WorldWideScience

Sample records for pediatric emergency patients

  1. Postanesthetic Emergence Agitation in Pediatric Patients under General Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohkamkar, Masoumeh; Farhoudi, Fatemeh; Alam-Sahebpour, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed-Abdullah; Khani, Soghra; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective Postanesthetic emergence agitation is a common problem in pediatric postanesthetic care unit with an incidence ranging from 10 to 80%. This study was done to determine the prevalence of emergence agitation and associated risk factors in pediatric patients who underwent general anesthesia. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was performed on 747 pediatric patients aged 3- 7 years that underwent general anesthesia for various elective surgeries at Bou-...

  2. Comparisons between Full-time and Part-time Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Anne; Tuan, Pao-Lan; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chao, Minston; Wang, Hui-Hsuan; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Chang, Yu-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine is a young field that has established itself in recent decades. Many unanswered questions remain regarding how to deliver better pediatric emergency care. The implementation of full-time pediatric emergency physicians is a quality improvement strategy for child care in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of care under different physician coverage models in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The medical records of 132,398 patients visiting the pediatric ED of a tertiary care university hospital during January 2004 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Full-time pediatric emergency physicians are the group specializing in the pediatric emergency medicine, and they only work in the pediatric ED. Part-time pediatricians specializing in other subspecialties also can work an extra shift in the pediatric ED, with the majority working in their inpatient and outpatient services. We compared quality performance indicators, including: mortality rate, the 72-hour return visit rate, length of stay, admission rate, and the rate of being kept for observation between full-time and part-time pediatric emergency physicians. An average of 3678 ± 125 [mean ± standard error (SE)] visits per month (with a range of 2487-6646) were observed. The trends in quality of care, observed monthly, indicated that the 72-hour return rate was 2-6% and length of stay in the ED decreased from 11.5 hours to 3.2 hours over the study period. The annual mortality rate within 48 hours of admission to the ED increased from 0.04% to 0.05% and then decreased to 0.02%, and the overall mortality rate dropped from 0.13% to 0.07%. Multivariate analyses indicated that there was no change in the 72-hour return visit rate for full-time pediatric emergency physicians; they were more likely to admit and keep patients for observation [odds ratio = 1.43 and odds ratio = 1.71, respectively], and these results were similar to those of senior

  3. The culture of patient safety from the perspective of the pediatric emergency nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Rocha Macedo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the patient safety culture in pediatric emergencies from the perspective of the nursing team. METHOD A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research study with a sample composed of 75 professionals of the nursing team. Data was collected between September and November 2014 in three Pediatric Emergency units by applying the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS Strong areas for patient safety were not found, with areas identified having potential being: Expectations and actions from supervisors/management to promote patient safety and teamwork. Areas identified as critical were: Non-punitive response to error and support from hospital management for patient safety. The study found a gap between the safety culture and pediatric emergencies, but it found possibilities of transformation that will contribute to the safety of pediatric patients. CONCLUSION Nursing professionals need to become protagonists in the process of replacing the current paradigm for a culture focused on safety. The replication of this study in other institutions is suggested in order to improve the current health care scenario.

  4. Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients: diagnosis and management in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrer, Daniel; Langhan, Melissa; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-05-22

    Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children. The management of pediatric acute kidney injury focuses on identifying patients at high risk, monitoring intravascular volume status, avoiding nephrotoxic medication exposure, and involving a pediatric nephrologist once acute kidney injury is diagnosed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  5. Dehydration treatment practices among pediatrics-trained and non-pediatrics trained emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jeranil; Liu, Deborah R; Nager, Alan L

    2012-04-01

    We sought to survey emergency physicians in the United States regarding the management of pediatric dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis. We hypothesized that responses from physicians with dedicated pediatric training (PT), that is, board certification in pediatrics or pediatric emergency medicine, would differ from responses of physicians with no dedicated pediatric training (non-PT). An anonymous survey was mailed to randomly selected members of the American College of Emergency Physicians and sent electronically to enrollees of Brown University pediatric emergency medicine listserv. The survey consisted of 17 multiple-choice questions based on a clinical scenario depicting a 2-year-old with acute gastroenteritis and moderate dehydration. Questions asked related to treatment preferences, practice setting, and training information. One thousand sixty-nine surveys were received: 997 surveys were used for data analysis, including 269 PT physicians and 721 non-PT physicians. Seventy-nine percent of PT physicians correctly classified the scenario patient as moderately dehydrated versus 71% of non-PT physicians (P = 0.063). Among those who correctly classified the patient, 121 PT physicians (58%) and 350 non-PT physicians (68%) would initially hydrate the patient with intravenous fluids. Pediatrics-trained physicians were more likely to initially choose oral or nasogastric hydration compared with non-PT physicians (P = 0.0127). Pediatrics-trained physicians were less likely to perform laboratory testing compared with the non-PT group (n = 92, 45%, vs n = 337, 66%; P dehydrated children, significantly more PT physicians, compared with non-PT physicians, follow established guidelines.

  6. Emergency department visits by pediatric patients for poisoning by prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Allison; Layman, Shelley M; Davis, Stephen M; Bozeman, Rachel; Davidov, Danielle M

    2016-09-01

    Prescription medication abuse is an increasingly recognized problem in the United States. As more opioids are being prescribed and abused by adults, there is an increased risk of both accidental and intentional exposure to children and adolescents. The impact of pediatric exposures to prescription pain pills has not been well studied. We sought to evaluate emergency department (ED) visits for poisoning by prescription opioids in pediatric patients. This retrospective study looked at clinical and demographic data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2006 to 2012. There were 21,928 pediatric ED visits for prescription opioid poisonings and more than half were unintentional. There was a bimodal age distribution of patients, with slightly more than half occurring in females. The majority of patients were discharged from the ED. More visits in the younger age group (0-5 years) were unintentional, while the majority of visits in the adolescent age group (15-17 years) were intentional. Mean charge per discharge was $1,840 and $14,235 for admissions and surmounted to over $81 million in total charges. Poisonings by prescription opioids largely impact both young children and adolescents. These findings can be used to help target this population for future preventive efforts.

  7. Retrospective Evaluation of Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department with Intoxication

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    Alaaddin Yorulmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, we aimed to retrospectively analyze the demographic and epidemiologic features, clinical course, laboratory results and prognoses of the patients admitted to the department of pediatric emergency due to poisoning. Methods: This trial enrolled a total of 430 patients aged 1 month to 18 years. The medical data of the patients were reviewed retrospectively according to patient's medical record. Demographic data such as age, sex, time of occurrence, time of patient presentation to the emergency department, time to first medical intervention after taking the drug, cause of poisoning, received active substances, ways of taking, number of active substances received, and symptoms at admission to the hospital were analyzed. Results: The study population consisted of 0.74% of all patients who were admitted to the department of pediatric emergency. 243 (56.5% patients were female and 187 (43.5% were male. The age of the patients ranged from 4 months to 220 months (72.89±66.38. One hundred-thirteen (26.3% of our patients were referred to our hospital in the summer, 111 (25.8% in the spring, 110 (25.6% in the autumn and 96 (22.3% in the winter. Eighteen patients were admitted to our emergency department with poisoning in 2014, 193 in 2015, 178 in 2016 and 41 in 2017. 12.3% of our patients were referred to our emergency department between hours 00:00 and 08:00, 35.1% between 08:00 and 16:00 and 52.6% between 16:00 and 24:00. Ninety-six of the patients were admitted to our emergency department due to suicidal poisoning and 334 due to accidental poisoning. Nausea was present at the time of presentation in 142 (33.02% of our patients, vomiting in 122 (28.37% and dizziness in 102 (23.72%. Conclusion: We believe that determination of the epidemiological features of the poisonings in our country by large scale studies and public consciousness will contribute significantly to the prevention of childhood poisoning.

  8. Health Literacy Among Parents of Pediatric Patients Seen in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, T. Paul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health literacy is an important predictor of healthcare outcomes, but research on this topic has largely been absent from the emergency medicine literature.OBJECTIVE: We measured the prevalence of health literacy in parents or guardians of pediatric patients seen in the emergency department (ED.METHODS: This was an observational study conducted in a Midwestern urban, university-based, tertiary, Level 1 trauma center ED with 33,000 visits/year. Using convenience sampling during a three-month period, English-speaking parents or guardians of pediatric patients (< 19 yrs. were asked to complete the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (s-TOFHLA. Parents/guardians were excluded if they had uncorrected visual impairment, required an interpreter, had altered mental status, or if the patients they accompanied were the subjects of a medical or trauma activation.RESULTS: Of the 188 parents or guardians approached, six did not consent or withdrew, one was excluded, leaving 181 (96.3% in the study. Of these, 19 (10.5% had either "marginal" or "inadequate" health literacy, while 162 (89.5%, 95% CI: 84.1%, 93.6% had "adequate" health literacy.CONCLUSION: A large majority (89.5% of English-speaking parents or guardians of pediatric patients evaluated in the ED have adequate health literacy. This data may prompt ED professionals to adjust their communication styles in the evaluation of children. Future multi-center studies are needed to confirm the findings in this pilot study.

