case of an adult patient with end-stage renal disease and recurrent vascular access thrombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A and renal graft intolerance. The clinical expression of this heterozygous gene mutation may have been favoured by inflammatory state, frequent in dialysis patients. In this patient, the inflammatory response associated with the renal graft intolerance would have favored the development of recurrent vascular access thrombosis in a adult heterozygous for prothrombin mutation G20210A. In the case of early dysfunction of haemodialysis vascular access and after ruling out technical problems, it is convenient to carry out a screening for thrombophilia.

  11. Surgical retroperitoneoscopic and transperitoneoscopic access in varicocelectomy: duplex scan results in pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Stefano; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Molinaro, Francesco; Ferrara, Francesco; Tommasino, Giulio; Messina, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This is a retrospective study to compare duplex scan results of laparoscopic Palomo's technique through retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approach for varicocelectomy in children. We statistically analyzed recurrence, testicular volume growth and complications. Surgical intervention was performed utilizing transperitoneoscopic (group A) or retroperitoneoscopic access (group B). Duplex scan control was performed after 12 months (T1), after 2 years (T2) and the last one at 18 years old in most patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for parametric data. Differences in proportions were evaluated using χ2 or Fisher's exact test. We treated 120 children (age range 10-17 years) who presented an asymptomatic IV grade of reflux, Coolsaet 1, associated with a left testicular hypotrophy in 36.6% of the cases (44 patients). No post-operative complications were verified. Duplex scan exam showed an increase of left testicular growth in both groups, with complete hypotrophy disappear in patients in both groups after 24 months. Hydrocele, diagnosed clinically and confirmed with duplex scan, was the most frequent post-operative complication (22/120 cases; 18.3%). This study showed the importance of duplex scan at all steps of this vascular pathology in children, and that there is no significantly difference in results between the two surgical techniques except for hydrocele in transperitoneoscopic access. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survivability of Existing Peripheral Intravenous Access Following Blood Sampling in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Sheree W; Friesen, Mary Ann; Stanger, Debra; Trickey, Amber Williams

    2018-03-07

    Although pediatric patients report venipuncture as their most feared experience during hospitalization, blood sampling from peripheral intravenous accesses (PIVs) is not standard of care. Blood sampling from PIVs has long been considered by healthcare personnel to harm the access. In an effort to minimize painful procedures, pediatric nursing staff conducted a prospective, observational study to determine if blood sampling using existing PIVs resulted in the loss of the access. The ability to obtain the sample from the PIV was measured along with patient and PIV characteristics. Specimen collection using 100 existing PIVs was attempted on pediatric inpatients. Each PIV was observed for functionality, infiltration, occlusion, and dislodgement following collection and again in 4h. Frequencies of PIV loss and successful blood sampling were calculated. Patient age, PIV gauge, access site, and PIV age were evaluated for associations with successful sampling using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. PIV survivability was reported at 99%. The ability to obtain a complete specimen was reported at 76% and found to be significantly related to PIV age and site. Size of PIV and patient's age were not significantly related to successful sampling. Encouraging rates of PIV survivability and collectability suggest blood sampling from PIVs to be a valuable technique to minimize painful and distressful procedures. Nursing practice was changed in this pediatric department. Patients and families are saved the pain and distress of venipuncture. Nurses reported saving time and personal distress by avoiding the venipuncture procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS...

  14. Future Trends in Vascular Access Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Surendra

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of a prescribed dialysis dose, which is critical for longevity on hemodialysis, is directly dependent on vascular access (VA). However, VA is fraught with high failure rates and has room for innovation. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), considered the 'best choice', has a high 'failure to mature' rate. Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are considered when patients are poor candidates for or have failed AVF, but have a high incidence of infections and thrombosis. Due to associated morbidity and mortality from complications, central venous catheters are considered only as 'bridging short-term access' when there is an urgent need for dialysis. The observation from current data that there is a significant center effect in the rate of AVF maturation supports investigation to identify factors that contribute to success in high-performing centers that create AVF and establish 'best practice' approaches to improve outcomes. Biocompatible AVG constructs that promote rapid tissue incorporation withstand needle punctures due to better integrity and can improve current AVG outcomes. Stenosis in the 'access circuit' is a major cause for short- and long-term permanent access failure. While the pathology of stenosis development is well understood, factors responsible for this problem are poorly studied. Increased flow in the access circuit likely plays a major role in the development of such stenosis. Investigation into understanding the hemodynamics of this flow may help identify etiology and stenosis sites perhaps even prior to the event, thus providing potential targets to mitigate the stenotic response. In summary, this chapter reflects on the shortcomings of current access modalities and discusses potential avenues to improve VA outcomes in the future. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Consenso sobre la clasificación de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños: reporte del task force pediátrico del Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI Panamá 2011 A consensus approach to the classification of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease: Report from the PVRI Pediatric Taskforce, Panama 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús del Cerro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las clasificaciones actuales de la hipertensión pulmonar han contribuido significativamente al conocimiento de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar, han facilitado ensayos farmacológicos y han mejorado nuestro conocimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas del adulto; sin embargo estas clasificaciones no son aplicables completamente a la enfermedad en el niño. La clasificación que aquí se propone se basa principalmente en la práctica clínica. Los objetivos específicos de esta nueva clasificación son mejorar las estrategias diagnósticas, promover la investigación clínica, mejorar nuestro conocimiento de la patogénesis, de la fisiología y de la epidemiología de la enfermedad y orientar el desarrollo de modelos de la enfermedad humana en el laboratorio y estudios en animales; también puede servir como un recurso docente. Se hace énfasis en los conceptos de maladaptación perinatal, alteraciones del desarrollo e hipoplasia pulmonar como factores causantes de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica; así mismo, en la importancia de los múltiples síndromes malformativos congénitos, genéticos y cromosómicos en la presentación de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica. La enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños se divide en diez grandes categorías.Current classifications of pulmonary hypertension have contributed a great deal to our understanding of pulmonary vascular disease, facilitated drug trials, and improved our understanding of congenital heart disease in adult survivors. However, these classifications are not applicable readily to pediatric disease. The classification system that we propose is based firmly in clinical practice. The specific aims of this new system are to improve diagnostic strategies, to promote appropriate clinical investigation, to improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis, physiology and epidemiology, and to guide the development of human disease models in laboratory and animal studies. It

  16. Frequency and Effect of Access-Related Vascular Injury and Subsequent Vascular Intervention After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Taudorf, Mikkel; Luk, N H Vincent

    2016-01-01

    patients underwent TAVR and 333 patients (94%) were treated by true percutaneous transfemoral approach. Of this latter group, 83 patients (25%) had an access-related vascular injury that was managed by the use of a covered self-expanding stent (n = 49), balloon angioplasty (n = 33), or by surgical...

  17. [The Carboclip, a new, atraumatic vascular access for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, P; Jehenne, G; Man, N K

    1994-01-01

    The Carboclip is a no-needle vascular access device made of an inverted Titanium body. The horizontal bar of 6 mm inner diameter is connected with artery and vein via a vascular graft. The vertical body houses an elastic plug in which is inserted a double canula diving in the blood stream for extracorporeal blood circulation (EBC). The body is wrapped by a flange made of microporous biocarbon in which the subcutaneous fibroblast will growth, forming an antimicrobial barrier and fixing the port to the skin. We report our experience on 30 devices implanted in 30 sheep with 26 extracorporeal circulation simulating hemodialysis. The results demonstrate good tightness of the plug as well at rest as during EBC procedure, sufficient blood flow rate of about 400 ml/min, and benefits of the microporous carbon flange.

  18. Improving Access for Pediatric and Adult Cochlear Implant Candidates in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Emily James

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care announced the one-time allocation of $5.9 million to be shared by cochlear implant programs at five Ontario hospitals. The primary goal of this reform was to address cochlear implant wait times. More specifically, this funding was aimed at reducing adult wait times by 50% and to completely eliminate pediatric waiting lists. Prior to this funding, wait times for pediatric and adult cochlear implants were known to exceed four years. The funding was provided in response to a growing body of research that demonstrates increased speech perception and vocabulary among pediatric recipients, and pressure from parents of children on cochlear implant waiting lists, surgeons and other involved healthcare providers (e.g., auditory verbal therapists, audiologists, and speech language pathologists. The decision to increase funding was also influenced by government stakeholders who believed this one-time investment would be returned as pediatric patients reach adulthood and are better equipped to participate in mainstream (i.e., hearing society. While this one-time funding model has the potential to eliminate wait times for pediatric patients, thereby ensuring these children can access therapeutic services as early as possible, it does not address the future of cochlear implant waiting lists or the capacity of health human resources to absorb this sudden and unprecedented influx of pediatric patients.

  19. Development and Validation of a Preprocedural Risk Score to Predict Access Site Complications After Peripheral Vascular Interventions Based on the Vascular Quality Initiative Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Access site complications following peripheral vascular intervention (PVI are associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. Prediction of access site complication risk may optimize PVI care; however, there is no tool designed for this. We aimed to create a clinical scoring tool to stratify patients according to their risk of developing access site complications after PVI. Methods: The Society for Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative database yielded 27,997 patients who had undergone PVI at 131 North American centers. Clinically and statistically significant preprocedural risk factors associated with in-hospital, post-PVI access site complications were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, with access site complications as the outcome variable. A predictive model was developed with a random sample of 19,683 (70% PVI procedures and validated in 8,314 (30%. Results: Access site complications occurred in 939 (3.4% patients. The risk tool predictors are female gender, age > 70 years, white race, bedridden ambulatory status, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, prior minor amputation, procedural indication of claudication, and nonfemoral arterial access site (model c-statistic = 0.638. Of these predictors, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and prior minor amputation were protective of access site complications. The discriminatory power of the risk model was confirmed by the validation dataset (c-statistic = 0.6139. Higher risk scores correlated with increased frequency of access site complications: 1.9% for low risk, 3.4% for moderate risk and 5.1% for high risk. Conclusions: The proposed clinical risk score based on eight preprocedural characteristics is a tool to stratify patients at risk for post-PVI access site complications. The risk score may assist physicians in identifying patients at risk for access site complications and selection of patients who may benefit from bleeding avoidance

  20. Virtual reality: emerging role of simulation training in vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ingemar J A; Lok, Charmaine; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallieni, Maurizio; Nolen, Billy; Pittiruti, Mauro; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Evolving new technologies in vascular access mandate increased attention to patient safety; an often overlooked yet valuable training tool is simulation. For the end-stage renal disease patient, simulation tools are effective for all aspects of creating access for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Based on aviation principles, known as crew resource management, we place equal emphasis on team training as individual training to improve interactions between team members and systems, cumulating in improved safety. Simulation allows for environmental control and standardized procedures, letting the trainee practice and correct mistakes without harm to patients, compared with traditional patient-based training. Vascular access simulators range from suture devices, to pressurized tunneled conduits for needle cannulation, to computer-based interventional simulators. Simulation training includes simulated case learning, root cause analysis of adverse outcomes, and continual update and refinement of concepts. Implementation of effective human to complex systems interaction in end-stage renal disease patients involves a change in institutional culture. Three concepts discussed in this article are as follows: (1) the need for user-friendly systems and technology to enhance performance, (2) the necessity for members to both train and work together as a team, and (3) the team assigned to use the system must test and practice it to a proficient level before safely using the system on patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The versatility of intraosseous vascular access in perioperative medicine: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Jonathan A; Sinz, Elizabeth H; Swick, John T

    2015-02-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a time-tested procedure that is reemerging in popularity. This is primarily a result of the emphasis on intraosseous access in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. Modern intraosseous insertion devices are easy to learn and use, suggesting the possibility of use beyond the resuscitation setting. We present a case series of recent intraosseous insertions for a variety of indications by anesthesiologists at our institution to demonstrate the potential utility of this alternative access technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical imiquimod treatment of cutaneous vascular disorders in pediatric patients: clinical evaluation on the efficacy and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong MAO; Jian-you WANG; Jian-liang YAN

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of topical imiquimod treatment on cutaneous vascular disorders in pediatric patients.Methods:A retrospective investigation was conducted in 25 pediatric patients with cutaneous vascular disorders,including 19 infantile hemangiomas (IHs) (12 superficial/7 mixed type),5 nevus flammeus (NF),and 1 pyogenic granuloma (PG).Imiquimod 5% cream was applied every other day for 4 to 16 weeks (average 9.6weeks).Results:Of the 19 IHs treated,an overall efficacy of 52.6% was achieved,with a clinical resolution rate of 15.8%,excellent rate of 26.3%,and moderate rate of 10.5%.The superficial type responded the best at 66.7%,while the mixed type showed only 28.6% effectiveness,which was predominantly from their superficial parts.No obvious response was noted in the 5 patients with NF.Side effects were observed in 78.9% of the patients,mostly mild to moderate local irritations and occasionally severe reactions such as thick crusting and ulceration.Systemic side events were observed in 4 IH patients including fever and digestive tract reactions.No recurrence was observed during the follow-up examination.Conclusions:Topical imiquimod could be an alternative option for the treatment of uncomplicated superficial IHs with satisfactory tolerability.

  3. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  4. Prognostic Factors Influencing the Patency of Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Literature Review and Novel Therapeutic Modality by Far Infrared Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ching Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, more than 85% of patients with end-stage renal disease undergo maintenance hemodialysis (HD. The native arteriovenous fistula (AVF accounts for a prevalence of more than 80% of the vascular access in our patients. Some mechanical factors may affect the patency of hemodialysis vascular access, such as surgical skill, puncture technique and shear stress on the vascular endothelium. Several medical factors have also been identified to be associated with vascular access prognosis in HD patients, including stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial cell injury, medications, red cell mass and genotype polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-β1 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. According to our previous study, AVF failure was associated with a longer dinucleotide (GTn repeat (n ≥ 30 in the promoter of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 gene. Our recent study also demonstrated that far-infrared therapy, a noninvasive and convenient therapeutic modality, can improve access flow, inflammatory status and survival of the AVF in HD patients through both its thermal and non-thermal (endothelial-improving, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidative effects by upregulating NF-E2-related factor-2-dependent HO-1 expression, leading to the inhibition of expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  5. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Wolff, Robert F; Antes, Gerd; von Elm, Erik

    2011-04-09

    Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA) journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General), Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement. Two investigators collected data independently. The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66%) pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32%) required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%). Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29%) followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD) (8 journals, 20%) and STROBE (3 journals, 7%). The EQUATOR

  6. Permanent vascular access in patients with end-stage renal disease, Brazil Acceso vascular permanente en pacientes renales crónicos terminales en Brasil Acesso vascular permanente em pacientes renais crônicos terminais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Macedo da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with the establishment of permanent vascular access for patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a nationally representative sample of Brazilian end-stage renal disease patients in dialysis and transplant centers during 2007. The sample comprised only patients who received hemodialysis as a primary therapy modality and reported the type of vascular access for their primary hemodialysis treatment (N=2,276. Data were from the TRS Project - "Economic and Epidemiologic Evaluation of Modalities of Renal Replacement Therapy in Brazil". Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with the establishment of permanent vascular access in these patients. RESULTS: About 30% of the patients studied had an arteriovenous vascular access. The following factors were associated with a lower likelihood of having an arteriovenous vascular access as a primary type of access: time of hemodialysis start since the diagnosis of chronic renal failure OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la provisión de acceso vascular arteriovenoso en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, nacionalmente representativo, con pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal acompañados en servicios de diálisis o en centros transplantadores en el año de 2007. La muestra incluyó pacientes que tuvieron la hemodiálisis como primera modalidad de tratamiento y que sabían con que tipo de acceso vascular habían iniciado el tratamiento (N=2.276. Los datos son oriundos del Proyecto TRS - "Evaluación económica-epidemiológica de las modalidades de Terapia renal Sustitutiva en Brasil". Fue utilizada la regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 30% de los pacientes tenían acceso vascular arteriovenoso. Los factores asociados a la baja probabilidad de tener acceso vascular arteriovenoso como primer tipo de acceso fueron: tiempo de diagnóstico de enfermedad

  7. Education on, Exposure to, and Management of Vascular Anomalies During Otolaryngology Residency and Pediatric Otolaryngology Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Robert; Jabbour, Noel; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Bauman, Nancy; Darrow, David H; Elluru, Ravindhra; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Perkins, Jonathan; Richter, Gresham; Shin, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The field of vascular anomalies presents diverse challenges in diagnosis and management. Although many lesions involve the head and neck, training in vascular anomalies is not universally included in otolaryngology residencies and pediatric otolaryngology (POTO) fellowships. To explore the education in, exposure to, and comfort level of otolaryngology trainees with vascular anomalies. A survey was distributed to 39 POTO fellows and 44 residents in postgraduate year 5 who matched into POTO fellowships from April 22 through June 16, 2014. Survey responses from trainees on exposure to, education on, and comfort with vascular anomalies. Forty-four residents in postgraduate year 5 who applied to POTO fellowships and 39 POTO fellows were emailed the survey. Fourteen respondents were unable to be contacted owing to lack of a current email address. Thirty-six of 69 residents and fellows (18 fellows and 18 residents [52%]) responded to the survey. Twenty-seven trainees (75%) reported no participation in a vascular anomalies clinic during residency; 6 of these 27 individuals (22%) trained at institutions with a vascular anomalies clinic but did not participate in the clinic, and 28 of the 36 respondents (78%) reported that they had less than adequate or no exposure to vascular anomalies in residency. Among POTO fellows, 11 of 17 (65%) did not participate in a vascular anomalies clinic during fellowship, even though 8 of the 11 had a vascular anomalies clinic at their fellowship program. During fellowship training, 12 of 18 fellows (67%) reported that they had adequate exposure to vascular anomalies. Only 20 respondents (56%) felt comfortable distinguishing among diagnoses of vascular anomalies, and only 4 residents (22%) and 9 fellows (50%) felt comfortable treating patients with vascular anomalies. All fellows believed that training in vascular anomalies was important in fellowship, and 100% of respondents indicated that increased exposure to diagnosis and management of

  8. Efficacy of SMART Stent Placement for Salvage Angioplasty in Hemodialysis Patients with Recurrent Vascular Access Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Hatakeyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access stenosis is a major complication in hemodialysis patients. We prospectively observed 50 patients in whom 50 nitinol shape-memory alloy-recoverable technology (SMART stents were used as salvage therapy for recurrent peripheral venous stenosis. Twenty-five stents each were deployed in native arteriovenous fistula (AVF and synthetic arteriovenous polyurethane graft (AVG cases. Vascular access patency rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The primary patency rates in AVF versus AVG at 3, 6, and 12 months were 80.3% versus 75.6%, 64.9% versus 28.3%, and 32.3% versus 18.9%, respectively. The secondary patency rates in AVF versus AVG at 3, 6, and 12 months were 88.5% versus 75.5%, 82.6% versus 61.8%, and 74.4% versus 61.8%, respectively. Although there were no statistically significant difference in patency between AVF and AVG, AVG showed poor tendency in primary and secondary patency. The usefulness of SMART stents was limited in a short period of time in hemodialysis patients with recurrent vascular access stenosis.

  9. Survey of home hemodialysis patients and nursing staff regarding vascular access use and care

    OpenAIRE

    Spry, Leslie A; Burkart, John M; Holcroft, Christina; Mortier, Leigh; Glickman, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Vascular access infections are of concern to hemodialysis patients and nurses. Best demonstrated practices (BDPs) have not been developed for home hemodialysis (HHD) access use, but there have been generally accepted practices (GAPs) endorsed by dialysis professionals. We developed a survey to gather information about training provided and actual practices of HHD patients using the NxStage System One HHD machine. We used GAP to assess training used by nurses to teach HHD access care and then ...

  10. A comparison of the boomerang wire vascular access management system versus manual compression alone during percutaneous diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Angela; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Vascular closure devices allow for early sheath removal, allowing for earlier patient mobilization The Boomerang vascular access management system does not alter arterial integrity for future interventions Access site complications provide significant morbidity in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies

  12. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R. (eds.) [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX (United States); Handal, G.A. [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies.

  13. Pediatric head and neck lesions: assessment of vascularity by MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Weng Kong; Woodhouse, Neil; Coley, Stuart C; Griffiths, Paul D

    2004-08-01

    Pediatric head and neck lesions can be difficult to characterize on clinical grounds alone. We investigated the use of dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography as a noninvasive adjunct for the assessment of the vascularity of these abnormalities. Twelve patients (age range, 2 days to 16 years) with known or suspected vascular abnormalities were studied. Routine MR imaging, time-of-flight MR angiography, and MR digital subtraction angiography were performed in all patients. The dynamic sequence was acquired in two planes at one frame per second by using a thick section (6-10 cm) selective radio-frequency spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence and an IV administered bolus of contrast material. The images were subtracted from a preliminary mask sequence and viewed as a video-inverted cine loop. In all cases, MR digital subtraction angiography was successfully performed. The technique showed the following: 1) slow flow lesions (two choroidal angiomas, eyelid hemangioma, and scalp venous malformation); 2) high flow lesions that were not always suspected by clinical examination alone (parotid hemangioma, scalp, occipital, and eyelid arteriovenous malformations plus a palatal teratoma); 3) a hypovascular tumor for which a biopsy could be safely performed (Burkitt lymphoma); and 4) a hypervascular tumor of the palate (cystic teratoma). Our early experience suggests that MR digital subtraction angiography can be reliably performed in children of all ages without complication. The technique provided a noninvasive assessment of the vascularity of each lesion that could not always have been predicted on the basis of clinical examination or routine MR imaging alone.

  14. Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M

    2016-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?" Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. University-based academic research cell. Included evidence were randomized and nonrandomized trials, systematic reviews with and without meta-analysis, case series, and case reports. Excluded evidence included narrative reviews and expert opinion. Not applicable. Of 297 evidence sources located, 22 met inclusion criteria. Located evidence was organized into four categories including chemical agent poisoning, IO placement, while wearing chemical protective clothing (PPE), military trauma, and infectious disease outbreak. Evidence indicates that the IO route of infusion is pharmacokinetically equal to the IV route and superior to the intramuscular (IM) and endotracheal routes for the administration of antidotal drugs in animal models of chemical agent poisoning while wearing full chemical PPE. The IO route is superior to the IM route for antidote administration during hypovolemic shock. Civilian casualties of explosive attacks and mass shootings would likely benefit from expanded use of the IO route and military resuscitation strategies. The IO route is useful for fluid resuscitation in the management of diarrheal and hemorrhagic infectious disease outbreaks.

  15. Find a Pediatric Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAPD AAPD Publications Advertising Brochures Journals & Publications Full Journal Archives Access Pediatric Dentistry Today Practice Management and Marketing Newsletter Pediatric Dentistry Journal Open Access Articles Oral ...

  16. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  17. Looking into the effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Vascular Access in Haemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Tsinikori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The creation and maintenance of a good vascular access is mandatory for a successful haemodialysis sessions and the survival of a Chronic Kidney Disease patient. Aim: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to look into the vascular access complications in haemodialysed patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus (DM and to find any possible correlation of these complications with Diabetes Mellitus. Methods: For this cross-sectional study data from patients’ records of private Dialysis Unit (n=77 and a big General Hospital in a Northern Greece city (n=33 were studied. Demographics, data on medication therapy and vascular access (area, type, dialysis parameters and complications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0. Results: The sample was 66.7 (±12.5 years old, mainly male (58%, n=58 and on dialysis for 37.3 (±34.3 months. DM was the primary disease of 53% (n=53 of the patients and Hypertension for 13% (n=13,whereas the mean of comorbidities was 5,3 (±2,6. Thirty-seven patients (37% had more than one VA created or placed. On the total of the sample (n=100 156 VA were accessed with the 63% (n=63 of them with arteriovenous fistula (AVF, 35% (n=35 with central venous catheter (CVC and 2% (n=2 with arteriovenous graft (AVG. A statistical significance (U=2560,5, p=0,1 was found regarding the number of VA of the two group of patients (DM=2,2 VA, non DM=1,8. On survival analysis it was found that DM increases the relative risk of “death” of a VA with odds ratio of 1,7 (95% confidence interval 1,1-2,6. Conclusions: DM, as primary disease or co-morbidity, in haemodialysis patients affects negatively the VA survival. Effective blood glucose control, management and methods of puncturing VA play a crucial role in maintaining the VA in DM haemodialysis patients.

  18. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  19. Inherited protein S deficiency due to a novel nonsense mutation in the PROS1 gene in the patient with recurrent vascular access thrombosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access thrombosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis. Thrombophilia has been recognized as a risk factor of vascular access thrombosis. The authors report a case of inherited protein S deficiency associated with vascular access thrombotic events. DNA sequence analysis of the PROS1 gene identified a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 10 by transition of AAG (lysine to TAG (stop codon at codon 473 (c.1417A>T, p.K473X. Results from the study suggest that the inherited protein S deficiency due to a PROS1 gene mutation may cause vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

  20. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  1. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  2. Use of Electronic Consultation System to Improve Access to Care in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Donna L; Murto, Kimmo; Kurzawa, Julia; Liddy, Clare; Keely, Erin; Lai, Lillian

    2017-10-01

    Electronic consultations (eConsult) allow for communication between primary care providers and specialists in an asynchronous manner. This study examined provider satisfaction, topics of interest, and efficiency of eConsult in pediatric hematology/oncology in Ottawa, Canada. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of all eConsult cases directed to pediatric hematology/oncology specialists using the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation) eConsult service from June 1, 2014 to May 31, 2016. There were 1064 eConsults to pediatrics during the study timeperiod and pediatric hematology/oncology consults accounted for 8% (85). During the same study timeperiod, 524 consults were seen in the pediatric hematology/oncology clinic. The majority of the eConsults were for hematology (90.5%) in contrast to oncology topics (9.5%). The most common topics were anemia, hemoglobinopathy, bleeding disorder, and thrombotic state. Primary care providers rated the eConsult service very highly, and their comments were very positive. The eConsult service resulted in deferral of 40% of consults originally contemplated to require a face-to-face specialist visit. This study showed successful implementation and use of the eConsult service for pediatric hematology/oncology and resulted in avoidance of a large number of face-to-face consultation. The common topics identified areas for continuing medical education.

  3. THE WAYS OF INCREASING OF QUALITY AND ACCESSIBILITY OF PEDIATRIC MEDICAL SERVICE IN OUT-PATIENT CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of dynamics of official statistics rates (population size, morbidity, disability, and mortality, and results of special scientific studies (morbidity, physical development, make it possible to show basic tendencies of children’s health state changes in modern conditions. The result of pediatrists from out-patient clinics survey, questioning of parents and adolescents (12–17 years old, on the problem of children’s health service, are presented. Questionnaire poll was held in regions of Central, Privolzhskiy, and Siberian Federal Districts. The complex analysis of obtained results show low quality level and accessibility of prophylactic and treatment medical service in children. This data became the basis of main directions of work of controlling and public health service in the field of increasing of quality and accessibility of pediatric medical service in out-patient clinics.Key words: children, medical service, out-patient clinics, quality, accessibility.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(4:5-9

  4. Vascular access site complication in transfemoral coronary angiography between uninterrupted warfarin and heparin bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Pinyosamosorn, Kittipong; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Boonnayhun, Suchada; Thonghong, Tasalak; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-08-01

    Warfarin discontinuation with heparin bridging is a common practice in patients receiving warfarin prior to elective coronary angiography (CAG). The uninterrupted warfarin strategy has been suggested to be alternative option for patients with high thromboembolic risk. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety of elective transfemoral CAG during uninterrupted warfarin therapy compared to heparin bridging. This study was a randomized open-label design with blinded event evaluation. The 110 consecutive patients (age ≥ 18 years) receiving warfarin before the planned transfemoral CAG were randomly assigned to either heparin bridging or uninterrupted warfarin with targeted INR (2.0-3.0). The primary outcome was the incidence of major vascular access site complications. The baseline characteristics were comparable between two groups (mean age was 60.1 ± 7.8 years, 49 males). The mean INR on the day of CAG of heparin bridging and uninterrupted warfarin groups was 1.2 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.5 (P warfarin patients (P = 0.243). The total vascular access site complications occurred in 6 (10.9%) heparin-bridging and one (1.8%) uninterrupted warfarin patients (P = 0.113). No patient developed either other bleeding or thromboembolic events during 7 days after CAG. We demonstrated that an uninterrupted warfarin strategy did not increase vascular access site complications in patients undergoing transfemoral CAG compared to heparin bridging therapy. Due to the safety and the ease of uninterrupted warfarin strategy, this approach should be encouraged in patients receiving long-term warfarin who undergo elective transfemoral CAG. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pediatric Diabetes Telemedicine Program Improves Access to Care for Rural Families: Role of APRNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy Marie; Satyshur, Rosemarie DiMauro

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus has increased in children by 23% from 2001 to 2009. Rural communities additionally have increased disparities related to access barriers and a large minority population with poorer overall health. Research evidence supports telemedicine as an effective alternative to bring preventive diabetes care to remote areas. This article presents an overview of the leadership role of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) with the implementation and evaluation of a pediatric diabetes telemedicine program at a rural pediatric outpatient specialty clinic in partnership with a tertiary center telemedicine network. The telemedicine program quality improvement (QI) project explored caregiver satisfaction with a convenience sample of caregivers (N = 14) using a nine-item Telemedicine Diabetes Caregiver Satisfaction Survey (TDCSS), with responses ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Findings indicate caregivers were highly satisfied with communication/ privacy (M = 4.8), access to care (M = 4.1), and quality of services (M = 5.0). The multidisciplinary collaborative teamwork, continuous QI, and dependable technology were integral to the quality of the telemedicine clinical initiative. APRNs provided technology expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration leadership, care coordination, and advocacy for policy changes. Results demonstrate that telemedicine and APRN leadership can help implement innovative programs into rural communities to improve access to care, healthcare cost, and outcomes.

  6. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  7. Early Experience with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II for Occlusive Purposes in Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Steven; Narlawar, Ranjeet; Odetoyinbo, Tolulola; Littler, Peter; Oweis, Deyana; Sharma, Ajay; Bakran, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug Type II (AVP II) has proven effective in the therapeutic embolization of various vascular lesions. It benefits from very rapid occlusion of the target lesion and can be deployed, retrieved, and redeployed if required. There is no literature available on use of the AVP II in the maintenance, closure, and management of complicated arteriovenous access in hemodialysis patients. In this series, we present our clinical experience with the use of the AVP II for embolization of problematic hemodialysis access. The AVP II is a self-expandable Nitinol wire-mesh device. Mounted on a delivery wire it has the capability to be deployed, recaptured, and redeployed. In total seven patients (four males: one diabetic, all nonsmokers), with ages ranging from 44 to 81 years (mean, 63 years), were treated between July 2008 and January 2009. One patient had not started dialysis. The remaining six patients had varied histories, with the time on hemodialysis ranging from 1 to 21 years. Retrospective review of clinical notes revealed patient demographics, type of access, device size, deployment site, and outcomes. Indications for embolization included steal syndrome (one patient), high-flow tributaries (two patients), and limb swelling (four patients). All patients had clinical and sonographical follow-up to 3 months. Surgical ligation had either failed, was considered a contraindication due to concerns regarding wound healing, or was considered difficult due to complex venous anatomy. Only one device was used in each patient, ranging from 6 to 16 mm in diameter. Immediate technical success was seen in 100%. All these patients were followed up clinically in the vascular access radiology clinic at 4 weeks and 3 months. Occlusion of the treated vessel and resolution of symptoms were reconfirmed in 100% of cases at 3 months. It was also noted whether patients were having successful dialysis, if required. There were no complications. Average procedural time was 19

  8. A comparison of the effect of alcohol and povidone-iodine mixture with alcohol after povidon-iodine in prevention of vascular access inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of hemodialysis can be promoted through reducing vascular access complications in these patients. One of the crucial roles of nurses in hemodialysis wards is reducing inflammation and infection of the vascular access. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of inflammation around the vascular access area in patients undergoing hemodialysis between two antiseptic methods of alcohol after povidone-iodine and the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, after gaining ethical committee approval in 2014. In the present study, 100 participants were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine (n = 37, alcohol after using povidone-iodine (n = 32, and control group (n = 31. In the intervention groups 1 and 2, vascular access was disinfected using a combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine and alcohol after povidone-iodine, respectively. In the control group, vascular access was disinfected using the method of the related ward. Patients were fully observed for phlebitis occurrence for 12 hemodialysis sessions (1 month. Vascular access was controlled using the Iranian Nurses Association's phlebitis criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square, ANOVA test, and Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence rate of inflammation in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine, alcohol after povidone-iodine, and control groups, respectively, were 46%, 87.9%, and 100%. The incidence rate of inflammation was significantly lower in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine compared to the alcohol after povidone-iodine group (P < 0.001. However, no significant differences existed between the alcohol after povidone-iodine and control group. Conclusion: The combination of alcohol and

  9. The Initial Vascular Access Type Contributes to Inflammation in Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The contribution of the hemodialysis (HD vascular access type to inflammation is unclear. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study in an incident HD population. C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interferon-γ-induced protein (IP-10 were measured before and at 6-time points after access placement for 1 year. Results. Sixty-four incident HD patients were included (tunneled catheter (TC, =40, arteriovenous fistula (AVF, =14, and arteriovenous graft (AVG, =10. A mixed effects model was performed to adjust for age, sex, race, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, infections, access thrombosis, initiation of HD, and days after access surgery. In comparison to AVFs, the presence of a TC was associated with significantly higher levels of CRP (=0.03, IL-6 (=0.07, and IP-10 (=0.03. The presence of an AVG was associated with increases in CRP (=0.01 and IP-10 (=0.07. Conclusions. Patients who initiate HD with a TC or an AVG have a heightened state of inflammation, which may contribute to the excess 90-day mortality after HD initiation.

  10. The outcome and complications of the DiaTAP bioCarbon button-graft vascular access device in haemodialysis patients: a two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M D; Parfrey, P; Marshall, D; Aldrete, V; Purchase, L; Gault, H

    1986-01-01

    The outcome and complications which developed in 8 hemodialysis patients who received 12 DiaTAP bioCarbon button vascular-access devices were reviewed. All patients had a poor vascular access history. Three of twelve devices have been replaced because of thrombosis and two because of infection. Four patients have had 10 episodes of reduced blood flow. Streptokinase infusion into the DiaTAP button led to improved blood flow in 8 of 10 episodes. The 6-month survival rate of the DiaTAP access device was 67% and the average functioning life was 9.4 months. It was a valuable form of access when others had failed.

  11. Use of vascular access for haemodialysis in Europe: a report from the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Jager, Kitty J.; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Kramar, Reinhard; Collart, Frederic; Heaf, James G.; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Benítez Sánchez, Manuel; Moreso, Fransesc; Prütz, Karl G.; Severn, Alison; Wanner, Christoph; Vanholder, Raymond; Ravani, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Although arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are actively promoted, their use at the start of haemodialysis (HD) seems to be decreasing worldwide. In this paper, we describe recent trends in incidence and prevalence of vascular access types in Europe from 2005 to 2009 and their relationship with patient

  12. Anesthesia through an intraosseous line using an 18-gauge intravenous needle for emergency pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Riyadh Khudeir; Hartmans, Sharon; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    To describe the success and complication rate of intraosseous (IO) access for delivery of anesthesia with the use of an 18-gauge (G) intravenous (IV) needle. Prospective study. Children's Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. 300 critically ill infants and toddlers, age 3 weeks to 16 months, requiring emergency surgery for intra-abdominal or pelvic conditions, in whom peripheral or central access was not obtainable. Patients presented for surgery between 2007 and 2010. In 26 patients, the IO catheter was established when peripheral access was not obtained at the outset of surgery; in 4 patients standard peripheral vascular access failed during the surgical procedure and IO access was obtained. An 18-G IV needle was placed into the proximal tibia and attached to an extension set with a 3-way stopcock to deliver anesthesia. For 26 critically ill children and 4 other children, IV access failed during delivery of anesthesia; vascular access was successfully obtained within minutes in all 30 infants (100%) using the intraosseous route. Ninety percent (27/30) of patients awoke immediately postoperatively in good condition; 10% (3/30) went to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further care due to their critical preoperative condition. Complications associated with use of the IO route were considered minor (3/30 pts [10%]) and included extravasation of fluid in two cases and cellulitis in one. The IO route provided for rapid delivery of anesthesia, induction, and maintenance in this series of critically ill infants undergoing emergency surgery when other vascular access routes failed. Few complications were noted. Intraosseous access was achieved through a simple technique using an 18-gauge IV needle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. RESULTS: The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems......PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  14. A semi-automated vascular access system for preclinical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry-Pusey, B N; David, J; Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Williams, D; Ladno, W; Stout, D; Chatziioannou, A; Chang, Y C; Prince, S W; Chu, K; Tsao, T C

    2013-01-01

    Murine models are used extensively in biological and translational research. For many of these studies it is necessary to access the vasculature for the injection of biologically active agents. Among the possible methods for accessing the mouse vasculature, tail vein injections are a routine but critical step for many experimental protocols. To perform successful tail vein injections, a high skill set and experience is required, leaving most scientists ill-suited to perform this task. This can lead to a high variability between injections, which can impact experimental results. To allow more scientists to perform tail vein injections and to decrease the variability between injections, a vascular access system (VAS) that semi-automatically inserts a needle into the tail vein of a mouse was developed. The VAS uses near infrared light, image processing techniques, computer controlled motors, and a pressure feedback system to insert the needle and to validate its proper placement within the vein. The VAS was tested by injecting a commonly used radiolabeled probe (FDG) into the tail veins of five mice. These mice were then imaged using micro-positron emission tomography to measure the percentage of the injected probe remaining in the tail. These studies showed that, on average, the VAS leaves 3.4% of the injected probe in the tail. With these preliminary results, the VAS system demonstrates the potential for improving the accuracy of tail vein injections in mice. (paper)

  15. Household computer and Internet access: The digital divide in a pediatric clinic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Ebel, Beth; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2005-01-01

    Past studies have noted a digital divide, or inequality in computer and Internet access related to socioeconomic class. This study sought to measure how many households in a pediatric primary care outpatient clinic had household access to computers and the Internet, and whether this access differed by socio-economic status or other demographic information. We conducted a phone survey of a population-based sample of parents with children ages 0 to 11 years old. Analyses assessed predictors of having home access to a computer, the Internet, and high-speed Internet service. Overall, 88.9% of all households owned a personal computer, and 81.4% of all households had Internet access. Among households with Internet access, 48.3% had high speed Internet at home. There were statistically significant associations between parental income or education and home computer ownership and Internet access. However, the impact of this difference was lessened by the fact that over 60% of families with annual household income of $10,000–$25,000, and nearly 70% of families with only a high-school education had Internet access at home. While income and education remain significant predictors of household computer and internet access, many patients and families at all economic levels have access, and might benefit from health promotion interventions using these modalities. PMID:16779012

  16. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  17. A long-Segmental Vascular Malformation in the Small Bowel Presenting With Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Preschool-Aged Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Yong Hoon; Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Tae Un; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in pediatric patients has several causes. Vascular malformation of the small bowel is a rare disease leading to pediatric GI bleeding. To our knowledge, few reports describe ultrasound and computed tomography findings of venous malformations involving the small bowel. We present a case of long-segmental and circumferential vascular malformation that led to GI bleeding in a pre-school aged child, focusing on the radiologic findings. Although vascular malformation including of the GI tract is rare in children, it should be considered when GI bleeding occurs in pediatric patients

  18. Preventable Pediatric Stroke via Vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Press

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS group studied the risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS associated with minor infection and routine childhood vaccinations.

  19. Comparison of Radial Access, Guided Femoral Access, and Non-Guided Femoral Access Among Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Linda M; Aberle, Laura H; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Hess, Connie N; Mazzaferri, Ernest; Jolly, Sanjit S; Jacobs, Alice; Gibson, C Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Gilchrist, Ian C; Rao, Sunil V

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between radial access, guided femoral access, and non-guided femoral access on postprocedural bleeding and vascular complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bleeding events and major vascular complications after PCI are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. While the radial approach has been shown to be superior to the femoral approach in reducing bleeding and vascular complications, whether the use of micropuncture, fluoroscopy, or ultrasound mitigates these differences is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of women in the SAFE-PCI for Women trial who underwent PCI and had the access method identified (n = 643). The primary endpoint of postprocedure bleeding or vascular complications occurring within 72 hours or at discharge was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee and was compared based on three categories of access technique: radial, guided femoral (fluoroscopy, micropuncture, ultrasound), or non-guided femoral (none of the aforementioned). Differences between the groups were determined using multivariate logistic regression using radial access as the reference. Of the PCI population, 330 underwent radial access, 228 underwent guided femoral access, and 85 underwent non-guided femoral access. There was a statistically significant lower incidence of the primary endpoint with radial access vs non-guided femoral access; however, there was no significant difference between radial approach and femoral access guided by fluoroscopy, micropuncture, or ultrasound. This post hoc analysis demonstrates that while radial access is safer than non-guided femoral access, guided femoral access appears to be associated with similar bleeding events or vascular complications as radial access.

  20. Leadless pacemaker implantation in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and limited vascular access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of rhythm related issues might be particularly challenging in patients with congenital heart disease due to complex anatomy and restricted vascular access. The leadless technology appears a suitable and attractive alternative for this population. We describe a patient with single ventricle physiology who successfully underwent implantation of a leadless pacemaker.

  1. A review of an anaesthetic led vascular access list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, S; Sharma, A; Ward, J; Bodenham, A R

    2005-08-01

    The demand for insertion of long-term central venous (Hickman type) catheters is thought to be increasing. Organisation is required to meet this demand in a safe and efficient manner. This report reviews the results from a dedicated, anaesthetic led vascular access list over the initial 61-month period. One thousand procedures were performed. Nine hundred and twenty catheters were inserted under local anaesthesia, with or without intravenous sedation and analgesia. Eighty catheters were removed. All procedures were performed during a dedicated once weekly, morning list. A total of 53% of all procedures were performed on a day-case basis, 43% on in-patients. Only 1.5% of patients required an unexpected overnight stay (usually medically unfit patients). There were 81 (9%) cancellations on the day of procedure due to neutropaenia, pneumonia or urinary tract infections. Ultrasound guidance was used initially selectively in 14%, latterly in 100% of procedures and fluoroscopy in all insertions to confirm or adjust catheter position. This service has been well received by patients and oncology services. In addition it provides an interesting area of practice for anaesthetists and an ideal environment for teaching more advanced aspects of central venous access. It may provide a template of service for other centres.

  2. Comparison of a novel real-time SonixGPS needle-tracking ultrasound technique with traditional ultrasound for vascular access in a phantom gel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, Daniel S; Chen, Jerry; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Vaghadia, Himat

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous vascular access for endovascular procedures is well established in surgical practice. Despite this, rates of complications from venous and arterial access procedures remain a significant cause of morbidity. We hypothesized that the use of a new technique of vascular access using an ultrasound with a novel needle-guidance positioning system (GPS) would lead to improved success rates of vascular puncture for both in-plane and out-of-plane techniques compared with traditional ultrasound. A prospective, randomized crossover study of medical students from all years of medical school was conducted using a phantom gel model. Each medical student performed three ultrasound-guided punctures with each of the four modalities (in-plane no GPS, in-plane with GPS, out-of-plane no GPS, out-of-plane with GPS) for a total of 12 attempts. The success or failure was judged by the ability to aspirate a simulated blood solution from the model. The time to successful puncture was also recorded. A poststudy validated NASA Task Load Index workload questionnaire was conducted to assess the student's perceptions of the two different techniques. A total of 30 students completed the study. There was no significant difference seen in the mean times of vascular access for each of the modalities. Higher success rates for vascular access using the GPS for both the in-plane (94% vs 91%) and the out-of-plane (86% vs 70%) views were observed; however, this was not statistically significant. The students perceived the mental demand (median 12.0 vs 14.00; P = .035) and effort to be lower (mean 11.25 vs 14.00; P = .044) as well as the performance to be higher (mean 15.50 vs 14.00; P = .041) for the GPS vs the traditional ultrasound-guided technique. Students also perceived their ability to access vessels increased with the aid of the GPS (7.00 vs 6.50; P = .007). The majority of students expressed a preference for GPS (26/30, 87%) as opposed to the traditional counterpart

  3. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C.