  9. The impact of transport of critically ill pediatric patients on rural emergency departments in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gregory; Beer, Darcy L; Vallance, Jeff K

    2017-01-01

    Although the interfacility transport (IFT) of critically ill pediatric patients from rural to tertiary health centres may improve outcomes, the impact of IFTs on the rural referring centre is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the IFT of critically ill children affects staffing and functionality of rural emergency departments (EDs) in Manitoba. In 2015, surveys were emailed to the medical directors of all 15 regional EDs within 2 hours' travel time from a tertiary pediatric hospital. The survey consisted of 9 questions that addressed baseline characteristics of the regional EDs and duration of ED staffing changes or closures due to IFT of critically ill pediatric patients. Ten surveys were received (67% response rate); a regional ED catchment population of about 130 000 people was represented. Interfacility transport caused most EDs (60%, with an average catchment population of 15 000) to close or to alter their staffing to a registered nurse only. These temporary changes lasted a cumulative total of 115 hours. Interfacility transport of critically ill pediatric patients resulted in ED closures and staffing changes in rural Manitoba. These findings suggest that long-term sustainable solutions are required to improve access to emergency care.

  10. Effects of immigration enforcement legislation on Hispanic pediatric patient visits to the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniflah, Jacob D; Little, Wendalyn K; Simon, Harold K; Sturm, Jesse

    2013-12-01

    To compare the visits by Hispanic patients to the pediatric emergency department (PED) before and after passage of Georgia House Bill 87 (HB87). This bill grants local law enforcement the authority to enforce immigration laws. A retrospective chart review of all Hispanic patients who presented to the PED in a 4-month period after implementation of HB87 in 2011 was conducted and compared with the same period in 2009 and 2010. Data compared included patient acuity score, disposition, payer status, and demographics. Fewer Hispanic patients presented to the ED after passage of the bill (18.3% vs 17.1%, P immigration legislation.

  11. The culture of patient safety from the perspective of the pediatric emergency nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Taise Rocha; Rocha, Patricia Kuerten; Tomazoni, Andreia; Souza, Sabrina de; Anders, Jane Cristina; Davis, Karri

    2016-01-01

    To identify the patient safety culture in pediatric emergencies from the perspective of the nursing team. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research study with a sample composed of 75 professionals of the nursing team. Data was collected between September and November 2014 in three Pediatric Emergency units by applying the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis. Strong areas for patient safety were not found, with areas identified having potential being: Expectations and actions from supervisors/management to promote patient safety and teamwork. Areas identified as critical were: Non-punitive response to error and support from hospital management for patient safety. The study found a gap between the safety culture and pediatric emergencies, but it found possibilities of transformation that will contribute to the safety of pediatric patients. Nursing professionals need to become protagonists in the process of replacing the current paradigm for a culture focused on safety. The replication of this study in other institutions is suggested in order to improve the current health care scenario. Identificar a cultura de segurança do paciente em emergências pediátricas, na perspectiva da equipe de enfermagem. Pesquisa quantitativa, tipo survey transversal. Amostra composta por 75 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. Dados coletados entre setembro e novembro de 2014, em três Emergências Pediátricas, aplicando o instrumento Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Dados submetidos à análise descritiva. Não foram encontradas áreas de força para a segurança do paciente, sendo identificadas áreas com potencial de assim se tornarem: Expectativas e ações do supervisor/chefia para promoção da segurança do paciente e Trabalho em equipe. Como área crítica identificaram-se: Resposta não punitiva ao erro e Apoio da gestão hospitalar para segurança do paciente. O estudo apontou distanciamento

  12. Syncope in pediatric patients: a practical approach to differential diagnosis and management in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Colleen; Cohen, Ari; Vazquez, Michelle N

    2017-04-22

    Syncope is a condition that is often seen in the emergency department. Most syncope is benign, but it can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. While syncope often requires an extensive workup in adults, in the pediatric population, critical questioning and simple, noninvasive testing is usually sufficient to exclude significant or life-threatening causes. For low-risk patients, resource-intensive workups are rarely diagnostic, and add significant cost to medical care. This issue will highlight critical diseases that cause syncope, identify high-risk "red flags," and enable the emergency clinician to develop a cost-effective, minimally invasive algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric syncope. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  13. A statewide model program to improve emergency department readiness for pediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Mark E; Fuchs, Susan; Lyons, Evelyn; Leonard, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Pediatric emergency patients have unique needs, requiring specialized personnel, training, equipment, supplies, and medications. Deficiencies in these areas have resulted in historically poorer outcomes for pediatric patients versus adults. Since 1985, federally funded Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) programs in each state have been working to improve the quality of pediatric emergency care. The Health Resources and Services Administration now requires that all EMSC grantees report on specific performance measures. This includes implementation of a standardized system recognizing hospitals that are able to stabilize or manage pediatric medical emergencies and trauma cases. We describe the steps involved in implementing Illinois' 3-level facility recognition process to illustrate a model that other states might use to provide appropriate pediatric care and comply with new Health Resources and Services Administration performance measures.

  14. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-03-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency situations, basic life support is most important. However, emergencies in young children mostly involve breathing. Therefore, physicians who treat pediatric dental patients should learn PALS. It is necessary for the physician to regularly renew training every two years to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations. In order to manage emergency situations in the pediatric dental clinic, respiratory support is most important. Therefore, mastering professional PALS, which includes respiratory care and core cases, particularly upper airway obstruction and respiratory depression caused by a respiratory control problem, would be highly desirable for a physician who treats pediatric dental patients. Regular training and renewal training every two years is absolutely necessary to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations.

  15. The use of high‐flow nasal cannula in the pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine N. Slain

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: High‐flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department‐specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high‐flow nasal cannula settings, and comparative efficacy vs. other respiratory support modalities.

  16. Advances in point-of-care ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rachel A; Levy, Jason A

    2014-06-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become an integral part of emergency medicine practice. Research evaluating POCUS in the care of pediatric patients has improved the understanding of its potential role in clinical care. Recent work has investigated the ability of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians to perform a wide array of diagnostic and procedural applications in POCUS ultrasound. Studies have demonstrated that PEM providers are able to identify an array of diseases, including intussusception, pyloric stenosis and appendicitis. Novel applications of ultrasound, such as a cardiac evaluation in the acutely ill patient or identification of skull fractures in the assessment of a patient with head injury, have shown excellent promise in recent studies. These novel applications have the potential to reshape pediatric diagnostic algorithms. Key applications in PEM have been investigated in the recent publications. Further exploration of the ability to integrate ultrasound into routine practice will require larger-scale studies and continued growth of education in the field. The use of ultrasound in clinical practice has the potential to improve safety and efficiency of care in the pediatric emergency department.

  17. Emergency medicine physicians performed ultrasound for pediatric intussusceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Chang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is the common acute abdomen in children with difficult clinical diagnosis. The routine ultrasound has recently been proposed as the initial diagnostic modality with high accuracy, but is not available for 24 h by gastroenterologists. We aimed to evaluate the validation of bedside ultrasound for intussusceptions performed by pediatric emergency physicians with ultrasound training during the night or holiday. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in children with suspected intussusceptions when routine ultrasounds by gastroenterologists were not available over the period from July 2004 to July 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed by emergency physicians with ultrasound training and without training. The clinical characteristics and course for all patients were reviewed and compared for seeking the difference. Results: A total of 186 children were included. One hundred and thirteen (61% children were diagnosed by pediatric emergency physician with ultrasound training. The clinical symptoms were not statistically different between the two groups. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ultrasound training group was significantly higher (90% vs. 79%, p = 0.034. Children of the training group also had significantly shorter hospital stay duration at emergency departments before reduction (2.41 ± 2.01 vs. 4.58 ± 4.80 h, p = 0.002. Conclusion: Bedside ultrasound performed by pediatric emergency physicians with ultrasound training is a sensitive test for detecting intussusceptions. Knowledge and use of bedside ultrasound can aid the emergency physician in the diagnosis of pediatric intussusceptions with less delay in treatment.