    2002-01-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  4. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Early experience with X-ray magnetic resonance fusion for low-flow vascular malformations in the pediatric interventional radiology suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tiffany J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Girard, Erin [Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Princeton, NJ (United States); Shellikeri, Sphoorti; Vossough, Arastoo; Ho-Fung, Victor; Cahill, Anne Marie [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Setser, Randolph [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This technical innovation describes our experience using an X-ray magnetic resonance fusion (XMRF) software program to overlay 3-D MR images on real-time fluoroscopic images during sclerotherapy procedures for vascular malformations at a large pediatric institution. Five cases have been selected to illustrate the application and various clinical utilities of XMRF during sclerotherapy procedures as well as the technical limitations of this technique. The cases demonstrate how to use XMRF in the interventional suite to derive additional information to improve therapeutic confidence with regards to the extent of lesion filling and to guide clinical management in terms of intraprocedural interventional measures. (orig.)

  6. Patients undergoing PCI from the femoral route by default radial operators are at high risk of vascular access-site complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Ihsan M; Uddin, Muez M; Ossei-Gerning, Nicholas; Anderson, Richard A; Kinnaird, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    Radial artery (RA) access for PCI has a lower incidence of vascular access-site (VAS) complications than the femoral artery (FA) approach. However, even for default radial operators certain patients are intervened upon from the FA. We examined the demographics and incidence of VAS complications when default radial operators resort to the FA for PCI. The demographics and VAS complications were compared by access site retrospectively for all PCI cases performed by default radial operators (n=1,392). A modified ACUITY trial definition of major VAS complication was used. FA puncture occurred in 25.2% (351/1,392) of cases. Patients were more likely to be female, older and weigh less than patients undergoing PCI from the RA. The FA procedure was likely to be more complex with larger sheaths, more left main stem, graft and multivessel intervention, and there was a greater proportion of emergency cases. Despite increased case complexity, glycoprotein inhibitors were used less frequently in femoral cases (26.5% vs. 36.8%, prisk factors for access-site bleeding are disproportionately high in the population requiring FA puncture by default radial operators, and as a result such patients have a high rate of vascular access-site complications.

  7. Angiotensin Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Calcium Channel Blockers Are Associated with Prolonged Vascular Access Patency in Uremic Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-An Chen

    Full Text Available Vascular access failure is a huge burden for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Many efforts have been made to maintain vascular access patency, including pharmacotherapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, and calcium channel blocker (CCB are known for their antihypertensive and cardio-protective effects, however, their effects on long-term vascular access patency are still inconclusive.We retrospectively enrolled patients commencing maintenance hemodialysis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006 by using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Primary patency was defined as the date of first arteriovenous fistula (AVF or arteriovenous graft (AVG creation to the time of access thrombosis or any intervention aimed to maintain or re-establish vascular access patency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust the influences of patient characteristics, co-morbidities and medications.Total 42244 patients were enrolled in this study, 37771 (89.4% used AVF, 4473 (10.6% used AVG as their first long term dialysis access. ACE-I, ARB, and CCB use were all associated with prolonged primary patency of AVF [hazard ratio (HR 0.586, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.557-0.616 for ACE-I use; HR 0.532, CI 0.508-0.556 for ARB use; HR 0.485, CI 0.470-0.501 for CCB use] and AVG (HR 0.557, CI 0.482-0.643 for ACE-I use, HR 0.536, CI 0.467-0.614 for ARB use, HR 0.482, CI 0.442-0.526 for CCB use.In our analysis, ACE-I, ARB, and CCB were strongly associated with prolonged primary patency of both AVF and AVG. Further prospective randomized studies are still warranted to prove the causality.

  8. Toward creating family-friendly work environments in pediatrics: baseline data from pediatric department chairs and pediatric program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Heather A; Burke, Ann E; Sheppard, Kate; Pallant, Adam; Stapleton, F Bruder; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-03-01

    The objective was to determine baseline characteristics of pediatric residency training programs and academic departments in regard to family-friendly work environments as outlined in the Report of the Task Force on Women in Pediatrics. We conducted Web-based anonymous surveys of 147 pediatric department chairs and 203 pediatric program directors. The chair's questionnaire asked about child care, lactation facilities, family leave policies, work-life balance, and tenure and promotion policies. The program director's questionnaire asked about family leave, parenting, work-life balance, and perceptions of "family-friendliness." The response rate was 52% for program directors and 51% for chairs. Nearly 60% of chairs reported some access to child care or provided assistance locating child care; however, in half of these departments, demand almost always exceeded supply. Lactation facilities were available to breastfeeding faculty in 74% of departments, although only 57% provided access to breast pumps. A total of 78% of chairs and 90% of program directors reported written maternity leave policies with slightly fewer reporting paternity leave policies. The majority (83%) of chairs reported availability of part-time employment, whereas only 27% of program directors offered part-time residency options. Most departments offered some flexibility in promotion and tenure. Although progress has been made, change still is needed in many areas in pediatric departments and training programs, including better accessibility to quality child care; improved lactation facilities for breastfeeding mothers; clear, written parental leave policies; and flexible work schedules to accommodate changing demands of family life.

  9. Simultaneous Iliac Vein Bovine Pericardial Patch Venoplasty and Creation of PTFE Lower Limb Arteriovenous Fistula Graft for Rescue Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meecham, Lewis; Fisher, Owain; Kirby, George; Evans, Richard; Buxton, Pauline; Legge, Jocelyn; Rajagopalan, Sriram; Asquith, John; Pherwani, Arun

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of external iliac vein patch venoplasty to accommodate rescue vascular access via a polytetrafluoroethylene loop arteriovenous fistula graft (AVG) for a patient with multiple central venous stenoses. A 35-year-old female with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease required rescue vascular access for hemodialysis. Repeated occlusion and/or thrombosis of long-term central venous access cannulae, to facilitate dialysis, had caused stenosis of brachiocephalic veins: right external iliac vein and occlusion of the left common iliac vein. A previous right brachiobasilic fistula had occluded within 1 year. No other upper limb options for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) were available. A right external iliac vein bovine patch angioplasty concurrently with a polytetrafluoroethylene AV graft between common femoral artery and common femoral vein was performed to restore venous patency and allow rescue dialysis access. At 3-year follow-up, the fistula remains widely patent with 2 L/min flow rates and no recurrent stenosis to the treated iliac vein. She has not required any further surgical or interventional radiological procedures to maintain fistula or central venous patency. Central venous stenosis or occlusion is common for patients requiring dialysis, especially those with multiple previous long-term central venous cannulations. If restriction of outflow is present, AVF may fail. Venous patch angioplasty in these cases is a successful technique, allowing AVF formation and long-term patency. Central venous stenosis can be treated successfully with patch venoplasty to accommodate AVF/AVG formation for rescue vascular access; this is a potentially lifesaving intervention for patients requiring dialysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Angioplasty of Dysfunctional Vascular Access for Haemodialysis. The Pros and Cons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Medina, J., E-mail: josegmedina57@gmail.com [“Reina Sofia” University Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); García-Alfonso, J. J., E-mail: juanjozarandieta@gmail.com [University of Murcia, Faculty of Medicine (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo describe the benefits and the disadvantages of angioplasty in dialysis fistulas using only ultrasound guidance.Materials and MethodsThis is a prospective study in 132 failing or non-maturing arteriovenous accesses that underwent 189 ultrasound-guided balloon angioplasties. The technical success was defined as non-use of X-ray fluoroscopy during the procedure.Results127 procedures (67%) were successfully completed without fluoroscopy. Most failures were due to difficulty to traverse aneurismal segments, as well as anastomotic stenoses. Including initial failures, the primary patency rates at 6, 12 months and 2 years were 75 ± 3, 41 ± 3 and 14 ± 2%, respectively.ConclusionEndovascular repair of the dysfunctional vascular access for haemodialysis under ultrasound guidance is feasible and safe in roughly two-thirds of cases.

  11. Motivo de "escolha" de diálise peritoneal: exaustão de acesso vascular para hemodiálise? Reason for "choosing" peritoneal dialysis: exhaustion of vascular access for hemodialysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pouco se conhece sobre a evolução de pacientes que iniciam DP como única alternativa. OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil clínico-demográfico e a ocorrência de peritonite em uma amostra de pacientes convertidos de HD para DP por exaustão de acesso vascular. MÉTODOS: Revisão dos prontuários de todos os pacientes do programa de DP do HGRS. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 22 pacientes com idade mediana de 47,9 anos, 54,5% de homens, 84,2% de negros ou mulatos, 68,2% procedentes do interior da Bahia. DP foi a modalidade inicial de TRS em apenas quatro pacientes. Os 18 pacientes restantes iniciaram TRS através de HD; neste grupo, predominou o início de HD de forma emergencial e através de cateter duplo-lúmen (CDL. Em uma mediana de 7,7 meses em HD, a maioria dos pacientes (64,7% usou mais de quatro CDL. Em apenas 7/18 (39% pacientes, a conversão de HD para DP foi feita por escolha do paciente; na maioria dos casos, 11/18 (61%, o motivo de conversão foi exaustão de acesso vascular para HD. Peritonite foi mais frequente nos pacientes que entraram em HD por exaustão de acesso vascular que no restante do grupo. CONCLUSÕES: O início de TRS de forma emergencial através de HD utilizando CDL pode levar a uma rápida exaustão de acesso vascular, deixando a DP como única alternativa viável. Este modo inadequado de "seleção" de pacientes para DP está associado a maiores chances de ocorrência de peritonite.INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the prognosis of patients beginnig peritoneal dialysis (PD as their last alternative. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical-demographic profile of patients switching from hemodialysis (HD to PD, due to exhaustion of the HD vascular access, and the occurrence of peritonitis among them. METHODS: Review of the medical records of all patients in the PD program of the Hospital Roberto Santos in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study comprised 22 patients (median age, 47

  12. Hepatic vascular injury: Clinical profile, endovascular management and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishav Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prompt endovascular management is the modality of choice in comparison to NOM without AE in both pediatric and adult patients with hemodynamically compromised inaccessible intra hepatic vascular trauma.

  13. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-08-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system.

  14. Commentary: Pediatric Epilepsy: A Good Fit for Pediatric Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani; Smith, Gigi

    2011-01-01

    While there are an abundance of pediatric neuropsychologists working with youth with epilepsy (YWE), other subspecialty psychologists have played minimal roles in clinical and research endeavors in pediatric epilepsy. Thus, the purpose of this commentary was to describe (a) the needs of YWE due to the intermittent nature of seizures and difficulties with disease management, (b) increased risk for psychosocial comorbidities, (c) limited access to care, and (d) provide recommendations for how pediatric psychologists can become involved in the clinical care and research activities for YWE. PMID:21148174

  15. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    by ultrasound dilution was determined within three days of the procedure. The methods were compared using regression analysis and tested for systematic bias. Results: Failure to position the thermodilutional catheter correctly was observed in 8 out of 46 (17%) pre-intervention measurements. Post-intervention......Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...

  16. Association of vascular access flow with short-term and long-term mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chung-Kuan; Wu, Chia-Lin; Lin, Chia-Hsun; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Kor, Chew-Teng; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of vascular access flow (Qa) on vascular and all-cause mortality in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Single centre. Participants Adult chronic HD patients at the HD unit of Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003 were recruited. Patients were excluded if they had arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft failure within 3 months before the date of Qa measurement, were...

  17. Experience with the Cardiva Boomerang Catalyst system in pediatric cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Sharon; Alejos, Juan Carlos; Levi, Daniel S

    2009-09-01

    We studied the safety and efficacy of the Cardiva Boomerang Catalyst vascular closure system in pediatric patients after cardiac catheterization with access in femoral and internal jugular vessels. Recurrent catheterization and advances in pediatric interventions increase the need for easy hemostasis without a residual foreign body that may prevent re-accessing the vessel. The Boomerang can be deployed in sheaths as small as 4Fr without residual foreign body, with minimal orientation needed, and few complications reported. In a two-month period, all patients between 18 months and 21 years old catheterized with 4-8Fr sheaths less than 15 cm long were eligible for Boomerang placement. These were compared retrospectively with control patients with manual hemostasis. Anthropomorphic measurements, procedure type, activated clotting time, and sheath size as well as total times of cases, intubation, hemostasis, and extubation were compared between the two groups. Forty-six Boomerangs were deployed in 31 patients and compared with 40 patients with manual hemostasis. Boomerangs were deployed in femoral vessels and the internal jugular vein. Device success with hemostasis was achieved in 39 patients (85%). There were no significant differences in time to hemostasis or extubation between the two groups. No major complications or operator error occurred, including hematoma, transfusion, retroperitoneal bleed, infection, vessel occlusion, or need for surgery. The Boomerang is a safe and easy means of achieving hemostasis in the pediatric population, in femoral vessels as well as internal jugular veins. Its times to hemostasis and extubation were not significantly different from manual hold. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Minimal access surgery of pediatric inguinal hernias: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranga Bharathi, Ramanathan; Arora, Manu; Baskaran, Vasudevan

    2008-08-01

    Inguinal hernia is a common problem among children, and herniotomy has been its standard of care. Laparoscopy, which gained a toehold initially in the management of pediatric inguinal hernia (PIH), has managed to steer world opinion against routine contralateral groin exploration by precise detection of contralateral patencies. Besides detection, its ability to repair simultaneously all forms of inguinal hernias (indirect, direct, combined, recurrent, and incarcerated) together with contralateral patencies has cemented its role as a viable alternative to conventional repair. Numerous minimally invasive techniques for addressing PIH have mushroomed in the past two decades. These techniques vary considerably in their approaches to the internal ring (intraperitoneal, extraperitoneal), use of ports (three, two, one), endoscopic instruments (two, one, or none), sutures (absorbable, nonabsorbable), and techniques of knotting (intracorporeal, extracorporeal). In addition to the surgeons' experience and the merits/limitations of individual techniques, it is the nature of the defect that should govern the choice of technique. The emerging techniques show a trend toward increasing use of extracorporeal knotting and diminishing use of working ports and endoscopic instruments. These favor wider adoption of minimal access surgery in addressing PIH by surgeons, irrespective of their laparoscopic skills and experience. Growing experience, wider adoption, decreasing complications, and increasing advantages favor emergence of minimal access surgery as the gold standard for the treatment of PIH in the future. This article comprehensively reviews the laparoscopic techniques of addressing PIH.

  19. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome : a coomputer model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, M.A.G.; Huberts, W.; Bosboom, E.M.H.; Bode, A.S.; Bescos, J.O.; Tordoir, J.H.M.; Breeuwer, M.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vascular access (VA) surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD) patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative

  20. PET imaging in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulkin, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    High-quality PET imaging of pediatric patients is challenging and requires attention to issues commonly encountered in the practice of pediatric nuclear medicine, but uncommon to the imaging of adult patients. These include intravenous access, fasting, sedation, consent, and clearance of activity from the urinary tract. This paper discusses some technical differences involved in pediatric PET to enhance the quality of scans and assure the safety and comfort of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  1. An evaluation of the availability, accessibility, and quality of online content of vascular surgery training program websites for residency and fellowship applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bryant Y; Hicks, Taylor D; Haidar, Georges M; Pounds, Lori L; Davies, Mark G

    2017-12-01

    Vascular surgery residency and fellowship applicants commonly seek information about programs from the Internet. Lack of an effective web presence curtails the ability of programs to attract applicants, and in turn applicants may be unable to ascertain which programs are the best fit for their career aspirations. This study was designed to evaluate the presence, accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of vascular surgery training websites (VSTW). A list of accredited vascular surgery training programs (integrated residencies and fellowships) was obtained from four databases for vascular surgery education: the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Electronic Residency Application Service, Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Programs participating in the 2016 National Resident Matching Program were eligible for study inclusion. Accessibility of VSTW was determined by surveying the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Electronic Residency Application Service, and Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database for the total number of programs listed and for the presence or absence of website links. VSTW were analyzed for the availability of recruitment and education content items. The quality of VSTW was determined as a composite of four dimensions: content, design, organization, and user friendliness. Percent agreements and kappa statistics were calculated for inter-rater reliability. Eighty-nine of the 94 fellowship (95%) and 45 of the 48 integrated residencies (94%) programs participating in the 2016 Match had a VSTW. For program recruitment, evaluators found an average of 12 of 32 content items (35.0%) for fellowship programs and an average of 12 of 32 (37%) for integrated residencies. Only 47.1% of fellowship programs (53% integrated residencies) specified the number of positions available for the 2016 Match, 20% (13% integrated residencies) indicated alumni

  2. Cilostazol May Improve Maturation Rates and Durability of Vascular Access for Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd E; Kasper, Gregory C; Seiwert, Andrew J; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2017-04-01

    Cilostazol is effective in controlling pathophysiological pathways similar or identical to those involved in nonmaturation and failure of the arteriovenous access. This case-control study examined whether cilostazol would improve maturation rates and durability of vascular access for hemodialysis. The treatment group included 33 patients who received cilostazol for ≥30 days prior to creation of a dialysis access and continued with cilostazol therapy for ≥60 days after surgery. The matched (gender, age, race, diabetes, and the year of surgery) control group included 116 patients who underwent the same procedure but did not receive cilostazol prior to and at least 3 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were maturation and, for those that matured, time of functioning access, defined as the time from the first use to irreparable failure of the access. Secondary outcomes were time to maturation, complications, and time to first complication. Study group patients were 3.8 times more likely to experience fistula maturation compared to the controls (88% vs 66%, RR = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-11.6, P = .016). Fewer patients in the study group had complications (76% vs 92%, P = .025), and the time from construction of the fistula to the first complication was longer (345.6 ± 441 days vs 198.3 ± 185.0 days, P = .025). Time to maturation was similar in both groups (119.3 ± 62.9 days vs 100.2 ± 61.7 days, P = .2). However, once matured, time to failure was significantly longer in the treatment group (903.7 ± 543.6 vs 381.6 ± 317.2 days, P = .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the likelihood of maturation was significantly higher in the treatment group patients. These results suggest that dialysis access patients may benefit from preoperative and postoperative cilostazol therapy. If confirmed by a randomized trial, this treatment will have a major beneficial impact on patients dependent on a well-functioning access for their hemodialysis.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of head and neck vascular anomalies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can provide a useful tool for assessing the response to therapy in the follow-up of ..... outweigh the possible risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. In addition, performing MRI .... malformations and vascularized tumors. Pediatr Radiol 2012 ...

  4. Creating a pediatric digital library for pediatric health care providers and families: using literature and data to define common pediatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Donna; Kingsley, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to complete a literature-based needs assessment with regard to common pediatric problems encountered by pediatric health care providers (PHCPs) and families, and to develop a problem-based pediatric digital library to meet those needs. The needs assessment yielded 65 information sources. Common problems were identified and categorized, and the Internet was manually searched for authoritative Web sites. The created pediatric digital library (www.generalpediatrics.com) used a problem-based interface and was deployed in November 1999. From November 1999 to November 2000, the number of hyperlinks and authoritative Web sites increased 51.1 and 32.2 percent, respectively. Over the same time, visitors increased by 57.3 percent and overall usage increased by 255 percent. A pediatric digital library has been created that begins to bring order to general pediatric resources on the Internet. This pediatric digital library provides current, authoritative, easily accessed pediatric information whenever and wherever the PHCPs and families want assistance.

  5. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of vascular access flow with short-term and long-term mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Kuan; Wu, Chia-Lin; Lin, Chia-Hsun; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Kor, Chew-Teng; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-09-24

    To investigate the impact of vascular access flow (Qa) on vascular and all-cause mortality in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. Observational cohort study. Single centre. Adult chronic HD patients at the HD unit of Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003 were recruited. Patients were excluded if they had arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft failure within 3 months before the date of Qa measurement, were aged Short-term and long-term vascular (cardiovascular or cerebrovascular) and all-cause mortality. Qa was positively correlated with CI ( r =0.48, plong-term all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.62; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.37; p=0.013); however, the risk of vascular mortality did not significantly increase after adjustment for confounders. Qa is moderately correlated with cardiac function, and a Qa level of short-term and long-term all-cause mortality in chronic HD patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Imaging and therapeutic approach of hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the pediatric age group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J; Garel, L [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QB (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    Terminology regarding the vascular lesions of the soft tissues remains confusing. A single classification is necessary in order to decide on the proper investigation and the best treatment. At the Workshop on Vascular Anomalies in Rome in June 1996, the membership accepted the Mulliken and Glowacki classification, which differentiates vascular lesions into vascular tumors, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations. At Sainte-Justine, we have set up a multidisciplinary clinic for the discussion of problem patients with vascular anomalies, both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we present our experience regarding the classification, the imaging modalities and the treatment of vascular anomalies. In our experience, Doppler ultrasound should be the initial imaging modality for recognizing vascular tumors from vascular malformations. CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging is best to evaluate the extent of the lesions prior to treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and define accordingly the appropriate treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. PMID:28076607

  9. Adderall for All: A Defense of Pediatric Neuroenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    I argue that young patients should be able to access neuroenhancing drugs without a diagnosis of ADHD. The current framework of consent for pediatric patients can be adapted to accommodate neuroenhancement. After a brief overview of pediatric neuroenhancement, I develop three arguments in favor of greater acceptance of neuroenhancement for young patients. First, ADHD is not relevantly different from other disadvantages that could be treated with stimulant medication. Second, establishing a legitimate framework for pediatric neuroenhancement would mitigate the bad effects of diversion and improve research on neuroenhancement and ADHD. Third, some pediatric patients have rights to access neuroenhancements. I then consider several objections to pediatric neuroenhancement. I address concerns about addiction, advertising, authentic development, the parent-child relationship and equal opportunity and conclude that these concerns may inform a framework for prescribing neuroenhancement but they do not justify limits on prescribing.

  10. A simple tissue model for practicing ultrasound guided vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of ultrasound in anaesthetic practice continues to be more established and the use of ultrasound guidance in establishing vascular access is recommended by various groups. We have developed a tissue model for the practice and skills development in ultrasound vascular access. Method: The tissue ...

  11. Archives: Annals of Pediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 32 of 32 ... Archives: Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Journal Home > Archives: Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 32 of 32 Items ...

  12. Pediatric AIDS | Khazbak | Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Vascular access strategy for delivering long-term antimicrobials to patients with infective endocarditis: device type, risk of infection and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F Z; Baig, W W; Munyombwe, T; West, R; Sandoe, J A T

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the use of different vascular access devices and the incidence of intravascular catheter-related infection (CRI) in patients receiving intravenous antibiotics for infective endocarditis (IE). To examine whether rates of infection vary with type of vascular access device, and assess the impact of CRI on mortality in IE. A prospective observational service evaluation of all inpatients who received intravenous antibiotics for IE was performed. In total, 114 inpatients were evaluated. All cases of CRI [including exit-site infection, intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) and mortality] were recorded. Tunnelled and non-tunnelled central venous catheters (CVCs), and peripherally inserted cannulae were used for antibiotic delivery. There were 15 episodes of CRI, 11 of which were CRBSI (all associated with CVC use). The remainder comprised uncomplicated exit-site infections. Use of tunnelled CVCs [hazard ratio (HR) 16.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.13-134.93; P = 0.007] and non-tunnelled CVCs (HR 24.54, 95% CI 2.83-212.55; P = 0.004) was associated with a significantly increased risk of CRI. Risk of mortality increased significantly with Staphylococcus aureus as the cause of IE (P < 0.001) and CRBSI (P = 0.034). Risk of CRI in patients with IE is linked to the type of vascular access device used. Rates of CRBSI were greatest with CVCs, while peripheral venous cannulae were not associated with CRBSI or serious sequelae. Many patients (40%) tolerated complete treatment courses delivered via peripheral cannulae. These findings confirm the importance of device selection in reducing the risk of CRI; a potentially modifiable variable that impacts on outcome and mortality in IE. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual-Reality Simulator System for Double Interventional Cardiac Catheterization Using Fractional-Order Vascular Access Tracker and Haptic Force Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes virtual-reality (VR simulator system for double interventional cardiac catheterization (ICC using fractional-order vascular access tracker and haptic force producer. An endoscope or a catheter for diagnosis and surgery of cardiovascular disease has been commonly used in minimally invasive surgery. It needs specific skills and experiences for young surgeons or postgraduate year (PGY students to operate a Berman catheter and a pigtail catheter in the inside of the human body and requires avoiding damaging vessels. To improve the training in inserting catheters, a double-catheter mechanism is designed for the ICC procedures. A fractional-order vascular access tracker is used to trace the senior surgeons’ consoled trajectories and transmit the frictional feedback and visual feedback during the insertion of catheters. Based on the clinical feeling through the aortic arch, vein into the ventricle, or tortuous blood vessels, haptic force producer is used to mock the elasticity of the vessel wall using voice coil motors (VCMs. The VR establishment with surgeons’ consoled vessel trajectories and hand feeling is achieved, and the experimental results show the effectiveness for the double ICC procedures.

  15. Survey of home hemodialysis patients and nursing staff regarding vascular access use and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, Leslie A; Burkart, John M; Holcroft, Christina; Mortier, Leigh; Glickman, Joel D

    2015-04-01

    Vascular access infections are of concern to hemodialysis patients and nurses. Best demonstrated practices (BDPs) have not been developed for home hemodialysis (HHD) access use, but there have been generally accepted practices (GAPs) endorsed by dialysis professionals. We developed a survey to gather information about training provided and actual practices of HHD patients using the NxStage System One HHD machine. We used GAP to assess training used by nurses to teach HHD access care and then assess actual practice (adherence) by HHD patients. We also assessed training and adherence where GAPs do not exist. We received a 43% response rate from patients and 76% response from nurses representing 19 randomly selected HHD training centers. We found that nurses were not uniformly instructing HHD patients according to GAP, patients were not performing access cannulation according to GAP, nor were they adherent to their training procedures. Identification of signs and symptoms of infection was commonly trained appropriately, but we observed a reluctance to report some signs and symptoms of infection by patients. Of particular concern, when aggregating all steps surveyed, not a single nurse or patient reported training or performing all steps in accordance with GAP. We also identified practices for which there are no GAPs that require further study and may or may not impact outcomes such as infection. Further research is needed to develop strategies to implement and expand GAP, measure outcomes, and ultimately develop BDP for HHD to improve infectious complications. © 2014 The Authors. Hemodialysis International published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  17. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier. Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care. A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills. Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will

  18. Challenges in the Management of Pediatric Central Venous Access Devices in the Community.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Elaine

    2012-05-25

    Central venous access devices (CVADs) play an essential role in the care of critically ill children. Significant challenges exist for teams in managing CVADs particularly in a community setting. The authors aimed to assess the experience of general practitioners (GPs) caring for children with CVADs. From 200 CVADs inserted in a pediatric hospital in 2009, 50 patients were randomly selected and 44 GPs were forwarded a questionnaire. Twenty (46%) GPs responded. The main reasons (n = 22) for using CVADs were medication administration (n = 11), nutrition (n = 6), and blood sampling (n = 5). Thirteen (65%) GPs had no education in CVAD management and 14 (70%) were unaware of existing guidelines. Those identified by GPs as having primary responsibility for care of CVADs in the community included hospital\\/pediatric teams (n = 9), parents (n = 3), GPs (n = 2), public health nurses (n = 1), and palliative care ("home care") teams (n = 1). The main challenges (n = 15) identified by GPs were lack of education (n = 4), line management difficulties (n = 3), infection risk (n = 3), infrequent exposure to CVADs (n = 3), and poor communication (n = 1). GPs felt that these challenges could be addressed through: education (n = 8), increased manpower and community support (n = 1), and improved communication (n = 1). This study highlights the inconsistency and challenges for GPs surrounding CVAD use in children. Further education and support is necessary to assist GPs in their use particularly when providing end-of-life care for children in the community.

  19. [Open availability of articles and raw research data in Spanish pediatrics journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Vidal-Infer, A; Alonso-Arroyo, A; González de Dios, J; Ferrer-Sapena, A; Peset, F

    2015-01-01

    The open Access to publications and the raw data allows its re-use and enhances the advancement of science. The aim of this paper is to identify these practices in Spanish pediatrics journals. We reviewed the author's instructions in 13 Spanish pediatrics journals, identifying their open access and deposit policy. Eight journals allow open access without restriction, and 5 provide information on the ability to re-use and depositing data in repositories or websites. Most of the journals have open access, but do not promote the deposit of additional material or articles in repositories or websites. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor Vessel Development and Expansion in Ewing's Sarcoma: A Review of the Vasculogenesis Process and Clinical Trials with Vascular-Targeting Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Keri S.; Kleinerman, Eugenie S.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma accounts for a disproportionately high portion of the overall pediatric mortality rate compared to its rare incidence in the pediatric population. Little progress has been made since the introduction of traditional chemotherapies, and understanding the biology of the tumor is critical for developing new therapies. Ewing's sarcomas rely on a functional vascular supply, which is formed by a combination of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Recent insights into the molecular regulation of bone marrow (BM) cell participation in vascular development have identified VEGF, SDF-1α, and DLL4 as critical players in the vasculogenesis process. Clinical trials using vascular targeting agents, specifically targeting VEGF or DLL4, are underway. PMID:21785569

  1. Vascular malformations in pediatrics; Vaskulaere Erkrankungen bei Neugeborenen, Saeuglingen und Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Homburg/Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, 66421, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shamdeen, M.G. [Kinderklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [German] Vaskulaere Malformationen sind die haeufigste Ursache einer intrakraniellen Blutung im Saeuglings- und Kindesalter. Deswegen sollte jedes Kind mit einer intrakraniellen Blutung auf eine vaskulaere Malformation und Kindesmisshandlung untersucht werden. Intrazerebrale Gefaessmalformationen beinhalten Vena-Galeni-Anomalien, arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVM), Kavernome, durale arteriovenoese Fisteln, kapillaere Teleangiektasien und venoese Anlagevarianten (DVA). Obwohl einige familiaere Gefaessmalformationen beschrieben sind, tritt die ueberwiegende Mehrzahl spontan auf. Die Klinik, Diagnostik und therapeutischen Optionen werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  2. Acesso vascular para hemodiálise com cateter temporário de duplo lúmen em cães com insuficiência renal aguda Hemodialysis vascular access with temporary double-lumen catheter in dogs with acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Melchert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A hemodiálise é uma modalidade terapêutica que pode sustentar a vida do paciente com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA, enquanto este recupera a função renal. Para sua realização, é necessário estabelecer circulação extracorpórea, para que seja realizada a filtração do sangue, impondo a necessidade de um acesso vascular viável e eficiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência e as complicações do acesso vascular para hemodiálise (HD, com cateter temporário de duplo lúmen inserido na veia jugular externa. Foram estudados 10 cães com IRA induzida por gentamicina, submetidos a sessões diárias de HD, com duração de uma hora, até a recuperação da função renal ou óbito. Foram realizadas 104 sessões de HD nos animais estudados, observando-se necessidade de troca do cateter em sete sessões (6,7%, devido à obstrução do lúmen do cateter em seis sessões (5,8% ou por saída acidental do mesmo em uma sessão (1,0%. Não se observou migração do cateter, infecção, hemorragia ou hematoma no local de entrada do cateter na pele, obtendo-se fluxo sanguíneo patente em 90,4% das sessões. Concluiu-se que o acesso vascular na veia jugular externa com cateter temporário de duplo-lúmen mostrou-se viável, com ocorrência de poucas complicações, sendo, portanto, indicado como forma de acesso para a circulação extracorpórea para HD em cães com IRA.Hemodialysis is a therapeutic procedure that can sustain the patient's life in acute renal failure (ARF, during the renal function recover. To perform hemodialysis (HD, an extracorporeal circulation is established to blood filtration, imposing the need of a viable and efficient vascular access. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the HD vascular access with temporary double-lumen catheter inserted into the external jugular vein. Ten mongrel dogs with ARF, induced by gentamicin administration, were submitted to daily

  3. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate seal-off technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Mei Jul; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Matt Chiung Yu [Dept. of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China)

    2013-01-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post

  4. Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in pediatric oncology patients with a totally implantable venous access port: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Taveira, Michelle Ribeiro; Lima, Luciana Santana; de Araújo, Cláudia Corrêa; de Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves

    2017-02-01

    Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are used for prolonged central venous access, allowing the infusion of chemotherapy and other fluids and improving the quality of life of children with cancer. TIVAPs were developed to reduce the infection rates associated with central venous catheters; however, infectious events remain common and have not been fully investigated in pediatric oncology patients. A retrospective cohort was formed to investigate risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in pediatric cancer patients. Sociodemographic, clinical, and TIVAP insertion-related variables were evaluated, with the endpoint being the first CLABSI. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine CLABSI-free catheter survival. Overall, 188 children were evaluated over 77,541 catheter days, with 94 being diagnosed with CLABSI (50%). Although coagulase-negative staphylococci were the pathogens most commonly isolated, Gram-negative microorganisms (46.8%) were also prevalent. In the multivariate analysis, factors that increased the risk for CLABSI were TIVAP insertion prior to chemotherapy (risk ratio [RR] = 1.56; P Risk factors for CLABSI in pediatric cancer patients with a TIVAP may be related to the severity of the child's condition at catheter insertion. Insertion of the catheter before chemotherapy and unfavorable conditions such as malnutrition and bone marrow aplasia can increase the risk of CLABSI. Protocols must be revised and surveillance increased over the first 10 weeks of treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cryopreserved recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the restoration of occluded central venous access devices in pediatric oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Y.; Al-Katheri, A.; Al-Sedairy, R.; Al-Omari, A.; Abdullah, Mohammed F.; Crankson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy with urokinase 5000 units has been the standard therapy for restoration of thrombosed central catheters. However, with the decreased availability of urokinase, alternatives needed to be sought. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy, bioactivity, dwell time and cost of cryopreserved recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) in the restoration of occluded central venous access devices. For children 10kg, a dose of 1 mg was used. The dwell time was 1-2 hours. Of the 40 courses of rTPA, 39 fully restored central venous line patency (97%). Successful courses were instilled for an average of 1 hour. Cryopreserved rTPA appears to be safe and effective in the dose used to restore the patency of occluded central venous access devices in pediatric oncology patients. (author)

  6. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  7. The Use of Chest Computed Tomographic Angiography in Blunt Trauma Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasadia, Rabea; DuBose, Joseph; Peleg, Kobi; Stephenson, Jacob; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2018-02-05

    Blunt chest trauma in children is common. Although rare, associated major thoracic vascular injuries (TVIs) are lethal potential sequelae of these mechanisms. The preferred study for definitive diagnosis of TVI in stable patients is computed tomographic angiography imaging of the chest. This imaging modality is, however, associated with high doses of ionizing radiation that represent significant carcinogenic risk for pediatric patients. The aim of the present investigation was to define the incidence of TVI among blunt pediatric trauma patients in an effort to better elucidate the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography use in this population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all blunt pediatric (age blunt trauma victims, 119,821patients were younger than 14 years. Twelve (0.0001%, 12/119821) of these children were diagnosed with TVI. The most common mechanism in this group was pedestrian hit by a car. Mortality was 41.7% (5/12). Thoracic vascular injury is exceptionally rare among pediatric blunt trauma victims but does contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen with blunt chest trauma. Computed tomographic angiography, with its associated radiation exposure risk, should not be used as a standard tool after trauma in injured children. Clinical protocols are needed in this population to minimize radiation risk while allowing prompt identification of life-threatening injuries.

  8. Magnetic resonance angiography of the pediatric abdomen and pelvis: techniques and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, David M; Vellody, Ranjith; Liu, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Although traditional catheter-based angiography has been the gold standard for pediatric abdominal and pelvic vascular imaging for the past several decades, advances in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have made it a viable alternative. MRA offers several advantages in that it is noninvasive, can be performed without ionizing radiation, and does not necessarily rely on contrast administration. The ability of modern MRA techniques to define variant vascular anatomy and detect vascular disease may obviate traditional angiography in some patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MR angiography in pediatric neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.C.P.; Park, T.S.; Kaufman, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    MR angiography using 3D and 2D time-of-flight techniques were used to evaluate pediatric neurological disorders. MRA (arteriography) and MRV (venography) were abnormal in 63 and 45 cases, respectively. Conventional cerebral angiography was performed in 30 cases. These techniques were compared with MRI and conventional angiography. In addition, the value of MR angiography for surgical planning was subjectively evaluated. Our results showed that intracranial vessels were invariably better shown on MR angiography than on MRI. MRA and MRV were most useful in evaluating vascular distortions related to congenital brain malformations and intracranial tumors. MRA was valuable in detecting arterial narrowing but overestimated the degree of stenosis compared with conventional angiography. MRV was the technique of choice for evaluation of dural sinus and cerebral venous thrombosis and compression. MRA played little to no role in preoperative planning of vascular malformations and aneurysms. It did not appear to be accurate in assessing tumor vascularity or lesions in small arteries and arteritis. (orig.)

  11. Use of vascular access ports in femoral veins of dogs and cats with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Flanders, James A

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate long-term function of vascular access ports (VAPs) implanted in the femoral vein of dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment. Prospective clinical study. 3 dogs and 6 cats treated via chemotherapy or radiation. VAPs were surgically implanted in the left femoral vein of 3 dogs and 6 cats over a 1-year period. Injection port location was alternated to either a caudal thoracic or ilial location in each patient. Duration of VAP function, ease of infusion, and ease of aspiration through the VAPs were recorded, and associated complications were assessed at each VAP use. Client satisfaction with VAP placement was evaluated by use of a questionnaire. Primary uses of the VAPs included blood sampling and delivering sedative or chemotherapeutic drugs. Median duration of successful infusion was 147 days (range, 60 to 370 days), and median duration of successful aspiration was 117 days (range, 10 to 271 days). The frequency of signs of VAP-related discomfort was low (7% of patient observations). Clients were satisfied with their decision to use VAPs. Complications included partial (n = 7) or complete (2) VAP occlusion, port migration (1), and presumptive infection (1). Results suggested that VAP implantation into the femoral vein provides an acceptable means of chronic venous access in dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment.

  12. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Safety and efficacy of using the Viabahn endoprosthesis for percutaneous treatment of vascular access complications after transfemoral aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Arnous, Samer; Sandholt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access complications (VACs) remain one of the biggest challenges when performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to investigate the short- and medium-term safety and efficacy of the Viabahn endoprosthesis (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) when used to treat TAVI......-induced vascular injury. Over a 40-month period, 354 patients underwent true percutaneous transfemoral (TF)-TAVI using a CoreValve and Prostar-XL closure system; this was our study population. A VAC leading to acute intervention occurred in 72 patients (20.3%) - of these, 18 were managed by balloon angioplasty, 48...... were treated by Viabahn stenting (technical success rate 98%), and 6 needed surgical intervention. Overall, this approach resulted in a major VAC rate of 3.1% (n = 11) in our study cohort. Length of hospitalization and 30-day mortality rates were comparable in patients with a VAC treated by Viabahn...

  14. [Surgical learning curve for creation of vascular accesses for haemodialysis: value of medico-radio-surgical collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Glabeke, Emmanuel; Belenfant, Xavier; Barrou, Benoît; Adhemar, Jean-Pierre; Laedrich, Joëlle; Mavel, Marie-Christine; Challier, Emmanuel

    2005-04-01

    Creation of a vascular access (VA) for haemodialysis is a surgical procedure which comprises a failure rate related to the quality of the vessels and the operator's experience. The authors report the first 2 years of a young urologist's experience with this procedure in a local hospital in collaboration with the nephrology team. Patients undergoing creation of VA were divided into 2 chronological groups. The patient's age and gender, the cause of renal failure, the presence of diabetes, clinical examination of the upper limb, preoperative assessment of upper limb vessels, the type of anaesthesia, the operating time and the start of dialysis after the operation, as well as the functional results of the VA at 6 months were studied. Results concerning the patients of the first period were discussed by the operator and the nephrology team. During the first 9 months, 28 patients were operated, corresponding to 36 operations including 32 direct fistulas. Over the following 15 months, 61 patients were operated, with the creation of 63 VAs, including 55 direct fistulas. The failure rate (thrombosis or non-functioning VA) decreased from 32.1% to 11.1% (p=0.07), while the 2 groups were globally comparable. Evaluation of a new surgical procedure shows a number of failures, as for all learning curves. However, it helps to improve the results. Collaboration with nephrologists must comprise a discussion allowing the acceptance of certain failures, as they reflect compliance with a strategy of preservation of the vascular capital and a rational attempt to avoid a non-essential proximal access or bypass graft. The support of a motivated radiology team (preoperative assessment and management of complications) and the assistance of a more experienced operator are essential.

  15. Nova técnica para treinamento em acessos vasculares guiados por ultrassom utilizando modelo de tecido animal New technique for ultrasound-guided vascular access training using an animal tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Barbosa de Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia Doppler deixou de ter seu uso apenas como método diagnóstico e vem galgando espaço nos procedimentos terapêuticos. Com maior aplicabilidade e uso de cateteres venosos centrais e procedimentos guiados por ultrassom, há preocupação com a melhora da eficácia e segurança durante o procedimento, assim como com a diminuição das potenciais complicações. Para isso, o treinamento da técnica em modelos (phantoms é desejável. Os modelos industrializados para treinamento em acesso vascular guiado por ultrassom são caros e não reproduzem adequadamente a ecotextura e a densidade dos tecidos humanos. Na tentativa de treinar e aprimorar os profissionais para o uso do ultrassom em procedimentos de acessos vasculares, desenvolveu-se um modelo animal de baixo custo, fácil confecção e excelente aplicabilidade.Duplex ultrasonography has not been used only as a noninvasive diagnostic method. Recently it has been applied for therapeutic procedures. Due to the increasing use and applicability of central venous catheters and eco-guided vascular procedures, there are concerns about improving results regarding accuracy and safety, reducing complication rates during those procedures. It would be desirable that training was accomplished using phantoms before actual procedures in human subjects. Industrialized phantoms are expensive and they do not reproduce human's ecographic density and texture. In order to train and improve ultrasound guided vascular access, we have developed a cheap animal tissue model, which is of easy preparation and applicability.

  16. Differences in characteristics among new pediatric neurology patients: the effect of a newly established private pediatric neurology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Woodruff, Brian; Freed, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    To investigate changes in volume and characteristics of new patients referred when a private pediatric neurology practice (PP) opened in 2004 in an area served primarily by an academic medical center's (AMC) pediatric neurology practice. Retrospective analysis of medical and billing records to examine changes in volume, diagnosis, and sociodemographic factors of new patients at the AMC from July 2004 to June 2005; the PP during the same period; and the AMC during the year before. One year after the PP opened, 40% more new pediatric neurology patients were seen in this area than the year before. Compared with the AMC, PP saw a greater proportion of seizures (34% vs 26%, P 20 miles from the practice (32% vs 64%, P pediatric neurology patients in this area. After the PP opened, the AMC continued to care for most patients with rare diseases and fewer financial resources. Future research should examine whether the increase in volume reflects relief of pent-up demand or increased referral rates due to eased access, and should elucidate how differences in patient populations at academic and private subspecialty practices relate to access to subspecialty care and financial well-being of academic practices.