  18. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric emergency transport: communication and coordination are key to improving outcomes [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Abraham; Prasad, Vijay; Lowe, Calvin G; Wormley, Molly

    2018-04-01

    Pediatric patients who are critically ill or who require urgent subspecialty evaluation or specialized imaging, equipment, or procedures must often be transferred to tertiary care centers. The safe execution of interfacility transfer requires the coordination between the facility healthcare teams at each end of the transfer as well as the transport team. This issue discusses the process of interfacility transfer, the required services, the role of the emergency clinician, the role of the pediatric transport team, and the commonly used diagnostic studies and treatment needed during interfacility transfers of pediatric patients. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  20. Should pediatric emergency physicians be decentralized in the medical community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Alfred; Benjamin, Lee; Soriano, Annie R; Ponce, Marie Grace; Baren, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric emergency physicians (PEPs) are well established as primary emergency department (ED) providers in dedicated pediatric centers and university settings. However, the optimum role of these subspecialists is less well defined in the community hospital environment. This study examined the impact on the ED care of children after the introduction of 10 PEPs into a simulated medical community. A computer-generated community was created, containing 10 community hospitals treating 250,000 pediatric ED patients. Children requiring ED treatment received their care at the closest ED to their location. Ten PEPs were introduced into the community, and their impact on patient care was examined under 2 different models. In a restrictive model, the PEPs established 2 full-time pediatric EDs within the 2 busiest hospitals, whereas, in a distributive model, the PEPs were distributed throughout the 8 busiest hospitals. In the 8-hospital model, the PEPs provided direct patient care along with the general emergency physicians in that facility and also provided educational, administrative, and performance improvement support for the department. In the restrictive model, the PEPs impacted the care of 100% of the children presenting for treatment at their 2 practice sites. In the distributive model, impact included the direct patient care by the PEP but also included changes produced in the care provided by the general emergency physicians at the site. Three different levels of impact were considered for the presence of the PEPs: a low-impact version in which the PEPs' presence only impacted 25% of the children at that site, a moderate-impact version in which the impact affected 50% of the children, and a high-impact version in which the impact affected 75% of the children. A secondary analysis was performed to account for the possibility of patients self-diverting from the closest ED to 1 of the pediatric EDs in the restrictive model. In the restrictive model, the addition of 10

  1. Development of pediatric emergency medicine at Addis Ababa University/Tikuranbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Muluwork; Bacha, Tigist; Butteris, Sabrina; Teshome, Getachew; Ross, Joshua; Hagen, Scott; Svenson, Jim; Busse, Heidi; Tefera, Girma

    2014-07-01

    In the world emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume ressources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. Low-income countries suffer the most highest rates of every category of injury--from traffic and the highest rates of acute complications of communicable diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. To describe the development of pediatrics emergency medicine at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital A twinning partnership model was used in developing a pediatric emergency medicine training program helps in development of pediatrics emergency system. Strengthening the capacity of Addis Ababa University (AAU), Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TASH) to provide pediatric emergency medical services through improved organization of the pediatrics emergency department and strengthening of continuing education opportunities for faculty and staff capacity building by this improving quality of care in pediatrics patients in the country. The Addis Ababa University, University of Wiscosin and People to People partners intend to continue working together to strengthening and developing effetive systems to deliver quality pediatrics emergency medicine care troughout all regions of Ethiopia.

  2. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

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    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  3. [Impact of quality-indicator-based measures to improve the treatment of acute poisoning in pediatric emergency patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Azkunaga Santibáñez, Beatriz; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; García González, Elsa; Luaces I Cubells, Carles

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the impact of quality-indicator-based measures for improving quality of care for acute poisoning in pediatric emergency departments. Recent assessments of quality indicators were compared with benchmark targets and with results from previous studies. The first study evaluated 6 basic indicators in the pediatric emergency departments of members of to the working group on poisoning of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (GTI-SEUP). The second study evaluated 20 indicators in a single emergency department of GTI-SEUP members. Based on the results of those studies, the departments implemented the following corrective measures: creation of a team for gastric lavage follow-up, preparation of a new GTI-SEUP manual on poisoning, implementation of a protocol for poisoning incidents, and creation of specific poisoning-related fields for computerized patient records. The benchmark targets were reached on 4 quality indicators in the first study. Improvements were seen in the availability of protocols, as indicators exceeded the target in all the pediatric emergency departments (vs 29.2% of the departments in an earlier study, P < .001). No other significant improvements were observed. In the second study the benchmarks were reached on 13 indicators. Improvements were seen in compliance with incident reporting to the police (recently, 44.4% vs 19.2% previously, P = .036), case registration in the minimum basic data set (51.0% vs 1.9%, P < .001), and a trend toward increased administration of activated carbon within 2 hours (93.1% vs 83.5%, P = .099). No other significant improvements were seen. The corrective measures led to improvements in some quality indicators. There is still room for improvement in these emergency departamens' care of pediatric poisoning.

  4. A systematic review of patient tracking systems for use in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ian; Doan, Quynh; Hung, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety is of great importance in the pediatric emergency department (PED). The combination of acutely and critically ill patients and high patient volumes creates a need for systems to support physicians in making accurate and timely diagnoses. Electronic patient tracking systems can potentially improve PED safety by reducing overcrowding and enhancing security. To enhance our understanding of current electronic tracking technologies, how they are implemented in a clinical setting, and resulting effect on patient care outcomes including patient safety. Nine databases were searched. Two independent reviewers identified articles that contained reference to patient tracking technologies in pediatrics or emergency medicine. Quantitative studies were assessed independently for methodological strength by two reviewers using an external assessment tool. Of 2292 initial articles, 22 were deemed relevant. Seventeen were qualitative, and the remaining five quantitative articles were assessed as being methodologically weak. Existing patient tracking systems in the ED included: infant monitoring/abduction prevention; barcode identification; radiofrequency identification (RFID)- or infrared (IR)-based patient tracking. Twenty articles supported the use of tracking technology to enhance patient safety or improve efficiency. One article failed to support the use of IR patient sensors due to study design flaws. Support exists for the use of barcode-, IR-, and RFID-based patient tracking systems to improve ED patient safety and efficiency. A lack of methodologically strong studies indicates a need for further evidence-based support for the implementation of patient tracking technology in a clinical or research setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Availability of mobile phones for discharge follow-up of pediatric Emergency Department patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Cheptinga, Philip; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED) patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up. Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3%) had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases. Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.

  6. TH-B-207B-01: Optimizing Pediatric CT in the Emergency Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, C.

    2016-01-01

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department. Though pediatric cardiovascular MRI may be less common in the non-specialist hospitals, low pediatric volumes and unique cardiovascular anatomy make optimization of these techniques difficult. Therefore, our second speaker will review best practices in pediatric cardiovascular MRI based on experiences from a children’s hospital with a large volume of cardiac patients. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality for CT of children in the emergency room setting. To learn solutions for consistently high quality cardiovascular MRI of children

  7. TH-B-207B-01: Optimizing Pediatric CT in the Emergency Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, C. [Texas Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department. Though pediatric cardiovascular MRI may be less common in the non-specialist hospitals, low pediatric volumes and unique cardiovascular anatomy make optimization of these techniques difficult. Therefore, our second speaker will review best practices in pediatric cardiovascular MRI based on experiences from a children’s hospital with a large volume of cardiac patients. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality for CT of children in the emergency room setting. To learn solutions for consistently high quality cardiovascular MRI of children.

  8. Assessment of Pain Management in Pediatric Emergency Department in Mashhad -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain may be described as a sensation of hurt or strong discomfort and is the body's way of sending message to the brain that an injury has occurred. Pain medicines block these messages or reduce their effect on the brain. Accurate administration of analgesia have a long –lasting effect on children whole experience of medical care and affects parents' and children's future reaction to pediatrics emergency departments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain management on children in our emergency department. Materials and Methods: In this study we evaluated the relief of pain and anxiety on 100 children who referred to our pediatric Emergency Department (ED in Imam Reza Hospital- Mashhad .The patients were assessed based on the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP recommendations about pain.  Results: Patients were gone under IV Line 97%, Intubation 5% and Lumbar Puncture 28%. Training had been provided to 70% participants in the Emergency Department. Nonpharmacologic stress reduction was used in 35% of cases. Family presence was allowed only in 5%. Prehospital pain controlling was began on 20% of patients and continued in ED on 40%. At the time of discharge 40% prescribed analgesics. Sedation and pain prophylaxis was provided for 10% of patients undergoing painful procedures in ED.  Conclusion: According to results, pain management in our Pediatric Emergency Department was inadequate. Physicians and prehospital EMS providers should be justified about the importance of pain relieving and trained how to use all available analgesic and sedative options.