  17. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in the treatment of congenital heart disease: from the bench to the clinic and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph T; Gilliland, Thomas; Maxfield, Mark W; Church, Spencer; Naito, Yuji; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K

    2012-05-01

    Since the first tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) was implanted in a child over a decade ago, growth in the field of vascular tissue engineering has been driven by clinical demand for improved vascular prostheses with performance and durability similar to an autologous blood vessel. Great strides were made in pediatric congenital heart surgery using the classical tissue engineering paradigm, and cell seeding of scaffolds in vitro remained the cornerstone of neotissue formation. Our second-generation bone marrow cell-seeded TEVG diverged from tissue engineering dogma with a design that induces the recipient to regenerate vascular tissue in situ. New insights suggest that neovessel development is guided by cell signals derived from both seeded cells and host inflammatory cells that infiltrate the graft. The identification of these signals and the regulatory interactions that influence cell migration, phenotype and extracellular matrix deposition during TEVG remodeling are yielding a next-generation TEVG engineered to guide neotissue regeneration without the use of seeded cells. These developments represent steady progress towards our goal of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered vascular conduit for pediatric congenital heart surgery.

  18. Vascular access and infection prevention and control: a national survey of routine practices in Irish haemodialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Margaret; Clarke, Michael; Mellotte, George; Plant, Liam; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2013-04-01

    National and international guidelines recommend the use of effective vascular access (VA) and infection prevention and control practices within the haemodialysis environment. Establishing an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and preventing central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are ongoing challenges for all dialysis settings. We surveyed VA and routine infection prevention and control practices in dialysis units, to provide national data on these practices in Ireland. A descriptive survey was emailed to nurse managers at all adult (n = 19) and children (n = 1) outpatient haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland. Data collected included AVF formation, CVC insertion and maintenance practices, VA use and surveillance of infection and screening protocols. Nineteen of the 20 units responded to the survey. The AVF prevalence was 49% for 1370 patients in 17 units who provided these data [mean prevalence per unit: 45.7% (SD 16.2)]; the CVC mean prevalence per unit was 52.5% (SD 16.0). Fourteen dialysis units experienced inadequate access to vascular surgical procedures either due to a lack of dedicated theatre time or hospital beds. Six units administered intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion with only two units using a CVC insertion checklist at the time of catheter insertion. In general, dialysis units in Ireland show a strong adherence to national guidelines. Compared with the 12 countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 4), in 2010, AVF prevalence in Irish dialysis units is the second lowest. Recommendations include establishing an AVF national prevalence target rate, discontinuing the administration of intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion and promoting the use of CVC insertion checklists.

  19. Atypical presentation of multicentric Castleman disease in a pediatric patient: pleural and pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Alkim Oden; Basaran, Ozge; Ozyoruk, Derya; Han, Unsal; Sayli, Tulin; Cakar, Nilgun

    2016-06-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare poorly understood lymphoproliferative disorder. Pediatric onset CD has been reported before. However, most of them have benign unicentric pattern. Multicentric CD (MCD) is quite rare in children. Herein, we report a 13-year-old adolescent boy with MCD of the hyaline vascular variant presenting with pleural and pericardial effusion, which is an uncommon presentation. MCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural and/or pericardial effusion with unexplained lymph nodes in children. What is Known •Pediatric Castleman disease (CD) most commonly occurs in the unicentric form, which typically is asymptomatic and cured by lymph node excision. •The diagnosis of MCD can be difficult owing to the heterogeneity of presentation and potential for nonspecific multisystem involvement. What is New •A 13-year-old adolescent boy was diagnosed with MCD of the hyaline vascular variant presenting with pleural and pericardial effusion, which is an uncommon presentation. •In a pediatric patient with fever, pleural-pericardial effusion and multiple lymph nodes, MCD should be considered in differantial diagnosis.

  20. Enhancing the Pediatric Drug Development Framework to Deliver Better Pediatric Therapies Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina

    2017-10-01

    Health care professionals involved in the clinical management of children have long appreciated the limited number of therapies suitably evaluated for their optimal use in the pediatric population. In the past century, advances in regulatory policy significantly evolved adult drug evaluation. The scarcity of available patient populations, practical complexities of drug development research, and minimal financial returns have hampered pharmaceutical investment in the study of therapies for children. More recently, pediatric policy and legislation in the United States and Europe have instituted a system of obligations and incentives to stimulate investment in pediatric drug development. These initiatives, in conjunction with a more sophisticated process of drug discovery and development, have led to significant advancements in the labeling of drugs for pediatric use. Facilitated by the emergence of new targets, precision medicine, and innovations in regulatory science, there is now a subtle shift in focus toward drug development research for children rather than simply in children. Although there has been an increase in pediatric studies of investigational agents and labeling of pediatric information for use, there have been unintended consequences of existing policies. As a result, limited progress has been made in certain therapeutic areas and for off-patent therapies. Future policy reform to enhance the availability and accessibility of pediatric medicines should not only reflect an understanding not only of the successes of existing policy and legislative initiatives but also constructively address failures and unintended consequences. Taken together, policy reform, global cooperation, and innovation in regulatory science will more ably deliver better pediatric therapies tomorrow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sirtuins in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Targets in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Alessandro; Yuan, Xuejun; Bober, Eva; Braun, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of death and morbidity. Cardiac and vascular pathologies develop predominantly in the aged population in part due to lifelong exposure to numerous risk factors but are also found in children and during adolescence. In comparison to adults, much has to be learned about the molecular pathways driving cardiovascular diseases in the pediatric population. Sirtuins are highly conserved enzymes that play pivotal roles in ensuring cardiac homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. In this review, we discuss novel findings about the biological functions of these molecules in the cardiovascular system and their possible involvement in pediatric cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Efficiency of the kidney disease outcomes quality initiative guidelines for preemptive vascular access in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Traci A; Barz, Ken; Dimond, Kelly R; Edwards, James M; Nehler, Mark R

    2011-09-01

    The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Diseases Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) for vascular access guidelines state that patients with late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) should undergo native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation at least 6 months before anticipated start of hemodialysis (HD) treatments to obviate the need for other vascular access types, such as grafts or central catheters. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of HD, the functional patency, and associated morbidity of AVFs in patients with late-stage CKD placed according to KDOQI. Consecutive patients with late-stage CKD who underwent AVF creation using KDOQI guidelines for anatomy between January 2003 and December 2007 at two tertiary academic centers were retrospectively evaluated. Baseline demographics, AVF type, and clinical comorbidities were recorded. Patients were stratified into one of four groups (groups A-D) over the follow-up course based on two end points: patency of their AVF and whether or not they began HD. The ideal primary outcome was AVF maturation and use for HD (group A; cumulative functional patency). Other outcomes included AVF patency but no HD (group B), HD with AVF failure (group C), or no HD and AVF abandonment (ie, death, refused hemodialysis, kidney transplant, or fistula failure; group D). Secondary outcomes were time to first cannulation, complications, and secondary interventions. AVFs were created (46% forearm and 54% upper arm) in 150 patients with CKD (85% men, median age 63 years old). At a median follow-up of 10 months, 74 patients (49%) were receiving HD and of these, 48 patients (65%) were using their AVF (group A), whereas 26 patients (35%) were not due to fistula failure (group C). Thirty-four patients (23%) never initiated HD treatments, but had a viable AVF (group B), and 42 patients (28%) never initiated HD and abandoned their AVF (group D). Overall, AVF abandonment was 51%. Mean maturation time of all AVFs successfully

  3. Horseshoe kidney and uretero-pelvic-junction obstruction in a pediatric patient. Laparoscopic vascular hitch: A valid alternative to dismembered pyeloplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bleve

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney (HSK is a congenital defect of the urinary tract that occurs in 0.25% of the general population. Laparoscopic Vascular Hitch (LVH according to Hellstrom-Chapman represent an alternative approach in treatment of extrinsic hydronephrosis by crossing vessels (CV in pediatric age. In our Department from 2006 to 2016, 36 children with extrinsic-Uretero-Pelvic-Junction (UPJ-Obstruction (UPJO underwent laparoscopic vessels transposition. Over the last 4years, we have treated three patients with extrinsic hydronephrosis in HSK; two males and one female respectively of 6, 7 and 8years. The side affected was the left in all patients; symptoms of onset: recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting with associated intermittent hydronephrosis at ultrasonography. The preoperative examinations performed were: ultrasound/Doppler scan, MAG3-renogram, functional-magnetic-resonance-urography (fMRU. Mean operative time was 120’; median hospital stay 3- days. Intraoperative diuretic-test (DT confirmed an extrinsic-UPJO in all patients. No JJ-stents and drain were used and there were no perioperative complications. Clinical and ultrasound follow-up (18 months-4 years show resolution of symptoms and decrease in hydronephrosis grade in all patients. Our series is the largest in pediatric population by a revision of the literature. We believe that LVH is feasible in patients with symptomatic hydronephrosis by CV in HSK. Intraoperative-DT and the correct selection of patients are crucial to the success of the technique. According to us, this procedure is appropriate in those cases where the UPJ-anatomy is disadvantageous to a resection/re-anastomosis between ureter and renal pelvis. Our initial results are encouraging, although long-term follow- up and a more significant patient sample are required.

  4. Cutaneous vascular anomalies associated with neural tube defects: nomenclature and pathology revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugans, Todd; Sheridan, Rachel M; Adams, Denise; Gupta, Anita

    2011-07-01

    Lumbosacral cutaneous vascular anomalies associated with neural tube defects are frequently described in the literature as "hemangiomas." The classification system for pediatric vascular anomalies developed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies provides a framework to accurately diagnose these lesions. To apply this classification to vascular cutaneous anomalies overlying myelodysplasias. A retrospective analysis of patients with neural tube defects and lumbosacral cutaneous vascular lesions was performed. All eligible patients had detailed histopathologic analysis of skin and spinal cord/placode lesions. Clinical and radiologic features were analyzed. Conventional histology and GLUT-1 immunostaining were performed to differentiate infantile capillary hemangiomas from capillary vascular malformations. Ten cases with cutaneous lesions associated with neural tube defects were reviewed. Five lesions were diagnosed as infantile capillary hemangiomas based upon histology and positive GLUT-1 endothelial reactivity. These lesions had a strong association with dermal sinus tracts. No reoperations were required for residual intraspinal vascular lesions, and overlying cutaneous vascular anomalies involuted with time. The remaining 5 lesions were diagnosed as capillary malformations. These occurred with both open and closed neural tube defects, did not involute, and demonstrated enlargement and darkening due to vascular congestion. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies scheme should be used to describe the cutaneous vascular lesions associated with neural tube defects: infantile capillary hemangiomas and capillary malformations. We advocate that these lesions be described as "vascular anomalies" or "stains" pending accurate diagnosis by clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluations.

  5. Pediatric Liver Transplant: Techniques and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Natally; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Horvat, Joao Vicente; Yamanari, Tássia Regina; Batista Araújo-Filho, Jose de Arimateia; Panizza, Pedro; Seda-Neto, Joao; Antunes da Fonseca, Eduardo; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Mendes de Oliveira Cerri, Luciana; Chapchap, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2017-10-01

    Liver transplant is considered to be the last-resort treatment approach for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite the remarkable advance in survival rates, liver transplant remains an intricate surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of complications is crucial for patient survival but is challenging given the lack of specificity in clinical presentation. Knowledge of the liver and vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient or recipients before surgery is also important to avoid complications. In this framework, radiologists play a pivotal role on the multidisciplinary team in both pre- and postoperative scenarios by providing a road map to guide the surgery and by assisting in diagnosis of complications. The most common complications after liver transplant are (a) vascular, including the hepatic artery, portal vein, hepatic veins, and inferior vena cava; (b) biliary; (c) parenchymal; (d) perihepatic; and (e) neoplastic. The authors review surgical techniques, the role of each imaging modality, normal posttransplant imaging features, types of complications after liver transplant, and information required in the radiology report that is critical to patient care. They present an algorithm for an imaging approach for pediatric patients after liver transplant and describe key points that should be included in radiologic reports in the pre- and postoperative settings. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2017.

  6. Screening needs and expectations of patients with vascular access due to chronic hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Carli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data about daily difficulties and life quality, especially among young patients having arteriovenous fistula (AVF affected by (pseudoaneurysm. In this retrospective cohort study, 195 patients with AVF were followed up from May to June 2015. An unstandardized questionnaire was used for the evaluation of patients’ screening needs and expectations. Retired married men in their sixties, with completed secondary education, represented the majority of patients with AVF in this study. The patients had a positive attitude towards the disease and AVF, and they received the majority of information related to the care and treatment of AVF from the medical personnel and doctors in selected dialysis centers. Employed, well-educated single men, aged between 21 and 40 years, had the highest interest in having an aesthetic correction of AVF, especially due to the formation of (pseudoaneurysm at the AVF site. Establishment of rules for reconstructive procedures of AVF, once circulatory and hemodynamic stability is achieved after renal transplantation, is suggested in addition to establishing criteria for determining vascular access affected by (pseudoaneurysm.

  7. Using Videoconferencing to Deliver Individual Therapy and Pediatric Psychology Interventions with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Patton, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Because of the widening access gap between need for individual and pediatric psychology services and child specialist availability, secure videoconferencing options are more needed than ever to address access challenges across underserved settings. The authors summarize real-time videoconferencing evidence to date across individual therapy with children and pediatric psychology interventions using videoconferencing. The authors summarize emerging guidelines that inform best practices for individual child therapy over videoconferencing. The authors present three case examples to illustrate best practices. The first behavioral pediatrics case summarizes evidence-based approaches in treating a rural young adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and hearing impairment. The second pediatric psychology case describes similarities and difference between on-site and videoconferencing services in treating a rural child with toileting concerns. The third adolescent case describes treatment of an urban honors student with depression. Videoconferencing is an effective approach to improving access to individual and pediatric psychology interventions for children and adolescents. Videoconferencing approaches are well accepted by families and show promise for disseminating evidence-based treatments to underserved communities.

  8. Telemedicine and Pediatric Obesity Treatment: Review of the literature and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gail M.; Irby, Megan B.; Boles, Katie; Jordan, Christine; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is more prevalent in rural areas, yet rural families may not have access to pediatric obesity treatment programs. Use of new technologies, particularly telemedicine, has proven effective in other behavioral fields, such as psychiatry. This paper reviews the literature on the use of telemedicine in pediatric obesity treatment, and describes one tertiary-care pediatric obesity telemedicine program. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1990–2011 using the fol...

  9. Retrospective analysis of 271 arteriovenous fistulas as vascular access for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahasrabudhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes our experience of arteriovenous fistula (AVF creation as vascular access for hemodialysis (HD. Study has been carried out in Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital, Pune from January 2004 to December 2009. A total of 271 AVFs were created in 249 patients. Maximum follow up was 7 years and minimum was 1 year. In this study of 271 cases of AVFs, there were 196 (72.3% successful cases and 75 (27.7% failures. Basilic vein was used in 77 (28.4% cases, cephalic vein in 186 (68.6%, and antecubital vein in 8 (3% cases. End (vein to side (artery anastomosis was done in 170 (63% cases. Side to side anastomosis was done in 100 (37% cases. On table bruit was present in 244 (90% and thrill in 232 (85.6% cases. During dialysis, flow rate >250 ml/min was obtained in 136 (50.4% cases. In complications, 16 (5.9% patients developed distal edema, 32 (11.8% developed steal phenomenon. Presence of on table thrill and bruit are indicators of successful AVF. If vein diameter is <2 mm, chances of AVF failure are high. During proximal side to side fistula between antecubital/basilic vein and brachial artery, breaking of first valve toward wrist helps to develop distal veins in forearm by retrograde flow. This technique avoids requirement of superficialization of basilic vein in arm.

  10. Serum tumor markers in pediatric osteosarcoma: a summary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitskaya Yulia A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma.

  11. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  12. Pediatric renal transplant practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sidharth Kumar; Sinha, Rajiv; Rohatgi, Smriti; Kher, Vijay; Iyengar, Arpana; Bagga, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    Limited access to tertiary-level health care, limited trained pediatric nephrologists and transplant physicians, lack of facilities for dialysis, lack of an effective deceased donor program, non-affordability, and non-adherence to immunosuppressant drugs poses a major challenge to universal availability of pediatric transplantation in developing countries. We present the results of a survey which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first such published attempt at understanding the current state of pediatric renal transplantation in India. A designed questionnaire formulated by a group of pediatric nephrologists with the aim of understanding the current practice of pediatric renal transplantation was circulated to all adult and pediatric nephrologists of the country. Of 26 adult nephrologists who responded, 16 (61.5%) were involved in pediatric transplantation, and 10 of 15 (66.6%) pediatric nephrologists were involved in pediatric transplantation. Most of the centers doing transplants were private/trust institution with only three government institutions undertaking it. Induction therapy was varied among pediatric and adult nephrologists. There were only a few centers (n=5) in the country routinely doing >5 transplants per year. Preemptive transplants and protocol biopsies were a rarity. The results demonstrate lower incidence of undertaking pediatric transplants in children below 6 years, paucity of active cadaveric programs and lack of availability of trained pediatric nephrologists and staff. In contrast to these dissimilarities, the immunosuppressant use seems to be quite similar to Western registry data with majority favoring induction agent and triple immunosuppressant (steroid, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus) for maintenance. The survey also identifies major concerns in availability of this service to all regions of India as well as to all economic segments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relational databases for rare disease study: application to vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan A; Coltrera, Marc D

    2008-01-01

    To design a relational database integrating clinical and basic science data needed for multidisciplinary treatment and research in the field of vascular anomalies. Based on data points agreed on by the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) Vascular Anomalies Task Force. The database design enables sharing of data subsets in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant manner for multisite collaborative trials. Vascular anomalies pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Our understanding of these lesions and treatment improvement is limited by nonstandard terminology, severity assessment, and measures of treatment efficacy. The rarity of these lesions places a premium on coordinated studies among multiple participant sites. The relational database design is conceptually centered on subjects having 1 or more lesions. Each anomaly can be tracked individually along with their treatment outcomes. This design allows for differentiation between treatment responses and untreated lesions' natural course. The relational database design eliminates data entry redundancy and results in extremely flexible search and data export functionality. Vascular anomaly programs in the United States. A relational database correlating clinical findings and photographic, radiologic, histologic, and treatment data for vascular anomalies was created for stand-alone and multiuser networked systems. Proof of concept for independent site data gathering and HIPAA-compliant sharing of data subsets was demonstrated. The collaborative effort by the ASPO Vascular Anomalies Task Force to create the database helped define a common vascular anomaly data set. The resulting relational database software is a powerful tool to further the study of vascular anomalies and the development of evidence-based treatment innovation.

  14. Limiting chest computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jamie; Isani, Mubina; Bowling, Jordan; Zagory, Jessica; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Gayer, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (chest CT) is overused in blunt pediatric thoracic trauma. Chest CT adds to the diagnosis of thoracic injury but rarely changes patient management. We sought to identify a subset of blunt pediatric trauma patients who would benefit from a screening chest CT based on their admission chest x-ray (CXR) findings. We hypothesize that limiting chest CT to patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette identifies intrathoracic vascular injuries not otherwise seen on CXR. All blunt trauma activations that underwent an admission CXR at our Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a chest CT were evaluated for added diagnoses and change in management after CT. An admission CXR was performed in 1,035 patients. One hundred thirty-nine patients had a CT, and the diagnosis of intra-thoracic injury was added in 42% of patients. Chest CT significantly increased the diagnosis of contusion or atelectasis (30.3% vs 60.4%; p pneumothorax (7.2% vs 18.7%; p chest CT. Chest CT changed the management of only 4 patients (2.9%). Two patients underwent further radiologic evaluation that was negative for injury, one had a chest tube placed for an occult pneumothorax before exploratory laparotomy, and one patient had a thoracotomy for repair of aortic injury. Chest CT for select patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR would have decreased CT scans by 80% yet still identified patients with an intrathoracic vascular injury. The use of chest CT should be limited to the identification of intrathoracic vascular injuries in the setting of an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR. Therapeutic study, level IV; diagnostic study, level III.

  15. [Vascular and neurological complications of supracondylar humeral fractures in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masár, J

    2007-10-01

    The author reports two cases of pediatric patients with supracondylar humeral fractures complicated by concomitant vascular injury. One of the patients also presented with neurological symptoms from compression of the ulnar and median nerves. In the case of vascular injury only, it was necessary to resect a 1-cm segment of the brachial artery which was thrombosed due to intimal disruption. In the other case, surgery was not indicated immediately; however, liberation of the nervus ulnaris and nervus medianus was later required because of nerve compression by the scar and bone. The author considers the exact diagnosis, precise reduction and stable fixation of a fracture to be most important for a good outcome of treatment. Any associated vascular injury is indicated for surgery only after a thorough diagnostic consideration, and may not be needed in every case. The most decisive factor is the clinical presentation. Injury to the nerve system is indicated for surgical treatment at a later period, at 3 months post-injury at the earliest.

  16. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). METHODS: Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the pre...

  17. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W. C.; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO i...

  18. Perception of pediatric neurology among non-neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mohammed M S

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric neurology is considered a relatively new and evolving subspecialty. In Saudi Arabia, neurologic disorders in children are common, and the demand for trained pediatric neurologists is strong. The aim was to study the perception of the pediatric neurology specialty among practicing generalists and their referral practices. Attendees of a symposium on pediatric epilepsy comprehensive review for the generalist were included. A structured 25-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, training, practice, and referral patterns. One hundred nineteen participants attended the symposium, and 90 (76%) questionnaires were returned. Attendees' ages were 22 to 70 years (mean 32 years), with 65.5% female physicians. There were 32% consultants, 51% trainees, and 17% students. Most physicians (67%) were practicing general pediatrics. Only 36% received a structured pediatric neurology rotation during training. Children with neurologic complaints constituted 28.5% of those seen in their practice, and they referred 32.5% of them to pediatric neurology. Only 32% were moderately or highly confident in making the diagnosis or providing the appropriate treatment. Those who received a structured pediatric neurology rotation felt more comfortable in their management (P = .03). Many physicians (38.5%) had no direct access to a pediatric neurologist for referrals. To conclude, pediatric neurologic disorders are common in daily practice. Most generalists did not receive a structured neurology rotation during their training and were not highly confident in diagnosing and treating these children. Given the limited number of pediatric neurologists, I highly recommend that generalists receive appropriate neurologic training.

  19. Intrasacral rod fixation for pediatric lumbopelvic fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the authors' 19 years experience with pediatric intrasacral rod fixation. After insertion of two cannulated screws in S1 with and an original template guiding them into the anterior third of the endplate, two short fusion rods were inserted into the sacrum according to Jackson's technique distally to S3. In neuromuscular scoliosis, pelvic obliquity was reduced by connecting the proximal and distal constructs, distraction or compression, and in situ rod bending. In children with high-grade spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral kyphosis was reduced by rotation of the sacrum and in situ bending. There were no direct neurological or vascular injuries. The main complication was infection (7%). No pseudarthrosis or significant loss of correction at the lumbosacral junction was observed during follow-up. Intrasacral rod fixation appears to be safe and reliable for lumbopelvic fusion in pediatric patients.

  20. Peritoneal Dialysis Access Revision in Children: Causes, Interventions, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzych-Duzalka, Dagmara; Aki, T Fazil; Azocar, Marta; White, Colin; Harvey, Elizabeth; Mir, Sevgi; Adragna, Marta; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Sinha, Rajiv; Samaille, Charlotte; Vanegas, Juan Jose; Kari, Jameela; Barbosa, Lorena; Bagga, Arvind; Galanti, Monica; Yavascan, Onder; Leozappa, Giovanna; Szczepanska, Maria; Vondrak, Karel; Tse, Kei-Chiu; Schaefer, Franz; Warady, Bradley A

    2017-01-06

    Little published information is available about access failure in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Our objectives were to evaluate frequency, risk factors, interventions, and outcome of peritoneal dialysis access revision. Data were derived from 824 incident and 1629 prevalent patients from 105 pediatric nephrology centers enrolled in the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry between 2007 and 2015. In total, 452 access revisions were recorded in 321 (13%) of 2453 patients over 3134 patient-years of follow-up, resulting in an overall access revision rate of 0.14 per treatment year. Among 824 incident patients, 186 (22.6%) underwent 188 access revisions over 1066 patient-years, yielding an access revision rate of 0.17 per treatment year; 83% of access revisions in incident patients were reported within the first year of peritoneal dialysis treatment. Catheter survival rates in incident patients were 84%, 80%, 77%, and 73% at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk of access revision was associated with younger age (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 0.95; P<0.001), diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.59; P=0.02), coexisting ostomies (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.87; P=0.01), presence of swan neck tunnel with curled intraperitoneal portion (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.63; P=0.02), and high gross national income (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19; P=0.01). Main reasons for access revisions included mechanical malfunction (60%), peritonitis (16%), exit site infection (12%), and leakage (6%). Need for access revision increased the risk of peritoneal dialysis technique failure or death (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.65; P=0.003). Access dysfunction due to mechanical causes doubled the risk

  1. Peritoneal Dialysis Access Revision in Children: Causes, Interventions, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, T. Fazil; Azocar, Marta; White, Colin; Harvey, Elizabeth; Mir, Sevgi; Adragna, Marta; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Sinha, Rajiv; Samaille, Charlotte; Vanegas, Juan Jose; Kari, Jameela; Barbosa, Lorena; Bagga, Arvind; Galanti, Monica; Yavascan, Onder; Leozappa, Giovanna; Szczepanska, Maria; Vondrak, Karel; Tse, Kei-Chiu; Schaefer, Franz; Warady, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Little published information is available about access failure in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Our objectives were to evaluate frequency, risk factors, interventions, and outcome of peritoneal dialysis access revision. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were derived from 824 incident and 1629 prevalent patients from 105 pediatric nephrology centers enrolled in the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry between 2007 and 2015. Results In total, 452 access revisions were recorded in 321 (13%) of 2453 patients over 3134 patient-years of follow-up, resulting in an overall access revision rate of 0.14 per treatment year. Among 824 incident patients, 186 (22.6%) underwent 188 access revisions over 1066 patient-years, yielding an access revision rate of 0.17 per treatment year; 83% of access revisions in incident patients were reported within the first year of peritoneal dialysis treatment. Catheter survival rates in incident patients were 84%, 80%, 77%, and 73% at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk of access revision was associated with younger age (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 0.95; P<0.001), diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.59; P=0.02), coexisting ostomies (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.87; P=0.01), presence of swan neck tunnel with curled intraperitoneal portion (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.63; P=0.02), and high gross national income (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19; P=0.01). Main reasons for access revisions included mechanical malfunction (60%), peritonitis (16%), exit site infection (12%), and leakage (6%). Need for access revision increased the risk of peritoneal dialysis technique failure or death (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1

  2. Aplicação de um sistema de vigilância de infecções de corrente sanguínea em crianças acompanhadas na Unidade de Hemodiálise Pediátrica do Hospital São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Sucupira, Carolina [UNIFESP

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis vascular access infections are a great concern in children with end stage renal disease because in the majority of the pediatric population a venous catheter is used for the initiation of hemodialysis. Methods: From October 2006 to April 2009, the bloodstream infection surveillance system proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was prospectively conducted in a pediatric outpatient hemodialysis unit. Results: Thirty pediatric patients were included. ...

  3. Biomarkers for CNS involvement in pediatric lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Tamar B; Putterman, Chaim; Goilav, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    CNS disease, or central neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (cNPSLE), occurs frequently in pediatric lupus, leading to significant morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. Diagnosing cNPSLE is especially difficult in pediatrics; many current diagnostic tools are invasive and/or costly, and there are no current accepted screening mechanisms. The most complicated aspect of diagnosis is differentiating primary disease from other etiologies; research to discover new biomarkers is attempting to address this dilemma. With many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cNPSLE, biomarker profiles across several modalities (molecular, psychometric and neuroimaging) will need to be used. For the care of children with lupus, the challenge will be to develop biomarkers that are accessible by noninvasive measures and reliable in a pediatric population. PMID:26079959

  4. Development of an e-learning portal for pediatric endocrinology : Educational considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Grijpink-Van den Biggelaar; S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); L. Schuwirth

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Global accessibility and dissemination of developments in pediatric endocrinology prompted to examine how to develop an educational interactive e-SPE web portal. Methods: A systematic approach was used to identify the relevant aspects of accessibility and dissemination. An

  5. Clinical and imaging features of intracranial arterial aneurysms in the pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzo, Todd A.; Aeron, Gunjan; Jones, Blaise V.

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial arterial aneurysms (IAAs) are rare in children. Nevertheless, IAAs account for at least 10 % - 15 % of hemorrhagic strokes during the first two decades of life. Traditional vascular risk factors, which are common in the adult population, are generally absent in the pediatric population, engendering distinct modes of IAA pathogenesis. Classification of pediatric IAAs according to the pathogenetic mechanism shows eight distinct categories: idiopathic, traumatic, those due to excessive hemodynamic stress, vasculopathic, infectious, noninfectious inflammatory, oncotic, and familial. Pathogenetic mechanism is the best predictor of the clinical course of the disease, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis. The pathogenetic subtypes of pediatric IAA show characteristic and variably overlapping features. In most cases, IAAs manifesting during the first two decades of life are idiopathic. IAAs that are idiopathic, traumatic (second most common type), or due to excessive hemodynamic stresses (third most common type) account for more than 80 % of IAAs in the pediatric age group. Most of the remaining pediatric IAAs are the result of congenital cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathies or infection. Multiple IAAs are unusual in young children except in those with acquired (secondary to immune deficiency states) or congenital cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathies or infectious IAAs. (orig.)

  6. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  8. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kevin J; Ross, E Raymond S; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N

    2006-10-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had eroded into the bifurcation of the inferior vena cava and the left common iliac vein. In three cases the aortic bifurcation was also involved. The fibrosis was so severe that dissecting out the arteries and veins to provide access to the relevant disc proved impossible. Formal division of the left common iliac vein and artery with subsequent repair was our solution. Anterior inter-vertebral disc displacement was associated with severe vascular injury. Preventing anterior disc displacement is essential in disc design. In the event of anterior displacement, disc removal should be planned with a Vascular Surgeon.

  9. Adherence to standard precaution in the peripheral vascular access Siguiendo las precauciones padrón para procedimiento de inserción vascular periférico Adesão às precauções padrão no acesso vascular periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alves Cirelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective and quantitative study was carried out in a small private general hospital, where the adherence to standard precaution in the peripheral vascular access was evaluated. The data were collected through a questionnaire aiming to characterize the nursing team's knowledge and opinion about standard precautions and the availability of materials. In addition, a systemized observation of the procedures of vein puncture and medicine administration was performed. It was identified that 84.4% of the punctures had been carried out without gloves or previous hand washing; in 29.7% of the procedures, needles were recapped and 93.2% of the professionals reported adequate material supply. Concluding, the professionals expose themselves and patients to unnecessary risks of infection. The nursing team must be the focus of continuous interventions and future actions in order to minimize the risk of infection in the procedure of peripheral vascular access.Estudio prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital general privado de poca complejidad, donde fue evaluado el seguimiento de las precauciones patrón para realizar inserción vascular periférica. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un cuestionario, con el objetivo de determinar las características del conocimiento y de opinión del equipo de enfermería sobre los temas de adhesión, precauciones patrón, disponibilidad de materiales; y por observación sistémica de los procedimientos de punción venosa y administración de medicamentos. Se identificó que 84,4% de las punciones fueron realizadas sin guantes y sin lavado previo de manos, 29,7% de las veces hubo reutilización de agujas y 93,2% de los profesionales afirmó tener una adecuada cantidad de materiales. Se concluyó que los profesionales exponen a sus pacientes y a sí mismos a riesgos de infección innecesaria. El equipo de enfermería debe enfocar su intervención y actividades futuras con el objetivo de minimizar el

  10. Pediatric uroradiology. 2nd rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotter, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the first edition of Pediatric Uroradiology, very significant advances have been made in the imaging and treatment of common and important pediatric urologic disorders such as vesicoureteric reflux, urinary tract infection, and upper urinary tract dilatation. This revised and extended version takes full account of the sometimes dramatic changes. Where appropriate, new contents have been included, e.g., on genetics, while other information that continues to be pertinent has been retained. This book describes in detail all aspects of pediatric uroradiology. While it is written primarily from the point of view of the radiologist, it includes essential information for the pediatrician, pediatric surgeon, and urologist. It is specifically designed to aid the clinician in decisions on imaging management. The newest techniques and the changing relevance of imaging and interventional procedures are presented, and the diverse problems associated with the changing anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology from the newborn period to adulthood are explained. The whole spectrum of imaging features of agenesis, anomalies, dysplasia, parenchymal diseases, neoplastic diseases, stone disease, renal vascular hypertension, renal failure, renal transplantation, and genitourinary trauma is covered. Individual chapters are devoted to vesicoureteric reflux, urinary tract infection, upper urinary tract dilatation, voiding dysfunction, and neurogenic bladder. A new chapter on the clinical management of common nephrourologic disorders, with the subtitle ''guidelines and beyond,'' explains how imaging is embedded in the whole process of clinical management today. Short conclusions are included at the end of chapters and sections to provide the reader with the key information on the specific topic under consideration. (orig.)

  11. Pediatric uroradiology. 2nd rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotter, Richard (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Medical Univ. Graz (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Radiology

    2008-07-01

    Since the first edition of Pediatric Uroradiology, very significant advances have been made in the imaging and treatment of common and important pediatric urologic disorders such as vesicoureteric reflux, urinary tract infection, and upper urinary tract dilatation. This revised and extended version takes full account of the sometimes dramatic changes. Where appropriate, new contents have been included, e.g., on genetics, while other information that continues to be pertinent has been retained. This book describes in detail all aspects of pediatric uroradiology. While it is written primarily from the point of view of the radiologist, it includes essential information for the pediatrician, pediatric surgeon, and urologist. It is specifically designed to aid the clinician in decisions on imaging management. The newest techniques and the changing relevance of imaging and interventional procedures are presented, and the diverse problems associated with the changing anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology from the newborn period to adulthood are explained. The whole spectrum of imaging features of agenesis, anomalies, dysplasia, parenchymal diseases, neoplastic diseases, stone disease, renal vascular hypertension, renal failure, renal transplantation, and genitourinary trauma is covered. Individual chapters are devoted to vesicoureteric reflux, urinary tract infection, upper urinary tract dilatation, voiding dysfunction, and neurogenic bladder. A new chapter on the clinical management of common nephrourologic disorders, with the subtitle 'guidelines and beyond,' explains how imaging is embedded in the whole process of clinical management today. Short conclusions are included at the end of chapters and sections to provide the reader with the key information on the specific topic under consideration. (orig.)

  12. Vascular impairment as a pathological mechanism underlying long-lasting cognitive dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichkova, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Bar, Claire; Villega, Frederic; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Badaut, Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function. This review will focus on cerebrovascular dysfunction as an important early event that may lead to long-term phenotypic changes in the brain after pediatric TBI. These, in turn may be associated with accelerated brain aging and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, since no effective treatments are currently available, understanding the unique pathophysiological mechanisms of pediatric TBI is crucial for the development of new therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovation in Pediatric Surgical Education for General Surgery Residents: A Mobile Web Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Joshua D; Wagner, Justin P; Scott, Andrew; Sullins, Veronica F; Chen, David C; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Shew, Stephen B; Tillou, Areti; Dunn, James C Y; Lee, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    General surgery residents lack a standardized educational experience in pediatric surgery. We hypothesized that the development of a mobile educational interface would provide general surgery residents broader access to pediatric surgical education materials. We created an educational mobile website for general surgery residents rotating on pediatric surgery, which included a curriculum, multimedia resources, the Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS), and Twitter functionality. Residents were instructed to consult the curriculum. Residents and faculty posted media using the Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, and following each surgical procedure reviewed performance via the OPRS. Site visits, Twitter posts, and OPRS submissions were quantified from September 2013 to July 2014. The pediatric surgery mobile website received 257 hits; 108 to the homepage, 107 to multimedia, 28 to the syllabus, and 19 to the OPRS. All eligible residents accessed the content. The Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, was assigned to 20 posts; the overall audience reach was 85 individuals. Participants in the mobile OPRS included 11 general surgery residents and 4 pediatric surgery faculty. Pediatric surgical education resources and operative performance evaluations are effectively administered to general surgery residents via a structured mobile platform. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Telemedicine: Pediatric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bryan L.; Hall, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    Telemedicine is a technological tool that is improving the health of children around the world. This report chronicles the use of telemedicine by pediatricians and pediatric medical and surgical specialists to deliver inpatient and outpatient care, educate physicians and patients, and conduct medical research. It also describes the importance of telemedicine in responding to emergencies and disasters and providing access to pediatric care to remote and underserved populations. Barriers to telemedicine expansion are explained, such as legal issues, inadequate payment for services, technology costs and sustainability, and the lack of technology infrastructure on a national scale. Although certain challenges have constrained more widespread implementation, telemedicine’s current use bears testimony to its effectiveness and potential. Telemedicine’s widespread adoption will be influenced by the implementation of key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, technological advances, and growing patient demand for virtual visits. PMID:26122813

  15. Access to Posthospitalization Acute Care Facilities is Associated with Payer Status for Open Abdominal Aortic Repair and Open Lower Extremity Revascularization in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Jesus G; Woo, Karen; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Rigberg, David

    2017-07-01

    Uninsured patients may not have access to postacute care facilities that play an important role in clinical recovery, and functional outcomes after vascular surgery. We sought to determine whether discharge disposition is associated with insurance status. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Vascular Quality Initiative ® for patients who underwent open abdominal aortic repair, infrainguinal bypass, or suprainguinal bypass (SB) between January 2012 and July 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with clustering at the surgeon and facility level was used to calculate 95% confidence intervals for discharge disposition to home, skilled nursing facility (SNF) or rehabilitation (Rehab) facility by payer status (Medicare, Medicaid, Commercial, Military/Veterans Affairs, Non-US Insurance, or Self-pay), with adjustment for patient, operative, and postoperative characteristics. The study cohort comprised 18,478 procedures (open abdominal aortic repair = 2,817; infrainguinal bypass = 11,572; suprainguinal bypass = 4,089) after we excluded procedures with missing data and in-hospital deaths. Twenty-four percent of the cohort was discharged to an SNF or Rehab site. On univariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) of discharge home was 4.38 (95% CI: 3.33-5.77) for self-pay as compared to Medicare. On mixed-effects analysis, the adjusted odds of discharge home for self-pay as compared to Medicare remained high (OR = 3.09; 95% CI: 2.23-4.26), after adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, preoperative ambulatory status, number of comorbidities, case urgency, total operative time, presence of a postoperative complication, procedure type, and length of stay. Adjusted odds for discharge to SNF (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.15-0.46) and Rehab (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.72) were lowest for self-pay status. Access to postacute care facilities is associated with insurance status. Self-pay (uninsured) patients are less likely to have access to discharge services that may

  16. Totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement: a modified technique that takes post-procedure aesthetic aspects into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Major progress has been made in breast cancer reconstruction surgery. The standard technique for totally implanted vascular access device (TIVAD) implantation generally requires an incision for port insertion on the anterior part of the thorax that leaves a scar in the middle of the neckline in patients who have undergone mastectomy with complex breast reconstruction. The aim of this technical note is to report our revised surgical technique for TIVAD placement. In patients with breast cancer, we take a lateralized approach, performing an oblique incision on the lowest part of the deltopectoral groove. This allows us to introduce the port and to place it on the anterolateral part of the thorax, thus avoiding an unaesthetic scar on the anterior part of the thorax. Our modified technique for TIVAD implantation is described.

  17. Quality of online pediatric orthopaedic education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghhi, Daniel P; Komlos, Daniel; Agarwal, Nitin; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2014-12-03

    Increased availability of medical information on the Internet empowers patients to look up answers to questions about their medical conditions. However, the quality of medical information available on the Internet is highly variable. Various tools for the assessment of online medical information have been developed and used to assess the quality and accuracy of medical web sites. In this study we used the LIDA tool (Minervation) to assess the quality of pediatric patient information on the AAOS (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) and POSNA (Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America) web sites. The accessibility, usability, and reliability of online medical information in the "Children" section of the AAOS web site and on the POSNA web site were assessed with use of the LIDA tool. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) values were also calculated to assess the readability of the pediatric education material. Patient education materials on each web site scored in the moderate range in assessments of accessibility, usability, and reliability. FK and FRE values indicated that the readability of each web site remained at a somewhat higher (more difficult) level than the recommended benchmark. The quality and readability of online information for children on the AAOS and POSNA web sites are acceptable but can be improved further. The quality of online pediatric orthopaedic patient education materials may affect communication with patients and their caregivers, and further investigation and modification of quality are needed. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. Camouflage therapy workshop for pediatric dermatology patients: a review of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, L; del Boz, J; Ramírez-López, M B; Fernández-Sánchez, M E

    2014-06-01

    Certain skin conditions, such as vitiligo, acne, vascular malformations, and surgical scars, can impair the quality of life of pediatric patients, especially adolescents-even to the point of hindering psychosocial development. We review the cases of 6 patients with discoloration or scarring, predominantly of the face, who attended our cosmetic camouflage workshops from January through December 2012. The quality-of-life impact of their skin disorder was assessed before and after workshop attendance. Cosmetic camouflage is an easily replicated, cheap, and noninvasive adjunctive treatment of great potential value in managing skin conditions that impair the physical and emotional well-being of pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial experience with the Cardiva Boomerang vascular closure device in diagnostic catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Brendan J; Godfrey, Michael J; Lennon, Ryan J; Ryan, James L; Bresnahan, John F; Rihal, Charanjit S; Ting, Henry H

    2007-02-01

    The authors studied the safety and efficacy of the Cardiva Boomerang vascular closure device in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Conventional vascular closure devices (sutures, collagen plugs, or metal clips) have been associated with catastrophic complications including arterial occlusion and foreign body infections; furthermore, they cannot be utilized in patients with peripheral vascular disease or vascular access site in a vessel other than the common femoral artery. The Cardiva Boomerang device facilitates vascular hemostasis without leaving any foreign body behind at the access site, can be used in peripheral vascular disease, and can be used in vessels other than the common femoral artery A total of 96 patients undergoing transfemoral diagnostic cardiac catheterization were included in this study, including 25 (26%) patients with contraindications to conventional closure devices. Femoral angiography was performed prior to deployment of the Cardiva Boomerang closure device. Patients were ambulated at 1 hr after hemostasis was achieved. The device was successfully deployed and hemostasis achieved with the device alone in 95 (99%) patients. The device failed to deploy in 1 (1%) patient and required conversion to standard manual compression. Minor complications were observed in 5 (5%) patients. No patients experienced major complications including femoral hematoma > 4 cm, red blood cell transfusion, retroperitoneal bleed, arteriovenous fistula, pseudoaneurysm, infection, arterial occlusion, or vascular surgery. The Cardiva Boomerang device is safe and effective in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization using the transfemoral approach, facilitating early ambulation with low rates of vascular complications. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-01-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical 123 I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using 123 I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. 123 I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases. (author)

  1. Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A; Golianu, Brenda

    2017-06-23

    Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.

  2. Recent advances in pediatric interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ho

    2017-08-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major technological achievements in pediatric interventional cardiology. In addition, there have been several advances in cardiac imaging, especially in 3-dimensional imaging of echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cineangiography. Therefore, more types of congenital heart diseases can be treated in the cardiac catheter laboratory today than ever before. Furthermore, lesions previously considered resistant to interventional therapies can now be managed with high success rates. The hybrid approach has enabled the overcoming of limitations inherent to percutaneous access, expanding the application of endovascular therapies as adjunct to surgical interventions to improve patient outcomes and minimize invasiveness. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has become a successful alternative therapy. However, most of the current recommendations about pediatric cardiac interventions (including class I recommendations) refer to off-label use of devices, because it is difficult to study the safety and efficacy of catheterization and transcatheter therapy in pediatric cardiac patients. This difficulty arises from the challenge of identifying a control population and the relatively small number of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Nevertheless, the pediatric interventional cardiology community has continued to develop less invasive solutions for congenital heart defects to minimize the need for open heart surgery and optimize overall outcomes. In this review, various interventional procedures in patients with congenital heart disease are explored.

  3. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  4. Pediatric caregiver attitudes toward email communication: survey in an urban primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert Arthur; Crocetti, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Overall usage of email communication between patients and physicians continues to increase, due in part to expanding the adoption of electronic health records and patient portals. Unequal access and acceptance of these technologies has the potential to exacerbate disparities in care. Little is known about the attitudes of pediatric caregivers with regard to their acceptance of email as a means to communicate with their health care providers. We conducted a survey to assess pediatric caregiver access to and attitudes toward the use of electronic communication modalities to communicate with health care providers in an urban pediatric primary care clinic. Participants were pediatric caregivers recruited from an urban pediatric primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, who completed a 35-item questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Of the 229 caregivers who completed the survey (91.2% response rate), 171 (74.6%) reported that they use email to communicate with others. Of the email users, 145 respondents (86.3%) stated that they would like to email doctors, although only 18 (10.7%) actually do so. Among email users, African-American caregivers were much less likely to support the expanded use of email communication with health care providers (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.82) as were those with annual incomes less than US $30,000 (adjusted OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.74). Caregivers of children have access to email and many would be interested in communicating with health care providers. However, African-Americans and those in lower socioeconomic groups were much less likely to have positive attitudes toward email.

  5. [Pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after pulmonary stent implants in a patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer Potenciano, M; Piris Borregas, S; Mendoza Soto, A; Velasco Bayon, J M; Caro Barri, A

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tortuosity syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes tortuosity and stenosis of the pulmonary, systemic and / or coronary circulations. As a result of treatment of pulmonary stenosis, symptoms of pulmonary edema, known as lung reperfusion syndrome, may occur. The case is presented of an adolescent patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome who presented with a pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after multiple stent implants in the left pulmonary artery. After the procedure, the patient immediately developed an acute pulmonary edema with severe clinical deterioration, which required assistance with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for recovery. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Our experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric renal stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, İlknur; Nalbant, İsmail; Öztürk, Ufuk; Can Şener, Nevzat; Yeşil, Süleyman; Göksel Göktuğ, H N; Abdurrahim İmamoğlu, M

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present our experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in a pediatric patient group. From June 2007 to September 2010, we performed PNL on 57 pediatric patients. children with a mean age of 7.56 (1-15) years. Study population consisted of 30 male, and 27 female children with a mean age of 7.56 (1-5) years. Mean stone burden was calculated to be 312.2 (95-1550) mm(2). Percutaneous access was performed under fluoroscopy. Tract dilatation was accomplished with 20 F Amplatz dilators. Pneumatic lithotripsy was used to fragment the renal calculi. Mean operating time was 34 (3-80) minutes. With a single session of PNL, complete stone-free rates were achieved in 55 (96.4%) patients. Residual fragments were remained in 2 (3.5%) patients. Two patients had a febrile episode without signs and symptoms of bacteremia. Subcostal access was used in all of the patients, and none of the patients had any complications. Based on our experience, we conclude that PNL is a safe and effective method in the management of pediatric stone disease.

  7. Pediatric MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatric MS Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pediatric MS Pediatric MS Pediatric MS Support Pediatric Providers ... system through the Pediatric MS Support Group . Treating pediatric MS In 2018 the U.S. Food and Drug ...

  8. Pediatric scleroderma: systemic or localized forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Kathryn S

    2012-04-01

    Pediatric scleroderma includes 2 major groups of clinical entities, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LS). Although both share a common pathophysiology, their clinical manifestations differ. LS is typically confined to the skin and underlying subcutis, with up to a quarter of patients showing extracutaneous disease manifestations such as arthritis and uveitis. Vascular, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal involvement are most commonly seen in children with SSc. Treatment of both forms targets the active inflammatory stage and halts disease progression; however, progress needs to be made toward the development of more effective antifibrotic therapy to help reverse disease damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auringer, S.T.; Bisset, G.S. III; Myer, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the pediatric airway is often complex and may require multiple imaging techniques and invasive procedures. We performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the airway in 34 children with clinical evidence of chronic airway obstruction and compared MR findings with those obtained by surgery and/or endoscopy. MR diagnoses included vascular compression in 15 patients, primary tracheomalacic states in 12 patients, and mediastinal masses in 4 patients. Findings were normal for 3 patients. The MR findings were in agreement with the endoscopic findings in 25 to 28 cases and in agreement with the surgical findings in 21 to 21 cases. (orig./GDG)

  10. Guam Medical Staffing Plan Needs Improvement to Ensure Eligible Beneficiaries Will Have Adequate Access to Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    Podiatry • Gastroenterology • Pediatric Psychology • Pediatric Psychiatry • Cardio Thoracic Surgery NMW estimated that USNH Guam will deliver...considered using circuit rider programs for neurology and podiatry . Circuit rider programs provide limited access to specialty care because providers...are: Neurology, Neurosurgery, Cardiology, Cardio Thoracic Surgery, NICU, Podiatry , Gastroenterology; Pediatric Psychiatry, and Pediatric Psychology

  11. Complex genetics of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related pediatric retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary vitreoretinal disorder that can cause various types of retinal detachments. The abnormalities in eyes with FEVR are caused by poor vascularization in the peripheral retina. The genetics of FEVR is highly heterogeneous, and mutations in the genes for Wnt signaling and a transcription factor have been reported to be responsible for FEVR. These factors have been shown to be the regulators of the pathophysiological pathways of retinal vascular development. Studies conducted to identify the causative genes of FEVR have uncovered a diverse and complex relationship between FEVR and other diseases; for example, Norrie disease, a Mendelian-inherited disease; retinopathy of prematurity, a multifactorial genetic disease; and Coats disease, a nongenetic disease, associated with pediatric retinal detachments. PMID:29018668

  12. EUS-Guided Vascular Procedures: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bokun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS is continuously stepping into the therapeutic arena, simultaneously evolving in different directions, such as the management of pancreatic and biliary diseases, celiac neurolysis, delivering local intratumoral therapy, and EUS-guided endosurgery. EUS-guided vascular procedures are also challenging, considering the variety of vascular pathology, proximity of the vascular structures to the GI tract wall, high resolution, and real-time guidance offering an attractive access route and precise delivery of the intervention. The literature on vascular therapeutic EUS demonstrates techniques for the management of upper GI variceal and nonvariceal bleeding, pseudoaneurysms, and coiling and embolization procedures, as well as the creation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. The paucity of studies, diversity of study designs, and the number of animal model studies hamper a systematic approach to the conclusion and decision making important to clinicians and healthcare policy makers. Nevertheless, theoretical benefits and findings up to date concerning technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of the procedures drive further research and development in this rather young therapeutic arena.

  13. Hyperglycemia-Induced Modulation of the Physiognomy and Angiogenic Potential of Fibroblasts Mediated by Matrix Metalloproteinase-2: Implications for Venous Stenosis Formation Associated with Hemodialysis Vascular Access in Diabetic Milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Leof, Edward B; Misra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    It is hypothesized that venous stenosis formation associated with hemodialysis vascular-access failure is caused by hypoxia-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation accompanied by proliferation and migration, and that diabetic patients have worse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the functional and gene expression outcomes of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (Mmp-2) silencing in fibroblasts cultured under hyperglycemia and euglycemia with hypoxic and normoxic stimuli. AKR-2B fibroblasts were stably transduced using lentivirus-mediated shRNA-Mmp-2 or scrambled controls and subjected to hypoxia or normoxia under hyperglycemic or euglycemic conditions for 24 and 72 h. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Vegfr-1, Mmp-2, Mmp-9 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (Timps) were determined by RT-PCR. Collagen I and IV secretion and cellular proliferation and migration were determined. Under hyperglycemic conditions, there is a significant reduction in the average gene expression of Vegf-A and Mmp-9, with an increase in Timp-1 at 24 h of hypoxia (p < 0.05) in Mmp-2-silenced fibroblasts when compared to controls. In addition, there is a decrease in collagen I and IV secretion and cellular migration. The euglycemic cells were able to reverse these findings. These findings demonstrate the rationale for using anti-Mmp-2 therapy in dialysis patients with hemodialysis vascular access in helping to reduce stenosis formation. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The intracavitary ECG method for positioning the tip of central venous access devices in pediatric patients: results of an Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Francesca; Pittiruti, Mauro; Lamperti, Massimo; Graziano, Ugo; Celentano, Davide; Capozzoli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Group for Venous Access Devices (GAVeCeLT) has carried out a multicenter study investigating the safety and accuracy of intracavitary electrocardiography (IC-ECG) in pediatric patients. We enrolled 309 patients (age 1 month-18 years) candidate to different central venous access devices (VAD) - 56 peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), 178 short term centrally inserted central catheters (CICC), 65 long term VADs, 10 VADs for dialysis - in five Italian Hospitals. Three age groups were considered: A (ECG was applicable in 307 cases. The increase of the P wave on IC-ECG was detected in all cases but two. The tip of the catheter was positioned at the cavo-atrial junction (CAJ) (i.e., at the maximal height of the P wave on IC-ECG) and the position was checked during the procedure by fluoroscopy or chest x-ray, considering the CAJ at 1-2 cm (group A), 1.5-3 cm (group B), or 2-4 cm (group C) below the carina. There were no complications related to IC-ECG. The overall match between IC-ECG and x-ray was 95.8% (96.2% in group A, 95% in group B, and 96.8% in group C). In 95 cases, the IC-ECG was performed with a dedicated ECG monitor, specifically designed for IC-ECG (Nautilus, Romedex): in this group, the match between IC-ECG and x-ray was 98.8%. We conclude that the IC-ECG method is safe and accurate in the pediatric patients. The applicability of the method is 99.4% and its feasibility is 99.4%. The accuracy is 95.8% and even higher (98.8%) when using a dedicated ECG monitor.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-03-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical /sup 123/I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases.

  16. Use of 3D models of vascular rings and slings to improve resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trahern W; Seckeler, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a manufacturing method by which an object is created in an additive process, and can be used with medical imaging data to generate accurate physical reproductions of organs and tissues for a variety of applications. We hypothesized that using 3D printed models of congenital cardiovascular lesions to supplement an educational lecture would improve learners' scores on a board-style examination. Patients with normal and abnormal aortic arches were selected and anonymized to generate 3D printed models. A cohort of pediatric and combined pediatric/emergency medicine residents were then randomized to intervention and control groups. Each participant was given a subjective survey and an objective board-style pretest. Each group received the same 20-minutes lecture on vascular rings and slings. During the intervention group's lecture, 3D printed physical models of each lesion were distributed for inspection. After each lecture, both groups completed the same subjective survey and objective board-style test to assess their comfort with and postlecture knowledge of vascular rings. There were no differences in the basic demographics of the two groups. After the lectures, both groups' subjective comfort levels increased. Both groups' scores on the objective test improved, but the intervention group scored higher on the posttest. This study demonstrated a measurable gain in knowledge about vascular rings and pulmonary artery slings with the addition of 3D printed models of the defects. Future applications of this teaching modality could extend to other congenital cardiac lesions and different learners. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The estimated cost of "no-shows" in an academic pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Gentry, Shelley D; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-02-01

    Missed appointments ("no-shows") represent an important source of lost revenue for academic medical centers. The goal of this study was to examine the costs of "no-shows" at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who missed appointments at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic during 1 academic year. Revenue lost was estimated based on average reimbursement for different insurance types and visit types. The yearly "no-show" rate was 26%. Yearly revenue lost from missed appointments was $257,724.57, and monthly losses ranged from $15,652.33 in October 2013 to $27,042.44 in January 2014. The yearly revenue lost from missed appointments at the academic pediatric neurology clinic represents funds that could have been used to improve patient access and care. Further work is needed to develop strategies to decrease the no-show rate to decrease lost revenue and improve patient care and access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Near-infrared vascular imaging in peripheral venous and arterial access

    OpenAIRE

    Cuper, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venous and arterial access are among the most widespread medical procedures performed in children. Especially in young children venous and arterial access can be problematic due to tiny blood vessels that are difficult to localize beneath a layer of baby fat. This thesis describes the development and clinical evaluation of the VascuLuminator, a guidance tool for peripheral venous and arterial access by visualizing blood vessels underneath the skin with near-infrared light. In a third to a fif...

  19. Changes to the geometry and fluid mechanics of the carotid siphon in the pediatric Moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Huq, Mehnaz; Kang, Heidi; Lee, Zhi Rui; Tang, Phua Hwee; Hu, Xi Hong; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-12-01

    The Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease that causes occlusion of the distal end of the internal carotid artery, leading to the formation of multiple tiny collateral arteries. To date, the pathogenesis of Moyamoya is unknown. Improved understanding of the changes to vascular geometry and fluid mechanics of the carotid siphon during disease may improve understanding of the pathogenesis, prognosis techniques and disease management. A retrospective analysis of Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) images was performed for Moyamoya pediatric patients (MMD) (n = 23) and control (Ctrl) pediatric patients (n = 20). The Ctrl group was composed of patients who complained of headache and had normal MRA. We performed segmentation of MRA images to quantify geometric parameters of the artery. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed to quantify the hemodynamic parameters. MMD internal carotid and carotid siphons were smaller in cross-sectional areas, and shorter in curved vascular length. Vascular curvature remained constant over age and vascular size and did not change between Ctrl and MMD, but MMD carotid siphon had lower tortuosity in the posterior bend, and higher torsion in the anterior bend. Wall shear stress and secondary flows were significantly lower in MMD, but the ratio of secondary flow kinetic energy to primary flow kinetic energy were similar between MMD and Ctrl. There were alterations to both the geometry and the flow mechanics of the carotid siphons of Moyamoya patients but it is unclear whether hemodynamics is the cause or the effect of morphological changes observed.

  20. Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A.; Golianu, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. PMID:28644422

  1. Editorial | El-Gamal | Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Molecular endotypes of pediatric asthma: a novel language directs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  4. Exploring the impact of a decision support intervention on vascular access decisions in chronic hemodialysis patients: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease who require renal replacement therapy a major decision concerns modality choice. However, many patients defer the decision about modality choice or they have an urgent or emergent need of RRT, which results in them starting hemodialysis with a Central Venous Catheter. Thereafter, efforts to help patients make more timely decisions about access choices utilizing education and resource allocation strategies met with limited success resulting in a high prevalent CVC use in Canada. Providing decision support tailored to meet patients' decision making needs may improve this situation. The Registered Nurses Association of Ontario has developed a clinical practice guideline to guide decision support for adults living with Chronic Kidney Disease (Decision Support for Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing selected recommendations this guideline on priority provincial targets for hemodialysis access in patients with Stage 5 CKD who currently use Central Venous Catheters for vascular access. Methods/Design A non-experimental intervention study with repeated measures will be conducted at St. Michaels Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Decisional conflict about dialysis access choice will be measured using the validated SURE tool, an instrument used to identify decisional conflict. Thereafter a tailored decision support intervention will be implemented. Decisional conflict will be re-measured and compared with baseline scores. Patients and staff will be interviewed to gain an understanding of how useful this intervention was for them and whether it would be feasible to implement more widely. Quantitative data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance of difference between means over time for aggregated SURE scores (pre/post will be assessed using a paired t-test. Qualitative analysis

  5. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anthony T.W.; Miller, Joshua W.; Craig, Sarah M.; To, Patricia L.; Lin, Xin; Samarron, Sandra L.; Chen, Peter C.Y.; Zwerdling, Theodore; Wun, Ted; Li, Chin-Shang; Green, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation in 14 pediatric and 8 adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients was studied using computer-assisted intravital microscopy. The bulbar conjunctiva in SCA patients in both age groups exhibited a blanched/avascular appearance characterized by decreased vascularity. SCA patients from both age groups had many of the same abnormal morphometric {vessel diameter, vessel distribution, morphometry (shape), tortuosity, arteriole:venule (A:V) ratio, and hemosiderin deposits} and dynamic {vessel sludging/sludged flow, boxcar blood (trickled) flow and abnormal flow velocity} abnormalities. A severity index (SI) was computed to quantify the degree of vasculopathy for comparison between groups. The severity of vasculopathy differed significantly between the pediatric and adult patients (SI: 4.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.6 ± 2.4; p=0.028), indicative of a lesser degree of overall severity in the pediatric patients. Specific abnormalities that were less prominent in the pediatric patients included abnormal vessel morphometry and tortuosity. Sludged flow, abnormal vessel distribution, abnormal A:V ratio, and boxcar flow, appeared in high prevalence in both age groups. The results indicate that SCA microvascular abnormalities develop in childhood and the severity of vasculopathy likely progresses with age. Intervention and effective treatment/management modalities should target pediatric patients to ameliorate, slow down or prevent progressive microvascular deterioration. PMID:20872552

  6. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  7. Vein of Galen malformation: What to do when vascular access is not feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno Marco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (GVAM is a rare congenital vascular lesion, with high morbidity and mortality without treatment, endovascular management is the best alternative available today.

  8. A comparison of patency and interventions in thigh versus Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow grafts for chronic hemodialysis vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Evan R; Kensinger, Clark D; Feurer, Irene D; Moore, Derek E; Shaffer, David

    2016-11-01

    With improvements in medical management and survival of patients with end-stage renal disease, maintaining durable vascular access is increasingly challenging. This study compared primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency, and procedure-specific complications, and evaluated whether the number of interventions to maintain or restore patency differed between prosthetic femoral-femoral looped inguinal access (thigh) grafts and Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Hemosphere Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) grafts. A single-center, retrospective, intention-to-treat analysis was conducted of consecutive thigh and HeRO grafts placed between May 2004 and June 2015. Medical history, interventions to maintain or restore patency, and complications were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistical tests, Kaplan-Meier survival methods, and multivariable proportional hazards regression and logistic regression. Seventy-six (43 thigh, 33 HeRO) grafts were placed in 61 patients (54% male; age 53 [standard deviation, 13] years). Median follow-up time in the intention-to-treat analysis was 21.2 months (min, 0.0; max, 85.3 months) for thigh grafts and 6.7 months (min, 0.0; max, 56.3 months) for HeRO grafts (P = .02). The groups were comparable for sex, age, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking history (all P ≥ .12). One thigh graft (2%) and five HeRO (15%) grafts failed primarily. In the intention-to-treat analysis, patency durations were significantly longer in the thigh grafts (all log-rank P ≤ .01). Point estimates of primary patency at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years were 61%, 46%, and 4% for the thigh grafts and 25%, 15%, and 6% for the HeRO grafts. Point estimates of assisted primary patency at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years were 75%, 66%, and 54% for the thigh grafts and 41%, 30%, and 10% for the HeRO grafts. Point estimates of secondary patency at 6

  9. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    pediatric magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of brain injury, its potential for recovery, and...training program, advanced MRI , brain injury. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...is located at www.MilitaryMedED.com. The site can be accessed from any device web browser (personal computer, tablet or phone) and operating system

  10. Near-infrared vascular imaging in peripheral venous and arterial access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuper, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venous and arterial access are among the most widespread medical procedures performed in children. Especially in young children venous and arterial access can be problematic due to tiny blood vessels that are difficult to localize beneath a layer of baby fat. This thesis describes the development

  11. Engineering based assessment for a shape design of a pediatric ePTFE pulmonary conduit valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboko, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Akihiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Mura, Seitaro; Yamagishi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    The authors examined the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valved conduits quantitatively by our originally developed pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system, in order to suggest the optimal shape design. The system consisted of pneumatically driven right atrium and ventricle model, a pulmonary valve chamber, and elastic pulmonary compliance model with peripheral vascular resistance units, a venous reservoir. We employed two different types of ePTFE valve and evaluated the relationship between the leaflets motion and hemodynamic characteristics by using a high-speed video camera. As a result, we successfully reproduced hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary mock system. We confirmed that the presence of bulging sinuses in the pulmonary valved conduit reduced the transvalvular energy loss and increased the valve opening area during systolic period. Our engineering-based in vitro analysis could be useful for proposing a shape design optimization of sophisticated pediatric ePTFE pulmonary valve.

  12. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  13. Effective flow performances and dialysis doses delivered with permanent catheters: a 24-month comparative study of permanent catheters versus arterio-venous vascular accesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Kerkeni, Nadia; Bosc, Jean-Yves; Martin, Katja

    2002-07-01

    Permanent venous catheters have emerged as a long-term vascular access option for renal replacement therapy in end-stage renal disease patients. The design and venous location of catheter devices bear intrinsic flow limitations that may negatively affect the adequacy of dialysis and the patient outcome. There is limited data comparing the long-term dialysis adequacy delivered with permanent catheters vs arterio-venous vascular accesses (AVA). To explore this problem, we conducted a prospective 24-month trial comparing the flow performances and dialysis dose (Kt/Vdp) deliveries of both access options in a group of 42 haemodialysis patients during two study phases. During the first 12 months the patients completed a treatment period by means of permanent dual silicone catheters (DualKT). Then they were transferred to an AVA (40 native arterio-venous fistulas and two PTFE grafts) and monitored for an additional 12-month period. Assessments of flow adequacy and dialysis quantification were performed monthly. Dialysis adequacy was achieved in all cases. No patient had to be transferred prematurely to the AVA because of catheter failure. Three catheters had to be replaced due to bacteraemia in three patients. The mean effective blood flow rates achieved were 316+/-3.5 ml/min and 340+/-3.3 ml/min with DualKT and AVA, respectively, for a pre-set machine blood flow of 348+/-2.2 ml/min. Recirculation rates evaluated with the 'slow blood flow' method were 8.6+/-0.6 and 12.1+/-0.8% for DualKT and AVA using mean values of the solute markers urea and creatinine. Due to the possibility of a comparison veno-venous vs arterio-venous blood circulation, a corrected arterio-venous access recirculation could be derived from the difference between the two, which was around 3%. The blood flow resistance of the DualKT was slightly higher than with AVA as indicated by venous pressure differences. Kt/Vdp delivered was 1.37+/-0.02 and 1.45+/-0.02 with DualKT and AVA access respectively. The

  14. Introduction: "The Napkin Area and its Dermatoses" symposium proceedings, World Congress of Pediatric Dermatology, September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Dr Antonio Torrelo, President of the 12(th) World Congress of Pediatric Dermatology, introduces the supplement as providing an opportunity for readers to access the lectures and related presentations delivered at the World Congress of Pediatric Dermatology held September 25-27, 2013, in Madrid. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and VEGF levels in pediatric patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Dongliang; Wu Chunfeng; Jiang Huanhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-2, soluble IL-2 receptor (SIL-2R) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in pediatric patients with tuberculosis. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R, VEGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 68 pediatric patients with tuberculosis (30 active and 38 non- active) and 30 controls. Results: In the patients with active tuberculosis, the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and SIL-2R, VEGF levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and VEGF levels was useful for monitoring the activity of tuberculosis in pediatric patients. (authors)

  16. e-Teaching in pediatric cardiology: A paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Sunita; Zheleva, Bistra; Rajasekhar, Veeralakshmi; Batra, Bipin

    2015-01-01

    Training of postgraduate students has traditionally been done in person in a hospital setting with hands-on training with each faculty member imparting knowledge to 2 to 4 students per year. Supplementing their practical education with online instruction could make a significant difference in standardizing pediatric cardiology education in India. To present the rationale, methods and survey results of a live e-Teaching methodology implemented for Pediatric cardiology trainees in association with the National Board of Examinations, India. Between March 2010 and March 2014, 310 e-classes were conducted in the Pediatric cardiac sciences by 24 e-teachers. Content of the e-Learning program was based on a 2-year pediatric cardiology curriculum and included twice-weekly live online video training sessions, a library of recorded sessions and online test quizzes for the students. A total of 231 students accessed the program at various times over the 4-year period. In our study, requests for access to the e-lectures increased from 10/year the first year to 100/year by the fourth year with feedback surveys conveying a high satisfaction level from the students and a high need for this knowledge. The advantages of virtual live e-Learning included the fact that one teacher can teach multiple students in multiple geographic locations at the same time, obviating the issue of quality teacher shortage and the same content can be disseminated to all students undergoing specialist training so there is a national consensus on diagnostic and management approach among all trainees. Additionally, the e-classes can be recorded and replayed so they can be viewed repeatedly by the same group or new trainees. This is the first sustained use of e-Teaching in a medical super-specialty in India. We believe that e-Teaching is an innovative solution that can be applied, not just to Pediatric Cardiology as we have done, but to all branches of specialist and super-specialist medical training in

  17. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  18. Pediatric Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists Pediatric Specialists Article Body ​Your pediatrician may refer your child to a pediatric specialist for further evaluation and treatment. Pediatric specialists ...

  19. A pediatric patient with refractory seizures and a mesial temporal lobe lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa eMcGinley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old adolescent presented with refractory seizures and was found to have a mesial temporal lobe lesion. The patient underwent biopsy and was diagnosed with an arteriorvenous malformation. Supratentorial lesions in the pediatric population can have a large variety of underlying etiologies and it can challenging to differentiate on neuroimaging. In this report we discuss the key features on MRI of several neoplastic, vascular, and infectious processes that can aide in the diagnosis.

  20. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in pediatric rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçakar Levent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS has emerged as an indispensible tool among physicians involved in musculoskeletal medicine in the last two decades, only recently has it become more attractive to pediatric rheumatologists. Thereafter, the use of MSUS in pediatric rheumatology has started to increase. Yet, an ever-growing body of literature shows parity and even superiority of MSUS when compared to physical examination and other imaging modalities. MSUS is suitable for examination of children of all ages and it has certain advantages over other imaging modalities; as it is cheaper, mobile, instantly accessible bedside, easy to combine with clinical assessment (interactivity and non-invasive. It does not require sedation, which facilitates repetitive examinations. Assessment of multiple locations is possible during the same session. Agitation is rarely a problem and small children can be seated in their parents' lap or they can even play while being examined.

  1. Use of propolis in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age groups are the ones that are more susceptible to a drug. Complications/side effects due to the use of man-made drugs have paved way for the natural products for pharmacotherapeutic purposes. Propolis, a natural resinous substance shows dental application based on its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. An alternative to gold standard drugs propolis is easy to use, patient friendly, and easily accessible.

  2. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  3. Multidisciplinary Management of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Reimer, Karen; Nijjar, Satnam; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Johnston, Janine; Mansouri, Behzad; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Girardin, Richard; Larkins, Shannon; Vis, Sara; Selci, Erin; Davidson, Michael; Gregoire, Scott; Sam, Angela; Black, Brian; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.

  4. Social pediatrics: weaving horizontal and vertical threads through pediatric residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Levy, Rebecca; Atkinson, Adelle; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth; Shouldice, Michelle

    2017-01-13

    Social pediatrics teaches pediatric residents how to understand disease within their patients' social, environmental and political contexts. It's an essential component of pediatric residency training; however there is very little literature that addresses how such a broad-ranging topic can be taught effectively. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize social pediatric education in our pediatric residency training in order to identify strengths and gaps. A social pediatrics curriculum map was developed, attending to 3 different dimensions: (1) the intended curriculum as prescribed by the Objectives of Training for Pediatrics of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), (2) the formal curriculum defined by rotation-specific learning objectives, and (3) the informal/hidden curriculum as reflected in resident and teacher experiences and perceptions. Forty-one social pediatric learning objectives were extracted from the RCPSC Objectives of Training for Pediatrics, most were listed in the Medical Expert (51%) and Health Advocate competencies (24%). Almost all RCPSC social pediatric learning objectives were identified in more than one rotation and/or seminar. Adolescent Medicine (29.2%), Pediatric Ambulatory Medicine (26.2%) and Developmental Pediatrics (25%) listed the highest proportion of social pediatric learning objectives. Four (10%) RCPSC social pediatric objectives were not explicitly named within learning objectives of the formal curriculum. The informal curriculum revealed that both teachers and residents viewed social pediatrics as integral to all clinical encounters. Perceived barriers to teaching and learning of social pediatrics included time constraints, particularly in a tertiary care environment, and the value of social pediatrics relative to medical expert knowledge. Despite the lack of an explicit thematic presentation of social pediatric learning objectives by the Royal College and residency training program

  5. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part III. the international situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survival dominates current pediatric global health priorities. Diseases of poverty largely contribute to overall mortality in children under 5 years of age. Infectious diseases and injuries account for 75% of cause-specific mortality among children ages 5-14 years. Twenty percent of the world's population lives in extreme poverty (income below US $1.25/day. Within this population, essential services and basic needs are not met, including clean water, sanitation, adequate nutrition, shelter, access to health care, medicines and education. In this context, musculoskeletal disease comprises 0.1% of all-cause mortality in children ages 5-14 years. Worldwide morbidity from musculoskeletal disease remains generally unknown in the pediatric age group. This epidemiologic data is not routinely surveyed by international agencies, including the World Health Organization. The prevalence of pediatric rheumatic diseases based on data from developed nations is in the range of 2,500 - 3,000 cases per million children. Developing countries' needs for musculoskeletal morbidity are undergoing an epidemiologic shift to chronic conditions, as leading causes of pediatric mortality are slowly quelled. A global crisis of health care providers and human resources stems from insufficient workforce production, inability to retain workers in areas of greatest need, distribution disparity and poor management of both health care systems and health workforce. Internationally, the pediatric rheumatology workforce will also be in very short supply for the foreseeable future relative to projected demand. Physician extenders are an essential resource to meet this demand in underserved regions. They can be trained in common aspects of musculoskeletal medicine and rheumatic conditions. Innovative strategies have been introduced in the United Kingdom to address musculoskeletal medicine educational deficiencies. Telemedicine offers an important capacity to improve access to

  6. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  7. Qualitative Study of Foster Caregivers’ Views on Adherence to Pediatric Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kennedy, Andrea K.; Sayegh, Caitlin S.

    2016-01-01

    clinic environment that encourages adherence to health care appointments. This environment is an organized clinic with easy access including parking, engaged pediatric health providers, ability to reschedule appointments when necessary, and an individualized and consistent appointment reminder system. PMID:27291938

  8. Referrals for pediatric weight management: the importance of proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Douglas WJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to weight management care can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of obese children and youth. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of clients referred to a pediatric weight management centre and explore potential differences according to proximity. Methods All demographic and anthropometric data were abstracted from standardized, one-page referral forms, which were received by a pediatric weight management centre in Edmonton, AB (Canada between April, 2005 and April, 2009. Results Referrals (n = 555; 52% male; age [mean +/- standard deviation]: 12.4 +/- 2.6 y; BMI: 32.3 +/- 6.8 kg/m2; BMI percentile: 98.4 +/- 1.7; BMI z-score: 2.3 +/- 0.4 were received from 311 physicians. Approximately 95% of referrals were for boys and girls classified as obese or very obese. Based on postal code data, individuals were dichotomized as either living within (local; n = 455 or beyond (distant; n = 100 the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area. Numerous families resided several hundred kilometres away from our centre. Overall, distant clients were taller, weighed more, and were more overweight than their local counterparts. For distant clients, the degree of overweight was higher in youth versus children. Conclusion Pediatric weight management services must be designed to optimize access to health services, especially for distant clients who may be at increased obesity-related health risk.

  9. Procedures can be learned on the Web: a randomized study of ultrasound-guided vascular access training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenkin, Jordan; Lee, Shirley; Huynh, Thien; Bandiera, Glen

    2008-10-01

    Web-based learning has several potential advantages over lectures, such as anytime-anywhere access, rich multimedia, and nonlinear navigation. While known to be an effective method for learning facts, few studies have examined the effectiveness of Web-based formats for learning procedural skills. The authors sought to determine whether a Web-based tutorial is at least as effective as a didactic lecture for learning ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA). Participating staff emergency physicians (EPs) and junior emergency medicine (EM) residents with no UGVA experience completed a precourse test and were randomized to either a Web-based or a didactic group. The Web-based group was instructed to use an online tutorial and the didactic group attended a lecture. Participants then practiced on simulators and live models without any further instruction. Following a rest period, participants completed a four-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination, and a postcourse questionnaire. Examination results were compared using a noninferiority data analysis with a 10% margin of difference. Twenty-one residents and EPs participated in the study. There were no significant differences in mean OSCE scores (absolute difference = -2.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -9.3% to 3.8%) or written test scores (absolute difference = -1.4%; 95% CI = -7.8% to 5.0%) between the Web group and the didactic group. Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in written test scores (26.1% vs. 25.8%; p = 0.95). Ninety-one percent (10/11) of the Web group and 80% (8/10) of the didactic group participants found the teaching format to be effective (p = 0.59). Our Web-based tutorial was at least as effective as a traditional didactic lecture for teaching the knowledge and skills essential for UGVA. Participants expressed high satisfaction with this teaching technology. Web-based teaching may be a useful alternative to didactic teaching for learning procedural

  10. 3D Printed Pediatric Temporal Bone: A Novel Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Evan A; Brickman, Todd M; Jeyakumar, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Temporal bone dissection is a fundamental element of otologic training. Cadaveric temporal bones (CTB) are the gold standard surgical training model; however, many institutions do not have ready access to them and their cost can be significant: $300 to $500. Furthermore, pediatric cadaveric temporal bones are not readily available. Our objective is to develop a pediatric temporal bone model. Temporal bone model. Tertiary Children's Hospital. Pediatric patient model. We describe the novel use of a 3D printer for the generation of a plaster training model from a pediatric high- resolution CT temporal bone scan of a normal pediatric temporal bone. Three models were produced and were evaluated. The models utilized multiple colors (white for bone, yellow for the facial nerve) and were of high quality. Two models were drilled as a proof of concept and found to be an acceptable facsimile of the patient's anatomy, rendering all necessary surgical landmarks accurately. The only negative comments pertaining to the 3D printed temporal bone as a training model were the lack of variation in hardness between cortical and cancellous bone, noting a tactile variation from cadaveric temporal bones. Our novel pediatric 3D temporal bone training model is a viable, low-cost training option for previously inaccessible pediatric temporal bone training. Our hope is that, as 3D printers become commonplace, these models could be rapidly reproduced, allowing for trainees to print models of patients before performing surgery on the living patient.

  11. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kristin; Glotzbecker, Michael; Miller, Patricia E; Hresko, Michael T; Hedequist, Daniel; Shore, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome in the absence of fracture is rare and poorly described within the pediatric literature. The purpose of this study was to report the varying etiologies, risk factors, and treatment outcomes associated with pediatric nonfracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS). We conducted a retrospective chart review on 37 children who suffered a NFACS and were treated at a single pediatric trauma center between 1997 and 2013. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were reviewed. Five causal groups were generated: trauma, exercise related (acute presentation after exercise without trauma), infectious, vascular, and postoperative (in the absence of osteotomy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors of NFACS. P-values 39 cases of NFRCS in 37 children [6 females, 31 males, mean age of 11.7 y (SD+7.2 y)]. The leg was the most commonly involved limb (29 cases, 74%). Diagnosis of NFRCS was made either by compartment pressure monitoring [59%, 23/39 cases, mean pressure 66 mm Hg (SD+28)] or by clinical examination. According to etiology, vascular was most common (11/39, 28%), followed by trauma (10/39, 26%) and postoperative (8/39, 21%), with exertion and infection representing a small proportion (6/39, 15% and 4/39, 10%, respectively). Pain was present in 33 cases (85%), swelling in 28 cases (72%), paresthesias in 13 cases (33%), motor deficit in 12 cases (31%), and poor perfusion in 11 cases (28%). Average time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 48 hours (IQR, 9 to 96 h). At surgery, 21 patients (54%) had evidence of myonecrosis. Children required an average of 3 surgeries for wound closure. The median time to follow-up was 232 days (IQR, 73 to 608 d). A total of 54% made a full recovery, whereas 31% suffered a persistent neurological or functional deficit. NFACS in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis. Timely assessment with high clinical suspicion is

  12. Common Femoral Artery Access on YouTube: What Practices are Being Shown and Who is Delivering the Message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Grayson S; Newton, Daniel H; Amendola, Michael F

    Novice learners are increasingly turning to YouTube as a learning resource for surgical procedures. One example of such a procedure is common femoral artery puncture and sheath placement. Practitioners in several specialties perform this procedure to access the arterial system for angiography and intervention. We set forth to compare the techniques demonstrated on YouTube by the various specialists, as well as compare each specialty׳s prevalence on this website. YouTube (www.youtube.com) was accessed in December 2015 at multiple time points with a cleared-cache web browser for the keyword search categories: "femoral artery access," "femoral access," and "angiography access." The top 500 videos from each of these keyword searches were analyzed. Videos were categorized by practitioner specialty, technique, duration of video, age of video, and total views. Videos with clear demonstration of femoral artery access were included in the analysis. All industry videos were excluded from the analysis. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher׳s exact test, and continuous variables were compared with the Student׳s t-test. A total of 2460, 4680 and 1800 videos were found for each keyword search, respectively. Of these, 33 videos clearly demonstrated femoral artery access technique. Vascular specialists, compared to interventional cardiology and radiology, had fewer videos (n = 4 vs. 14) and older videos (3.5 ± 2.1y vs. 2.25 ± 0.5y, p YouTube and other online resources are being used by novice learners, vascular specialists are underrepresented for femoral artery access, a foundational vascular procedure. Other practitioners demonstrate videos with landmark-guided access and rarely demonstrate ultrasound use. As recognized vascular experts, vascular surgeons should improve their visibility in online learning resources. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric chest imaging. Chest imaging in infants and children. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaya, Javier [Vall d' Hebron Hospitals, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Pediatric Radiology and Inst. of Diagnostic Imaging; Hospital Quiron, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Strife, Janet L. (eds.) [Cincinnati Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center

    2008-07-01

    Imaging of the pediatric chest continues to evolve rapidly. All chapters in this 2nd edition of Pediatric Chest Imaging have been extensively updated, with additional disease-specific information and numerous new illustrations. The book thus presents the state of the art in the diagnosis of pediatric chest disorders, highlighting the role played by advanced technology. As the conventional features of most of these disorders are extremely well known, special attention is devoted to the technical aspects of the modern imaging modalities, their indications, and the diagnostic information that they supply. Individual chapters focus on chest ultrasound, nuclear medicine imaging, high-resolution chest CT, helical CT, and pediatric cardiac CT and pediatric cardiacMRI. Others are directed towards specific disorders, including congenital malformations of the chest, chest tumors, pulmonary infection, trauma, the lung in systemic diseases, the pediatric airway, foreign bodies, the thymus, and the chest wall. Without exception, the authors of this book are internationally known specialists with great expertise in the field. This book will serve as a handy, superbly illustrated reference for all who routinely image children, as well as for those who need access to information on how best to image them. (orig.)

  14. Pediatric interventional radiology: Indications, techniques, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, R.B.; Ball, W.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This course develops a practical approach to pediatric interventional radiology. Radiologic intervention in the pediatricage group is possible by attending to the care and special needs of the child. The authors also emphasize their approach to patient preparation, sedation and anesthesia, nursing care, monitoring of the patient during the procedure, and follow-up care. The course is divided into nonvascular and vascular sections. The discussion of nonvascular procedures focus on the chest and the GU and GI systems. Biopsy techniques and drainage of effusions and abscesses within the chest are discussed. A variety of GU procedures are presented including insertion of a nephrostomy tube and percutaneous tract dilation for placement of internal stents, percutaneous stone removal, and percutaneous surgery for pyeloplasty. The authors approach to percutaneous pyeloplasty is briefly discussed. Intervention within the GI system includes percutaenous aspiration, drainage, and biopsies. Emphasis is placed on the selection of embolic agents and catheter delivery systems, techniques, and current treatment concepts. The authors describe experience with embolization of vascular malformations, renovascular disease, uncontrollable hemorrhage, and selected neoplastic processes. Comments on the indications for and techniques of transluminal angioplasty and fibrinolytic therapy in children conclude the lecture

  15. Pediatric neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is an emerging multidisciplinary field of medicine and a new frontier in pediatric critical care and pediatric neurology. Central to pediatric neurocritical care is the goal of improving outcomes in critically ill pediatric patients with neurological illness or injury and limiting secondary brain injury through optimal critical care delivery and the support of brain function. There is a pressing need for evidence based guidelines in pediatric neurocritical care, notably in pediatric traumatic brain injury and pediatric stroke. These diseases have distinct clinical and pathophysiological features that distinguish them from their adult counterparts and prevent the direct translation of the adult experience to pediatric patients. Increased attention is also being paid to the broader application of neuromonitoring and neuroprotective strategies in the pediatric intensive care unit, in both primary neurological and primary non-neurological disease states. Although much can be learned from the adult experience, there are important differences in the critically ill pediatric population and in the circumstances that surround the emergence of neurocritical care in pediatrics.

  16. Vascular injury is associated with increased mortality in winter sports trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, John C; Bronsert, Michael; Hansen, Kristine; Moulton, Steven L; Jazaeri, Omid; Nehler, Mark; Greenberg, Joshua I

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of injury and death for individuals aged 1-44 years. Up to 8% of the US population participates in winter sports, and although vascular injuries are uncommon in these activities, little is published in this area. We sought to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and outcomes of vascular injuries resulting from winter sports trauma. Patients with winter sports trauma and the subset with vascular injuries were identified by accessing the National Trauma Data Bank querying years 2007-2010. Patients with and without vascular injuries were then compared. Admission variables included transport time, emergency department hypotension (systolic blood pressure Injury Severity Score ≥ 25, fractures, solid organ injury, and vascular injury. Outcomes were analyzed and associations with vascular injuries were determined. A total of 2,298 patients were identified with winter sports-related trauma and 28 (1.2%) had associated vascular injuries. Overall, the top 3 injuries were head trauma (16.7%), thoracic vertebral fractures (5.5%), and lumbar vertebral fractures (5.1%). The most common associated vascular injures were to the popliteal artery (17.7%), splenic artery (14.7%), and brachial blood vessels (14.7%). In the entire cohort, 1 patient (0.04%) suffered an amputation and 15 patients (0.7%) died. There were no amputations in the vascular injury group. Mortality was 0.6% in patients without a vascular injury compared with 7.1% of those with a vascular injury (P = 0.01). Although vascular injury is an uncommon associated finding in winter sports trauma, it is associated with a significant increase in mortality. These findings highlight the need for rapid identification of traumatic vascular injuries, which predicts worse overall outcomes in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Value of preserved saphenous vein graft for the creation of access ports in hemodialyzed patients: report of 309 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marc; Barrou, Benoît; Cluzel, Philippe; Hamani, Aziz; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Richard, François

    2003-09-01

    Biological grafts are rarely used for the creation of vascular access, despite their many advantages. Our group prefers to use distal vascular accesses with interposition of a biological graft when direct access cannot be achieved. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term patency and the complication rate of a series of 309 vascular access procedures using a preserved saphenous (PS) vein homograft. 410 (27%) of the 1,500 vascular access procedures performed by our group required the use of a graft, including 376 PS vein homografts (25%). This retrospective study comprised complete data collection for 309 arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) using preserved saphenous (PS) vein graft in the forearm performed in 267 patients between 1985 and 2000. Primary patency was defined as the interval between creation of the vascular access and the first complication requiring surgical or radiological correction; secondary patency was defined as the interval between creation and loss of the graft, with or without revision of the fistula. Survival rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Inter-group comparison was performed by the Logrank test and analysis of variance was performed by logistic regression. Primary patency rates were 77%, 40% and 27% at 1,2 and 5 years, respectively. Secondary patency rates were 79% and 47% at 1 year and 5 years, respectively. The thrombosis rate was 42%. Two episodes of thrombosis occurred in 25% of grafts and 3 episodes were observed in 10% of cases. Infection rates were 1.9% postoperatively and 5% after dialysis, respectively. An aneurysm occurred on 10% of grafts. The operator's experience (RR = 1.58; p creation of vascular accesses with similar patency rates to those of prosthetic grafts. Vein grafts present a number of advantages, particularly a greater ease of use facilitating distal implantation of the graft and a low infection rate.