  9. Incident Reporting to Improve Patient Safety: The Effects of Process Variance on Pediatric Patient Safety in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnell, Karen J; Shaw, Kathy N; Ruddy, Richard M; Mahajan, Prashant V; Lichenstein, Richard; Olsen, Cody S; Funai, Tomohiko; Blumberg, Stephen; Chamberlain, James M

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors threaten patient safety, especially in the pediatric emergency department (ED) where overcrowding, multiple handoffs, and workflow interruptions are common. Errors related to process variance involve situations that are not consistent with standard ED operations or routine patient care. We performed a planned subanalysis of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network incident reporting data classified as process variance events. Confidential deidentified incident reports (IRs) were collected and classified by 2 independent investigators. Events categorized as process variance were then subtyped for severity and contributing factors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study intention was to describe and measure reported medical errors related to process variance in 17 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network from 2007 to 2008. Between July 2007 and June 2008, 2906 eligible reports were reviewed. Process variance events were identified in 15.4% (447/2906). The majority were related to patient flow (35.4%), handoff communication (17.2%), and patient identification errors (15.9%). Most staff involved included nurses (47.9%) and physicians (28%); trainees were infrequently reported. The majority of events did not result in harm (65.7%); 17.9% (80/447) of cases were classified as unsafe conditions but did not reach the patient. Temporary harm requiring further treatment or hospitalization was reported in 5.6% (25/447). No events resulted in permanent harm, near death, or death. Contributing factors included human factors (92.1%), in particular handoff communication, interpersonal skills, and compliance with established procedures, and system-level errors (18.1%), including unclear or unavailable policies and inadequate staffing levels. Although process variance events accounted for approximately 1 in 6 reported safety events, very few led to patient harm. Because human and system-level factors contributed to

  10. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Inappropriately Timed Pediatric Orthopaedic Referrals From the Emergency Department Result in Unnecessary Appointments and Financial Burden for Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Taylor J; Blumberg, Todd J; Shah, Apurva S; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2018-03-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in the pediatric population. Many such injuries can be managed with a single follow-up outpatient visit. However, untimely (ie, premature) referrals by emergency physicians to orthopaedic surgeons are common and may inadvertently create need for a second visit, generating unnecessary expenditures. We sought to elucidate the cost of premature musculoskeletal follow-up visits to the patients, families, and the health care system. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients with acute musculoskeletal injuries referred from our ED (without a formal orthopaedic consult) to our outpatient clinic. Patients were retrospectively reviewed in a consecutive fashion. The appropriateness of the recommended follow-up time interval was determined for each patient, and the direct and indirect cost of the inappropriate services were calculated utilizing a combination of traditional cost accounting techniques and time-driven activity-based costing. The characteristics of patients with appropriate and untimely follow-up referrals were compared. Two hundred consecutive referrals from the ED were reviewed. Overall, 96.5% of the follow-up visits recommended by the ED were premature, which led 106 (53%) patients to require a second visit to complete their clinical care. Patients who required a second visit were significantly younger (P=0.005), more likely to be male (P=0.042), more likely to have a fracture (Pcost of $342.93 per patient. Untimely referrals for follow-up of acute pediatric musculoskeletal conditions are very common and represent a significant financial burden to patients, families, and the health care system. Over 40% of unnecessary visits resulted from just 3 diagnoses. Improved orthopaedic follow-up guidelines, particularly for these readily recognizable conditions, and feedback to referring providers may reduce poorly timed clinic visits and decrease costs in

  12. Quality of prescription of high-alert medication and patient safety in pediatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vieira de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the importance of compliance by prescribed doses of high-alert medications in unit of pediatric emergency in patient safety. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a unit of pediatric emergency, for March to April of 2012. This study included all prescriptions that contained at least one high-alert medication, excluding all of others. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel® version 2007, and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Results: This study included prescriptions for 100 patients with a mean age of 5.2 ± 4.2 years. Were identified 983 (40.1% high-alert medications (21 different, with predominance of injectable solutions (834, 84,8%, and of these 727 (73.95% were electrolytes. The analysis of the dose was possible for 641 electrolytes and 104 non-electrolytes, being the dose inadequacies observed for some medications. Was observed concentration absent to 189 (18.9% prescribed medications, these with liquid pharmaceutical form or aerosol. Was observed also the absence of maximum dose for 8 (36.3% prescribed drugs “if necessary”. Conclusión: The inadequacies of doses of high-alert medications identified in this study may compromise patient safety, demonstrating the importance of knowledge of multidisciplinary health care team by this subject, in this context, it is noteworthy that the acting of a clinical pharmacist together with the health multidisciplined team can contributes with the review of drug prescriptions, reducing potential errors and collaborating with patient safety.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of pediatric epistaxis presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Sophie; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2017-12-01

    Investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric epistaxis in the emergency department setting. Cross-sectional study using national databases. Children (age epistaxis were extracted from the State Emergency Department Databases for New York, Florida, Iowa, and California for the calendar year 2010. Associated diagnoses, procedures, encounter characteristics, and demographic data were examined. There were 18,745 cases of pediatric epistaxis (mean age 7.54 years, 57.4% male). Overall, 6.9% of patients underwent procedures to control epistaxis, of which 93.5% had simple anterior epistaxis control. The distribution of pediatric epistaxis was highest in spring and summer months (p epistaxis presentations (38.8%, p epistaxis control procedure performed (p epistaxis control procedure (p epistaxis control procedure compared to those of minority backgrounds (p epistaxis are uninvolved cases that do not require procedural intervention. The overrepresentation of low socioeconomic status patients may suggest an overutilization of emergency services for minor cases of epistaxis, and perhaps a lack of access to primary care providers. This is the first study to evaluate racial and socioeconomic factors in relationship to pediatric epistaxis. Further investigation is needed to better elucidate these potential disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Out-of-hospital pediatric emergencies. Perception and assessment by emergency physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, C; Roessler, M; Timmermann, A; Heuer, J F; Gentkow, U; Albrecht, B; Russo, S G

    2009-09-01

    Out-of-hospital (OOH) pediatric emergencies have a relatively low prevalence. In Germany the vast majority of cases are attended by non-specialized emergency physicians (EPs) for whom these are not routine procedures. This may lead to insecurity and fear. However, it is unknown how EPs perceive and assess pediatric emergencies and how they could be better prepared for them. All active EPs (n=50) of the Department of Anaesthesiology, Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Centre of Göttingen were presented with a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate their perception and assessment of OOH pediatric emergencies. The 43 participating EPs made highly detailed statements on the expected characteristics of OOH pediatric emergencies. Their confidence level grew with the children's age (pemergencies. They felt the greatest deficits were in the care of infrequent but life-threatening emergencies. Three educational groups can be differentiated: knowledge and skills to be gained with children in hospital, clinical experience from adult care also applicable in children and rare diagnoses and interventions to be trained with manikins or simulators.

  15. Emergency Severity Index version 4: a valid and reliable tool in pediatric emergency department triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole A; Durani, Yamini; Brecher, Deena; DePiero, Andrew; Loiselle, John; Attia, Magdy

    2012-08-01

    The Emergency Severity Index version 4 (ESI v.4) is the most recently implemented 5-level triage system. The validity and reliability of this triage tool in the pediatric population have not been extensively established. The goals of this study were to assess the validity of ESI v.4 in predicting hospital admission, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and number of resources utilized, as well as its reliability in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. The first arm of the study was a retrospective chart review of 780 pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED to determine the validity of ESI v.4. Abstracted data included acuity level assigned by the triage nurse using ESI v.4 algorithm, disposition (admission vs discharge), LOS, and number of resources utilized in the ED. To analyze the validity of ESI v.4, patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison: higher-acuity patients (ESI levels 1, 2, and 3) and lower-acuity patients (ESI levels 4 and 5). Pearson χ analysis was performed for categorical variables. For continuous variables, we conducted a comparison of means based on parametric distribution of variables. The second arm was a prospective cohort study to determine the interrater reliability of ESI v.4 among and between pediatric triage (PT) nurses and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians. Three raters (2 PT nurses and 1 PEM physician) independently assigned triage scores to 100 patients; k and interclass correlation coefficient were calculated among PT nurses and between the primary PT nurses and physicians. In the validity arm, the distribution of ESI score levels among the 780 cases are as follows: ESI 1: 2 (0.25%); ESI 2: 73 (9.4%); ESI 3: 289 (37%); ESI 4: 251 (32%); and ESI 5: 165 (21%). Hospital admission rates by ESI level were 1: 100%, 2: 42%, 3: 14.9%, 4: 1.2%, and 5: 0.6%. The admission rate of the higher-acuity group (76/364, 21%) was significantly greater than the lower-acuity group (4/415, 0.96%), P group was

  16. Associations among emergency room visits, parenting styles, and psychopathology among pediatric patients with sickle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between frequency of emergency room (ER) visits and various parenting styles, both conjointly and interactively, and psychopathological outcomes among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Ninety-eight parents/caregivers of 6- to 18-year-old patients with SCD completed instruments assessing parenting style, child psychopathology, and reported on the frequency of ER visits during the previous year. ER visits were found to significantly explain Withdrawn/Depressed problems and parenting styles were found to incrementally contribute to the explanation of all forms of psychopathology. Further, Permissive parenting was found to explain Rule Breaking Behavior for those patients with low ER visit frequency but not for those with high ER visit frequency. Results of the current study confirm the importance of considering both the frequency of ER visits and parenting style in the explanation of psychopathology among pediatric patients with SCD. Results have important implications for both research and treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neonatal and pediatric regionalized systems in pediatric emergency mass critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Wanda D; Krug, Steven E; Kanter, Robert K; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Brantley, Mary D; Chung, Sarita; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    Improved health outcomes are associated with neonatal and pediatric critical care in well-organized, cohesive, regionalized systems that are prepared to support and rehabilitate critically ill victims of a mass casualty event. However, present systems lack adequate surge capacity for neonatal and pediatric mass critical care. In this document, we outline the present reality and suggest alternative approaches. In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations.Steering Committee members established subcommittees by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. The Steering Committee produced draft outlines through consensus-based study of the literature and convened October 6-7, 2009, in New York, NY, to review and revise each outline. Eight draft documents were subsequently developed from the revised outlines as well as through searches of MEDLINE updated through March 2010.The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29-30, 2010. Feedback on each manuscript was compiled and the Steering Committee revised each document to reflect expert input in addition to the most current medical literature. States and regions (facilitated by federal partners) should review current emergency operations and devise appropriate plans to address the population-based needs of infants and children in large-scale disasters. Action at the state, regional, and federal levels should address

  18. Current Situation of Treatment for Anaphylaxis in a Japanese Pediatric Emergency Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninchoji, Takeshi; Iwatani, Sota; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Kamiyoshi, Naohiro; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Morisada, Naoya; Ishibashi, Kazuto; Iijima, Kazumoto; Ishida, Akihito; Morioka, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that sometimes requires prompt treatment with intramuscular adrenaline. The aim of the study was to investigate the current situation regarding anaphylaxis treatment in a representative pediatric primary emergency facility in Japan. We retrospectively examined the medical records dating from April 2011 through March 2014 from Kobe Children's Primary Emergency Medical Center, where general pediatricians work on a part-time basis. Clinical characteristics and current treatments for patients with anaphylaxis who presented to the facility were investigated. Furthermore, we compared the clinical characteristics between anaphylaxis patients given intramuscular adrenaline and those not given it. During the study period, 217 patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis. The median Sampson grade at the time of visit was 2, and 90 patients (41%) were grade 4 or higher. No patients received self-intramuscular injected adrenaline before arrival at our emergency medical center because none of the patients had been prescribed it. Further treatment during the visit was provided to 128 patients (59%), with only 17 (8%) receiving intramuscular adrenaline. Patients given intramuscular adrenaline had significantly lower peripheral saturation of oxygen at the visit (P = 0.025) and more frequent transfer to a referral hospital (P < 0.001) than those not given intramuscular adrenaline. Education for Japanese pediatric practitioners and patients is warranted, because no patients used self-intramuscular injected adrenaline as a prehospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and only severely affected patients who needed oxygen therapy or hospitalization received intramuscular adrenaline in a pediatric primary emergency setting.

  19. Pediatric cardiac emergencies: Children are not small adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazier Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with adults, cardiac emergencies are infrequent in children and clinical presentation is often quite variable. In adults, cardiac emergencies are most commonly related to complications of coronary artery disease; however, in pediatric cases, the coronaries are only rarely the underlying problem. Pediatric cardiac emergencies comprise a range of pathology including but not limited to undiagnosed congenital heart disease in the infant; complications of palliated congenital heart disease in children; arrhythmias related to underlying cardiac pathology in the teenager and acquired heart disease. The emergency room physician and pediatric intensivist will usually be the first and second lines of care for pediatric cardiac emergencies and thus it is imperative that they have knowledge of the diverse presentations of cardiac disease in order to increase the likelihood of delivering early appropriate therapy and referral. The objective of this review is to outline cardiac emergencies in the pediatric population and contrast the presentation with adults.

  20. Analysis of Patient Visits and Collections After Opening a Satellite Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Katherine M; Caperell, Kerry; Cross, Keith; Duncan, Scott; Foster, Ben; Liu, Gil; Pritchard, Hank; Southard, Gary; Shinabery, Ben; Sutton, Brad; Kim, In K

    2018-04-01

    Satellite pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) have emerged as a strategy to increase patient capacity. We sought to determine the impact on patient visits, physician fee collections, and value of emergency department (ED) time at the primary PED after opening a nearby satellite PED. We also illustrate the spatial distribution of patient demographics and overlapping catchment areas for the primary and satellite PEDs using geographical information system. A structured, financial retrospective review was conducted. Aggregate patient demographic data and billing data were collected regarding physician fee charges, collections, and patient visits for both PEDs. All ED visits from January 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. Geographical information system mapping using ArcGIS mapped ED patient visits. Patient visits at the primary PED were 53,050 in 2009 before the satellite PED opened. The primary PED visits increased after opening the satellite PED to 55,932 in 2013. The satellite PED visits increased to 21,590 in 2013. Collections per visit at the primary PED decreased from $105.13 per visit in 2011 to $86.91 per visit in 2013. Total collections at the satellite PED decreased per visit from $155.41 per visit in 2011 to $128.53 per visit in 2013. After opening a nearby satellite PED, patient visits at the primary PED did not substantially decrease, suggesting that there was a previously unrecognized demand for PED services. The collections per ED visit were greater at the satellite ED, likely due to a higher collection rate.

  1. Vascular access in pediatric patients in the emergency department: types of access, indications, and complications [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rachel; Langhan, Melissa; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-06-22

    Vascular access is a potentially life-saving procedure that is a mainstay of emergency medicine practice. There are a number of challenges associated with obtaining and maintaining vascular access, and the choice of the route of access and equipment used will depend on patient- and provider-specific factors. In this issue, the indications and complications of peripheral intravenous access, intraosseous access, and central venous access are reviewed. Timely and effective assessment and management of difficult-access patients, pain control techniques that can assist vascular access, and contraindications to each type of vascular access are also discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  2. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  3. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Registry: A Multicenter Electronic Health Record Registry of Pediatric Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakyne Davies, Sara J; Grundmeier, Robert W; Campos, Diego A; Hayes, Katie L; Bell, Jamie; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Bajaj, Lalit; Chamberlain, James M; Gorelick, Marc H; Enriquez, Rene; Casper, T Charles; Scheid, Beth; Kittick, Marlena; Dean, J Michael; Alpern, Elizabeth R

    2018-04-01

     Electronic health record (EHR)-based registries allow for robust data to be derived directly from the patient clinical record and can provide important information about processes of care delivery and patient health outcomes.  A data dictionary, and subsequent data model, were developed describing EHR data sources to include all processes of care within the emergency department (ED). ED visit data were deidentified and XML files were created and submitted to a central data coordinating center for inclusion in the registry. Automated data quality control occurred prior to submission through an application created for this project. Data quality reports were created for manual data quality review.  The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Registry, representing four hospital systems and seven EDs, demonstrates that ED data from disparate health systems and EHR vendors can be harmonized for use in a single registry with a common data model. The current PECARN Registry represents data from 2,019,461 pediatric ED visits, 894,503 distinct patients, more than 12.5 million narrative reports, and 12,469,754 laboratory tests and continues to accrue data monthly.  The Registry is a robust harmonized clinical registry that includes data from diverse patients, sites, and EHR vendors derived via data extraction, deidentification, and secure submission to a central data coordinating center. The data provided may be used for benchmarking, clinical quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research. Schattauer.