  18. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and vascular complications definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Généreux, Philippe; van der Boon, Robert M A; Kodali, Susheel; Head, Stuart; Williams, Matthew; Daneault, Benoit; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; de Jaegere, Peter P; Leon, Martin B; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-03-20

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) requires large calibre catheters and is therefore associated with increased vascular complications. The aim of this study was to illustrate the impact of the different definitions of major vascular complications on their incidence and to underscore the importance of uniform reporting. We pooled dedicated databases of consecutive patients undergoing TAVR from two tertiary care facilities and looked for the incidence of major vascular complications using various previously reported definitions. The level of agreement (Kappa statistic) between the respective definitions and the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) consensus definition of vascular complications was assessed. A total of 345 consecutive patients underwent transfemoral TAVR and were included in this analysis. A completely percutaneous access and closure technique was applied in 96% of cases. Arterial sheath size ranged between 18 and 24 Fr, the majority being 18 Fr (60%). Procedural success was reached in 94.5%. Depending on the definition used, major vascular complications occurred in 5.2-15.9% of patients. According to the VARC definitions, the rate of major and minor vascular complications was 9.0% and 9.6%, respectively. Major vascular complications according to VARC criteria demonstrated at least a substantial level of agreement with the SOURCE registry (k 0.80), the UK registry (k 0.82) the Italian registry (k 0.72) and "FRANCE" registry (k 0.70) definitions, compared to a moderate level of agreement with the definitions used in the German registry ( 0.47) and the 18 Fr Safety and Efficacy study (k 0.42). Minor complications according to VARC demonstrated a moderate agreement only with vascular complications using the German registry definition (k 0.54). Non-uniformity in how vascular complications are defined precludes any reliable comparison between previously reported TAVR registries. The VARC consensus document offers standardised endpoint

  19. An update on Cushing syndrome in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-04-09

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in childhood results mostly from the exogenous administration of glucocorticoids; endogenous CS is a rare disease. The latter is the main reason pediatric patients with CS escape diagnosis for too long. Other barriers to optimal care of a pediatric patient with CS include improper following of the proper sequence of testing for diagnosing CS, which stems from lack of understanding of pathophysiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; lack of access to proper (i.e., experienced, state-of-the-art) surgical treatment; and unavailability of well-tolerated and effective medications to control hypercortisolemia. This report reviews the state-of-the-art in diagnosing CS and provides an update on the most recent discoveries in its genetics and treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Chronicle of pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, Gabriele; Richter, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    The chronicle of pediatric radiology covers the following issues: Development of pediatric radiology in Germany (BRD, DDR, pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in the Netherlands (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Austria (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Switzerland (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations).

  1. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  2. Medical marijuana in pediatric oncology: A review of the evidence and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Prasanna; Reed-Weston, Anne; Wolfe, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    Medical marijuana (MM) has become increasingly legal at the state level and accessible to children with serious illness. Pediatric patients with cancer may be particularly receptive to MM, given purported benefits in managing cancer-related symptoms. In this review, we examine the evidence for MM as a supportive care agent in pediatric oncology. We describe the current legal status of MM, mechanism of action, common formulations, and potential benefits versus risks for pediatric oncology patients. We offer suggestions for how providers might approach MM requests. Throughout, we comment on avenues for future investigation on this growing trend in supportive care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Necrotizing Fasciitis in a Pediatric Patient Caused by Lancefield Group G Streptococcus: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rausch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis with an accompanying toxic shock syndrome caused by Group G Streptococcus in a pediatric patient with a lymphatic malformation. Pediatricians need to be aware of the possibility of such infections, especially in those with vascular/lymphatic malformations, as early treatment is critical for survival.

  4. Presymptomatic genetic analysis during pregnancy for vascular type Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing BT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Banyar Than Naing,1 Atsushi Watanabe,1,2 Shinji Tanigaki,3 Masae Ono,4 Mitsutoshi Iwashita,3 Takashi Shimada1,21Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division of Clinical Genetics, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The vascular type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS, EDS type IV (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] #130050 is characterized by thin, translucent skin, easy bruising, and arterial, intestinal, and/or uterine fragility during pregnancy, which may lead to sudden death. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by type III procollagen gene (COL3A1: MIM #120180 mutations. Approximately 50% of the COL3A1 mutations are inherited from an affected parent, and 50% are de novo mutations. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation and developing the disorder. Pregnant women with vascular EDS are at an increased risk of uterine and arterial rupture during the peripartum period, with high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. We report the first case of an asymptomatic 35-year-old woman at a risk of complications of vascular EDS who underwent presymptomatic evaluation during pregnancy. The sequencing results of both her brother and mother had a one-base-pair deletion, resulting in Glutamate at position 730 changing to Lysine and causing a frame shift and premature termination codon at 61 amino acids from the mutation position (p. Glu730Lysfs*61 on exon 32 of COL3A1. This deletion caused frameshift, leading to a premature termination codon (TAG at 181 nucleotides downstream in exon 35, which could not be detected by previous total RNA (ribonucleic acid method. Thus, she was at risk of complications of vascular EDS, and diagnostic testing was employed

  5. 78 FR 38867 - Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Reclassification of Implanted Blood Access Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and provides.... Additionally, some patients may have inadequate vascular anatomy to establish a more permanent vascular access... Kidney Diseases, vol. 30, pp. 213-218, 1997. 11. Schnabel, K.J., M.E. Simons, G.F. Zevallos, et al...

  6. Transradial access for coronary angiography: a single operator's experience of 500 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Aziz, S.; Javed, A.; Kayani, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility, success, and safety of the transradial approach (TRA) for diagnostic coronary angiography. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) over a period of ten months from June 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: We collected data of 500 consecutive patients who underwent coronary catheterization by the transradial approach. Transradial access was performed only if the Allen's test was normal (positive). Patients with previous CABG or requiring right heart catheterization were excluded from this study. Study endpoints included procedure success rate, vascular complications at access site, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events during hospitalization. Results: Mean age of the patients was 52 years (range 33-77 yrs) and 72.8% (n= 364) were men and 27.2% (n=136) were females. The vast majority of cases (98.4%) were elective. The right radial artery was used in 98% of cases. Procedural success was achieved in 90.6% cases (453/500). No case of vascular complications such as major access site bleeding, vascular perforation, radial artery occlusion, forearm ischemia, compartment syndrome or MACE was observed. Conclusion: Transradial access for coronary angiography is a safe, effective and elegant alternative to trans femoral access. (author)

  7. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric Critical Care in Resource-Limited Settings-Overview and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Tina M; Kiragu, Andrew W; Day, Louise T; Bjorklund, Ashley R; Shirk, Arianna; Johannsen, Colleen; Hagen, Scott A

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric critical care is an important component of reducing morbidity and mortality globally. Currently, pediatric critical care in low middle-income countries (LMICs) remains in its infancy in most hospitals. The majority of hospitals lack designated intensive care units, healthcare staff trained to care for critically ill children, adequate numbers of staff, and rapid access to necessary medications, supplies and equipment. In addition, most LMICs lack pediatric critical care training programs for healthcare providers or certification procedures to accredit healthcare providers working in their pediatric intensive care units (PICU) and high dependency areas. PICU can improve the quality of pediatric care in general and, if properly organized, can effectively treat the severe complications of high burden diseases, such as diarrhea, severe malaria, and respiratory distress using low-cost interventions. Setting up a PICU in a LMIC setting requires planning, specific resources, and most importantly investment in the nursing and permanent medical staff. A thoughtful approach to developing pediatric critical care services in LMICs starts with fundamental building blocks: training healthcare professionals in skills and knowledge, selecting resource appropriate effective equipment, and having supportive leadership to provide an enabling environment for appropriate care. If these fundamentals can be built on in a sustainable manner, an appropriate critical care service will be established with the potential to significantly decrease pediatric morbidity and mortality in the context of public health goals as we reach toward the sustainable development goals.

  9. Pediatric Critical Care in Resource-Limited Settings—Overview and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina M. Slusher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric critical care is an important component of reducing morbidity and mortality globally. Currently, pediatric critical care in low middle-income countries (LMICs remains in its infancy in most hospitals. The majority of hospitals lack designated intensive care units, healthcare staff trained to care for critically ill children, adequate numbers of staff, and rapid access to necessary medications, supplies and equipment. In addition, most LMICs lack pediatric critical care training programs for healthcare providers or certification procedures to accredit healthcare providers working in their pediatric intensive care units (PICU and high dependency areas. PICU can improve the quality of pediatric care in general and, if properly organized, can effectively treat the severe complications of high burden diseases, such as diarrhea, severe malaria, and respiratory distress using low-cost interventions. Setting up a PICU in a LMIC setting requires planning, specific resources, and most importantly investment in the nursing and permanent medical staff. A thoughtful approach to developing pediatric critical care services in LMICs starts with fundamental building blocks: training healthcare professionals in skills and knowledge, selecting resource appropriate effective equipment, and having supportive leadership to provide an enabling environment for appropriate care. If these fundamentals can be built on in a sustainable manner, an appropriate critical care service will be established with the potential to significantly decrease pediatric morbidity and mortality in the context of public health goals as we reach toward the sustainable development goals.

  10. The importance of cultural competency in general pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotanek, Jane M; Seeley, Christina E; Flores, Glenn

    2008-12-01

    There is a growing awareness of the importance of cultural competency in pediatrics. The authors review the most recent studies that examine the impact of cultural competency on general pediatric care, explore cultural beliefs and practices affecting clinical care, and describe culturally sensitive interventions designed to address racial/ethnic health disparities. The beneficial effects of cultural competency embrace health outcomes, quality of care, and patient satisfaction, while failure to consider language and culture can have serious adverse consequences for clinical care, including patient safety and healthcare access. A five-component model of cultural competency has been developed, and a growing literature details an array of normative cultural values, folk illnesses, parent beliefs/practices, and provider behaviors that can have a profound impact on pediatric care. Culturally sensitive interventions are being developed to lessen racial/ethnic health disparities. A goal for the pediatrician is to provide culturally competent healthcare by using trained medical interpreters with limited English-proficient families, being familiar with normative cultural values that affect the healthcare of commonly encountered racial/ethnic groups, and asking about folk illness beliefs and ethnomedical treatments.

  11. The economics of pediatric formulation development for off-patent drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Bruss, Jon B

    2008-11-01

    Many drugs currently used in children have never been adequately studied in rigorous scientific trials. Although these medications can still be prescribed in the pediatric setting, they are considered "off-label" because they are not specifically approved for use in children. The role of the Economics Working Group (EWG) within the Pediatric Formulation Initiative (PFI) of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is to identify economic barriers and to propose possible mechanisms to create cost-effective and appropriately formulated products for off-patent pediatric drugs and to ensure their distribution and availability. The purpose of this article was to briefly outline the EWG's considerations and recommendations on these topics. Information for this article was gathered from the proceedings of a PFI workshop sponsored by the NICHD, held December 6 and 7, 2005, in Bethesda, Maryland. Other information was based on: the authors' unpublished and published research as well as personal communication with members of the EWG; a comprehensive search of Web sites, publications, and publicly accessible databases of the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the NICHD; and the databases and publications available from the Louis Lasagna Library of the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (Boston, Massachusetts). The US Congress has attempted to remedy the lack of incentives to develop pediatric drugs by passing 2 key pieces of legislation. After >10 years, this US pediatric initiative has stimulated a great deal of pediatric drug research, and similar initiatives have been emulated in Europe and proposed in Japan. Although the initiative is generally considered successful in the United States, an incentive gap exists that still hinders pediatric drug development. It results from a series of factors, including: (1) a relatively small

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  13. The legal ethics of pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Doriane Lambelet

    2007-12-01

    Since the mid- to late 1990s, the scientific and medical research community has sought to increase its access to healthy children for research protocols that involve harm or a risk of harm. This move reverses longstanding policy within that community generally to exclude healthy children from such protocols on the grounds that the research as to them is non-therapeutic, that they are particularly vulnerable to research-related abuses, and that they are unable themselves to give informed consent to their participation. The research community's new posture has been supported by prominent pediatric bioethicists who have argued that unless healthy children are included as research subjects in harmful or risky research, the pediatric population will continue to suffer relative to the adult population in the extent to which it benefits from modern advances in science and medicine. In their view, it is possible for the research community to self-administer a rule that strikes a balance between protecting healthy children from research-related abuses and allowing their inclusion in cutting-edge pediatric research. In this scheme, parental consent is central to the research community's claims about child protection. This Article explores the flaws inherent in this ethics of pediatric research. Specifically, it challenges the view from ethics that the law permits parents to consent to their children's inclusion in harmful or risky research to the extent that related invasions would meet legal maltreatment standards. More broadly, it challenges the movement to increase access to healthy children for harmful and risky research on the ground that it risks two important regressions: First, in its willingness to risk harm to individual children in the interests of the group, it threatens the progress the law has made in its development of the concept of the child as an individual worthy of respect in his or her own right, a concept that imagines parents as fiduciaries and that

  14. Pediatric Critical Care Telemedicine Program: A Single Institution Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria; Hojman, Nayla; Sadorra, Candace; Dharmar, Madan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Litman, Rebecca; Marcin, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rural and community emergency departments (EDs) often receive and treat critically ill children despite limited access to pediatric expertise. Increasingly, pediatric critical care programs at children's hospitals are using telemedicine to provide consultations to these EDs with the goal of increasing the quality of care. We conducted a retrospective review of a pediatric critical care telemedicine program at a single university children's hospital. Between the years 2000 and 2014, we reviewed all telemedicine consultations provided to children in rural and community EDs, classified the visits using a comprehensive evidence-based set of chief complaints, and reported the consultations' impact on patient disposition. We also reviewed the total number of pediatric ED visits to calculate the relative frequency with which telemedicine consultations were provided. During the study period, there were 308 consultations provided to acutely ill and/or injured children for a variety of chief complaints, most commonly for respiratory illnesses, acute injury, and neurological conditions. Since inception, the number of consultations has been increasing, as has the number of participating EDs (n = 18). Telemedicine consultations were conducted on 8.6% of seriously ill children, the majority of which resulted in admission to the receiving hospital (n = 150, 49%), with a minority of patients requiring transport to the university children's hospital (n = 103, 33%). This single institutional, university children's hospital-based review demonstrates that a pediatric critical care telemedicine program used to provide consultations to seriously ill children in rural and community EDs is feasible, sustainable, and used relatively infrequently, most typically for the sickest pediatric patients.

  15. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...

  16. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  17. Nasogastric tube self-knotting | Abbas | Annals of Pediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  18. Letter to the Editor | Khan | Annals of Pediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  19. Appropriateness of pediatric hospitalization in a general hospital in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, Magdy H; Seoudi, Tarek M M; Raway, Tarek S; Al Harbash, Nowair Z; Ahmad, Meshal M A; Al Mutairi, Hanan F

    2012-01-01

    To determine the rate of inappropriate pediatric admissions using the Pediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP) and to examine variables associated with inappropriateness of admissions. A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Farwania General Hospital, Kuwait, to examine successive admissions for appropriateness of admission as well as several sociodemographic characteristics over a 5-month period (August 2010 to December 2010). A total of 1,022 admissions were included. Of the 1,022 admissions, 416 (40.7%) were considered inappropriate. Factors associated with a higher rate of inappropriate admission included older age of patients and self-referral. The rate of inappropriate hospitalization of children was high in Farwania Hospital, Kuwait, probably due to the relatively free health care services, parental preference for hospital care, easy access to hospital services, and insufficient education about the child's condition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. How pediatric surgeons use social media to attract new patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-08-01

    Social media has changed the landscape of online interaction for all doctors including pediatric surgeons. Of course the public including our patients and potential new patients having immediate access to these sites through mobile devices and iPads has contributed immensely to this phenomenon. Nonetheless, it seems that we are all rushing to get in front of our target audience and to engage in a relationship with them in a cost-effective fashion. This article will discuss the role of the Internet and media and how you can use this technology to attract new pediatric patients to your practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. How to achieve ultrasound-guided femoral venous access: the new standard of care in the electrophysiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Benedict M; Child, Nicholas; Roberts, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Bedside vascular ultrasound machines are increasingly available. They are used to facilitate safer vascular access across a number of different specialties. In the electrophysiology laboratory however, where patients are frequently anticoagulated and require the insertion of multiple venous sheaths, anatomical landmark techniques predominate. Despite the high number of vascular complications associated with electrophysiological procedures and the increasing evidence to support its use in electrophysiology, ultrasound remains underutilised. A new standard of care is required. A comprehensive technical report, providing a detailed explanation of this important technique, will provide other electrophysiology centres with the knowledge and justification for adopting ultrasound guidance as their standard practice. We review the increasing body of evidence which demonstrates that routine ultrasound usage can substantially improve the safety of femoral venous access in the electrophysiology laboratory. We offer a comprehensive technical report to guide operators through the process of ultrasound-guided venous access, with a specific focus on the electrophysiology laboratory. Additionally, we detail a novel technique which utilises real-time colour Doppler ultrasound to accurately identify needle tip location during venous puncture. The use of vascular ultrasound to guide femoral venous cannulation is rapid, inexpensive and easily learnt. Ultrasound is readily available and offers the potential to significantly reduce vascular complications in the unique setting of the electrophysiology laboratory. Ultrasound guidance to achieve femoral venous access should be the new standard of care in electrophysiology.

  2. Pediatric Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested in ... sinuses are present at birth. Unlike in adults, pediatric sinusitis is difficult to diagnose because symptoms of ...

  3. Development of an e-learning portal for pediatric endocrinology: educational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, K; Drop, S L S; Schuwirth, L

    2010-01-01

    Global accessibility and dissemination of developments in pediatric endocrinology prompted to examine how to develop an educational interactive e-SPE web portal. A systematic approach was used to identify the relevant aspects of accessibility and dissemination. An orientation at the big idea was made, executed by an analysis of the needs of student and teacher pediatric endocrinologists, a definition of the learning objectives, a research in educational literature and an exploration of ICT design specifications. The intensive collaboration between medical, educational and information technology disciplines resulted in a portal design. The portal meets requirements of adult learning, stresses interaction between partners in learning and offers direct feedback during the learning process. The portal supports the development of not only knowledge but also competences both at junior and advanced levels. When the e-SPE portal is completed, the options for summative assessment will be examined as a medium for international certification in conjunction with local and national requirements (http://espe.elearning.nl). Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Guía Clínica Española del Acceso Vascular para Hemodiálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ibeas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El acceso vascular para hemodiálisis es esencial para el enfermo renal tanto por su morbimortalidad asociada como por su repercusión en la calidad de vida. El proceso que va desde la creación y mantenimiento del acceso vascular hasta el tratamiento de sus complicaciones constituye un reto para la toma de decisiones debido a la complejidad de la patología existente y a la diversidad de especialidades involucradas. Con el fin de conseguir un abordaje consensuado, el Grupo Español Multidisciplinar del Acceso Vascular (GEMAV, que incluye expertos de las cinco sociedades científicas implicadas (nefrología [S.E.N.], cirugía vascular [SEACV], radiología vascular e intervencionista [SERAM-SERVEI], enfermedades infecciosas [SEIMC] y enfermería nefrológica [SEDEN], con el soporte metodológico del Centro Cochrane Iberoamericano, ha realizado una actualización de la Guía del Acceso Vascular para Hemodiálisis publicada en 2005. Esta guía mantiene una estructura similar, revisando la evidencia sin renunciar a la vertiente docente, pero se aportan como novedades, por un lado, la metodología en su elaboración, siguiendo las directrices del sistema GRADE con el objetivo de traducir esta revisión sistemática de la evidencia en recomendaciones que faciliten la toma de decisiones en la práctica clínica habitual y, por otro, el establecimiento de indicadores de calidad que permitan monitorizar la calidad asistencial. ABSTRACT: Vascular access for haemodialysis is key in renal patients both due to its associated morbidity and mortality and due to its impact on quality of life. The process, from the creation and maintenance of vascular access to the treatment of its complications, represents a challenge when it comes to decision-making, due to the complexity of the existing disease and the diversity of the specialities involved. With a view to finding a common approach, the Spanish

  5. Endovascular Revascularization of Chronically Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts for Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study in 15 Patients With 18 Access Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Chi Wenche; Liu Yichun; Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2011-01-01

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether endovascular revascularization of chronically thrombosed and long-discarded vascular access sites for hemodialysis was feasible. Technical and clinical success rates, postintervention primary and secondary patency rates, and complications were reported. During a 1-year period, we reviewed a total of 924 interventions performed for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites and permanent catheters in 881 patients. In patients whose vascular access-site problems were considered untreatable or were considered treatable with a high risk of failure and access-site abandonment, we attempted to revascularize (resurrect) the chronically occluded and long-discarded (mummy) vascular access sites. We attempted to resurrect a total of 18 mummy access sites (mean age 46.6 ± 38.7 months; range 5–144) in 15 patients (8 women and 7 men; mean age 66.2 ± 11.5 years; age range 50–85) and had an overall technical success rate of 77.8%. Resurrection failure occurred in 3 fistulas and in 1 straight graft. The clinical success rate was 100% at 2 months after resurrection. In the 14 resurrected vascular access sites, 6 balloon-assisted maturation procedures were required in 5 fistulas; after access-site maturation, a total of 22 interventions were performed to maintain access-site patency. The mean go-through time for successful resurrection procedures was 146.6 ± 34.3 min (range 74–193). Postmaturation primary patency rates were 71.4 ± 12.1% at 30 days, 57.1 ± 13.2% at 60 days, 28.6 ± 13.4% at 90 days, and 19 ± 11.8% at 180 days. Postmaturation secondary patency rates were 100% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 81.8 ± 11.6% at 180 days. There were 2 major complications consisting of massive venous ruptures in 2 mummy access sites during balloon dilation; in both cases, prolonged balloon inflation failed to achieve hemostasis, but percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue seal-off was performed successfully

  6. Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained traction as an important adjunct for clinical decision making during vitreoretinal surgery, and OCT angiography (OCTA) has provided novel insights in clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. To date, these two technologies have not been applied in combination to evaluate retinal vascular disease in the operating suite. To conduct microscope-integrated, swept-source OCTA (MIOCTA) in children with retinal vascular disease. In this case report analysis, OCT imaging in pediatric patients, MIOCTA images were obtained during examination under anesthesia from a young boy with a history of idiopathic vitreous hemorrhage and a female infant with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Side-by-side comparison of research MIOCT angiograms and clinically indicated fluorescein angiograms. In 2 young children with retinal vascular disease, the MIOCTA images showed more detailed vascular patterns than were visible on the fluorescein angiograms although within a more posterior field of view. The MIOCTA system allowed visualization of small pathological retinal vessels in the retinal periphery that were obscured in the fluorescein angiograms by fluorescein staining from underlying, preexisting laser scars. This is the first report to date of the use of MIOCTA in the operating room for young children with retinal vascular disease. Further optimization of this system may allow noninvasive detailed evaluation of retinal vasculature during surgical procedures and in patients who could not cooperate with in-office examinations.

  7. Pediatric Dentistese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Asokan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful practice of pediatric dentistry depends on the establishment of a good relationship between the dentist and the child. Such a relationship is possible only through effective communication. Pediatric dentistry includes both an art and a science component. The focus has been mostly on the technical aspects of our science, and the soft skills we need to develop are often forgotten or neglected. This paper throws light on the communication skills we need to imbibe to be a successful pediatric dentist. A new terminology “Pediatric Dentistese” has been coined similar to motherese, parentese, or baby talk. Since baby talk cannot be applied to all age groups of children, pediatric dentistese has been defined as “the proactive development-based individualized communication between the pediatric dentist and the child which helps to build trust, allay fear, and treat the child effectively and efficiently.”

  8. Pediatric chest CT after trauma: impact on surgical and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rina P.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Kan, J.H.; Yu, Chang; Ray, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Chest CT after pediatric trauma is frequently performed but its clinical impact, particularly with respect to surgical intervention, has not been adequately evaluated. To assess the impact of chest CT compared with chest radiography on pediatric trauma management. Two hundred thirty-five consecutive pediatric trauma patients who had both chest CT and radiography were identified. Images were reviewed and findings were categorized and correlated with subsequent chest interventions, blinded to final outcome and management. Of the 235 children, 38.3% (90/235) had an abnormal chest radiograph and 63.8% (150/235) had an abnormal chest CT (P < 0.0001). Chest interventions followed in 4.7% (11/235); of these, the findings could be made 1 cm above the dome of the liver in 91% (10/11). Findings requiring chest intervention included pneumothorax (PTX) and vertebral fractures. PTX was found on 2.1% (5/235) of chest radiographs and 20.0% (47/235) of chest CTs (P < 0.0001); 1.7% (4/235) of the children received a chest tube for PTX, 0.85% (2/235) seen on chest CT only. Vertebral fractures were present in 3.8% of the children (9/235) and 66.7% (6/9) of those cases were treated with spinal fusion or brace. There were no instances of mediastinal vascular injury. Most intrathoracic findings requiring surgical management in our population were identified in the lower chest and would be included in routine abdominopelvic CT exams; this information needs to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic algorithm of pediatric trauma patients. (orig.)

  9. Pediatric chest CT after trauma: impact on surgical and clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rina P. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Ray, Jackie [Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Chest CT after pediatric trauma is frequently performed but its clinical impact, particularly with respect to surgical intervention, has not been adequately evaluated. To assess the impact of chest CT compared with chest radiography on pediatric trauma management. Two hundred thirty-five consecutive pediatric trauma patients who had both chest CT and radiography were identified. Images were reviewed and findings were categorized and correlated with subsequent chest interventions, blinded to final outcome and management. Of the 235 children, 38.3% (90/235) had an abnormal chest radiograph and 63.8% (150/235) had an abnormal chest CT (P < 0.0001). Chest interventions followed in 4.7% (11/235); of these, the findings could be made 1 cm above the dome of the liver in 91% (10/11). Findings requiring chest intervention included pneumothorax (PTX) and vertebral fractures. PTX was found on 2.1% (5/235) of chest radiographs and 20.0% (47/235) of chest CTs (P < 0.0001); 1.7% (4/235) of the children received a chest tube for PTX, 0.85% (2/235) seen on chest CT only. Vertebral fractures were present in 3.8% of the children (9/235) and 66.7% (6/9) of those cases were treated with spinal fusion or brace. There were no instances of mediastinal vascular injury. Most intrathoracic findings requiring surgical management in our population were identified in the lower chest and would be included in routine abdominopelvic CT exams; this information needs to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic algorithm of pediatric trauma patients. (orig.)

  10. Helicopter overtriage in pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R

    2014-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Environmental pediatrics: an introduction and evaluation of online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstangel, Hannah; Buka, Irena; Campbell, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that three million children under the age of 5 die annually from environmentally related disease. In the United States, the cost of environmentally related public health concerns is estimated as greater than $55 billion. Environmental exposure is among parents' top health concerns for children. Yet, the study of the effects of environmental exposure on health outcomes is a developing field, and clinicians feel inadequately prepared to address these concerns. The Children's Environmental Health Clinic (ChEHC) is the first clinic of its kind in Canada. Their website includes a list of online resources on major topics related to child health and the environment. There has not yet been an objective evaluation of the comprehensiveness of the topics or scientific quality of the information on the website. This study seeks to offer an accessible introduction to the field of environmental pediatrics, including an online resource for evidence-based information on key topics in the field. These resources assist in disease prevention, health promotion, education, and the increasing need to balance environmental health risks. A scoping review of scientific and gray literature in the field of environmental pediatrics was performed to inform a written introduction to the field and to identify gaps in the content of the ChEHC website. The content of the ChEHC website was then objectively evaluated using the National Network of Libraries of Medicine checklist for health websites. Ten categories within the field of environmental pediatrics emerged from the literature review. A small number of gaps were identified on the website and in the literature. The content of the ChEHC website was found to be of high quality. The website will be updated using the results of the study as a guide, to make it as relevant, complete, and evidence-based as possible. Environmental pediatrics is an important, emerging topic. There is a need for accessible

  12. Mentorship programs for faculty development in academic general pediatric divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Jennifer; Dabrow, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Mentoring relationships have been shown to support academicians in areas of research, work/life balance, and promotion. Methods. General pediatric division chiefs accessed an electronic survey asking about mentorship relationships, their ability to create a mentorship program, and resources needed. Results. Dyadic mentorship programs were available at 53% of divisions. Peer mentorship programs were available at 27% of divisions. Overall, 84% of chiefs believed that dyadic mentorship would benefit their faculty. 91% of chiefs believed that peer mentorship would benefit their faculty. Chiefs were interested in starting peer (57%) or dyadic (55%) mentorship programs. Few divisions had a peer mentorship program available, whereas 24% already had a dyadic program. 43% of chiefs felt that they had the tools to start a program. Many tools are needed to create a program. Discussion. General pediatric division chiefs acknowledge the benefits of mentoring relationships, and some have programs in place. Many need tools to create them. Pediatric societies could facilitate this critical area of professional development.

  13. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C. [Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  14. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  15. Clinicopathological correlation of psychosis and brain vascular changes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Hao, Ying; Chia, Pei Shi; Tan, Eng-King; Hameed, Shahul

    2016-02-12

    Psychosis is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies on neuropathology in vascular etiology contributing to psychosis in AD is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropathological vascular related changes in Alzheimer's disease with psychosis. Data of patients with AD from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center between 2005 to September 2013 was accessed and reviewed. Presence of psychosis was determined based on Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire taken from the last visit within one year prior to death, and patients were divided into psychosis positive and negative group. Comparison of clinical details and neuropathological vascular changes between the groups was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi-square/ Fisher's exact test. Significant variables were further included in a multivariate logistic model. Overall, 145 patients was included. Of these, 50 patients were psychosis positive. Presence of one or more cortical microinfarcts and moderate to severe arteriosclerosis was found to be positively associated with psychosis. Our results suggest vascular changes correlate with psychosis in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. A novel drainage technique during micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: double angiocath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penbegul, Necmettin; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Daggulli, Mansur; Dede, Onur; Bozkurt, Yasar; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Atar, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) is a recently introduced percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) technique that has the smallest tract size. The absence of an amplatz sheath during the microperc technique is a fundamental difference that distinguishes it from all other types of PNL (standard, mini, ultramini). Increasing of the intrarenal pelvic pressure (IPP) was demonstrated by the authors in adult patients but this problem may be even more serious in pediatric patients. Previously, the authors defined the use of a 14 gauge angiocath needle and sheath (microsheath) during microperc surgery for pediatric patient to reduce the IPP. In this novel technique, a second angiocath is used to access the renal collecting system to drain fluid during surgery. This technique is more effective in reducing IPP during microperc, especially in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MDCT assessment of tracheomalacia in symptomatic infants with mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies: preliminary technical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Y.; Mason, Keira P.; Zurakowski, David; Waltz, David A.; Ralph, Amy; Riaz, Farhana; Boiselle, Phillip M.

    2008-01-01

    Mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies are relatively common causes of extrinsic central airway narrowing in infants with respiratory symptoms. Surgical correction of mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies alone might not adequately treat airway symptoms if extrinsic narrowing is accompanied by intrinsic tracheomalacia (TM), a condition that escapes detection on routine end-inspiratory imaging. Paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector CT (MDCT) has the potential to facilitate early diagnosis and timely management of TM in symptomatic infants with mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies. To assess the technical feasibility of paired inspiratory-expiratory MDCT for evaluating TM among symptomatic infants with mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies. The study group consisted of five consecutive symptomatic infants (four male, one female; mean age 4.1 months, age range 2 weeks to 6 months) with mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies who were referred for paired inspiratory-expiratory MDCT during a 22-month period. CT angiography was concurrently performed during the end-inspiration phase of the study. Two pediatric radiologists in consensus reviewed all CT images in a randomized and blinded fashion. The end-inspiration and end-expiration CT images were reviewed for the presence and severity of tracheal narrowing. TM was defined as ≥50% reduction in tracheal cross-sectional luminal area between end-inspiration and end-expiration. The presence of TM was compared to the bronchoscopy results when available (n = 4). Paired inspiratory-expiratory MDCT was technically successful in all five patients. Mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies included a right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery (n = 2), innominate artery compression (n = 2), and a left aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery (n 1). Three (60%) of the five patients demonstrated focal TM at the level of mediastinal aortic vascular anomalies. The CT results were concordant with the results

  18. Successful treatment of a child with vascular pythiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisanthana Virat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human pythiosis is an emerging and life-threatening infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum. It occurs primarily in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the world, including Thailand. The aim of this report is to present the first pediatric case of typical vascular pythiosis. Case Presentation A 10-year-old boy with underlying β-thalassemia presented with gangrenous ulcers and claudication of the right leg which were unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks. Computerized tomography angiography indicated chronic arterial occlusion involving the right distal external iliac artery and its branches. High-above-knee amputation was urgently done to remove infected arteries and tissues, and to stop disease progression. Antibody to P. insidiosum was detected in a serum sample by the immunoblot and the immunochromatography tests. Fungal culture followed by nucleic sequence analysis was positive for P. insidiosum in the resected iliac arterial tissue. Immunotherapeutic vaccine and antifungal agents were administered. The patient remained well and was discharged after 2 months hospitalization without recurrence of the disease. At the time of this communication he has been symptom-free for 2 years. Conclusions The child presented with the classical manifestations of vascular pythiosis as seen in adult cases. However, because pediatricians were unfamiliar with the disease, diagnosis and surgical treatment were delayed. Both early diagnosis and appropriate surgical and medical treatments are crucial for good prognosis.

  19. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the phlebitis and infiltration scales for the assessment of complications of peripheral vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Dianne; Davies, Barbara; Mac Donald, Joan; Nelson, Susanne; Virani, Tazim

    2010-01-01

    To prevent complications from peripheral vascular access device (PVAD) therapy, the Infusion Nurses Society (INS) developed 2 scales to measure the extent and severity of phlebitis and infiltration in PVADs. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of these scales to validate them with respect to their interrater reliability, concurrent validity, feasibility, and acceptability. A total of 182 patients at 2 sites were enrolled, and 416 observations of PVAD sites were made. Two nurses independently rated each PVAD site for the presence or absence of phlebitis and/or infiltration by using the INS scales. The interrater reliability was calculated, as was the agreement of the observed versus charted incidence of phlebitis and infiltration (concurrent validity) and the ease of use of the scales (feasibility, acceptability). Interrater reliability for both the Phlebitis and Infiltration scales and concurrent validity were found to be statistically significant (P Phlebitis and Infiltration scales have been shown to be easy to use, valid, and reliable scales.

  20. A combination of low-dose bevacizumab and imatinib enhances vascular normalisation without inducing extracellular matrix deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, L M; Brunold, M; Liwschitz, M; Goede, V; Loges, S; Wroblewski, M; Quaas, A; Alakus, H; Stippel, D; Bruns, C J; Hallek, M; Kashkar, H; Hacker, U T; Coutelle, O

    2017-02-28

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting drugs normalise the tumour vasculature and improve access for chemotherapy. However, excessive VEGF inhibition fails to improve clinical outcome, and successive treatment cycles lead to incremental extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, which limits perfusion and drug delivery. We show here, that low-dose VEGF inhibition augmented with PDGF-R inhibition leads to superior vascular normalisation without incremental ECM deposition thus maintaining access for therapy. Collagen IV expression was analysed in response to VEGF inhibition in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, in syngeneic (Panc02) and xenograft tumours of human colorectal cancer cells (LS174T). The xenograft tumours were treated with low (0.5 mg kg -1 body weight) or high (5 mg kg -1 body weight) doses of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab with or without the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Changes in tumour growth, and vascular parameters, including microvessel density, pericyte coverage, leakiness, hypoxia, perfusion, fraction of vessels with an open lumen, and type IV collagen deposition were compared. ECM deposition was increased after standard VEGF inhibition in patients and tumour models. In contrast, treatment with low-dose bevacizumab and imatinib produced similar growth inhibition without inducing detrimental collagen IV deposition, leading to superior vascular normalisation, reduced leakiness, improved oxygenation, more open vessels that permit perfusion and access for therapy. Low-dose bevacizumab augmented by imatinib selects a mature, highly normalised and well perfused tumour vasculature without inducing incremental ECM deposition that normally limits the effectiveness of VEGF targeting drugs.

  1. Imaging appearances of soft-tissue tumors of the pediatric foot: review of a 15-year experience at a tertiary pediatric hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hospital San Juan de Dios, Health Time Group, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Cordoba, Andalucia (Spain); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Tumors of the foot are rare in children. In this review the authors illustrate radiographic, sonographic and MR imaging findings of foot soft-tissue tumors in children based on all cases presenting at a tertiary pediatric hospital during the 15-year period of 1999-2014. Among these cases there were 155 tumors of the foot - 72 of the bones and 83 of the soft tissues. Vascular malformations, fibromatosis and sarcomas were respectively the most frequent benign, intermediate and malignant soft-tissue tumors. Some tumors showed specific imaging findings. In imaging investigations, ultrasound can be used as the first imaging modality for diagnostic workup of most lesions because it is noninvasive, low-cost and readily available, and can confirm the presence of the mass and evaluate cystic components, especially in young children who would otherwise require sedation for MR imaging. MR imaging is the reference standard technique because of its high tissue contrast, which allows for detection and characterization of soft-tissue and bone abnormalities. MR imaging is useful as the first imaging modality in select cases, including those with high suspicion of malignancy, very large lesions or pre-treatment lesions. Recognition of some typical imaging findings in pediatric soft-tissue foot tumors is helpful to establish diagnosis and facilitate patient management. (orig.)

  2. Assessing attitudes and actions of pediatric dentists toward childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a major US health concern, and oral health professionals have opportunities to participate in an interprofessional effort to intervene owing to their access to young patients and their abilities in addressing obesity-related dietary habits like consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study determined attitudes, behaviors, future intentions, and perceived barriers of pediatric dentists regarding efforts to prevent childhood obesity and reduce children's consumption of SSBs. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted an online electronic survey with a convenience sample of approximately 7,450 pediatric dentists and pediatric dental residents during spring 2016. Over 17 percent of pediatric dentists offer childhood obesity interventions. Of those not providing interventions, 67 percent were interested in offering obesity-prevention services. Nearly 94 percent of pediatric dentists offer information or other interventions on consumption of SSBs. Statistically significant barriers to providing healthy weight interventions were fear of offending parents, appearing judgmental, or creating parent dissatisfaction and a lack of parental acceptance of guidance about weight management from a dentist. Significant barriers to SSB interventions were sufficient time and health professional education. More pediatric dentists stated they offer childhood obesity interventions than in previous surveys reporting 6 percent, but respondents suggested that a child's weight is seen as a medical rather than dental issue. Most pediatric dentists provide interventions related to consumption of SSBs, perceiving the issue as integral to their care of children. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yigit Akin,1 Selcuk Yucel21Department of Urology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 2Department of Urology, Acibadem University School of Medicine, Istanbul, TurkeyIntroduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children.Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature.Methods: PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study.Results: However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term.Conclusion: ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children.Keywords: child, lithotripsy, nephrolithiasis, renal injury, vascular trauma

  4. Opportunities lost and found: experiences of patients with cerebral palsy and their parents transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Harris, Marie; Vessey, Judith A; Glader, Laurie; Shanske, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To describe and define the experiences of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and parents of adults with CP who have been involved in a transfer of physiatry care from pediatric to adult healthcare and to explore their experiences more generally in the transition from pediatric to adult services. A qualitative research approach was used. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adults with CP (n=5) and parents of adults with CP (n=8) to explore the health care transition (HCT) process from pediatric to adult healthcare. Four key content domains were used to facilitate the focus groups; 1) Transition Planning, 2) Accessibility of Services, 3) Experience with Adult Providers, and 4) Recommendations for Improving the Transition Process. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the focus groups; Lost in Transition, Roadmap to Care, List of None, and One Stop Shopping. Participants felt lost in the HCT process, requested a transparent transition plan, expressed concern regarding access to adult healthcare, and made recommendations for improvements. Challenges in transitioning from pediatric to adult health care were identified by all participants and several strategies were recommended for improvement.

  5. The effectiveness of e-learning in pediatric medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Rima; Simonsen, Kari; Snowden, Jessica; Higgins, Joy; Beck, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Electronic learning allows individualized education and may improve student performance. This study assessed the impact of e-modules about infection control and congenital infections on medical knowledge. A descriptive study was conducted involving third-year medical students on pediatric clerkship. e-Module content in three different formats was developed: a text monograph, a PowerPoint presentation, and a narrated PowerPoint lecture. Students' use of the e-modules was tracked, as was participation in the infectious disease rotation and the order of pediatric rotation. Pre- and posttests specific to the e-module content and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) pediatric exam scores were recorded. Among 67 participants, 63% of them visited at least one e-module. Neither accessing any e-modules, timing of pediatric clerkship, nor assignment to ID rotation resulted in improved posttest nor NBME scores. Seventy percent of students rated the e-modules as satisfactory and reported usage improved their confidence with the congenital infections topic. e-Modules did not improve student performance on NBME or posttest; however, they were perceived as satisfactory and to have improved confidence among those who used them. This study underscores the importance of formally evaluating electronic and other innovative curricula when implemented within existing medical education frameworks.

  6. The effectiveness of e-learning in pediatric medical student education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Khasawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic learning allows individualized education and may improve student performance. This study assessed the impact of e-modules about infection control and congenital infections on medical knowledge. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted involving third-year medical students on pediatric clerkship. e-Module content in three different formats was developed: a text monograph, a PowerPoint presentation, and a narrated PowerPoint lecture. Students’ use of the e-modules was tracked, as was participation in the infectious disease rotation and the order of pediatric rotation. Pre- and posttests specific to the e-module content and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME pediatric exam scores were recorded. Results: Among 67 participants, 63% of them visited at least one e-module. Neither accessing any e-modules, timing of pediatric clerkship, nor assignment to ID rotation resulted in improved posttest nor NBME scores. Seventy percent of students rated the e-modules as satisfactory and reported usage improved their confidence with the congenital infections topic. Discussion: e-Modules did not improve student performance on NBME or posttest; however, they were perceived as satisfactory and to have improved confidence among those who used them. This study underscores the importance of formally evaluating electronic and other innovative curricula when implemented within existing medical education frameworks.

  7. PedAM: a database for Pediatric Disease Annotation and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinmeng; An, Zhongxin; Ming, Yue; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wei; Li, Xin; Liang, Yunxiang; Guo, Dongming; Tai, Jun; Chen, Geng; Jin, Yaqiong; Liu, Zhimei; Ni, Xin; Shi, Tieliu

    2018-01-04

    There is a significant number of children around the world suffering from the consequence of the misdiagnosis and ineffective treatment for various diseases. To facilitate the precision medicine in pediatrics, a database namely the Pediatric Disease Annotations & Medicines (PedAM) has been built to standardize and classify pediatric diseases. The PedAM integrates both biomedical resources and clinical data from Electronic Medical Records to support the development of computational tools, by which enables robust data analysis and integration. It also uses disease-manifestation (D-M) integrated from existing biomedical ontologies as prior knowledge to automatically recognize text-mined, D-M-specific syntactic patterns from 774 514 full-text articles and 8 848 796 abstracts in MEDLINE. Additionally, disease connections based on phenotypes or genes can be visualized on the web page of PedAM. Currently, the PedAM contains standardized 8528 pediatric disease terms (4542 unique disease concepts and 3986 synonyms) with eight annotation fields for each disease, including definition synonyms, gene, symptom, cross-reference (Xref), human phenotypes and its corresponding phenotypes in the mouse. The database PedAM is freely accessible at http://www.unimd.org/pedam/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of pediatric epistaxis presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Sophie; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2017-12-01

    Investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric epistaxis in the emergency department setting. Cross-sectional study using national databases. Children (age epistaxis were extracted from the State Emergency Department Databases for New York, Florida, Iowa, and California for the calendar year 2010. Associated diagnoses, procedures, encounter characteristics, and demographic data were examined. There were 18,745 cases of pediatric epistaxis (mean age 7.54 years, 57.4% male). Overall, 6.9% of patients underwent procedures to control epistaxis, of which 93.5% had simple anterior epistaxis control. The distribution of pediatric epistaxis was highest in spring and summer months (p epistaxis presentations (38.8%, p epistaxis control procedure performed (p epistaxis control procedure (p epistaxis control procedure compared to those of minority backgrounds (p epistaxis are uninvolved cases that do not require procedural intervention. The overrepresentation of low socioeconomic status patients may suggest an overutilization of emergency services for minor cases of epistaxis, and perhaps a lack of access to primary care providers. This is the first study to evaluate racial and socioeconomic factors in relationship to pediatric epistaxis. Further investigation is needed to better elucidate these potential disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Adversity and Resilience Measures in Pediatric Acute Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Donna M; Randell, Kimberly A; Dowd, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact health across the life course. The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver ACEs, current adversity, and resilience in families seeking care in pediatric acute care settings. Study aims included identifying demographic characteristics, current adversities, and resilience measures associated with caregiver ACEs ≥4. A cross-sectional survey study design was used and a convenience sample (n = 470) recruited at emergency and urgent care settings of a large Midwest pediatric hospital system. Measures were self-reported. The original 10-item ACEs questionnaire measured caregiver past adversity. Current adversity was measured using the 10-item IHELP. The six-item Brief Resiliency Scale measured resilience, and WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to measure depressive affect. Compared to participants with ACEs score of 0-3 participants with ACEs ≥4 were more likely to have multiple current adversities, increased risk of depression, and lower resilience. Caregivers using pediatric acute care settings carry a high burden of ACEs and current adversities. Caregiver ACEs are associated with current child experiences of adversity. Caregivers socioeconomic status and education level may not be an accurate indicator of a family's risks or needs. Pediatric acute care settings offer opportunities to access, intervene, and prevent childhood adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reimbursement for pediatric diabetes intensive case management: a model for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joni K; Logan, Kathy J; Hamm, Robert M; Sproat, Scott M; Musser, Kathleen M; Everhart, Patricia D; McDermott, Harrold M; Copeland, Kenneth C

    2004-01-01

    Current reimbursement policies serve as potent disincentives for physicians who provide evaluation and management services exclusively. Such policies threaten nationwide availability of care for personnel-intensive services such as pediatric diabetes. This report describes an approach to improving reimbursement for highly specialized, comprehensive pediatric diabetes management through prospective contracting for services. The objective of this study was to determine whether pediatric diabetes intensive case management services are cost-effective to the payer, the patient, and a pediatric diabetes program. A contract with a third-party payer was created to reimburse for 3 key pediatric diabetes intensive case management components: specialty education, 24/7 telephone access to an educator (and board-certified pediatric endocrinologist as needed), and quarterly educator assessments of self-management skills. Data were collected and analyzed for 15 months after signing the contract. Within the first 15 months after the contract was signed, 22 hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in 16 different patients. After hospitalizations for DKA, all 16 patients were offered participation in the program. All were followed during the subsequent 1 to 15 months of observation. Ten patients elected to participate, and 6 refused participation. Frequency of rehospitalization, emergency department visits, and costs were compared between the 2 groups. Among the 10 participating patients, there was only 1 subsequent DKA admission, whereas among the 6 who refused participation, 5 were rehospitalized for DKA on at least 1 occasion. The 10 patients who participated in the program had greater telephone contact with the team compared with those who did not (16 crisis-management calls vs 0). Costs (education, hospitalization, and emergency department visits) per participating patient were approximately 1350 dollars less than those for nonparticipating patients

  11. Pediatric Academic Productivity: Pediatric Benchmarks for the h- and g-Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, Megan M; Rowe, Tashi L; Dover, George J; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-02-01

    To describe h- and g-indices benchmarks in pediatric subspecialties and general academic pediatrics. Academic productivity is measured increasingly through bibliometrics that derive a statistical enumeration of academic output and impact. The h- and g-indices incorporate the number of publications and citations. Benchmarks for pediatrics have not been reported. Thirty programs were selected randomly from pediatric residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. The h- and g-indices of department chairs were calculated. For general academic pediatrics, pediatric gastroenterology, and pediatric nephrology, a random sample of 30 programs with fellowships were selected. Within each program, an MD faculty member from each academic rank was selected randomly. Google Scholar via Harzing's Publish or Perish was used to calculate the h-index, g-index, and total manuscripts. Only peer-reviewed and English language publications were included. For Chairs, calculations from Google Scholar were compared with Scopus. For all specialties, the mean h- and g-indices significantly increased with academic rank (all P calculation using different bibliographic databases only differed by ±1. Mean h-indices increased with academic rank and were not significantly different across the pediatric specialties. Benchmarks for h- and g-indices in pediatrics are provided and may be one measure of academic productivity and impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Clarissa Barbon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options. PMID:28406835

  13. Vía intraósea en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Coronel Carvajal

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El acceso vascular conjuntamente con la permeabilización de la vía aérea y la ventilación adecuada son los procedimientos más importantes en el servicio de urgencia. La infusión a través del hueso comienza a utilizarse en 1922. En los menores de 6 años los sitios ideales son la tibia proximal, distal y fémur distal. Es una técnica extremadamente fácil que puede ser practicada de forma rápida, por donde se pueden administrar todos los medicamentos necesarios para la reanimación. Se indica en situaciones donde no se logra un acceso venoso después de 3 intentos o pasados 90 min. La técnica se contraindica en la celulitis u osteomielitis en el sitio de aplicación, la osteopetrosis y en la osteogénesis imperfecta. A través de esta vía pueden administrarse múltiples sustancias. El índice de complicaciones de esta técnica es muy bajo. Los accesos vasculares en los niños deben establecerse de forma escalonada e iniciarse con las técnicas menos invasivasThe vascular access together with the permeabilization of the airway and the adequate ventilation are the most important procedures in the emergency service. Intraosseous infusion began to be used in 1922. In under 6 years-old children, the ideal sites are proximal and distal tibia and distal femur. It is an extremely easy technique that may be quickly applied, through which all the necessary drugs for resuscitation can be administered. It is indicated when there is no vein access after three attempts or 90 minutes elapsed. However, it is contraindicated if cellulitis or osteomyelitis is present in the site of application, or in the case of osteopetrosis and imperfect osteogenesis. Multiple substances may be administered through this route. The rate of complications is very low. The vascular access sites should be progressively set in children and applied with the less invasive techniques.

  14. Comparison of two indwelling central venous access catheters in dogs undergoing fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.L.; Smeak, D.D.; Couto, C.G.; Hammer, A.S.; Gaynor, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty dogs with neoplasms requiring multiple radiation treatments received either percutaneous vascular access catheters (PVACs; Cook, Bloomington, IN) or subcutaneous vascular access ports (SVAPs; Vascular-Access-Ports, Norfolk Medical Products, Inc., Skokie, IL); 10 dogs were entered in each group. All catheters were implanted and removed aseptically and the catheter tips were cultured during implant removal. Complications with PVACs included mild incisional swelling and redness and accidental severance or rupture of the catheter. Complications with SVAPs included incisional or port swelling, bruising or redness, hematoma formation, and pain. Ports in 4 of these dogs could not be used for 1 to 3 days after surgery because of swelling and pain. Surgical wound complications, when pooled for comparison, occurred significantly more frequently with the SVAPs (P = .023). Wound complications associated with both catheters were self-limiting and resolved within 7 days. Bacterial cultures were positive in two PVACs and four SVAP tips, however, none of these dogs had clinical signs of infection or sepsis. Although both types of indwelling catheters were functional in a clinical setting, PVACs were preferred to SVAPs for dogs undergoing radiation therapy because of decreased time for implantation and fewer overall complications

  15. Age-specific effective doses for pediatric MSCT examinations at a large children's hospital using DLP conversion coefficients: a simple estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Wang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for an easily accessible method for effective dose estimation in pediatric CT. To estimate effective doses for a variety of pediatric neurological and body CT examinations in five age groups using recently published age- and region-specific dose length product (DLP) to effective dose conversion coefficients. A retrospective review was performed of 1,431 consecutive CT scans over a 12-week period using age- and weight-adjusted CT protocols. Age- and region-specific DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients were applied to console-displayed DLP data. Effective dose estimates for single-phase head CT scans in neonatal, and 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old age groups were 4.2, 3.6, 2.4, 2.0 and 1.4 mSv, respectively. For abdomen/pelvis CT scans the corresponding effective doses were 13.1, 11.1, 8.4, 8.9 and 5.9 mSv. The range of pediatric CT effective doses is wide, from ultralow dose protocols (<1 mSv) to extended-coverage body examinations (10-15 mSv). Age- and region-specific pediatric DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients provide an accessible and user-friendly method for estimating pediatric CT effective doses that is available to radiologists working without medical physics support. (orig.)

  16. PET imaging in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.M.; Krasin, M.J.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic imaging technology, especially functional imaging modalities like positron emission tomography (PET), have significantly influenced the staging and treatment approaches used for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Today, the majority of children and adolescents diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma will be cured following treatment with noncross-resistant combination chemotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose, involved-field radiation. This success produced a greater appreciation of long-term complications related to radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical staging that prompted significant changes in staging and treatment protocols for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Contemporary treatment for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma uses a risk-adapted approach that reduces the number of combination chemotherapy cycles and radiation treatment fields and doses for patients with localized favorable disease presentation. Advances in diagnostic imaging technology have played a critical role in the development of these risk-adapted treatment regimens. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) provided an accurate and non-invasive modality to define nodal involvement below the diaphragm that motivated the change from surgical to clinical staging. The introduction of functional imaging modalities, like positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, provided the means to correlate tumor activity with anatomic features generated by CT and modify treatment based on tumor response. For centers with access to this modality, PET imaging plays an important role in staging, evaluating tumor response, planning radiation treatment fields, and monitoring after completion of therapy for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  17. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Clinical and imaging features of intracranial arterial aneurysms in the pediatric population; Klinische und radiologische Merkmale des intrakraniellen arteriellen Aneurysmas bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Todd A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Aeron, Gunjan; Jones, Blaise V.

    2013-07-15

    Intracranial arterial aneurysms (IAAs) are rare in children. Nevertheless, IAAs account for at least 10 % - 15 % of hemorrhagic strokes during the first two decades of life. Traditional vascular risk factors, which are common in the adult population, are generally absent in the pediatric population, engendering distinct modes of IAA pathogenesis. Classification of pediatric IAAs according to the pathogenetic mechanism shows eight distinct categories: idiopathic, traumatic, those due to excessive hemodynamic stress, vasculopathic, infectious, noninfectious inflammatory, oncotic, and familial. Pathogenetic mechanism is the best predictor of the clinical course of the disease, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis. The pathogenetic subtypes of pediatric IAA show characteristic and variably overlapping features. In most cases, IAAs manifesting during the first two decades of life are idiopathic. IAAs that are idiopathic, traumatic (second most common type), or due to excessive hemodynamic stresses (third most common type) account for more than 80 % of IAAs in the pediatric age group. Most of the remaining pediatric IAAs are the result of congenital cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathies or infection. Multiple IAAs are unusual in young children except in those with acquired (secondary to immune deficiency states) or congenital cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathies or infectious IAAs. (orig.)

  19. Regorafenib: Antitumor Activity upon Mono and Combination Therapy in Preclinical Pediatric Malignancy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Le Dret, Ludivine; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Bawa, Olivia; Opolon, Paule; Vievard, Albane; Villa, Irène; Pagès, Mélanie; Bosq, Jacques; Vassal, Gilles; Zopf, Dieter; Geoerger, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) exerts both anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activity in adult solid malignancies mainly advanced colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We intended to explore preclinically the potential of regorafenib against solid pediatric malignancies alone and in combination with anticancer agents to guide the pediatric development plan. In vitro effects on cell proliferation were screened against 33 solid tumor cell lines of the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC) panel covering five pediatric solid malignancies. Regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation with a mean half maximal growth inhibition of 12.5 μmol/L (range 0.7 μmol/L to 28 μmol/L). In vivo, regorafenib was evaluated alone at 10 or 30 mg/kg/d or in combination with radiation, irinotecan or the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor refametinib against various tumor types, including patient-derived brain tumor models with an amplified platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) gene. Regorafenib alone significantly inhibited tumor growth in all xenografts derived from nervous system and connective tissue tumors. Enhanced effects were observed when regorafenib was combined with irradiation and irinotecan against PDGFRA amplified IGRG93 glioma and IGRM57 medulloblastoma respectively, resulting in 100% tumor regressions. Antitumor activity was associated with decreased tumor vascularization, inhibition of PDGFR signaling, and induction of apoptotic cell death. Our work demonstrates that regorafenib exhibits significant antitumor activity in a wide spectrum of preclinical pediatric models through inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, radio- and chemosensitizing effects were observed with DNA damaging agents in PDGFR amplified tumors.

  20. 78 FR 48438 - Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of the Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...] Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of the Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... of Subcommittee: Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of the Pediatric Advisory Committee. General Function... pediatric ethical issues. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on September 9, 2013, from 8 a.m. to 5:30...

  1. Myocarditis - pediatric

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007307.htm Myocarditis - pediatric To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pediatric myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle in ...

  2. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally announced. The EZ-IO intraosseous infusion system has received expanded EU CE mark approval for an extended dwell time of up to 72 h and for insertion in pediatric patients in the distal femur. Key values of blood samples for laboratory analysis can be obtained with only 2 ml of blood/marrow waste and do also offer reliable values using an I-Stat point-of-care analyzer. Most problems in using an intraosseous infusion are provider-dependent. In pediatric anesthesia, the perioperative setting should further contribute to reduce these problems. Nevertheless, regular training, thorough anatomical knowledge and prompt availability especially in the pediatric age group are paramount to get a seldom used technique work properly under pressure. More longitudinal data on large cohorts were preferable to further support the safety of the intraosseous infusion technique in pediatric patients.

  3. Outpatient Vascular Intervention: A Two-Year Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Sumaira; Thomas, Steven M.; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of a range of interventional vascular procedures performed on outpatients. Methods: Suitability for outpatient procedures was assessed according to agreed protocols. An episode was defined as any procedure/s through a single access site at one attendance. Retrospective case-note review was performed. Results: There were 693 outpatient episodes between April 1998 and May 2000 (290 interventional, and 403 diagnostic procedures),comprising 25% (693/2769) of the total workload. Follow-up is available in 214; 38 of these were transfers from outlying hospitals and were excluded from analysis. One hundred and seventy-six were true outpatients. There were 98 iliac and 46 femoropopliteal interventions,2 aortic stents, 1 renal and 5 upper-limb angioplasties (PTAs), 5 embolizations, 8 Hickman lines, 1 line stripping, 3 atherectomies, 1 dialysis-graft PTA and 6 bypass-graft PTAs. Sixty-eight closure devices were used. Twelve patients were converted to inpatients (6.8%,12/176). The readmission rate was 3.4% (6/176). The reattendance rate was 1.1% (2/176), both subsequently attending for outpatient duplex ultrasound examination to exclude pseudoaneurysm. The major complication rate was 3.4% and the delayed major complication rate was 1.7%. Conclusion: Outpatient vascular intervention is safe with appropriate protocols and with careful patient selection. Local vascular services benefit from the release of inpatient beds

  4. Interest in Collaborative, Practice-Based Research Networks in Pediatric Refugee Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sural; Yun, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Over the last decade, approximately 200,000 refugee children have resettled across the United States. This population is dispersed, resulting in limited data. Collaborative research networks, where clinicians across distinct practice sites work together to answer research questions, can improve the evidence base regarding clinical care. We distributed a web-based survey to pediatric refugee providers around North America to assess priorities, perceived barriers and benefits to collaborative research. We recruited 57 participants. Of respondents, 89 % were interested in collaborative research, prioritizing: (1) access to health care (33 %), (2) mental health (24 %) and (3) nutrition/growth (24 %). Perceived benefits were "improving clinical practice" (98 %) and "raising awareness about the needs of pediatric refugees" (94 %). Perceived barriers were "too many other priorities" (89 %) and "lack of funding for data entry" (78 %). There is widespread interest in collaborative networks around pediatric refugee healthcare. A successful network will address barriers and emphasize priorities.

  5. Pediatric oncologic endosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yoon Jung; Goedecke, Jan; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2017-08-01

    Despite increasing popularity of minimal-invasive techniques in the pediatric population, their use in diagnosis and management of pediatric malignancy is still debated. Moreover, there is limited evidence to clarify this controversy due to low incidence of each individual type of pediatric tumor, huge diversity of the disease entity, heterogeneity of surgical technique, and lack of well-designed studies on pediatric oncologic minimal-invasive surgery. However, a rapid development of medical instruments and technologies accelerated the current trend toward less invasive surgery, including oncologic endosurgery. The aim of this article is to review current literatures about the application of the minimal-invasive approach for pediatric tumors and to give an overview of the current status, indications, individual techniques, and future perspectives.

  6. How Do US Pediatric Residency Programs Teach and Evaluate Community Pediatrics and Advocacy Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Cara; Hoffman, Benjamin D; Moon, Rachel Y

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education updated requirements for training in community pediatrics and advocacy in pediatric residency programs. In light of this update, the aim of this study was to better understand how community pediatrics is being taught and evaluated in pediatric residency programs in the United States. Cross-sectional exploratory study using a Web-based survey of pediatric residency program directors in September 2014. Questions focused on teaching and evaluation of 10 community pediatrics competencies. Of 85 programs (43% response rate), 30% offered a separate training track and/or 6-block individualized curriculum in community pediatrics or advocacy. More than 75% required all residents to learn 7 of 10 competencies queried. Respondents in urban settings were more likely to teach care of special populations (P = .02) and public speaking (P pediatrics and advocacy teaching among responding US pediatric residency programs. Although respondents reported a variety of teaching and evaluation methods, there were few statistically significant differences between programs. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary Outcomes from an Integrated Pediatric Mental Health Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Banny, Adrienne; Pollock, McLean; Stefureac, Kristen; Rosa, Kendra; Walter, Barbara Keith; Hobbs Knutson, Katherine; Lucas, Joseph; Heilbron, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 1 in 5 children in the United States meet criteria for a diagnosable mental disorder, yet fewer than 20% receive mental health services. Unmet need for psychiatric treatment may contribute to patterns of increasing use of the emergency department. This article describes an integrated pediatric evaluation center designed to prevent the need for treatment in emergency settings by increasing access to timely and appropriate care for emergent and critical mental health needs. Preliminary results showed that the center provided rapid access to assessment and treatment services for children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of psychiatric concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Teaching pediatrics to residents via conventional lectures in France: A national survey from students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, B; Bendavid, M; Faivre, J-C; Salleron, J; Debillon, T; Claris, O; Chabrol, B; Schweitzer, C; Gajdos, V

    2017-08-01

    To assess the point of view of young physicians training in pediatrics in France on their theoretical courses during residency. A free-access electronic anonymous survey was sent three times by e-mail to the 1215 residents in pediatrics, from July to October 2015. Fifty-seven percent of French residents in pediatrics responded to the survey. It was established that they took part in six (range, 3-10) half-days of specific theoretical teaching in pediatrics from November 2014 to mid-April 2015. Only 54% participated in more than 75% of regional theoretical training. The main self-declared reason for their absence was that they could not leave their clinical activities. Fifty-three per cent of the residents took part in additional training, 45% of them because they found the primary theoretical training insufficient. The overall quality of the theoretical teaching was rated 5 (range, 3-7) out of 10. Eighty-five percent of residents expected to be evaluated on their knowledge during their residency. In pediatrics, additional training is individually undertaken because they deemed their initial training insufficient during their residency. An evaluation of knowledge is requested by residents. The reform of the national residency program must take into account these results in redesigning the theoretical training in pediatrics, integrating innovative teaching techniques to daily practice, for example. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to intraosseous access in adult resuscitations when peripheral intravenous access is not achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Cheung, Warren; Rosenberg, Hans; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Studies suggest that intraosseous (IO) access is underutilized in adult resuscitations, despite recommendations from advanced trauma and cardiac life support guidelines. The objective was to determine factors associated with IO access use by physicians during adult resuscitations when intravenous (IV) access is not immediately achievable. This study was an online survey among physicians purposefully recruited from various clinical care areas at three teaching hospitals. Questions were generated from the qualitative results of 20 iterative interviews, verified for internal validity, and piloted. The interview guide was based on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which elicits salient attitudes, social influences, and control beliefs that potentially influence intention to use IO access. Recruitment took place in September 2012 until reaching more than 100% of the required sample size (n = 200). Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha, and the effect of TPB constructs and specific beliefs were assessed with regression analyses. For the 205 respondents, the mean age was 35 years (range = 20 to 66 years), and 53.3% were male. Participants' departmental affiliations were 50.3% emergency medicine (EM), 16.9% internal medicine, 14.9% anesthesia, 10.8% general surgery, and 7.2% critical care. Residents comprised 60.7% of the sample, and 39.3% were attending physicians. Median intention to use IO access when IV is not immediately achievable was 4.67 (interquartile range [IQR] = 4 to 5) out of 5 (5 highest) and predicted by the following TPB constructs: attitudes (AdjCoefficients = 0.504; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.334 to 0.673), social influences (AdjCoefficients = 0.285; 95% CI = 0.172 to 0.398), and control beliefs (AdjCoefficients 0.217; 95% CI = 0.113 to 0.320). Physicians were more likely to use IO access if they believed that it provided rapid vascular access for delivering large volumes of fluids, could prevent delays in

  10. The development of an internet-based knowledge exchange platform for pediatric critical care clinicians worldwide*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbrink, Traci A; Kissoon, Niranjan; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Advances in Internet technology now enable unprecedented global collaboration and collective knowledge exchange. Up to this time, there have been limited efforts to use these technologies to actively promote knowledge exchange across the global pediatric critical care community. To develop an open-access, peer-reviewed, not-for-profit Internet-based learning application, OPENPediatrics, a collaborative effort with the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, was designed to promote postgraduate educational knowledge exchange for physicians, nurses, and others caring for critically ill children worldwide. Description of program development. International multicenter tertiary pediatric critical care units across six continents. Multidisciplinary pediatric critical care providers. A software application, providing information on demand, curricular pathways, and videoconferencing, downloaded to a local computer. In 2010, a survey assessing postgraduate educational needs was distributed through World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies to constituent societies. Four hundred and twenty-nine critical care providers from 49 countries responded to the single e-mail survey request. Respondents included 68% physicians and 28% nurses who care for critically ill children. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported accessing the Internet at least weekly to obtain professional educational information. The five highest requests were for educational content on respiratory care [mechanical ventilation] (48% [38%]), sepsis (28%), neurology (25%), cardiology (14%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (10%), and ethics (8%). Based on these findings, and in collaboration with researchers in adult learning and online courseware, an application was developed and is currently being used by 770 registered users in 60 countries. We describe here the development and implementation of an Internet-based application which is among the first

  11. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Patient Resources Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Pediatric Stroke » Introduction Introduction What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Introduction Types of Stroke Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  12. Creating a new generation of pediatric dentists: a paradigm shift in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Silva, Daniela Rodrigues P; Law, Clarice S; Pizzitola, Rebecca L; John, Brendan; Crall, James J

    2014-12-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Dentistry has implemented a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded program to prepare dentists for the complex and comprehensive needs of pediatric patients within rapidly changing demographics and a paradigm shift in dentistry. Traditional dental education has focused on how to respond to oral disease, whereas UCLA's program shifts the paradigm to emphasize early assessment, risk-based prevention, and disease management. A holistic approach to dental care that considers social and environmental determinants is used with minimally invasive techniques for restorative care. To support this change, pediatric dental residents receive traditional training combined with new didactics, advocacy opportunities, and applied learning experiences at community-based organizations. These new elements teach residents to recognize the causal factors of disease and to identify interventions that promote oral health at the individual, family, community, and policy level. Consequently, they are better prepared to treat a diverse group of patients who historically have faced the greatest burden of disease as well as an increased number of barriers to accessing oral health care; these consist of low-income, minority, and/or pediatric populations including children with special health needs. The program's ultimate goal is for residents to deploy these skills in treating vulnerable populations and to demonstrate greater interest in collaborating with non-dental health providers and community organizations to increase access to dental services in private or public health practice settings.

  13. Sedation in Pediatric Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seak Hee Oh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD has become an established diagnostic and therapeutic modality in pediatric gastroenterology. Effective sedation strategies have been adopted to improve patient tolerance during pediatric EGD. For children, safety is a fundamental consideration during this procedure as they are at a higher risk of severe adverse events from procedural sedation compared to adults. Therefore, a detailed risk evaluation is required prior to the procedure, and practitioners should be aware of the benefits and risks associated with sedation regimens during pediatric EGD. In addition, pediatric advanced life support by endoscopists or immediate intervention by anesthesiologists should be available in the event that severe adverse events occur during pediatric EGD.

  14. Assessment of the hemodynamic changes after EDAS combined with bifrontal EGS in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To assess the effect of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) with or without bifrontal encephalogaleosynangiosis (EGS) in children with moyamoya disease, we evaluated cerebral hemodynamic changes using brain Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. Total 34 pediatric patients (M: F=12:22, mean age;93 yrs) enrolled. Bypass surgery for both hemispheres (EDAS with EGS on one side, and EDAS on the other side) in 25 patients, unilateral EDAS with EGS in 7, and unilateral EDAS only in 2 were underwent. Perfusion SPECT before surgery, and 4 to 18 months after final surgery were done. The vascular territories for ICA, MCA and the brain regions for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the occipital cortices were determined using standard ROls based on K-SPAM. Additionally, medial frontal cortex was selected to assess the effect of EGS. Basal/acetazolamide challenged cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral vascular index (CVRI) were determined using normalized regional brain uptake to the cerebellum. 24 patients became symptom free, and 6 were improved but having some residual symptoms at the last follow up period. The other 3 were worsened after operation. Overall basal/acetazolamide stress CBF and CVRI for each brain region after surgery were increased, however, only the changes of CVRI were significant. Meanwhile, the improvement of CBF or CVRI in the brain regions ipsilateral to the hemisphere having EDAS with EGS was not significantly different when compared with those for the brain regions with EDAS only. Also, the hemodynamic improvement for the mesial frontal cortex in patients after EDAS with EGS was not significant, and showed no difference with those in patient with EDAS only. Quantitative perfusion SPECT demonstrated the hemodynamic improvement after EDAS with or without EGS in pediatric moyamoya disease. Cerebrovascular reserve showed meaningful improvement after surgery, implicating the effect of vascular anastomosis in ischemic areas.

  15. Assessment of the hemodynamic changes after EDAS combined with bifrontal EGS in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) with or without bifrontal encephalogaleosynangiosis (EGS) in children with moyamoya disease, we evaluated cerebral hemodynamic changes using brain Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. Total 34 pediatric patients (M: F=12:22, mean age;93 yrs) enrolled. Bypass surgery for both hemispheres (EDAS with EGS on one side, and EDAS on the other side) in 25 patients, unilateral EDAS with EGS in 7, and unilateral EDAS only in 2 were underwent. Perfusion SPECT before surgery, and 4 to 18 months after final surgery were done. The vascular territories for ICA, MCA and the brain regions for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the occipital cortices were determined using standard ROls based on K-SPAM. Additionally, medial frontal cortex was selected to assess the effect of EGS. Basal/acetazolamide challenged cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral vascular index (CVRI) were determined using normalized regional brain uptake to the cerebellum. 24 patients became symptom free, and 6 were improved but having some residual symptoms at the last follow up period. The other 3 were worsened after operation. Overall basal/acetazolamide stress CBF and CVRI for each brain region after surgery were increased, however, only the changes of CVRI were significant. Meanwhile, the improvement of CBF or CVRI in the brain regions ipsilateral to the hemisphere having EDAS with EGS was not significantly different when compared with those for the brain regions with EDAS only. Also, the hemodynamic improvement for the mesial frontal cortex in patients after EDAS with EGS was not significant, and showed no difference with those in patient with EDAS only. Quantitative perfusion SPECT demonstrated the hemodynamic improvement after EDAS with or without EGS in pediatric moyamoya disease. Cerebrovascular reserve showed meaningful improvement after surgery, implicating the effect of vascular anastomosis in ischemic areas

  16. The Use of the D-STAT Dry Bandage for the Control of Vascular Access Site Bleeding: A Multicenter Experience in 376 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, Omar K.; Cubeddu, Roberto J.; Griffith, Rose A.; Reyes, Bernardo J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple topical hemostats have been approved for control of surface bleeding from vascular access sites. The majority of these devices, however, have few clinical data supporting their use. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the new commercially available D-Stat Dry hemostatic bandage compared to standard care manual compression. A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial was conducted in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization or peripheral angiography utilizing femoral artery access. Subjects were randomized to either the D-Stat Dry bandage as an adjunct to manual compression or manual compression alone. Primary end points were time-to-hemostasis (TTH) and major complications. Secondary end points included minor complications, patient satisfaction, time-to-ambulation (TTA), and time-to-discharge (TTD). Three hundred seventy-six subjects (189 control, 187 investigational) with similar baseline characteristics participated in the study. The mean age was 61.5 years, with a male predominance of 58%. TTH was significantly lower in the investigational group (7.8 vs. 13.0 min; p = 0.001). No difference in major complication rates was observed between the groups. The mean TTA (investigational, 392 min, vs. control, 415 min; p = 0.023) and patient satisfaction significantly favored the investigational group (p = 0.025). No difference in TTD or the rate of minor complications was observed. This study demonstrates that in the aforementioned population, the D-Stat Dry bandage is safe and effective in reducing both TTH and TTA and results in improved patient satisfaction

  17. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN PONS VASCULAR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jovanović

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Liver is the largest parenchymatous organ, well vascularized, weighing approximately 1.8-3.0% of the whole body weight. Among all abdominal traumas liver injuries account for 25%. For more serious liver injuries the mortality is around 40% in children below 10 years of age. For lesions of the juxtahepatic veins (three major hepatic veins or the retrohepatic portion of v. cava or for complex, combined intra abdominal injuries, the mortality is even up to 70%.This work analyzed the period 1988-2000 during which there were 19 children admitted and treated for blunt liver injuries at the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery and Orthopedics in Nis; I, II and III scale injuries prevailed (17 cases; 89.4%. These injuries were surgically treated for the most part (17 cases; 89.4%. In 7 children (36.8% there were combined injuries. The lethality was 26.3%-5 cases, with three major complications: two intrahepatic hematomas and one biliary fistula associated with biliary peritonitis and biloma formation.

  18. Current status of pediatric minimal access surgery at Sultan Qaboos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: current status, laparoscopy, minimal access surgery, thoracoscopy. Departments of ... Materials and methods ... procedures, the open technique was used for the creation ... operated for bilateral inguinal herniotomy had recurrence.

  19. Corpus callosum vasculature predicts white matter microstructure abnormalities following pediatric mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Kara M; Lee, Jeong Bin; Affeldt, Bethann; Hamer, Mary; Harahap-Carrillo, Indira S; Pardo, Andrea C; Obenaus, Andre

    2018-05-09

    Emerging data suggest that pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impaired developmental plasticity and poorer neuropsychological outcomes than adults with similar head injuries. Unlike adult mild TBI (mTBI), the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) microstructure and vascular supply are not well-understood in the pediatric population. The cerebral vasculature plays an important role providing necessary nutrients and removing waste. To address this critical element, we examined the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) following pediatric mTBI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated myelin, oligodendrocytes, and vasculature of WM with immunohistochemistry. We hypothesized that pediatric mTBI leads to abnormal WM microstructure and impacts the vasculature within the CC, and that these alterations to WM vasculature contribute to the long-term altered microstructure. We induced a closed head injury mTBI at postnatal day 14, then at 4, 14, and 60 days post injury (DPI) mice were sacrificed for analysis. We observed persistent changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) within the ipsilateral CC following mTBI, indicating microstructural changes, but surprisingly changes in myelin and oligodendrocyte densities were minimal. However, vasculature features of the ipsilateral CC such as vessel density, length, and number of junctions were persistently altered following mTBI. Correlative analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between ADC and vessel density at 60 DPI, suggesting increased vessel density following mTBI may restrict WM diffusion characteristics. Our findings suggest that WM vasculature contributes to the long-term microstructural changes within the ipsilateral CC following mTBI.

  20. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L; Petersen, Christina B; Wolff, Anne; Nielsen, Henrik V; Krarup, Niels H V

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. We conducted a prospective controlled trial enrolling nurses from pediatric and maternity wards (n=29 in each group). Self-training, including a manikin and access to a web-based video on PBLS, was compared with a 2-h instructor-led course. Two weeks after training, all participants were tested in a mock scenario of pediatric cardiac arrest. Fifteen parameters equivalent to the steps in the PBLS algorithm - for example, effective ventilations, effective chest compressions, calling for help, and correct sequence of actions, were evaluated and rated dichotomously (1=approved or 0=not approved). No difference was observed in the baseline demographics between the self-training group and the instructor-led group. The participants in the self-training group accessed the website 2±1.5 times (mean±SD) and spent 41±25 min on the site. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall average score (10.5 in the self-training group vs. 10.0 in the instructor-led group, P=0.51) or in any of the 15 parameters. After the study, all participants felt that they had improved their skills and felt capable of performing PBLS. Self-training is not statistically different to instructor-led training in teaching PBLS. Self-evaluated confidence improved, but showed no difference between groups. PBLS may be disseminated through self-training.

  1. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  2. Dual-fibular reconstruction of a massive tibial defect after Ewing's sarcoma resection in a pediatric patient with a vascular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridis, Alkis G; Megas, Panagiotis D; Georgiou, Christos S; Diamantakis, Georgios M; Tyllianakis, Minos E

    2011-01-01

    In the management of malignancies of the extremities, limb salvage procedures have recently taken on greater significance. For those patients under intense adjuvant chemotherapy and with massive bone loss, free vascularized fibular grafting is currently advocated as a reliable reconstructive option, maybe because of the controversial results of bone transport in similar situations. However, when there is a vascular abnormality of either the recipient or donor extremity, microsurgical procedures are not feasible, further limiting potential reconstructive alternatives. We present the case of a 13-year-old female patient with Ewing's sarcoma of the right tibia. Preoperative angiography showed that vascularity of the affected side depended totally on a single peroneal artery. The patient was treated initially with multiagent chemotherapy, followed by an excision of 23 cm. The defect was bridged by a gradual medial transportation of the ipsilateral fibula with the Ilizarov technique and strengthened by nonvascularized transfer of the contralateral fibula. Total external fixation time was 162 days. After the removal of the Ilizarov frame a walking cast was applied for another month. At 5 years postoperatively there was no recurrence of the malignancy. The patient had full weight-bearing ability on the affected limb, with preservation of the ankle and knee joints motion and without any limb length discrepancy or axial deformity. The functional outcome that was visible was graded excellent. Transverse distraction osteogenesis of the ipsilateral fibula performed well under chemotherapy, showing unproblematic callus formation. Supplemented with nonvascularized transfer of the contralateral fibula, provided a reconstructive option with biological affinity, sufficient biomechanical strength and durability, and with a decreased complication rate. This case report presents a viable option, especially in cases in which vascular abnormalities of either the donor or the recipient

  3. Venous access: options, approaches and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Venous access is an essential part of medical practice. It is needed to obtain blood samples to make the diagnosis and to administer fluids or medicines as part of treatment. Although relatively new in the history of medicine, the placement and maintenance of the various venous access devices now occupies a significant portion of many vascular and interventional radiology practices. Thus, it is important to have a thorough understanding of these devices and their uses. The first long-term venous access devices were used in 1973. These were placed via a surgical cut-down on the subclavian vein. In 1982, the first subcutaneous implantable ports were described. These procedures were initially performed by surgeons, but over the last 5-10 years, both the insertion and management of these devices has shifted to interventional radiologists. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines have almost completely supplanted the use of standard central lines (Fig. 1). A number of factors have facilitated this - namely, ready and less expensive room access, outpatient procedure and radiologists' accessibility and familiarity with image-guidance procedures and catheters and guide wires. (author)

  4. Pediatric maxillary fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jack; Dinsmore, Robert; Mar, Philip; Bhatt, Kirit

    2011-07-01

    Pediatric craniofacial structures differ from those of adults in many ways. Because of these differences, management of pediatric craniofacial fractures is not the same as those in adults. The most important differences that have clinical relevance are the mechanical properties, craniofacial anatomy, healing capacity, and dental morphology. This article will review these key differences and the management of pediatric maxillary fractures. From the mechanical properties' perspective, pediatric bones are much more resilient than adult bones; as such, they undergo plastic deformation and ductile failure. From the gross anatomic perspective, the relative proportion of the cranial to facial structures is much larger for the pediatric patients and the sinuses are not yet developed. The differences related to dentition and dental development are more conical crowns, larger interdental spaces, and presence of permanent tooth buds in the pediatric population. The fracture pattern, as a result of all the above, does not follow the classic Le Fort types. The maxillomandibular fixation may require circum-mandibular wires, drop wires, or Ivy loops. Interfragmentary ligatures using absorbable sutures play a much greater role in these patients. The use of plates and screws should take into consideration the future development with respect to growth centers and the location of the permanent tooth buds. Pediatric maxillary fractures are not common, require different treatments, and enjoy better long-term outcomes.

  5. Modified distal revascularization with interval ligation procedure for steal syndrome after arteriovenous fistula creation for hemodialysis access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Saskia; Zeebregts, Clark; Tielliu, Ignacc; Verhoeven, Eric; van den Dungen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with steal syndrome after hemodialysis access surgery have a few options for symptom relief while maintaining vascular access. These include fistula lengthening, banding, distal revascularization with interval ligation (DRIL), revision using distal inflow (RUDI) or proximalization

  6. What Is a Pediatric Rheumatologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Rheumatologist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... a pediatric rheumatologist. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Rheumatologists Have? Pediatric rheumatologists are medical doctors who ...

  7. Physician and medical student perceptions and expectations of the pediatric clerkship: a Qatar experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2016-05-01

    students; medical students have accessibility to physicians; students are encouraged to practice evidence-based medicine; and students get adequate exposure to multi-professional teams. Conclusion: Assigning devoted physicians for education, providing proper job description or definition of the roles of medical student and physician in the pediatric team, providing more consistent feedback, and extending the duration of the pediatric clerkship can diminish the gap of perceptions and expectations between pediatric physicians and medical students. Keywords: clerkship, perception, pediatric, teaching

  8. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI. Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85% have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD. Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD- BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined.

  9. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Arne; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Voigt, Sebastian; Piening, Brar; Geffers, Christine; Agyeman, Philipp; Ammann, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85%) have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD). Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD-associated BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined. PMID:27274442

  10. Stephen L. Gans Distinguished Overseas Lecture. The neural crest in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juan A

    2007-06-01

    This review highlights the relevance of the neural crest (NC) as a developmental control mechanism involved in several pediatric surgical conditions and the investigative interest of following some of its known signaling pathways. The participation of the NC in facial clefts, ear defects, branchial fistulae and cysts, heart outflow tract and aortic arch anomalies, pigmentary disorders, abnormal enteric innervation, neural tumors, hemangiomas, and vascular anomalies is briefly reviewed. Then, the literature on clinical and experimental esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is reviewed for the presence of associated NC defects. Finally, some of the molecular signaling pathways involved in both conditions (sonic hedgehog, Hox genes, and retinoids) are summarized. The association of facial, cardiovascular, thymic, parathyroid, and C-cell defects together with anomalies of extrinsic and intrinsic esophageal innervation in babies and/or animals with both EA-TEF and CDH strongly supports the hypothesis that NC is involved in the pathogenesis of these malformative clusters. On the other hand, both EA-TEF and CDH are observed in mice mutant for genes involved in the previously mentioned signaling pathways. The investigation of NC-related molecular pathogenic pathways involved in malformative associations like EA-TEF and CDH that are induced by chromosomal anomalies, chemical teratogens, and engineered mutations is a promising way of clarifying why and how some pediatric surgical conditions occur. Pediatric surgeons should be actively involved in these investigations.

  11. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Factors modulating bioavailability of quercetin-related flavonoids and the consequences of their vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the bioavailability and vascular function of quercetin as a representative of antioxidative flavonoids. Current intervention studies imply that intake of quercetin-rich onion improves vascular health. Onion may be superior to quercetin supplement from the viewpoint of quercetin bioavailability, probably because the food matrix enhances the intestinal absorption of quercetin. α-Glucosylation increases its bioavailability by elevating the accessibility to the absorptive cells. Prenylation may enhance bioaccumulation at the target site by increasing the cellular uptake. However, these chemical modifications do not guarantee health benefits to the vascular system. Dietary quercetin is exclusively present as their conjugated form in the blood stream. Quercetin may exert its vascular function as an aglycone within macrophage cells after inflammation-induced deconjugation and as conjugated metabolites by targeting endothelial cells. The relationship between the bioavailability and bio-efficacy should be clarified, to evaluate the vascular function of a wide variety of dietary flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Regorafenib: Antitumor Activity upon Mono and Combination Therapy in Preclinical Pediatric Malignancy Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Daudigeos-Dubus

    Full Text Available The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506 exerts both anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activity in adult solid malignancies mainly advanced colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We intended to explore preclinically the potential of regorafenib against solid pediatric malignancies alone and in combination with anticancer agents to guide the pediatric development plan. In vitro effects on cell proliferation were screened against 33 solid tumor cell lines of the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC panel covering five pediatric solid malignancies. Regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation with a mean half maximal growth inhibition of 12.5 μmol/L (range 0.7 μmol/L to 28 μmol/L. In vivo, regorafenib was evaluated alone at 10 or 30 mg/kg/d or in combination with radiation, irinotecan or the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK inhibitor refametinib against various tumor types, including patient-derived brain tumor models with an amplified platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA gene. Regorafenib alone significantly inhibited tumor growth in all xenografts derived from nervous system and connective tissue tumors. Enhanced effects were observed when regorafenib was combined with irradiation and irinotecan against PDGFRA amplified IGRG93 glioma and IGRM57 medulloblastoma respectively, resulting in 100% tumor regressions. Antitumor activity was associated with decreased tumor vascularization, inhibition of PDGFR signaling, and induction of apoptotic cell death. Our work demonstrates that regorafenib exhibits significant antitumor activity in a wide spectrum of preclinical pediatric models through inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, radio- and chemosensitizing effects were observed with DNA damaging agents in PDGFR amplified tumors.