  4. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60 s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. Sources: The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords “pediatric assessment triangle,” “pediatric triage,” “pediatric assessment tools,” and “pediatric emergency department.” Summary of the findings: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  5. Incidence and risk factors of emergence agitation in pediatric patients after general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saringcarinkul, Ananchanok; Manchupong, Sithapan; Punjasawadwong, Yodying

    2008-08-01

    To study the incidence and evaluate factors associated with emergence agitation (EA) in pediatrics after general anesthesia. A prospective observational study was conducted in 250 pediatric patients aged 2-9 years, who received general anesthesia for various operative procedures in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between October 2006 and September 2007. The incidence of EA was assessed Difficult parental-separation behavior, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and adverse events were also recorded Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the factors associated with EA. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. One hundred and eight children (43.2%) had EA, with an average duration of 9.6 +/- 6.8 minutes. EA associated with adverse events occurred in 32 agitated children (29.6%). From univariate analysis, factors associated with EA were difficult parental-separation behavior, preschool age (2-5 years), and general anesthesia with sevoflurane. However; difficult parental-separation behavior; and preschool age were the only factors significantly associated with EA in the multiple logistic regression analysis with OR = 3.021 (95% CI = 1.680, 5.431, p anesthesia personnel responsible for pediatric anesthesia should have essential skills and knowledge to effectively care for children before, during, and after an operation, including implementing the methods that minimize incidence of EA.

  6. A 2-year retrospective study of pediatric dental emergency visits at a hospital emergency center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chia-Pei; Tsai, Aileen I; Chen, Ching-Ming

    2016-06-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding pediatric dental emergencies in Taiwan. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of the pediatric dental emergency services provided at a medical center. This study included a retrospective chart review of patients under 18 years of age with dental complaints who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of Linkou Medical Center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Information regarding age, gender, time/day/month of presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up was collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test with the significance level set as p dental emergencies in the medical center ED were predominantly related to orodental trauma (47.1%) and pulpal pain (29.9%). Most patients were male (p management for dental emergencies was prescribing medication for pulp-related problems and orodental trauma. The follow-up rate of orodental trauma was the highest (p dental emergency visits at a hospital emergency center in Taiwan. While dental emergencies are sometimes unforeseeable or unavoidable, developing community awareness about proper at-home care as well as regular dental preventive measures can potentially reduce the number of emergency visits. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gooden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. Results: One hundred and forty-five (145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%. Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8 min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8% children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7± 10.8 min for non-agitated children; p<0.001. Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p = 0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6 and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p <0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0. Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n = 1, and surgical site bleeding (n = 3. Conclusion: Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%.

  8. A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Jenny; Wåhlin, Ingrid; Proczkowska, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Emergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was also tested. One hundred and twenty-two children younger than seven years were observed at postoperative care units during recovery from anesthesia. Two or 3 observers independently assessed the children using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The factor analysis clearly revealed a one-factor solution, which accounted for 82% of the variation in the data. Internal consistency, calculated with Cronbach's alpha, was good (0.96). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, which was used to assess interrater reliability for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale sum score, was 0.97 (P Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale for assessing emergence delirium in children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The kappa statistics for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale items essentially indicated good agreement between independent raters, supporting interrater reliability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Emergency pediatric anesthesia - accessibility of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hannah; Pipe, Georgina E M; Linford, Sarah L; Moppett, Iain K; Armstrong, James A M

    2015-03-01

    Emergency pediatric situations are stressful for all involved. Variation in weight, physiology, and anatomy can be substantial and errors in calculating drugs and fluids can be catastrophic. To evaluate the reliability of information resources that anesthetic trainees might use when faced with common pediatric emergencies. Anesthetic trainees from a single UK deanery were recruited and timed while they identified 18 predetermined pieces of information from three Advanced Pediatric Life Support (APLS) scenarios. The two most popular smartphone applications identified from a previous survey, PaedsED (PaedsED. iED limited, Version 1.0.8, Updated March 2011. ©2009) and Anapaed (AnaPaed. Thierry Girard, Version 1.4.2, Updated Nov 2, 2012. ©Thierry Girard), the British National Formulary for Children (cBNF) and trainee's inherent knowledge were compared with a local, check-list style, handbook of pediatric emergency algorithms - Pediatric Anesthetic Emergency Data sheets (PAEDs). Twenty anesthetic trainees were recruited. The fastest source of information was the trainees own knowledge (median 61 s, IQR 51-83 s). Second fastest was PAEDs (80, [59-110] s), followed by PaedsED (84, [65-111]). The most accurate source overall was PaedsED (100, [83-100]) although the accuracy varied between scenarios. The handbook was rated as the most popular resource by the trainees. Although fastest, trainees own knowledge is inaccurate, highlighting the need for additional, rapidly accessible, information. Of the two smartphone applications, PaedsED proved to be fast, accurate, and more popular, while Anapaed was accurate but slow to use. The PAEDs handbook, with its checklist-style format, was also fast, accurate and rated the most popular information source. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  11. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-02-22

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  12. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nirali H Patel,1 Sarah K Romero,2 David C Kaelber31Division of Emergency Medicine, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH, USA; 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Departments of Information Services, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The Center for Clinical Informatics Research and Education, The MetroHealth System and School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Hypertension (HTN in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%-5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1 safely lower blood pressure, and (2 treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3 identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8

  13. An emerging etiological factor for hand injuries in the pediatric population: public exercise equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşam, Berrak; Akşam, Ersin; Ceran, Candemir; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the role of public exercise equipment in pediatric hand traumas as a preventable etiological factor. Pediatric patients with hand injuries referred from the emergency department were evaluated retrospectively. Age and gender of the patients, timing, etiology, mechanism of hand trauma, localization of the injury, diagnoses of the patients, and hospitalization rates were reviewed. Amongst the 310 pediatric patients evaluated, 31 patients (10%) experienced injury related to public exercise equipment. Within this group of patients, most were between 5 to 9 years of age, and all injuries were blunt and crush type. Lacerations and fractures were the main diagnoses. Complex injuries that required inpatient care were reported in 19.3% of the patients. Public exercise equipment-related injuries are increasingly prevalent in pediatric hand traumas. Preventive actions such as shielding the moving parts should be taken to reduce these rates.

  14. Restricting youth suicide: behavioral health patients in an urban pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven C; DiVietro, Susan; Borrup, Kevin; Brinkley, Ashika; Kaminer, Yifrah; Lapidus, Garry

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among individuals age 10 years to 19 years in the United States. Adolescents with suicidal behaviors are often cared for in emergency departments (EDs)/trauma centers and are at an increased risk for subsequent suicide. Many institutions do not have standard procedures to prevent future self-harm. Lethal means restriction (LMR) counseling is an evidence-based suicide prevention strategy that informs families to restrict access to potentially fatal items and has demonstrated efficacy in preventing suicide. The objectives of this study were to examine suicidal behavior among behavioral health patients in a pediatric ED and to assess the use of LMR by hospital staff. A sample of 298 pediatric patients was randomly selected from the population of behavioral health patients treated at the ED from January 1 through December 31, 2012 (n = 2,294). Descriptive data include demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, etc,), chief complaint, current and past psychiatric history, primary diagnosis, disposition, alcohol/drug abuse, and documentation of any LMR counseling provided in the ED. Of the 298 patients, 52% were female, 47% were white, and 76% were in the custody of their parents. Behavior/out of control was the most common chief complaint (43%). The most common diagnoses were mood disorder (25%) and depression (20%). Thirty-four percent of the patients had suicidal ideation, 22% had a suicide plan, 32% had documented suicidal behavior, and 25% of the patients reported having access to lethal means. However, only 4% of the total patient population received any LMR counseling, and only 15% of those with access to lethal means had received LMR counseling. Providing a safe environment for adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviors should be a priority for all families/caretakers and should be encouraged by health care providers. The ED is a key point of entry into services for suicidal youth and presents an opportunity to implement

  15. [Assessment of quality indicators in pediatric poisoning in an emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Roca, C; Martínez Sánchez, L; Calzada Baños, Y; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Quintilla Martínez, J M; Luaces Cubells, C

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of quality indicators allows clinicians to evaluate clinical assistance with a standard, to detect deficiencies and to improve medical assistance. Patients who came to emergency services of a tertiary level hospital for suspicion of poisoning from January 2011 to June 2012 were assessed using 20 quality indicators of pediatric poisoning. Data collection was performed by retrospective review of clinical reports. A total of 393 patients were admitted for suspicion of poisoning (0.3% of all admissions).The standard was reached in 11 indicators and not reached in 6: administration of activated charcoal within 2hours of poison ingestion (standard=90%, result=83.5%); attention within the first 15minutes of arriving in the emergency service (standard=90%, result=60.4%); start of gastrointestinal decontamination within 20minutes of arrival in emergency services (standard=90%, result=29.7%); performing of electrocardiogram on the patients poisoned with cardiotoxic substances (standard=95%, result=87%); judicial communication of cases of poisoning that could conceal a crime (standard=95%, result=31.3%), and collection of the minimal set of information of poisoned patients (standard=90%, result=1.9%). Three indicators could not be evaluated as a consequence of the limited number of cases where they could be applied (de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Pneumothorax in pediatric patients: management strategies to improve patient outcomes [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Rocker, Joshua; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-03-22

    The clinical presentation of pneumothorax is highly variable. Spontaneous pneumothoraces may present with subtle symptoms when a small air leak is present, but can progress to hemodynamic instability in the setting of tension physiology. The etiologies are broad and the severity can vary greatly. A trauma patient with a pneumothorax may also have the added complexity of other potentially life-threatening injuries. While there is a wealth of evidence-based guidelines for the management of pneumothoraces in the adult literature, the approach to pediatric patients is largely extrapolated from that literature without a significant evidence base. In this issue, aspects of the history and physical examination, the use of various diagnostic imaging modalities, and the range of interventions available to the emergency clinician are discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. The use of high-flow nasal cannula in the pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine N. Slain

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. Sources: A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. Data summary: High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface. High-flow nasal cannula likely supports respiration though reduced inspiratory resistance, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduced metabolic work related to gas conditioning, improved airway conductance and mucociliary clearance, and provision of low levels of positive airway pressure. Most data describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children focuses on those with bronchiolitis, although high-flow nasal cannula has been used in children with other respiratory diseases. Introduction of high-flow nasal cannula into clinical practice, including in the emergency department, has been associated with decreased rates of endotracheal intubation. Limited prospective interventional data suggest that high-flow nasal cannula may be similarly efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure and more efficacious than standard oxygen therapy for some patients. Patient characteristics, such as improved tachycardia and tachypnea, have been associated with a lack of progression to endotracheal intubation. Reported adverse effects are rare. Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department-specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high-flow nasal cannula

  18. Prudent layperson definition of an emergent pediatric medical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Craig J; Poirier, Michael P; Cantwell, John R; Ermis, Peter R; Isaacman, Daniel J

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to assess how well parents rated pediatric medical conditions based on their perceived degree of urgency so as to determine if the "Prudent Layperson Standard'' is reasonable. A self-administered, supervised survey was given to a convenience sample of 340 caregivers in the emergency department of an urban children's hospital. Respondents were asked to rank the urgency of 15 scenarios. A caregiver response within 1 point of the physician score was considered concordant with medical opinion. A 2-week-old infant with a rectal temperature of 103.7 degrees F was the only emergent scenario underestimated by caregivers. A 1 1/2-yr-old child with an upper respiratory tract infection, a 7-year-old child with ringworm, an 8-month-old infant with a simple forehead contusion, and a 4-year-old child with conjunctivitis were the non-urgent scenarios overestimated by caregivers. Laypeople are able to identify cases constructed to represent obvious pediatric medical emergencies. Several patient subgroups frequently overestimate medical urgency.

  19. Why and when to use CT in children: perspective of a pediatric emergency medicine physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Emergency Department is a risk-laden environment for clinicians caring for children. A number of factors can increase the risk of medical errors and adverse events, including lack of standardized medication dosing because of size variation in the pediatric age range, unique physical and developmental characteristics of children that affect treatment strategies, and the inability of young or non-verbal children to provide a medical history or to clearly communicate pain and other symptoms. The Emergency Department (ED) setting is often hectic and chaotic, with lots of interruptions. Many EDs lack the pediatric-specific supplies deemed essential for managing pediatric emergencies, and long hours or overnight shifts, while necessary for maintaining 24-hour emergency services, can cause provider fatigue that can lead to increased medical errors. It is in this environment that ED physicians make decisions about the use of CT scans in children, often without evidence-based guidelines to help them weigh risks and benefits. Although recent efforts have raised the awareness of the risk of exposure to radiation, many pediatric providers and families lack adequate information to guide decisions about the use of CT. Pediatricians and emergency physicians need to collaborate with radiologists to maintain current knowledge of the risks and benefits of CT scans, to advocate for pediatric protocols and evidence-based guidelines, and to engage families in decisions regarding the evaluation and treatment of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. (orig.)

  20. Why and when to use CT in children: perspective of a pediatric emergency medicine physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frush, Karen [Duke University School of Medicine, DUMC, Department of Pediatrics, Box 3701, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The Emergency Department is a risk-laden environment for clinicians caring for children. A number of factors can increase the risk of medical errors and adverse events, including lack of standardized medication dosing because of size variation in the pediatric age range, unique physical and developmental characteristics of children that affect treatment strategies, and the inability of young or non-verbal children to provide a medical history or to clearly communicate pain and other symptoms. The Emergency Department (ED) setting is often hectic and chaotic, with lots of interruptions. Many EDs lack the pediatric-specific supplies deemed essential for managing pediatric emergencies, and long hours or overnight shifts, while necessary for maintaining 24-hour emergency services, can cause provider fatigue that can lead to increased medical errors. It is in this environment that ED physicians make decisions about the use of CT scans in children, often without evidence-based guidelines to help them weigh risks and benefits. Although recent efforts have raised the awareness of the risk of exposure to radiation, many pediatric providers and families lack adequate information to guide decisions about the use of CT. Pediatricians and emergency physicians need to collaborate with radiologists to maintain current knowledge of the risks and benefits of CT scans, to advocate for pediatric protocols and evidence-based guidelines, and to engage families in decisions regarding the evaluation and treatment of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. (orig.)

  1. The Management of Pediatric Genital Injuries at a Pediatric Emergency Department in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hirokazu; Nomura, Osamu; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2018-04-25

    Genital injuries among children are often associated with consumer products or specific activities. There are few descriptive studies from Asia on pediatric genital injuries seen in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic features of accidental genital injuries among children. A retrospective chart review of children aged 15 years or younger who visited our ED for genital injuries between March 2010 and November 2014 was conducted. Data on age, arrival time at the ED, location of the incident, mechanism of injury, objects, injured organ, consultation with specialists, emergency operation, sedation at the ED, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in this analysis. Girls comprised 71% of the subject pool. The median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 4-9 years). Straddle injuries were the most common form of injury (56%). Male genital injuries occurred mostly outdoors (64%). Common consumer products associated with pediatric genital injuries were furniture (21%), exercise equipment (17%), and bicycles (15%). Thirty-two patients were examined by a surgeon, gynecologist, or urologist. The most commonly injured organs were the penis (55%) in boys and the labia (60%) in girls. Most patients (93%) were treated at the ED and discharged. The characteristics of accidental genital injuries among Japanese children were similar to those of children in other countries. The strategy for preventing genital injuries used in the West might be applicable to the East Asian context.

  2. Enhancing the emergency department approach to pediatric sexual assault care: implementation of a pediatric sexual assault response team program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Monika K; Mollen, Cynthia J; Hayes, Katie L; Molnar, Jennifer; Christian, Cindy W; Scribano, Philip V; Lavelle, Jane

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of a novel pediatric sexual assault response team (SART) program in the first 3 years of implementation and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. This was a retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (ED) who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with sex, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. One hundred eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 (SD, 4.6) years. The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among girls (P < 0.01), but not by sex. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical examination was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal girls were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (P < 0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, and HIV prophylaxis (P < 0.01). In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on examination. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault.

  3. Radiologic procedures, policies and protocols for pediatric emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Protocol development between radiology and pediatric emergency medicine requires a multidisciplinary approach to manage straightforward as well as complex and time-sensitive needs for emergency department patients. Imaging evaluation requires coordination of radiologic technologists, radiologists, transporters, nurses and coordinators, among others, and might require accelerated routines or occur at sub-optimal times. Standardized protocol development enables providers to design a best practice in all of these situations and should be predicated on evidence, mission, and service expectations. As in any new process, constructive feedback channels are imperative for evaluation and modification. (orig.)