  15. Pain Management and Use of Opioids in Pediatric Oncology in India: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Paola; Boydell, Katherine M; Breakey, Vicky; Kurkure, Purna A; Muckaden, Marian A; Bouffet, Eric; Arora, Brijesh

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of medical opium for pain relief in India is low, despite the country being one of the main world producers of the substance. We investigated obstacles to opioid use and physician perceptions about optimal pain management in pediatric oncology patients in India. Semistructured interviews were conducted with oncologists who work in pediatric oncology settings. A mixed sampling strategy was used, including maximum variation and confirmation and disconfirmation of cases, as well as snowball sampling. Key informants were identified. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by thematic analysis methodology. Twenty-three interviews were performed across 20 Indian institutions. The main obstacles identified were lack of financial resources, inadequate education of health care providers on pain management, insufficient human resources (particularly lack of dedicated trained oncology nurses), poor access to opioids, and cultural perceptions about pain. Children from rural areas, treated in public hospitals, and from lower socioeconomic classes appear disadvantaged. A significant equality gap exists between public institutions and private institutions, which provide state-of-the-art treatment. The study illuminates the complexity of pain management in pediatric oncology in India, where financial constraints, lack of education, and poor access to opioids play a dominant role, but lack of awareness and cultural perceptions about pain management among health care providers and parents emerged as important contributing factors. Urgent interventions are needed to optimize care in this vulnerable population.

  16. Pediatric dental chair vs. traditional dental chair: A pediatric dentist′s poll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Barjatya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper positioning of the child patient, can not only have positive ramifications for the operator′s posture, comfort, and career longevity - it can also lead to better treatment and increased productivity. The aim of the survey questionnaire was to assess the utilization, need, and attitude concerning dental chairs among pediatric dentist while working on and managing the child patient. Study Design: The questions were structured using adobe forms central online software, regarding the user-friendliness of pediatric dental chair vs. traditional adult dental chair available in the market. Results: Our result shows that out of 337 respondents, 79% worked on pediatric dental chair, whereas 21% had no experience of it. Of these 79% pediatric dentist, 48% preferred pediatric dental chair. But pediatric dental problem still has certain disadvantages like higher cost, leg space problem, lower availability, etc. Conclusion: During the research it was found that ergonomics and usability issues were the main problems. Thus, pediatric dental chair is not so popular in the current scenario. This study allowed for general ideas for the improvement of dental chairs and thus improved dental chair would fill the gap in the current scenario.

  17. Performance and safety of femoral central venous catheters in pediatric autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura; Hoffmann, Sandra; Webb, Dawn; Yamada, Chisa; Davenport, Robertson; Choi, Sung Won

    2017-12-01

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell collection (A-HPCC) in children typically requires placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) for venous access. There is scant published data regarding the performance and safety of femoral CVCs in pediatric A-HPCC. Seven-year, retrospective study of A-HPCC in pediatric patients collected between 2009 and January 2017. Inclusion criteria were an age ≤ 21 years and A-HPCC using a femoral CVC for venous access. Femoral CVC performance was examined by CD34 collection rate, inlet rate, collection efficiency (MNC-FE, CD34-FE), bleeding, flow-related adverse events (AE), CVC removal, and product sterility testing. Statistical analysis and graphing were performed with commercial software. A total of 75/119 (63%) pediatric patients (median age 3 years) met study criteria. Only 16% of children required a CVC for ≥ 3 days. The CD34 collect rate and CD34-FE was stable over time whereas MNC-FE decreased after day 4 in 80% of patients. CD34-FE and MNC-FE showed inter- and intra-patient variability over time and appeared sensitive to plerixafor administration. Femoral CVC showed fewer flow-related AE compared to thoracic CVC, especially in pediatric patients (6.7% vs. 37%, P = 0.0005; OR = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.03-0.45). CVC removal was uneventful in 73/75 (97%) patients with hemostasis achieved after 20-30 min of pressure. In a 10-year period, there were no instances of product contamination associated with femoral CVC colonization. Femoral CVC are safe and effective for A-HPCC in young pediatric patients. Femoral CVC performance was maintained over several days with few flow-related alarms when compared to thoracic CVCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New Ways to Detect Pediatric Sickle Cell Retinopathy: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Daniel A; Green, Nancy S; Bhatia, Monica; Chen, Royce W S

    2017-11-01

    Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides a noninvasive view of retinal vascular layers that could previously not be imaged and can be quantified for comparative or prospective analyses. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography provides a more comprehensive view of the peripheral retina than traditional imaging techniques. Screening for retinopathy by standard fundoscopic imaging modalities detects a prevalence of approximately 10%. In contrast, these more sensitive methods allow for more sensitive examination that includes the retina perimeter where sickle retinopathy is often first detectable. Use of these new imaging modalities may detect a higher prevalence of early sickle pathology among children than has previously been reported. Earlier detection may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of sickle retinopathy and guide future screening and treatment paradigms.

  19. Vascular access in neonatology: peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lienemann

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present aspects of peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter, highlighting important points in choosing the type of access. For the passage of peripherally inserted central catheter is previously performing specific course necessary, while the primary indication occurs when it is necessary to access the patient's stay for a long period of time. Whereas peripheral venipuncture is the most appropriate in cases of needing an IV line quickly and safely, for the administration of fluids, blood collection, blood transfusion and other.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  4. The socioeconomic impact of a pediatric ostomy in Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzira, Arlene; Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Langer, Monica; Sekabira, John; Ozgediz, Doruk; Fitzgerald, Tamara N

    2018-04-01

    Multiple pediatric surgical conditions require ostomies in low-middle-income countries. Delayed presentations increase the numbers of ostomies. Patients may live with an ostomy for a prolonged time due to the high backlog of cases with insufficient surgical capacity. In caring for these patients in Uganda, we frequently witnessed substantial socioeconomic impact of their surgical conditions. The operative log at the only pediatric surgery referral center in Uganda was reviewed to assess the numbers of children receiving ostomies over a 3-year period. Charts for patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) were reviewed to assess delays in accessing care. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with family members of children with ostomies based on themes from discussions with the surgical and nursing teams. A pilot survey was developed based on these themes and administered to a sample of patients in the outpatient clinic. During the period of January 2012-December 2014, there was one specialty-certified pediatric surgeon in the country. There were 493 ostomies placed for ARM (n = 234), HD (N = 114), gangrenous ileocolic intussusception (n = 95) and typhoid-induced intestinal perforation (n = 50). Primary themes covered in the FGD were: stoma care, impact on caregiver income, community integration of the child, impact on family unit, and resources to assist families. Many patients with HD and ARM did not present for colostomy until after 1 year of life. None had access to formal ostomy bags. 15 caregivers completed the survey. 13 (86%) were mothers and 2 (13%) were fathers. Almost half of the caregivers (n = 7, 47%) stated that their spouse had left the family. 14 (93%) caregivers had to leave jobs to care for the stoma. 14 respondents (93%) reported that receiving advice from other caregivers was beneficial. The burden of pediatric surgical disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial with significant disparities

  5. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  6. Seamless vascularized large-diameter tubular collagen scaffolds reinforced with polymer knittings for esophageal regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, H.R.; Koens, M.J.W.; Geutjes, P.J.; Ainoedhofer, H.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Tiemessen, D.M.; Hilborn, J.; Gupta, B.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Daamen, W.F.; Saxena, A.K.; Oosterwijk, E.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van

    2014-01-01

    A clinical demand exists for alternatives to repair the esophagus in case of congenital defects, cancer, or trauma. A seamless biocompatible off-the-shelf large-diameter tubular scaffold, which is accessible for vascularization, could set the stage for regenerative medicine of the esophagus. The use

  7. Efficacy of an Interinstitutional Mentoring Program Within Pediatric Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Lakshmi Nandini; Muscal, Eyal; Riebschleger, Meredith; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Nigrovic, Lise E; Horon, Jeffrey R; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Ferguson, Polly J; Eberhard, B Anne; Brunner, Hermine I; Prahalad, Sampath; Schneider, Rayfel; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    The small size of many pediatric rheumatology programs translates into limited mentoring options for early career physicians. To address this problem, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed a subspecialty-wide interinstitutional mentoring program, the ACR/CARRA Mentoring Interest Group (AMIGO). We sought to assess the impact of this program on mentoring within pediatric rheumatology. In a longitudinal 3-year study, participant ratings from the AMIGO pilot program were compared with those after the program was opened to general enrollment. Access to mentoring as a function of career stage was assessed by surveys of the US and Canadian pediatric rheumatologists in 2011 and 2014, before and after implementation of AMIGO. Participants in the pilot phase (19 dyads) and the general implementation phase (112 dyads) reported comparable success in establishing mentor contact, suitability of mentor-mentee pairing, and benefit with respect to career development, scholarship, and work-life balance. Community surveys showed that AMIGO participation as mentee was high among fellows (86%) and modest among junior faculty (31%). Implementation correlated with significant gains in breadth of mentorship and in overall satisfaction with mentoring for fellows but not junior faculty. AMIGO is a career mentoring program that serves most fellows and many junior faculty in pediatric rheumatology across the US and Canada. Program evaluation data confirm that a subspecialty-wide interinstitutional mentoring program is feasible and can translate into concrete improvement in mentoring, measurable at the level of the whole professional community. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Dehydration treatment practices among pediatrics-trained and non-pediatrics trained emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jeranil; Liu, Deborah R; Nager, Alan L

    2012-04-01

    We sought to survey emergency physicians in the United States regarding the management of pediatric dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis. We hypothesized that responses from physicians with dedicated pediatric training (PT), that is, board certification in pediatrics or pediatric emergency medicine, would differ from responses of physicians with no dedicated pediatric training (non-PT). An anonymous survey was mailed to randomly selected members of the American College of Emergency Physicians and sent electronically to enrollees of Brown University pediatric emergency medicine listserv. The survey consisted of 17 multiple-choice questions based on a clinical scenario depicting a 2-year-old with acute gastroenteritis and moderate dehydration. Questions asked related to treatment preferences, practice setting, and training information. One thousand sixty-nine surveys were received: 997 surveys were used for data analysis, including 269 PT physicians and 721 non-PT physicians. Seventy-nine percent of PT physicians correctly classified the scenario patient as moderately dehydrated versus 71% of non-PT physicians (P = 0.063). Among those who correctly classified the patient, 121 PT physicians (58%) and 350 non-PT physicians (68%) would initially hydrate the patient with intravenous fluids. Pediatrics-trained physicians were more likely to initially choose oral or nasogastric hydration compared with non-PT physicians (P = 0.0127). Pediatrics-trained physicians were less likely to perform laboratory testing compared with the non-PT group (n = 92, 45%, vs n = 337, 66%; P dehydrated children, significantly more PT physicians, compared with non-PT physicians, follow established guidelines.

  9. Internet Presentation of Departments of Pediatric Surgery in Germany and Their Compliance with Recommended Criteria for Promoting Services and Offering Professional Information for Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Naim; Zoeller, Christoph; Petersen, Claus; Ure, Benno

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The presentation of health institutions in the internet is highly variable concerning marketing features and medical information. We aimed to investigate the structure and the kind of information provided on the Web sites of all departments of pediatric surgery in Germany. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the degree to which these Web sites comply with internet marketing recommendations for generating business. Method The Web sites of all pediatric surgery units referred to as departments on the official Web site of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery (GSPS) were assessed. The search engine Google was used by entering the terms "pediatric surgery" and the name of the city. Besides general data eight content characteristics focusing on ranking, accessibility, use of social media, multilingual sites, navigation options, selected images, contact details, and medical information were evaluated according to published recommendations. Results A total of 85 departments of pediatric surgery were included. On Google search results 44 (52%) ranked number one and 34 (40%) of the department's homepages were accessible directly through the homepage link of the GSPS. A link to own digital and/or social media was offered on 11 (13%) homepages. Nine sites were multilingual. The most common navigation bar item was clinical services on 74 (87%) homepages. Overall, 76 (89%) departments presented their doctors and 17 (20%) presented other staff members with images of doctors on 53 (62%) and contact data access from the homepage on 68 (80%) Web sites. On 25 (29%) Web sites information on the medical conditions treated were presented, on 17 (20%) details of treating concepts, and on 4 (5%) numbers of patients with specific conditions treated in the own department per year. Conclusion We conclude that numerous of the investigated online presentations do not comply with recommended criteria for offering professional information for patients and for promoting

  10. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  11. Development of the Australasian vascular surgical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Bernie M; Beiles, Charles Barry; Thomson, Ian A; Grigg, Michael J; Fitridge, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development of the Australasian Vascular Audit that was created to unify audit activities under the umbrella of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery as a Web-based application. Constitutional change in late 2008 deemed participation in this audit compulsory for Society members. The Web-based application was developed and tested during 2009. Data for all open vascular surgery and for all endovascular procedures are collected at two points in the admission episode: at the time of operation and at discharge, and entered into the application. Data are analyzed to produce risk-adjusted outcomes. An algorithm has been developed to deal with outliers according to natural justice and to comply with the requirements of regulatory bodies. The Audit is protected by legislated privilege and is officially endorsed and indemnified by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Confidentiality of surgeons and patients alike is ensured by a legally protected coding system and computer encryption system. Validation is by a verification process of 5% of members per year who are randomly selected. The application is completely funded by the Society. Data entry commenced on January 1, 2010. Over 40,000 vascular procedures were entered in the first year. The Audit application allows instantaneous on-line access to individual data and to deidentified group data and specific reports. It also allows real-time instantaneous production of log books for vascular trainees. The Audit has already gained recognition in the Australasian public arena during its first year of operation as an important benchmark of correct professional surgical behavior. Compliance has been extremely high in public hospitals but less so in private hospitals such that only 60% of members received a certificate of complete participation at the end of its first year of operation. An Internet-based compulsory audit of complete surgical practice is

  12. Image acquisition for the pediatric radiology PACS module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.; Morioka, C.; Mankovich, N.J.; Stewart, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype PACS module implemented at UCLA's pediatric radiology section has multi-modality access to image data from any of the three types of sources: digital modalities (i.e. CT, MR, and DSA), the Fuji Computed Radiography unit (FCR), and laser film digitizers. An interface unit was built to facilitate real-time data transfer from the FCR to the VAX11/750 which serves as the PACS host computer. The design of the interface unit, methods for linking to digital modalities, and characteristics of two film digitizers are described

  13. A pilot investigation of food insecurity among children seen in an outpatient pediatric nephrology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Starr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (FI is common - affecting one in six American households with children. FI is defined as limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. Awareness of food insecurity and its impact on health has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy statement, “Promoting Food Security for All Children.” Though FI is frequently addressed in general pediatric primary care, it is not routinely identified in patients with chronic medical problems. Patients with complex care needs, prescription medication, or restrictive nutritional requirements may be at higher risk of food insecurity. The prevalence of FI in patients with chronic disease, including pediatric patients with kidney disease, remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of FI among our pediatric nephrology clinic patients with a cross-sectional screening pilot study. Nearly 35% of 118 children seen in our pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic lived in food insecure households, a prevalence rate more than double the general pediatric population (16%. Barriers to food security were variable; common themes included challenges with restricted diet and available food, identifying and accessing community resources, and not qualifying for support. For physicians, dietitians, and other health providers that counsel patients with kidney disease on dietary interventions, it is important to be aware of food security status. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of food insecurity in pediatric patients with kidney disease. Further studies of food insecurity and social determinants of heath in this patient population are needed. Keywords: Kidney disease, Pediatrics, Child, Healthcare utilization, Food insecurity, Nutritional status

  14. Pediatric Scleroderma –Systemic and Localized Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis statement Pediatric scleroderma includes two major groups of clinical entities, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LS). Although both share a common pathophysiology, with an initial inflammatory phase associated with endothelial activation, and a later fibrotic phase evidenced by collagenization of tissue and appreciable skin thickness, their clinical manifestations differ. LS is typically confined to the skin and underlying subcutis, and though not fatal like SSc, up to a quarter of the patients may have extracutaneous disease manifestations, such as arthritis and uveitis. While any organ may be affected in SSc, vascular (Raynaud’s phenomenon), cutaneous (skin thickening), GI, pulmonary and musculoskeletal involvement are most commonly seen in children. Auto-antibody profiles in childhood onset SSc can assist in predicting internal organ involvement. Treatment for both forms of scleroderma targets the active inflammatory stage and halts disease progression; however, progress still needs to be made towards the development of a more effective anti-fibrotic therapy to help reverse disease damage. PMID:22560576

  15. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  16. Availability of mobile phones for discharge follow-up of pediatric Emergency Department patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Cheptinga, Philip; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED) patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up. Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3%) had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases. Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.

  17. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed

  18. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  19. Omentopexy improves vascularization and decreases stricture formation of esophageal anastomoses in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayari, Lili; Hershko, Dan D; Shoshani, Hadas; Maor, Ron; Mordecovich, Daniel; Shoshani, Gideon

    2004-04-01

    Anastomotic strictures are common after primary esophageal anastomosis in pediatric patients. Recent studies provided evidence that omentopexy may improve vascularization of gastroesophageal anastomoses and decrease the rate of stricture-related complications. The effect of omentopexy on primary esophago-esophageal anastomosis, however, is unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of omentopexy on the healing process of primary midesopageal anastomoses. Six dogs were operated on. A 5-cm portion of the midesophagus was resected, and continuity was restored by end-to-end anastomosis. In 3 dogs, an omental pedicle was placed around the anastomotic region. Eating patterns were recorded and functional swallowing was evaluated by fluoroscopic studies. Eight weeks after the operations, the experimental animals were killed and anastomotic lumen diameters and vascularization of the anastomotic sites were evaluated by radiographic studies and histologic examination, respectively. Two dogs in the omentopexy group were able to resume regular feeding, whereas none of the dogs in the control group were able to tolerate solid food intake. Fluoroscopic studies found preserved motility patterns of the esophagus in the omentoesophagopexy group, while prestenotic dilatation and delayed food clearance through the anastomosis were observed in the control group. Histologically, neovascularization was observed at the anastomotic site in the omentoesophagopexy group in contrast to the marked degree of fibrosis displayed in the control group. Omentopexy may improve vascularization and decrease stricture formation after primary esophagoesophageal anastomosis.

  20. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    surgery within 30 days were collected. Mortality data were collected for minimum 12 months. RESULTS: We identified 130 (0.54%) access complications requiring surgery; 65 pseudoaneurysms (0.28%), 46 arterial occlusions (0.19%), 15 hematomas (nine groin and six retroperitoneal hematomas) (0.06%), and 4...

  2. A Novel Mammary Fat Pad Transplantation Technique to Visualize the Vessel Generation of Vascular Endothelial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Song, Wenqian; Lai, Dengwen; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2017-08-03

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are the fundamental building blocks of the vascular architecture and mediate vascular growth and remodeling to ensure proper vessel development and homeostasis. However, studies on endothelial lineage hierarchy remain elusive due to the lack of tools to gain access as well as to directly evaluate their behavior in vivo. To address this shortcoming, a new tissue model to study angiogenesis using the mammary fat pad has been developed. The mammary gland develops mostly in the postnatal stages, including puberty and pregnancy, during which robust epithelium proliferation is accompanied by extensive vascular remodeling. Mammary fat pads provide space, matrix, and rich angiogenic stimuli from the growing mammary epithelium. Furthermore, mammary fat pads are located outside the peritoneal cavity, making them an easily accessible grafting site for assessing the angiogenic potential of exogenous cells. This work also describes an efficient tracing approach using fluorescent reporter mice to specifically label the targeted population of vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) in vivo. This lineage tracing method, coupled with subsequent tissue whole-mount microscopy, enable the direct visualization of targeted cells and their descendants, through which the proliferation capability can be quantified and the differentiation commitment can be fate-mapped. Using these methods, a population of bipotent protein C receptor (Procr) expressing VESCs has recently been identified in multiple vascular systems. Procr + VESCs, giving rise to both new ECs and pericytes, actively contribute to angiogenesis during development, homeostasis, and injury repair. Overall, this manuscript describes a new mammary fat pad transplantation and in vivo lineage tracing techniques that can be used to evaluate the stem cell properties of VESCs.

  3. Pediatric Voiding Cystourethrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scan for mobile link. Children's (Pediatric) Voiding Cystourethrogram A children’s (pediatric) voiding cystourethrogram uses fluoroscopy – a form of real-time x-ray – to examine a child’s bladder ...

  4. The vascular surgery workforce: a survey of consultant vascular surgeons in the UK, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics, training, and practice characteristics of consultant vascular surgeons across the UK to provide an assessment of current, and inform future prediction of workforce needs. A questionnaire was developed using a modified Delphi process to generate questionnaire items. The questionnaire was emailed to all consultant vascular surgeons (n = 450) in the UK who were members of the Vascular Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 352 consultant vascular surgeons from 95 hospital trusts across the UK completed the survey (78% response rate). The mean age was 50.6 years old, the majority (62%) were mid-career, but 24% were above the age of 55. Currently, 92% are men and only 8% women. 93% work full-time, with 60% working >50 hours, and 21% working >60 hours per week. The average team was 5 to 6 (range 2-10) vascular surgeons, with 23% working in a large team of ≥8. 17% still work in small teams of ≤3. Over 90% of consultant vascular surgeons perform the major index vascular surgery procedures (aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy, infra-inguinal bypass, amputation). While 84% perform standard endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), <50% perform more complex endovascular aortic therapy. The majority of vascular surgeons "like their job" (85%) and are "satisfied" (69%) with their job. 34% of consultant vascular surgeons indicated they were "extremely likely" to retire within the next 10 years. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the new specialty of vascular surgery as practiced in the UK. There is a need to plan for a significant expansion in the consultant vascular surgeon workforce in the UK over the next 10 years to maintain the status quo. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2014-01-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways

  6. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  7. Pain Management and Use of Opioids in Pediatric Oncology in India: A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Angelini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Consumption of medical opium for pain relief in India is low, despite the country being one of the main world producers of the substance. We investigated obstacles to opioid use and physician perceptions about optimal pain management in pediatric oncology patients in India. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with oncologists who work in pediatric oncology settings. A mixed sampling strategy was used, including maximum variation and confirmation and disconfirmation of cases, as well as snowball sampling. Key informants were identified. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by thematic analysis methodology. Results: Twenty-three interviews were performed across 20 Indian institutions. The main obstacles identified were lack of financial resources, inadequate education of health care providers on pain management, insufficient human resources (particularly lack of dedicated trained oncology nurses, poor access to opioids, and cultural perceptions about pain. Children from rural areas, treated in public hospitals, and from lower socioeconomic classes appear disadvantaged. A significant equality gap exists between public institutions and private institutions, which provide state-of-the-art treatment. Conclusion: The study illuminates the complexity of pain management in pediatric oncology in India, where financial constraints, lack of education, and poor access to opioids play a dominant role, but lack of awareness and cultural perceptions about pain management among health care providers and parents emerged as important contributing factors. Urgent interventions are needed to optimize care in this vulnerable population.

  8. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, ... physician. Established by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic ...

  9. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  10. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 – 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow

  11. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Barwad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs. Aims: To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Materials and Methods: All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. Results: A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33% were AVP type I and 23 (59% were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM (n = 7, aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7, closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5, systemic AVM (n = 5, coronary AVM (n = 4, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (n = 3, pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3, and venovenous collaterals (n = 2. Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 - 7F Judkin′s right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. Conclusions: AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow.

  12. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddder Korkmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Conclusion: Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly.

  13. Annals of Pediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Pediatric Surgery is striving to fill an important niche that provides focus to clinical care, technical innovation and clinical research. The Annals of Pediatric Surgery has the responsibility to serve not only pediatric surgeons in the Middle East and North Africa but also should be an important conduit for scientific ...

  14. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  15. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  16. Comparisons between Full-time and Part-time Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Anne; Tuan, Pao-Lan; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chao, Minston; Wang, Hui-Hsuan; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Chang, Yu-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine is a young field that has established itself in recent decades. Many unanswered questions remain regarding how to deliver better pediatric emergency care. The implementation of full-time pediatric emergency physicians is a quality improvement strategy for child care in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of care under different physician coverage models in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The medical records of 132,398 patients visiting the pediatric ED of a tertiary care university hospital during January 2004 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Full-time pediatric emergency physicians are the group specializing in the pediatric emergency medicine, and they only work in the pediatric ED. Part-time pediatricians specializing in other subspecialties also can work an extra shift in the pediatric ED, with the majority working in their inpatient and outpatient services. We compared quality performance indicators, including: mortality rate, the 72-hour return visit rate, length of stay, admission rate, and the rate of being kept for observation between full-time and part-time pediatric emergency physicians. An average of 3678 ± 125 [mean ± standard error (SE)] visits per month (with a range of 2487-6646) were observed. The trends in quality of care, observed monthly, indicated that the 72-hour return rate was 2-6% and length of stay in the ED decreased from 11.5 hours to 3.2 hours over the study period. The annual mortality rate within 48 hours of admission to the ED increased from 0.04% to 0.05% and then decreased to 0.02%, and the overall mortality rate dropped from 0.13% to 0.07%. Multivariate analyses indicated that there was no change in the 72-hour return visit rate for full-time pediatric emergency physicians; they were more likely to admit and keep patients for observation [odds ratio = 1.43 and odds ratio = 1.71, respectively], and these results were similar to those of senior

  17. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total artificial heart in the pediatric patient with biventricular heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S S; Sanders, D B; Smith, B P; Ryan, J; Plasencia, J; Osborn, M B; Wellnitz, C M; Southard, R N; Pierce, C N; Arabia, F A; Lane, J; Frakes, D; Velez, D A; Pophal, S G; Nigro, J J

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support emerged for the pediatric population in the late 1980s as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. The Total Artificial Heart (TAH-t) (SynCardia Systems Inc., Tuscon, AZ) has been approved for compassionate use by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation since 1985 and has had FDA approval since 2004. However, of the 1,061 patients placed on the TAH-t, only 21 (2%) were under the age 18. SynCardia Systems, Inc. recommends a minimum patient body surface area (BSA) of 1.7 m(2), thus, limiting pediatric application of this device. This unique case report shares this pediatric institution's first experience with the TAH-t. A 14-year-old male was admitted with dilated cardiomyopathy and severe biventricular heart failure. The patient rapidly decompensated, requiring extracorporeal life support. An echocardiogram revealed severe biventricular dysfunction and diffuse clot formation in the left ventricle and outflow tract. The decision was made to transition to biventricular assist device. The biventricular failure and clot formation helped guide the team to the TAH-t, in spite of a BSA (1.5 m(2)) below the recommendation of 1.7 m(2). A computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax, in conjunction with a novel three-dimensional (3D) modeling system and team, assisted in determining appropriate fit. Chest CT and 3D modeling following implantation were utilized to determine all major vascular structures were unobstructed and the bronchi were open. The virtual 3D model confirmed appropriate device fit with no evidence of compression to the left pulmonary veins. The postoperative course was complicated by a left lung opacification. The left lung anomalies proved to be atelectasis and improved with aggressive recruitment maneuvers. The patient was supported for 11 days prior to transplantation. Chest CT and 3D modeling were crucial in assessing whether the device would

  19. Moving toward quality palliative cancer care: parent and clinician perspectives on gaps between what matters and what is accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Alisha; Skiadaresis, Julia; Habib, Sharifa; Alexander, Sarah; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-03-01

    The National Consensus Project (NCP) published a set of standards for quality palliative care delivery. A key step before applying these guidelines to pediatric oncology is to evaluate how much families and clinicians value these standards. We aimed to determine which elements of palliative care are considered important according to bereaved parents and pediatric oncology clinicians and to determine accessibility of these elements. We administered questionnaires to 75 bereaved parents (response rate, 54%) and 48 pediatric oncology clinicians (response rate, 91%) at a large teaching hospital. Outcome measures included importance ratings and accessibility of core elements of palliative care delivery. Fifteen of 20 core elements were highly valued by both parents and clinicians (defined as > 60% of parents and clinicians reporting the item as important). Compared with clinicians, parents gave higher ratings to receiving cancer-directed therapy during the last month of life (P involvement of a spiritual mentor (P = .03). Of the valued elements, only three were accessible more than 60% of the time according to clinicians and parents. Valued elements least likely to be accessible included a direct admission policy to hospital, sibling support, and parent preparation for medical aspects surrounding death. Parents and clinicians highly value a majority of palliative care elements described in the NCP framework. Children with advanced cancer may not be receiving key elements of palliative care despite parents and clinicians recognizing them as important. Evaluation of barriers to provision of quality palliative care and strategies for overcoming them are critical.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE OF THE PEDIATRIC RESIDENT ABOUT NEONATAL & PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KADIAVAR

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high leve of skill & knowledge is required in circumstances of cardiopulmonary resucitation which represents the most urgent clinical situations. The difficulties for pediatric residents who are fronted with the most cases of pediatric & neonatal resucitation are due to different causes of cardiorespiratory arrest in camparison to adults. This study aimed to assess the knowledge & their personal attitude toward the neonatal & pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitatin. Methods: By cross - sectional multicenter study between the pediatric residents who were studied in the teaching hospitals in Tehran (1378-90. Data were gathered among 140 residents by self-completed questionnaires which were included three parts as. demographic information assessment of their attitude by summation of score via ranking list questions and total score from assessment to their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Results: 35.7% of the residents studied in the first year of residency 35.0% in the second year and the remainder (29/3% in the third year More than 90% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation low & less than average. Net only 80% of the residents self - assessed their actual ability about this issue low but also declaired the insufficient education during the medical training. The total score of knowledge assessment was 14.7 + 1_0.54 from 30 without any significant relations among the residents in different hospitals or various levels of pediatric residency. (P value= 0.1 , 0.7 There was not significant correlation between the total score from their attitude & their knowledge. Conclusion: Pediatric residents as the key personnel in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the neonates and children should have enough knowledge and skills about this topic. This survey demonstrates a low level of the pediatric & neonatal

  1. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  2. Simulation based planning of surgical interventions in pediatric cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-10-01

    Hemodynamics plays an essential role in the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, while medical imaging provides increasingly detailed anatomical information, clinicians often have limited access to hemodynamic data that may be crucial to patient risk assessment and treatment planning. Computational simulations can now provide detailed hemodynamic data to augment clinical knowledge in both adult and pediatric applications. There is a particular need for simulation tools in pediatric cardiology, due to the wide variation in anatomy and physiology in congenital heart disease patients, necessitating individualized treatment plans. Despite great strides in medical imaging, enabling extraction of flow information from magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, simulations offer predictive capabilities that imaging alone cannot provide. Patient specific simulations can be used for in silico testing of new surgical designs, treatment planning, device testing, and patient risk stratification. Furthermore, simulations can be performed at no direct risk to the patient. In this paper, we outline the current state of the art in methods for cardiovascular blood flow simulation and virtual surgery. We then step through pressing challenges in the field, including multiscale modeling, boundary condition selection, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. Finally, we summarize simulation results of two representative examples from pediatric cardiology: single ventricle physiology, and coronary aneurysms caused by Kawasaki disease. These examples illustrate the potential impact of computational modeling tools in the clinical setting.

  3. Radiodiagnosis in pediatrics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanova, V.F.

    1982-01-01

    The fields of radiodiagnosis application in pediatrics are considered. The improvement of roentgenologic methods and application of various contrast proparations enable to study and precisely differentiate congenital and acquired diseases. The scope of roentgenology application in pediatrics extends due to differentiation of pediatric specialities. New methods of investigation with decreasing radiation exposure to minimal are realized [ru

  4. Pediatric Melanoma and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Importance—Pediatric melanoma occurs, albeit rarely. Should patients be treated by today’s medical standards, or be subjected to medically unnecessary clinical studies? Observations—We identified international, industry-sponsored pediatric melanoma studies triggered by regulatory demands in www.clinicaltrials.gov and further pediatric melanoma studies demanded by European Union pediatric investigation plans. We retrieved related regulatory documents from the internet. We analyzed these studies for rationale and medical beneficence on the basis of physiology, pediatric clinical pharmacology and rationale. Regulatory authorities define children by chronological age, not physiologically. Newborns’ organs are immature but they develop and mature rapidly. Separate proof of efficacy in underage patients is justified formally/regulatorily but lacks medical sense. Children—especially post-puberty—and adults vis-a-vis medications are physiologically very similar. Two adolescent melanoma studies were terminated in 2016 because of waning recruitment, while five studies in pediatric melanoma and other solid tumors, triggered by European Union pediatric investigation plans, continue recruiting worldwide. Conclusions and Relevance—Regulatory-demanded pediatric melanoma studies are medically superfluous. Melanoma patients of all ages should be treated with effective combination treatment. Babies need special attention. Children need dose-finding and pharmacokinetic studies but adolescents metabolize and respond to drugs similarly to adults. Institutional Review Boards/ethics committees should suspend ongoing questionable pediatric melanoma studies and reject newly submitted questionable studies.

  5. Predictors of stethoscope disinfection among pediatric health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jeanette; Sethi, Rosh K V; Zaghi, Justin; Ziniel, Sonja I; Sandora, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    Stethoscopes are contaminated with bacteria, but predictors of stethoscope disinfection frequency are unknown. We sought to describe health care provider stethoscope disinfection attitudes and practices and determine predictors of frequent disinfection. We used an anonymous online survey of nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians at a pediatric hospital. We assessed frequency and methods of disinfection, perceptions of contamination, and barriers to disinfection. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of disinfecting after every use. One thousand four hundred one respondents completed the survey: 76% believed that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes, but only 24% reported disinfecting after every use. In multivariate analyses, belief that infection transmission occurs via stethoscopes significantly increased the odds of disinfection after every use (odds ratio [OR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-3.06]). The odds of disinfection after every use were significantly decreased in those who perceived the following barriers: lack of time (OR, 0.31 [95% CI: 0.18-0.54]), lack of access to disinfection material (OR, 0.41 [95% CI: 0.29-0.57]), or lack of visual reminders to disinfect (OR, 0.22 [95% CI: 0.14-0.34]). Only a minority of pediatric health care providers reported disinfecting their stethoscopes after every use. Increasing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders in health care facilities may improve stethoscope disinfection practices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: is computerized tomography a must?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Abdullah; Tutus, Ali; Kayan, Devrim; Yılmaz, Yakup; Bircan, Kamuran

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) cases, and discuss the results and necessity of non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) in these cases. In all, 48 pediatric patients who underwent PNL were retrospectively evaluated. Before PNL, either intravenous urography or CT was performed. In all patients, we evaluated the PNL time, scopy time with stone burden, and complications. During the PNL procedure, we switched to open surgery in two cases: in one because of renal pelvis perforation and in the other because of transcolonic access. In one patient who was scheduled to undergo PNL, we performed open surgery, primarily because we detected a retrorenal colon with CT. The stone burden in 45 patients who underwent PNL was 445 ± 225 mm(2), the PNL time was 51 ± 23 min, and the scopy time was 6.1 ± 2.7 min. We removed nephrostomy tubes 1-4 days after the procedure. In two patients, 24 h after removal of nephrostomy tubes, we inserted double J stents because of prolonged urine extravasation from the tract. In all, 34 of the 45 patients were stone-free, 5 patients had clinically insignificant stone fragments, and 6 patients had residual stones. PNL is a safe and effective method in the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney stones. Clinical experience is the most important factor in obtaining stone-free results. CT should be performed in all pediatric patients in order to prevent colon perforation.

  7. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  8. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death—Summary Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, ; Sonny; Sivarajan, V. Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A.; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D.

    2017-01-01

    after circulatory determination of death, 7) cardiac and innovative pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death, and 8) implementation. For brevity, 48 Good Practice Statement and truncated justification are included in this summary report. The remaining recommendations, detailed methodology, full Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tables, and expanded justifications are available in the full text report. Conclusions: This process showed that rigorous, transparent clinical practice guideline development is possible in the domain of pediatric deceased donation. Application of these recommendations will increase access to pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death across Canada and may serve as a model for future clinical practice guideline development in deceased donation. PMID:28925929

  9. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, Sonny; Sivarajan, V Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D

    2017-11-01

    determination of death, 7) cardiac and innovative pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death, and 8) implementation. For brevity, 48 Good Practice Statement and truncated justification are included in this summary report. The remaining recommendations, detailed methodology, full Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tables, and expanded justifications are available in the full text report. This process showed that rigorous, transparent clinical practice guideline development is possible in the domain of pediatric deceased donation. Application of these recommendations will increase access to pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death across Canada and may serve as a model for future clinical practice guideline development in deceased donation.

  10. Cyanoacrylate Skin Microsealant for Preventing Surgical Site Infection after Vascular Surgery : A Discontinued Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P.; Ott, Alewijn; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Oskam, Jacques; Ott, Alewijn; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) after vascular surgery are related to substantial morbidity. Restriction of bacterial access to the site of surgery with a cyanoacrylate sealant is a new concept. We performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of the sealing of skin with a

  11. Quality measures and pediatric radiology: suggestions for the transition to value-based payment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Richard E. [Radiology Partners, El Segundo, CA (United States); Coley, Brian D. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nemours Children' s Health System, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernanz-Schulman, Marta [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States); Robertson, Richard L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Recent political and economic factors have contributed to a meaningful change in the way that quality in health care, and by extension value, are viewed. While quality is often evaluated on the basis of subjective criteria, pay-for-performance programs that link reimbursement to various measures of quality require use of objective and quantifiable measures. This evolution to value-based payment was accelerated by the 2015 passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Program) Reauthorization Act (MACRA). While many of the drivers of these changes are rooted in federal policy and programs such as Medicare and aimed at adult patients, the practice of pediatrics and pediatric radiology will be increasingly impacted. This article addresses issues related to the use of quantitative measures to evaluate the quality of services provided by the pediatric radiology department or sub-specialty section, particularly as seen from the viewpoint of a payer that may be considering ways to link payment to performance. The paper concludes by suggesting a metric categorization strategy to frame future work on the subject. (orig.)

  12. Quality measures and pediatric radiology: suggestions for the transition to value-based payment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Richard E.; Coley, Brian D.; Simoneaux, Stephen F.; Podberesky, Daniel J.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Robertson, Richard L.; Donnelly, Lane F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent political and economic factors have contributed to a meaningful change in the way that quality in health care, and by extension value, are viewed. While quality is often evaluated on the basis of subjective criteria, pay-for-performance programs that link reimbursement to various measures of quality require use of objective and quantifiable measures. This evolution to value-based payment was accelerated by the 2015 passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Program) Reauthorization Act (MACRA). While many of the drivers of these changes are rooted in federal policy and programs such as Medicare and aimed at adult patients, the practice of pediatrics and pediatric radiology will be increasingly impacted. This article addresses issues related to the use of quantitative measures to evaluate the quality of services provided by the pediatric radiology department or sub-specialty section, particularly as seen from the viewpoint of a payer that may be considering ways to link payment to performance. The paper concludes by suggesting a metric categorization strategy to frame future work on the subject. (orig.)

  13. What Is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... children, and teens. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Gastroenterologists Have? Pediatric gastroenterologists are medical doctors who ...

  14. What Is a Pediatric Endocrinologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Endocrinologist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Endocrinologists Have? Pediatric endocrinologists are medical doctors who ...

  15. What Is a Pediatric Geneticist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Geneticist? Page Content Article Body Fortunately, most children ... with similar problems. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Geneticists Have? Pediatric geneticists are medical doctors who ...

  16. What Is a Pediatric Urologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Urologist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... treat your child. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Urologists Have? Pediatric urologists are medical doctors who ...

  17. The impact of transport of critically ill pediatric patients on rural emergency departments in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gregory; Beer, Darcy L; Vallance, Jeff K

    2017-01-01

    Although the interfacility transport (IFT) of critically ill pediatric patients from rural to tertiary health centres may improve outcomes, the impact of IFTs on the rural referring centre is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the IFT of critically ill children affects staffing and functionality of rural emergency departments (EDs) in Manitoba. In 2015, surveys were emailed to the medical directors of all 15 regional EDs within 2 hours' travel time from a tertiary pediatric hospital. The survey consisted of 9 questions that addressed baseline characteristics of the regional EDs and duration of ED staffing changes or closures due to IFT of critically ill pediatric patients. Ten surveys were received (67% response rate); a regional ED catchment population of about 130 000 people was represented. Interfacility transport caused most EDs (60%, with an average catchment population of 15 000) to close or to alter their staffing to a registered nurse only. These temporary changes lasted a cumulative total of 115 hours. Interfacility transport of critically ill pediatric patients resulted in ED closures and staffing changes in rural Manitoba. These findings suggest that long-term sustainable solutions are required to improve access to emergency care.

  18. Telemedicine and other care models in pediatric rheumatology: an exploratory study of parents' perceptions of barriers to care and care preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Danielle R; Vehe, Richard K; Zhang, Lei; Correll, Colleen K

    2017-07-11

    The United States pediatric rheumatology workforce is committed to a mission of providing children access to pediatric rheumatology care. With a limited number and distribution of pediatric rheumatologists, telemedicine has been proposed as one way to meet this mission, yet the adoption of this modality has been slower than expected. The purpose of this study was to explore the parent perspective on barriers to accessing pediatric rheumatology care and to explore the acceptability of telemedicine and other alternative care models. Over a period of six weeks, all new and return English-speaking parents/guardians of patients visiting a single center were offered an opportunity to complete a survey which assessed barriers to care and interest in alternative models of care. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Survey response rate was 72% (159/221). Twenty-eight percent (45/159) traveled more than three hours to the pediatric rheumatology clinic, and 43% (65/152) reported travel as inconvenient. An overwhelming majority of respondents (95%, 144/152) reported a preference for in-person visits over the option of telemedicine. This preference was similar regardless of whether respondents reported travel to the clinic as inconvenient vs convenient (inconvenient 92%, 60/65; convenient 97%, 84/87; p = 0.2881) and despite those reporting travel as inconvenient also reporting greater difficulty with several barriers to care. Those familiar with telemedicine were more likely to report a preference for telemedicine over in-person visits (27%, 3/11 vs 3%, 4/140; p = 0.0087). The option of an outreach clinic was acceptable to a majority (63%, 97/154); however, adult rheumatology and shared-care options were less acceptable (22%, 35/156 and 34%, 53/156 respectively). Among survey respondents, in-person visits were preferred over the option of telemedicine, even when travel was noted to be inconvenient. Telemedicine familiarity increased its acceptability

  19. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  20. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  2. The US pediatric nephrology workforce: a report commissioned by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, William A; Meyers, Kevin E; Kirkwood, Suzanne J; Ruch-Ross, Holly S; Radabaugh, Carrie L; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2015-07-01

    The US pediatric nephrology workforce is poorly characterized. This report describes clinical and nonclinical activities, motivations and disincentives to a career in pediatric nephrology, future workforce needs, trainee recruitment, and possible explanations for personnel shortages. An e-mail survey was sent in 2013 to all identified US-trained or -practicing pediatric nephrologists. Of 504 respondents, 51% are men, 66% are US graduates, and 73% work in an academic setting. About 20% of trained pediatric nephrologists no longer practice pediatric nephrology. Among the 384 respondents practicing pediatric nephrology full or part-time in the United States, the mean work week was 56.1±14.3 hours, with time divided between patient care (59%), administration (13%), teaching (10%), clinical research (9%), basic research (6%), and other medical activities (3%). Most (>85%) care for dialysis and transplantation patients. The median number of weeks annually on call is 16, and 29% work with one or no partner. One-third of US pediatric nephrologists (n=126) plan to reduce or stop clinical nephrology practice in the next 5 years, and 53% plan to fully or partially retire. Almost half the division chiefs (47%) report inadequate physician staffing. Ongoing efforts to monitor and address pediatric nephrology workforce issues are needed. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seminar Pediatrics. Medical and Technical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montivero, M.; Nespral, D.O.; Alak, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine has organized the 'Seminar Pediatrics - Medical and Technical Applications', held in Buenos Aires in May 2012, in order to collaborate with the scientific growth of nuclear medicine in pediatrics. The main topics covered were: management of pediatric patients and medical application in childhood, dosimetry in pediatric nuclear medicine, scope of radioisotope - studies in nephrourological pathologies, PET in pediatrics, among others.

  4. Pulmonary Vascular Input Impedance is a Combined Measure of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Stiffness and Predicts Clinical Outcomes Better than PVR Alone in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Kirby, K. Scott; Claussen, Lori R.; Chan, K. Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated an method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero-harmonic impedance value and PVR, and suggested a correlation between higher harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness (PVS). Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and PVS from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared to PVR. Methods Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main PA were measured during right-heart catheterization of patients with normal PA hemodynamics (n=14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects; 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Results Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y=1.095·x+1.381, R2=0.9620). Additionally, the modulus sum of the first two harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (PP/SV) (y=13.39·x-0.8058, R2=0.7962). Amongst a subset of PAH patients (n=25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (RL2=0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (RL2=0.3131). Conclusions Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from PW Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and better predicts patient

  5. 77 FR 65002 - Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) Priority List of Needs in Pediatric Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... the short- and long-term. These gaps have frequently resulted in inadequate labeling for pediatric use...- and long-term effects. Contributing factors to extensive off-label product use include limited access... in children, and a general lack of long-term safety data on the medications that are used. All of...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  7. What is Pediatric Palliative Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ Handout for Patients and Families What Is Pediatric Palliative Care? Pediatric Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh-tiv) is ... life for both the child and the family. Pediatric palliative care is provided by a team of ...

  8. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  9. Vascular Rupture Caused by a Molding Balloon during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Young; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Dong Ik

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been accepted as an alternative to traditional open surgery in selected patients. Despite the minimally invasiveness of this treatment, several complications may occur during or after EVAR. Complications include endoleak, aortic dissection, distal embolism, or iatrogenic injury to the access artery. However, there are few reports on the vascular rupture caused by a molding balloon during EVAR. We report two cases of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by procedure-related aortic or iliac artery rupture by the molding balloon during EVAR. In our cases, we observed suddenly abrupt increase of the diameter of the endograft during balloon inflation, because we inflated the balloon rapidly. In conclusion, careful attention must be paid during inflation of the molding balloon to prevent vascular rupture.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  12. Can pre-implantation biopsies predict renal allograft function in pediatric renal transplant recipients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A. Kari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the utility of pre-implantation renal biopsy (PIB to predict renal allograft outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective review of all patients that underwent PIB from January 2003 to December 2011 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, United Kingdom. Thirty-two male patients (56% aged 1.5-16 years (median: 10.2 at the time of transplantation were included in the study and followed-up for 33 (6-78 months. The results were compared with 33 controls. Results: The PIB showed normal histopathological findings in 13 patients (41%, mild chronic vascular changes in 8 (25%, focal tubular atrophy in one, moderate to severe chronic vascular change in 3, mild to moderate acute tubular damage in 6, and tissue was inadequate in one subject. Delayed graft function (DGF was observed in 3 patients; 2 with vascular changes in PIB, and one with normal histopathological findings. Two subjects with PIB changes lost their grafts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate at 3-, and 6-months post-transplantation was lower in children with abnormal PIB changes compared with those with normal PIB. There was one case of DGF in the control group, and 4 children lost their grafts including the one with DGF. Conclusion: Pre-implantation renal biopsy can provide important baseline information of the graft with implications on subsequent medical treatment for pediatric renal transplant recipients.

  13. Evaluation of an open access software for calculating glucose variability parameters of a continuous glucose monitoring system applied at pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marics, Gábor; Lendvai, Zsófia; Lódi, Csaba; Koncz, Levente; Zakariás, Dávid; Schuster, György; Mikos, Borbála; Hermann, Csaba; Szabó, Attila J; Tóth-Heyn, Péter

    2015-04-24

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has become an increasingly investigated tool, especially with regards to monitoring of diabetic and critical care patients. The continuous glucose data allows the calculation of several glucose variability parameters, however, without specific application the interpretation of the results is time-consuming, utilizing extreme efforts. Our aim was to create an open access software [Glycemic Variability Analyzer Program (GVAP)], readily available to calculate the most common parameters of the glucose variability and to test its usability. The GVAP was developed in MATLAB® 2010b environment. The calculated parameters were the following: average area above/below the target range (Avg. AUC-H/L); Percentage Spent Above/Below the Target Range (PATR/PBTR); Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action (CONGA); Mean of Daily Differences (MODD); Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursions (MAGE). For verification purposes we selected 14 CGM curves of pediatric critical care patients. Medtronic® Guardian® Real-Time with Enlite® sensor was used. The reference values were obtained from Medtronic®(')s own software for Avg. AUC-H/L and PATR/PBTR, from GlyCulator for MODD and CONGA, and using manual calculation for MAGE. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were above 0.99 for all parameters. The initial execution took 30 minutes, for further analysis with the Windows® Standalone Application approximately 1 minute was needed. The GVAP is a reliable open access program for analyzing different glycemic variability parameters, hence it could be a useful tool for the study of glycemic control among critically ill patients.

  14. Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ® ™ ® Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance A child’s serious illness affects the entire family. Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care can support ... extra support, palliative care can help. What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative care is supportive care ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  17. Global surgery for pediatric hydrocephalus in the developing world: a review of the history, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Ryan T; Wang, Shelly; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is a major contributor to the global burden of surgically treatable diseases. Significant health disparities exist for the treatment of hydrocephalus in developing nations due to a combination of medical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. This review aims to provide the international neurosurgery community with an overview of the current challenges and future directions of neurosurgical care for children with hydrocephalus in low-income countries. METHODS The authors conducted a literature review around the topic of pediatric hydrocephalus in the context of global surgery, the unique challenges to creating access to care in low-income countries, and current international efforts to address the problem. RESULTS Developing countries face the greatest burden of pediatric hydrocephalus due to high birth rates and greater risk of neonatal infections. This burden is related to more general global health challenges, including malnutrition, infectious diseases, maternal and perinatal risk factors, and education gaps. Unique challenges pertaining to the treatment of hydrocephalus in the developing world include a preponderance of postinfectious hydrocephalus, limited resources, and restricted access to neurosurgical care. In the 21st century, several organizations have established programs that provide hydrocephalus treatment and neurosurgical training in Africa, Central and South America, Haiti, and Southeast Asia. These international efforts have employed various models to achieve the goals of providing safe, sustainable, and cost-effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS Broader commitment from the pediatric neurosurgery community, increased funding, public education, surgeon training, and ongoing surgical innovation will be needed to meaningfully address the global burden of untreated hydrocephalus.

  18. Double-filter identification of vascular-expressed genes using Arabidopsis plants with vascular hypertrophy and hypotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Scarpella, Enrico; Goldstein, Rochelle S; Berleth, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Genes expressed in vascular tissues have been identified by several strategies, usually with a focus on mature vascular cells. In this study, we explored the possibility of using two opposite types of altered tissue compositions in combination with a double-filter selection to identify genes with a high probability of vascular expression in early organ primordia. Specifically, we generated full-transcriptome microarray profiles of plants with (a) genetically strongly reduced and (b) pharmacologically vastly increased vascular tissues and identified a reproducible cohort of 158 transcripts that fulfilled the dual requirement of being underrepresented in (a) and overrepresented in (b). In order to assess the predictive value of our identification scheme for vascular gene expression, we determined the expression patterns of genes in two unbiased subsamples. First, we assessed the expression patterns of all twenty annotated transcription factor genes from the cohort of 158 genes and found that seventeen of the twenty genes were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular cells. Remarkably, fifteen of these seventeen vascular genes were clearly expressed already very early in leaf vein development. Twelve genes with published leaf expression patterns served as a second subsample to monitor the representation of vascular genes in our cohort. Of those twelve genes, eleven were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular tissues. Based on these results we propose that our compendium of 158 genes represents a sample that is highly enriched for genes expressed in vascular tissues and that our approach is particularly suited to detect genes expressed in vascular cell lineages at early stages of their inception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric emergence delirium: Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H David; Mervitz, Deborah; Cravero, Joseph P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric emergence agitation/delirium (ED) is a cluster of behaviors seen in the early postanesthetic period with negative emotional consequences for families and increased utilization of healthcare resources. Many studies have looked at identifying risk factors for ED and at pharmacologic regimens to prevent ED. There are few published reports on treatment options and efficacy for established ED episodes, and essentially no data concerning current practice in the treatment of ED. We sought to elicit the experience and opinions of Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists on the incidence of ED in their practice, definitions and diagnostic criteria, preventative strategies, treatments, and their perceived efficacy. A web-based survey was sent to pediatric anesthesiologists working at academic health science centers across Canada. The participants were selected based on being members of the Canadian Pediatric Anesthesia Society (CPAS), which represents the subspecialty in Canada. All members of CPAS who had e-mail contact information available in the membership database were invited to participate. A total of 209 members out of the total of 211 fulfilled these criteria and were included in the study population. The response rate was 51% (106/209). Of respondents, 42% felt that ED was a significant problem at their institutions, with 45% giving medication before or during anesthesia to prevent the development of ED. Propofol was the most common medication given to prevent ED (68%) and to treat ED (42%). Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was considered by 38% of respondents as a technique used to prevent ED. Medications used for treatment included propofol (42%), midazolam (31%), fentanyl (10%), morphine (7%), and dexmedetomidine (5%), with 87% of respondents rating effectiveness of treatment as 'usually works quickly with one dose'. We present information on current practice patterns with respect to prophylaxis and treatment of ED among a specialized group of pediatric

  20. The role of advanced practice providers in pediatric otolaryngology academic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Brian K; Brandon, Gretchen; Shah, Rahul; Preciado, Diego; Zalzal, George

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the roles of Physician Assistants (PAs) and Nurse Practitioners (NPs) in pediatric academic otolaryngology programs to provide a better understanding of their scope of practice, levels of autonomy, clinical duties, teaching opportunities and research participation. An anonymous web-based electronic survey tool was sent to all pediatric otolaryngology fellowship program directors in the United States. Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants are utilized in approximately 3 out of every 4 pediatric otolaryngology practices. The top three job activities of both the PA and NP were: (1) seeing patients independently, (2) working alongside doctors in clinic, and (3) answering phone lines/parental calls. A higher percentage of PAs (83%), worked alongside doctors in clinic, as compared to NPs, where only 55% work alongside MDs. Over half of PAs round with the in-patient team and see consults as compared to just over one third of NPs who participate in such activities. Twenty-five percent of practices reported that PAs cover call and assist in the OR. Most PAs/NPs saw between 11 and 15 patients per clinic which provides a clear productivity advantage when looking to screen patients, provide medical care, generate surgical cases, and maximize billings. NPs and PAs have complimentary skill sets ideal for the pediatric otolaryngology workplace, although job activities and "best fit" are hospital and practice dependent. Our study suggests that the use of PAs and NPs will continue to grow to meet increased demand for services in the field of pediatric otolaryngology. Employing advanced practice providers enables academic centers to improve access, provide additional financial remuneration, reduce wait times for new patients, and allow attending physicians to meet increased practice demands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kerala Pioneering Pediatric Surgery in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric surgeons of Kerala are very proud to have led the development of superspeciality in any branch of medicine in Kerala and also superspeciality of Pediatric surgery in whole of India. Late Prof. Raman Nair returned in 1954 after training under Dr. Everett Koop in US. Same year, in his far-sighted vision for future development of the speciality, he moved to SATH, Medical College, Trivandrum and started Pediatric surgery as a speciality attached to Paediatrics department; this was the beginning of Pediatric surgery in India. He opted for Pediatric surgery as a full time job and did not do any general surgery work in adults. He was the first full time Pediatric surgeon of India; during the next few years, 2 surgeons, one in Calcutta, Prof. UC Chakraboty and Prof. D Anjaneyulu in Hyderabad started working as full time Pediatric surgeons. In Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai, Pediatric surgery developed much later and then all over the country.

  2. Comparison of the boomerang wire vascular access management system versus manual compression alone during percutaneous diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures: The boomerang™ wire vascular access management trial II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nilesh J; Smalling, Ronnie G; Sinha, Shantanu; Gammon, Roger S; Ramaiah, Venkatesh G

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of the Boomerang™ Wire as an adjunct to manual compression (MC) in patients requiring diagnostic (Dx) or interventional (Ix) percutaneous procedures. MC remains the standard of care for closure of femoral artery access sites. Adjunctive use of a device to facilitate closure, reduce time to hemostasis (TTH) and ambulation (TTA) without increasing complication rates could reduce costs and hospital resource demands. The Boomerang™ Trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing use of the Boomerang™ wire, (Cardiva Medical, Sunnyvale, CA) in conjunction with MC versus MC alone to achieve hemostasis in Dx and Ix patients undergoing percutaneous procedures requiring femoral artery access. Endpoints included TTH, TTA, major, and minor access-site related complications. Subjects were randomized 3:1, Boomerang versus MC. No minor or major device-related adverse events were reported. Nondevice related complication rates were 3 (0.9%) in the Boomerang arm (n = 327) and 1 (0.8%) in MC arm (n = 123). Mean TTH for Boomerang vs. MC was 11.2 ± 4.3 vs. 23.2 ± 11 min for Dx (P Boomerang vs. MC was 3.3 ± 3.0 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 hr (P Boomerang™ use, in conjunction with MC, was associated with low rates of complications and demonstrated that Boomerang™ as an adjunct to MC can significantly decrease TTH and TTA after both Dx and Ix procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pediatric Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jennifer N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: 1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pre-excitation, 3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25722754

  4. Our Journal Unites Us: Global Responsibilities and Possibilities for Pediatric Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    This article was designed to describe personal and social responsibilities for strengthening the science of pediatric physical therapy and effective international research collaboration and communication. Common flaws in research design and analysis are reviewed with recommendations for developing research students' design and analytical skills. Our social responsibility to be informed by global knowledge is highlighted. Barriers to scientific collaboration and communication including international disparities in scientific development and language barriers are presented. Suggestions to reduce these barriers are outlined. The importance of free access to scientific literature in developing countries is reviewed. The journal should assume a leadership role in building a strong science of pediatric physical therapy through encouraging personal and social responsibility in research and serving as a model of international collaboration and communication. Treatment for children with movement disorders will be improved by stronger science, international collaboration, and communication.

  5. Key performance indicators for the assessment of pediatric pharmacotherapeutic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Narayan, Mahesh; Zuppa, Athena

    2008-07-01

    Given the paucity of actual guidance provided for managing pediatric drug therapy, prescribing caregivers must be able to draw on the limited published information in pediatrics and/or guidance provided in adults with some account for expected pediatric response. Guidance for managing drug therapy in children is clearly desirable. Our objectives were to construct key performance indicators (KPIs) for pediatric pharmacotherapy guidance to identify drugs where pharmacotherapy guidance would be most beneficial. A pilot survey to assess variation in caregiver appreciation for pediatric dosing guidance has also been constructed to provide a complementary subjective assessment. Three KPI categories, drug utilization (based on hospital admission and billing data collected from 2001 through 2006), medical need, and guidance outcome value along with a KPI composite score have been proposed. Low scores are favored with respect to prioritization for pharmacotherapy guidance. The pilot survey consisted of 15 questions to assess 1) physician knowledge regarding dosing guidance, 2) attitudes toward dose modification and patient individualization, 3) the accessibility, ease of use and appropriateness of existing data stores, and 4) frequency of dosing modification, consultation of dosing compendiums and estimate of success rate in dosing guidance. Pilot results suggest that dosing guidance is generally viewed as important and that the existing resources are insufficient to guide recommendations for all drugs. While the majority of respondents check more than one resource less than 25% of the time, at least 25% of the respondents check more than one resource 25-50% of the time. The majority viewed the relevance of dosing guidance very important to the management of drug therapy. The questionnaire is being extended to the primary care centers, the Kids First Network and specialty care centers. Results will guide the development of decision support systems (DSS) that provide patient

  6. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  7. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  8. Evaluation of the perceptions and cosmetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients undergoing totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Gabriel; El Houkayem, Michel; Viste, Claire; Bouazza, Fikri; Moreau, Michel; El Nakadi, Issam; Veys, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Totally implantable vascular access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients. While great progress has been made with respect to breast surgical reconstruction to take into account both aesthetics and patients' perceptions of body integrity, these aspects have not been considered with regard to the impact of TIVAD. In order to address this practice gap, we have adapted our TIVAD implantation technique to improve cosmetic results. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer patients' comfort level and aesthetic satisfaction with regard to TIVAD insertion. Patients with breast cancer admitted for chemotherapy at an outpatient clinic completed a previously validated survey evaluating three main domains: symptoms (pain, discomfort) related to the TIVAD itself in daily activity, information received before and during the surgical procedure, and cosmetic aspects regarding the port insertion site (scar, port, and catheter location). Between September 2010 and June 2011, 232 patients were evaluated. Cosmetic satisfaction with scar location was high (93.3 %). Information given to patients before and during the procedure had a major impact on both symptom perception in daily activity and on cosmetic satisfaction. Obtaining a more aesthetic scar by placing the TIVAD in the deltopectoral groove contributed to a high rate of cosmetic satisfaction. Furthermore, the relevance of information given to patients before and/or during surgery had a major impact on symptom perception. Therefore, we suggest including a pre-operative information session in the care pathway.

  9. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

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    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  10. Vascular air embolism after contrast administration on 64 row multiple detector computed tomography: A prospective analysis

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    Kushaljit S Sodhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular air embolism is being progressively reported as a nonfatal event with increase in use of computed tomography (CT as a diagnostic modality. This study was undertaken to study the frequency and site of vascular air embolism in patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT (CECT and analyze CT parameters that influence its prevalence and final outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study approved by departmental ethics committee. Presence and location of air emboli in 200 patients who underwent CT scan of chest on a 64 detector scanner was recorded. We analyzed the role of various factors that could influence the prevalence of air embolism after injection of contrast in CECT scans. These factors included the amount of contrast injected, rate of flow of injection of contrast, site of injection of contrast, and size of intravenous access line. Results: Iatrogenic vascular air emboli were seen in 14 patients (7% of total. The locations of air emboli were main pulmonary artery in 12 (6% of total, left brachiocephalic vein in 3 (1.5% of total, right atrial appendage in 4 (2% of total, and superior vena cava (SVC in 1 (0.5% patient. There was no association between volume of contrast, flow rate, site and size of intravenous access, and presence of air emboli. Conclusion: Radiologists as well as referring physicians should be aware of vascular air embolism, which can occur after contrast injection in patients undergoing CT scan. Age, volume of contrast, flow rate of pressure injector, and site and size of venous cannula do not influence the likelihood or incidence of detection of venous air emboli on CT scans.

  11. Pediatric vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to define childhood vasculitis and to highlight new causative factors and treatment modalities under the guidance of recently published studies. Childhood vasculitis is difficult to diagnose because of the wide variation in the symptoms and signs. New nomenclature and classification criteria were proposed for the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Recently, progress has been made toward understanding the genetic susceptibility to pediatric vasculitis as it was in other diseases. Various radiological techniques provide great opportunities in establishing the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Mild central nervous system disease can accompany Henoch-Schonlein purpura and can go unnoticed. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is rare in children. Increased severity of the disease, subglottic stenosis, and renal disease are described more frequently among children. Biological therapies are used with success in children as in adults. Future studies, whose aims are to evaluate treatment responses, prognosis and to design guidelines for activity, and damage index of vasculitis for children are required. Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the most frequent vasculitides of children. Experience from adult studies for treatment and prognosis are usually used because of low incidence of other vasculitides in children. Multicenter studies of pediatric vasculitis should be conducted to detail treatment responses and prognosis in children.

  12. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) for in-stent chronic total occlusion: Antegrade recanalization and IVUS-guided BVS implantation by radial access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medda, Massimo [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Casilli, Francesco, E-mail: frcasill@tin.it [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Bande, Marta [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Latini, Maria Giulia [Cardiologia Interventistica, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milano (Italy); Ghommidh, Mehdi [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Del Furia, Francesca [Unità Operativa di Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Melegnano, Milano (Italy); Inglese, Luigi [Interventistica Cardiovascolare, Gruppo Sanitario Policlinico di Monza, Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The completely absorbable stents represent one of the latest innovations in the field of interventional cardiology, prospecting the possibility of “vascular repair”. In the published trials (ABSORB Cohort A and B, ABSORB EXTEND, and ABSORB II, III and IV) chronic total occlusions (CTOs) were considered an exclusion criteria. More recently the CTO-ABSORB pilot study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) use in case of CTO recanalization. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of in-stent occlusion successfully treated with an everolimus-eluting BVS and discuss its potential advantages in such kind of lesions.

  13. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) for in-stent chronic total occlusion: Antegrade recanalization and IVUS-guided BVS implantation by radial access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medda, Massimo; Casilli, Francesco; Bande, Marta; Latini, Maria Giulia; Ghommidh, Mehdi; Del Furia, Francesca; Inglese, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The completely absorbable stents represent one of the latest innovations in the field of interventional cardiology, prospecting the possibility of “vascular repair”. In the published trials (ABSORB Cohort A and B, ABSORB EXTEND, and ABSORB II, III and IV) chronic total occlusions (CTOs) were considered an exclusion criteria. More recently the CTO-ABSORB pilot study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) use in case of CTO recanalization. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of in-stent occlusion successfully treated with an everolimus-eluting BVS and discuss its potential advantages in such kind of lesions.

  14. Treatment of AKI in developing and developed countries: An international survey of pediatric dialysis modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a pediatric incidence ranging from 19.3% to 24.1%. Treatment of pediatric AKI is a source of debate in varying geographical regions. Currently CRRT is the treatment for pediatric AKI, but limitations due to cost and accessibility force use of adult equipment and other therapeutic options such as peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. It was hypothesized that more cost-effective measures would likely be used in developing countries due to lesser resource availability.A 26-question internet-based survey was distributed to 650 pediatric Nephrologists. There was a response rate of 34.3% (223 responses. The survey was distributed via pedneph and pcrrt email servers, inquiring about demographics, technology, resources, pediatric-specific supplies, and preference in renal replacement therapy (RRT in pediatric AKI. The main method of analysis was to compare responses about treatments between nephrologists in developed countries and nephrologists in developing countries using difference-of-proportions tests.PD was available in all centers surveyed, while HD was available in 85.1% and 54.1% (p = 0.00, CRRT was available in 60% and 33.3% (p = 0.001, and SLED was available in 20% and 25% (p = 0.45 centers of developed and developing world respectively. In developing countries, 68.5% (p = 0.000 of physicians preferred PD to costlier therapies, while in developed countries it was found that physicians favored HD (72%, p = 0.00 or CRRT (24%, p = 0.041 in infants.Lack of availability of resources, trained physicians and funds often preclude standards of care in developing countries, and there is much development needed in terms of meeting higher global standards for treating pediatric AKI patients. PD remains the main modality of choice for treatment of AKI in infants in developing world.

  15. The better model to predict and improve pediatric health care quality: performance or importance-performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rebecca M; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Ortinau, David

    2013-01-01

    The perpetual search for ways to improve pediatric health care quality has resulted in a multitude of assessments and strategies; however, there is little research evidence as to their conditions for maximum effectiveness. A major reason for the lack of evaluation research and successful quality improvement initiatives is the methodological challenge of measuring quality from the parent perspective. Comparison of performance-only and importance-performance models was done to determine the better predictor of pediatric health care quality and more successful method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Fourteen pediatric health care centers serving approximately 250,000 patients in 70,000 households in three West Central Florida counties were studied. A cross-sectional design was used to determine the importance and performance of 50 pediatric health care attributes and four global assessments of pediatric health care quality. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dimensions of care (physician care, access, customer service, timeliness of services, and health care facility). Hierarchical multiple regression compared the performance-only and the importance-performance models. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and a direct cognitive structural analysis identified 50 health care attributes included in a mailed survey to parents(n = 1,030). The tailored design method guided survey development and data collection. The importance-performance multiplicative additive model was a better predictor of pediatric health care quality. Attribute importance moderates performance and quality, making the importance-performance model superior for measuring and providing a deeper understanding of pediatric health care quality and a better method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Regardless of attribute performance, if the level of attribute importance is not taken into consideration, health care organizations may spend valuable

  16. Simulation in pediatric anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; Honkanen, Anita; Murray, David J

    2012-10-01

    Simulation-based training, research and quality initiatives are expanding in pediatric anesthesiology just as in other medical specialties. Various modalities are available, from task trainers to standardized patients, and from computer-based simulations to mannequins. Computer-controlled mannequins can simulate pediatric vital signs with reasonable reliability; however the fidelity of skin temperature and color change, airway reflexes and breath and heart sounds remains rudimentary. Current pediatric mannequins are utilized in simulation centers, throughout hospitals in-situ, at national meetings for continuing medical education and in research into individual and team performance. Ongoing efforts by pediatric anesthesiologists dedicated to using simulation to improve patient care and educational delivery will result in further dissemination of this technology. Health care professionals who provide complex, subspecialty care to children require a curriculum supported by an active learning environment where skills directly relevant to pediatric care can be developed. The approach is not only the most effective method to educate adult learners, but meets calls for education reform and offers the potential to guide efforts toward evaluating competence. Simulation addresses patient safety imperatives by providing a method for trainees to develop skills and experience in various management strategies, without risk to the health and life of a child. A curriculum that provides pediatric anesthesiologists with the range of skills required in clinical practice settings must include a relatively broad range of task-training devises and electromechanical mannequins. Challenges remain in defining the best integration of this modality into training and clinical practice to meet the needs of pediatric patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Liaison Problems among Infant Psychiatry, Psychology, Pediatrics, Nursing, and Social Work in Infant Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Thea

    Discussed are attempts made by staff at the Community Mental Health Center of the New Jersey School of Medicine to develop an ongoing working relationship with pediatric neonatologists, house staff, and nursing staff in order to promote their attunement to mental health needs and obtain access to their expertise. After a description of the center…

  18. Availability of Emotional Support and Mental Health Care for Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Melissa M; Serwint, Janet R; Chaudron, Linda H; Baldwin, Constance D; Blumkin, Aaron K; Szilagyi, Peter G

    Resident mental health (MH) problems can be associated with reduced empathy and increased medical errors. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates resident MH support services, but it is unknown if these services are accessible and meet resident needs. We sought to describe the prevalence of anxiety and depression in current pediatric residents in New York State (NYS), and their self-reported use of and barriers to support services. We developed an online survey and distributed it to all categorical pediatric residents in 9 NYS programs. Items addressing self-concern for clinical anxiety and depression and use of MH services were pilot tested for content and construct validity. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) measured depressive symptoms. Analyses used descriptive and chi-square tests. Respondents included 227 residents (54% response rate) distributed across training levels and programs. Many reported "often" or "almost always" feeling stress (52%), physical exhaustion (41%), and mental exhaustion (35%); 11% had PHQ-2-defined depressive symptoms. Some thought that their stress levels raised concern for clinical depression (25%) or anxiety (28%); among these, only 44% and 39%, respectively, had sought care. More women reported physical exhaustion (P Barriers to receipt of services included inflexible schedules (82%), guilt about burdening colleagues (65%), fear of confidentiality breach (46%), and difficulty identifying services (44%). Pediatric residents frequently experience MH symptoms, but many do not know about or use support services. Programs should enhance MH support by overcoming barriers and increasing resident awareness of services. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repetitive Pediatric Anesthesia in a Non-Hospital Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Douglas, James G.; Jackson, Jeffrey L.; Simoneaux, R. Victor; Hines, Matthew; Bratton, Jennifer; Kerstiens, John; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repetitive sedation/anesthesia (S/A) for children receiving fractionated radiation therapy requires induction and recovery daily for several weeks. In the vast majority of cases, this is accomplished in an academic center with direct access to pediatric faculty and facilities in case of an emergency. Proton radiation therapy centers are more frequently free-standing facilities at some distance from specialized pediatric care. This poses a potential dilemma in the case of children requiring anesthesia. Methods and Materials: The records of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center were reviewed for patients requiring anesthesia during proton beam therapy (PBT) between June 1, 2008, and April 12, 2012. Results: A total of 138 children received daily anesthesia during this period. A median of 30 fractions (range, 1-49) was delivered over a median of 43 days (range, 1-74) for a total of 4045 sedation/anesthesia procedures. Three events (0.0074%) occurred, 1 fall from a gurney during anesthesia recovery and 2 aspiration events requiring emergency department evaluation. All 3 children did well. One aspiration patient needed admission to the hospital and mechanical ventilation support. The other patient returned the next day for treatment without issue. The patient who fell was not injured. No patient required cessation of therapy. Conclusions: This is the largest reported series of repetitive pediatric anesthesia in radiation therapy, and the only available data from the proton environment. Strict adherence to rigorous protocols and a well-trained team can safely deliver daily sedation/anesthesia in free-standing proton centers

  20. Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaguthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chest radiograph (CXR is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts, a medical officer (M.O, and four clinical officers (C.Os with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighted kappa scores summarized interrater agreement on lymphadenopathy and abnormalities consistent with TB. Sensitivity and specificity of raters were determined using microbiologically confirmed TB as the gold standard (n=8. A total of 691 radiographs were reviewed. Agreement on abnormalities consistent with TB was poor; k=0.14 (95% CI: 0.10–0.18 and on lymphadenopathy moderate k=0.26 (95% CI: 0.18–0.36. M.O [75% (95% CI: 34.9%–96.8%] and C.Os [63% (95% CI: 24.5%–91.5%] had high sensitivity for culture confirmed TB. TB vaccine trials utilizing expert agreement on CXR as a nonmicrobiologically confirmed endpoint will have reduced specificity and will underestimate vaccine efficacy. C.Os detected many of the bacteriologically confirmed cases; however, this must be interpreted cautiously as they were unblinded to clinical features.

  1. New frontiers in pediatric Allo-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, J M; Pulsipher, M A; Symons, H J; Militano, O; Shereck, E B; Giller, R H; Hancock, L; Morris, E; Cairo, M S

    2014-09-01

    The inaugural meeting of 'New Frontiers in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation' organized by the Pediatric Blood and Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) was held at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Annual Meeting. This meeting provided an international platform for physicians and investigators active in the research and utilization of pediatric Allo-SCT in children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant disease (NMD), to share information and develop future collaborative strategies. The primary objectives of the conference included: (1) to present advances in Allo-SCT in pediatric ALL and novel pre and post-transplant immunotherapy; (2) to highlight new strategies in alternative allogeneic stem cell donor sources for children and adolescents with non-malignant hematological disorders; (3) to discuss timing of immune reconstitution after Allo-SCT and methods of facilitating more rapid recovery of immunity; (4) to identify strategies of utilizing Allo-SCT in pediatric myeloproliferative disorders; (5) to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hematological complications post pediatric Allo-SCT; (6) to enhance the understanding of new novel cellular therapeutic approaches to pediatric malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders; and (7) to discuss optimizing drug therapy in pediatric recipients of Allo-SCT. This paper will provide a brief overview of the conference.

  2. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Vascular injuries of the upper extremity Lesões vasculares de membros superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Shalabi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the causes of injuries, presentations, surgical approaches, outcome and complications of vascular trauma of the upper limbs, in spite of limited hospital resources. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective analysis. From 01/01/2001 to 31/12/2005, 165 patients were operated for vascular injuries at King Fahd Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. Of all peripheral vascular trauma patients (115, upper limb trauma was present in 58. Diagnosis was made by physical examination and hand-held Doppler alone or in combination with Doppler scan/angiography. Primary vascular repair was performed whenever possible; otherwise, the interposition vein graft was used. Fasciotomy was considered when required. Patients with unsalvageable lower extremity injury requiring primary amputation were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Fifty patients were male (86% and eight were female (14%, aged between 2.5-55 years (mean 23 years. Mean duration of presentation was 8 h after the injury. The most common etiological factor was road traffic accidents, accounting for 50.5% in the blunt trauma group and 33% among all penetrating and stab wound injuries. Incidence of concomitant orthopedic injuries was very high in our study (51%. The brachial artery was the most affected (51%. Interposition vein grafts were used in 53% of the cases. Limb salvage rate was 100%. CONCLUSION: Patients who suffer vascular injuries of the upper extremities should be transferred to vascular surgery centers as soon as possible. Decisive management of peripheral vascular trauma will maximize patient survival and limb salvage. Priorities must be established in the management of associated injuries, and delay must be avoided when ischemic changes are present.OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa as causas de lesões, apresentação, abordagens cirúrgicas, desfechos e complicações do trauma vascular de membros superiores, apesar de recursos hospitalares limitados. MÉTODOS: An

  4. Complication of Hemodialysis Access: A Case Report of Venous Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Asadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access for dialysis is essential for these patients with end-stage renal disease, improvements in hemodialysis managment have lead to extended life expectancy. The creation and maintenance of hemoaccess occupies a significant portion of most vascular and general surgery practices.Venous hypertension due to arteriovenous fistula is usually secondary to venous outlet obstruction. Side to side proximal artery arteriovenous fistula serves as a certain cause of hemodialysis, but it is rarely reported as a peripheral venous hypertension cause. We are reporting a case with developed venous hypertension having dermal injuries in the arm. The patient underwent successful side-to-side radio cephalic fistula creation in the snuffbox a year ago.

  5. The first experience of mobile pediatric palliative team in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. О. Riga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify needs among young children with life-limiting diseases under 4 years old and their parents living in rural area of Kharkiv region Ukraine during home visiting. Materials and methods. After the creation of the first mobile pediatric palliative team, we reviewed the visits of 31 families at home to define their clinical, and psychological, and social needs. The first mobile pediatric palliative care team has been created for 2015. 31 families who have young children with life –threating diseases were visited to determine their clinical, and psychological, and social needs. Results. All children (31 had severe pathology of the central nervous system: congenital birth defects (29 %; cerebral palsy (35.4 %; genetic disorders (12.9 %. Parental and children’s needs were divided into three categories. Medical needs: orthopedic (93.5 %, vaccination (93.5 %, food (80.6 %, posture (61.3 %, salivation (32.2 %, anticonvulsant therapy (16 %. Psychological problems: communication with siblings (100 %; socialization of children (90.3 %; sensory activity (83.8 %, parental relationships (74.2 %. Social issues: the need for support/social worker or volunteers (58.1 %, poverty (58.1 %, communication with local rehabilitation centers (54.8 %, the need for medical equipment (41.9 %. Along with high medical, social and psychological needs of children with incurable diseases, both they and their families feel the lack of pediatric palliative care, and at present they have no access to it. The authors suggest that pediatric palliative care in Ukraine requires its development, application and inclusion in the general health care at all levels of the health system. The establishment of a national concept of modern educational programs, protocols and standards, dissemination of public information communities is also very necessary due to author’s point of view. Conclusions. Mobile team that performs home visits may be one of the

  6. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yigit; Yucel, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children. Objectives To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature. Methods PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study. Results However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term. Conclusion ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children. PMID:24892029

  7. Effects of Video Games on the Adverse Corollaries of Chemotherapy in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Rickard-Figueroa, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of video games on adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in three pediatric oncology patients. Results indicated that access to video games resulted in reduction in the number of anticipatory symptoms experienced and observed, as well as a diminution in the aversiveness of chemotherapy side effects. (Author/NRB)

  8. Usefulness of color and pulsed Doppler's in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Prieto, C.; Cortes, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Pastor, I.

    2003-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are performed to relieve symptomatic portal hypertension symptomatic or removal pressure in hepatic vascularisation in patients with Budd-Chiari's syndrome. Most surgical portosystemic shunts can be suitably studied by means of ultrasound scan complemented by color and pulsed Dopplers, proved one understands the hemodynamics of the surgical procedures involved. This article demonstrates the usefulness and limitations of the ultrasound scan Duplex Doppler in the evaluation of portosystemic shunts performed on pediatric patients. Pulsed Doppler provides information regarding the nature and direction of blood flow. Color doppler is capable of directly revealing the shunt and, in most cases, permits the anastomosis to be located. The types of shunts that appear include proximal and distal spleno-renal, portocaval and mesocaval. Types of vascular connections are illustrated,s well as expected post-surgical blood flow direction in affected vessels. The ultrasound scanning technique is discussed, as well as the criteria for determining vascular permeability. Also highlighted are the advantages, limitations and diagnostic difficulties associated with the different forms of Doppler. (Author) 17 refs

  9. Complications of Central Venous Totally Implantable Access Port: Internal Jugular Versus Subclavian Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Young Jung

    Full Text Available Background: Totally implantable access port (TIAP provides reliable, long term vascular access with minimal risk of infection and allows patients normal physical activity. With wide use of ports, new complications have been encountered. We analyzed TIAP related complications and evaluated the outcomes of two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Methods: All 172 patients who underwent port insertion with internal jugular approach (Group 1, n = 92 and subclavian approach (Group 2, n = 79 between August 2011 and May 2013 in a single center were analyzed, retrospectively. Medical records were analyzed to compare the outcomes and the occurrence of port related complications between two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Results: Median follow-up for TIAP was 278 days (range, 1-1868. Twenty four complications were occurred (14.0%, including pneumothorax (n = 1, 0.6%, migration/malposition (n = 4, 2.3%, pinch-off syndrome (n = 4, 2.3%, malfunction (n = 2, 1.1%, infection (n = 8, 4.7%, and venous thrombosis (n = 5, 2.9%. The overall incidence was 8.7% and 20.3% in each group (p = 0.030. Mechanical complications except infectious and thrombotic complications were more often occurred in group 2 (p = 0.033. The mechanical complication free probability is significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.040. Conclusions: We suggest that the jugular access should be chosen in patients who need long term catheterization because of high incidence of mechanical complication, such as pinch-off syndrome.

  10. Children's safety initiative: a national assessment of pediatric educational needs among emergency medical services providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi

  11. Phantom Limb Pain in Pediatric Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DeMoss

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom limb pain (PLP is a prevalent problem for children and adolescents undergoing amputation due to cancer treatment. The symptoms are wide ranging from sharp to tingling. PLP in children typically lasts for a few minutes but can be almost constant and can be highly distressing. This focused review describes the characteristics, epidemiology, mechanisms, and evidence-based treatment of PLP in pediatric populations, focusing on pediatric cancer. In pediatric oncology, the administration of chemotherapy is a risk factor that potentially sensitizes the nervous system and predisposes pediatric cancer patients to develop PLP after amputation. Gabapentin, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, nerve blocks, and epidural catheters have shown mixed success in adults and case reports document potential utility in pediatric patients. Non-pharmacologic treatments, such as mirror therapy, psychotherapy, and acupuncture have also been used in pediatric PLP with success. Prospective controlled trials are necessary to advance care for pediatric patients with PLP.

  12. Vascular access for hemodialysis. Patency rates and results of revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palder, S B; Kirkman, R L; Whittemore, A D; Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M; Tilney, N L

    1985-08-01

    Over a 4-year interval, 324 arteriovenous conduits were created in 256 patients with end-stage renal disease as access for chronic hemodialysis. These included 154 Cimino fistulae, 163 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, and seven miscellaneous grafts. Satisfactory patency rates were demonstrated for as long as 4 years for both Cimino fistulae and PTFE grafts by life-table analysis. Failures of Cimino fistulae usually occurred early in the postoperative period, secondary to attempts to use inadequate veins. Thrombosis caused the majority of PTFE graft failures and was generally the result of venous stenosis. Correction of such venous stenosis is mandatory to restore graft patency and can result in prolonged graft survival.

  13. Pediatric CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in CT technology are having profound impact on imaging children and have made CT angiography possible even in neonates. Even with the tiny anatomy of neonates, small volumes of contrast material, and small venous access catheters, successful CT angiography can be performed with attention to detail. Meticulous attention to patient preparation, the proper selection of technical factors, and optimal delivery of contrast material are crucial. Data post-processing and the creation of 3-D reconstructions are also essential in establishing a correct diagnosis. The applications fo CT angiography are different in children than in adults and most applications in children involve assessment of congenital and postoperative vascular and cardiac diseases. The use of CT angiography offers the opportunity to eliminate the long periods of sedation associated with MR and reduce the radiation exposure associated with conventional angiography. Generally, the benefits of CT angiography in children outweigh the risk, namely that of radiation exposure. However, care must still be taken to minimize the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  14. Mapping the literature of pediatric nursing: update and implications for library services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Watwood, MLS, MPH, AHIP

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Compared with the 2006 study, the list of top-cited journals referenced by pediatric nursing researchers has remained relatively stable, but the number of cited journal titles has increased. Book citations have declined, and Internet and government document references have increased. These findings suggest that librarians should retain subscriptions to frequently cited journal titles, provide efficient document delivery of articles from infrequently used journals, deemphasize but not eliminate books, and connect patrons with useful open-access Internet resources.

  15. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  16. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-03-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency situations, basic life support is most important. However, emergencies in young children mostly involve breathing. Therefore, physicians who treat pediatric dental patients should learn PALS. It is necessary for the physician to regularly renew training every two years to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations. In order to manage emergency situations in the pediatric dental clinic, respiratory support is most important. Therefore, mastering professional PALS, which includes respiratory care and core cases, particularly upper airway obstruction and respiratory depression caused by a respiratory control problem, would be highly desirable for a physician who treats pediatric dental patients. Regular training and renewal training every two years is absolutely necessary to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations.

  17. Pediatric Nephrolithiasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise. The composition of kidney stones in children is different than in adults, as most stones in children have a composition of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate mixed with a small amount of uric acid. The symptoms of pediatric nephrolithiasis are nonspecific. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, because of radiation exposure associated with a CT scan, ultrasonography is also an accepted modality for the diagnosis. Extensive metabolic evaluation is important to rule out an underlying metabolic disorder. Urinary decompression, medical expulsion therapy, and surgical interventions such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are some of the options available for treating pediatric nephrolithiasis. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(6):e242-e244.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  19. Obesity and Pediatric Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughns, Janelle D; Conklin, Laurie S; Long, Ying; Zheng, Panli; Faruque, Fahim; Green, Dionna J; van den Anker, John N; Burckart, Gilbert J

    2018-05-01

    There is a lack of dosing guidelines for use in obese children. Moreover, the impact of obesity on drug safety and clinical outcomes is poorly defined. The paucity of information needed for the safe and effective use of drugs in obese patients remains a problem, even after drug approval. To assess the current incorporation of obesity as a covariate in pediatric drug development, the pediatric medical and clinical pharmacology reviews under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 and the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012 were reviewed for obesity studies. FDA labels were also reviewed for statements addressing obesity in pediatric patients. Forty-five drugs studied in pediatric patients under the FDA Amendments Act were found to have statements and key words in the medical and clinical pharmacology reviews and labels related to obesity. Forty-four products were identified similarly with pediatric studies under FDASIA. Of the 89 product labels identified, none provided dosing information related to obesity. The effect of body mass index on drug pharmacokinetics was mentioned in only 4 labels. We conclude that there is little information presently available to provide guidance related to dosing in obese pediatric patients. Moving forward, regulators, clinicians, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider situations in drug development in which the inclusion of obese patients in pediatric trials is necessary to facilitate the safe and effective use of new drug products in the obese pediatric population. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. What Is a Pediatric Allergist / Immunologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Allergist/Immunologist? Page Content Article Body If your ... immune system problems. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Allergists/Immunologists Have? Pediatric allergists/immunologists are medical ...

  1. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Page Content Article Body If your ... require heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical ...

  2. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Now International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development ... nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More Text1 2018 PENS Call for ...

  3. Color Perception in Pediatric Patient Room Design: American versus Korean Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Park, Jin Gyu; Park, Changbae

    2013-01-01

    This study simultaneously addresses the issues of the scarcity of information about pediatric patient color preferences, conflicting findings