  4. Children's safety initiative: a national assessment of pediatric educational needs among emergency medical services providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi

  5. Parent-Reported Penicillin Allergy Symptoms in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Adams, Juan; Brousseau, David C

    2017-04-01

    Children often present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with a reported penicillin allergy. The true incidence of pediatric penicillin allergy is low, and patients may be inappropriately denied first-line antibiotics. We hypothesized that more than 70% of reported penicillin allergies in the pediatric ED are low risk for true allergy. Parents of children presenting to the pediatric ED with parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. The questionnaire included age at allergy diagnosis, symptoms of allergy, and time to allergic reaction from first dose. The allergy symptoms were dichotomized into high and low risk in consultation with a pediatric allergist before questionnaire implementation. A total of 605 parents were approached; 500 (82.6%) completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age of the children at diagnosis was 1 year (7 months, 2 years); 75% were diagnosed before their third birthday. Overall, 380 (76%) (95% confidence interval 72.3, 79.7) children had exclusively low-risk symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were rash (466, 92.8%) and itching (203, 40.6%). Of the 120 children with one or more high-risk symptom, facial swelling (50, 10%) was the most common. Overall, 354 children (71%) were diagnosed after their first exposure to penicillin. Symptom onset within 24 hours of medication administration occurred in 274 children (54.8%). Seventy-six percent of patients with parent-reported penicillin allergy have symptoms unlikely to be consistent with true allergy. Determination of true penicillin allergy in patients with low-risk symptoms may permit the increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging in pediatric emergencies: the basics through three clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés Iñigo, E F; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J

    2016-05-01

    A high percentage of the pediatric imaging studies requested during calls are related to musculoskeletal disease. Since bones and joints in children are immature, constantly growing and remodeling, they have physiological and anatomical peculiarities that make it necessary to use an approach specific for pediatric patients. In this article, we use three clinical scenarios (limping, fractures, and musculoskeletal infections) to summarize and transmit the concepts that are essential in emergency musculoskeletal imaging in children. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Current situation of pediatric emergency in tertiary and teaching hospitals in 15 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China Mainland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pre-hospital care, emergency department and critical care medicine are the key components of emergency medical service system. Two investigations about the pediatric critical care medicine in China mainland showed great progress. In recent years, most hospitals in China mainland have established emergency department, hardware configuration and staff status were gradually standardized. But most of the emergency departments mainly provide service to adult patients and pediatric emergency medicine lags behind. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the current situation and main problems of pediatric emergency in China mainland. A questionnaire developed by the Subspecialty Group of Pediatrics, Chinese Society of Emergency Medicine and the Subspecialty Group of Emergency Medicine, Chinese Society of Pediatrics was e-mailed to the members of the above-mentioned two subspecialty groups. The contents of the questionnaire included 46 items which were divided into 5 categories: the general situation of the hospital, the pediatric emergency setting and composition, key equipments and techniques, staff status, training program and running data from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-three questionnaires were delivered and 27 (42.9%) hospitals responded which located in 15 different provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Among the 27 hospitals, 10 (37.0%) had no pediatric resuscitation room; 25 (92.6%) had no equipments for cardiac output monitor and gastric lavage; 13 (48.1%) had no bedside fibrolaryngoscope or fiberbronchoscope; 5 (18.5%) had no blood gas analyzer; 4 (14.8%) without respirator, defibrillator, bedside radiography or ultrasonic equipment; 2 (7.4%) had no neonatal incubator; 9 (33.3%) could not do intraossous infusion. The average ratio of professional emergency pediatricians to all physicians was 43.5%. Twenty hospitals incompletely filled in the pediatric emergency running data. The main problems existing in pediatric emergency include: imperfect

  8. Effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine with intravenous anesthesia on postoperative emergence agitation/delirium in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy: A CONSORT-prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun-Li; Pei, Yu-Ping; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Zhang, Yue-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative emergence agitation/delirium (POED) is a common complication in pediatric surgery patients, which increases the risk of developing postoperative airway obstruction and respiratory depression. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine (DEX) and its effects on POED in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy.Sixty patients scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, aged 2 to 8 years, were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 30). Pediatric patients in the group DEX received intravenous (IV) DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h continuous infusion, and the same volume of 0.9% saline was administrated in the group control. Anesthesia was maintained with target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanyl. Intraoperative heart rate (HR), noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP), blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), recovery time, and extubation time were recorded. Pain level was evaluated using the objective pain score (OPS), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scale and Cole 5-point scale (CPS) was used to evaluate POED when patients at 0, 5, 15 minutes, and then at intervals of 15 minutes for 60 minutes after parents arrival at postanesthesia care unit (PACU).The results showed that intraoperative HR was significantly lower in group DEX (P pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, without adverse hemodynamic effects, though the lower incidence of POED was not observed.

  9. [Use of cognitive aids in pediatric emergency care : Interdisciplinary consensus statement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, S; Eich, C; Becke, K; Brenner, S; Callies, A; Harding, U; Höhne, C; Hoffmann, F; Kaufmann, J; Landsleitner, B; Marung, H; Nicolai, T; Reifferscheid, F; Trappe, U; Jung, P

    2017-05-01

    Preclinical pediatric emergencies are rare events and are therefore often associated with stress and uncertainty for emergency medical service personnel. To ensure adequate treatment of pediatric patients a variety of different cognitive aids exist (e.g. books, apps, rulers, weight-adapted bag systems). Especially the size specifications of the medical equipment and the dosage of emergency medication are individually very different in children and are dependent on parameters, such as body height and weight. Therefore, cognitive aids often enable length measurement whereby it is possible to draw conclusions on body weight for calculating the child's medication dosage. These aids may help to avoid the wrong medication dose or the wrong therapy of children but uncritical and untrained usage of these aids carries a potential risk of mistakes. This recommendation gives an overview of the general requirements and different problems of cognitive aids and should help improve the general framework and the rational basis for the use and further development of cognitive aids in emergency medicine.

  10. Management of pediatric central nervous system emergencies: a review for general radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo Polo, M

    2016-05-01

    To review the most common and most important diseases and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) in pediatric emergencies, discussing the indications for different imaging tests in each context. In pediatric patients, acute neurologic symptoms (seizures, deteriorating level of consciousness, focal neurologic deficits, etc.) can appear in diverse clinical situations (trauma, child abuse, meningoencephalitis, ischemia…). It is important to decide on the most appropriate neuroimaging diagnostic algorithm for each situation and age group, as well as to know the signs of the most typical lesions that help us in the etiological differential diagnosis. Pediatric patients' increased vulnerability to ionizing radiation and the possible need for sedation in studies that require more time are factors that should be taken into account when indicating an imaging test. It is essential to weigh the risks and benefits for the patient and to avoid unnecessary studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatric crisis resource management training improves emergency medicine trainees' perceived ability to manage emergencies and ability to identify teamwork errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Ilana; Snell, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan

    2014-12-01

    Improved pediatric crisis resource management (CRM) training is needed in emergency medicine residencies because of the variable nature of exposure to critically ill pediatric patients during training. We created a short, needs-based pediatric CRM simulation workshop with postactivity follow-up to determine retention of CRM knowledge. Our aims were to provide a realistic learning experience for residents and to help the learners recognize common errors in teamwork and improve their perceived abilities to manage ill pediatric patients. Residents participated in a 4-hour objectives-based workshop derived from a formal needs assessment. To quantify their subjective abilities to manage pediatric cases, the residents completed a postworkshop survey (with a retrospective precomponent to assess perceived change). Ability to identify CRM errors was determined via a written assessment of scripted errors in a prerecorded video observed before and 1 month after completion of the workshop. Fifteen of the 16 eligible emergency medicine residents (postgraduate year 1-5) attended the workshop and completed the surveys. There were significant differences in 15 of 16 retrospective pre to post survey items using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for non-parametric data. These included ability to be an effective team leader in general (P < 0.008), delegating tasks appropriately (P < 0.009), and ability to ensure closed-loop communication (P < 0.008). There was a significant improvement in identification of CRM errors through the use of the video assessment from 3 of the 12 CRM errors to 7 of the 12 CRM errors (P < 0.006). The pediatric CRM simulation-based workshop improved the residents' self-perceptions of their pediatric CRM abilities and improved their performance on a video assessment task.

  12. Aptitud clínica ante el paciente pediátrico con asma grave en residentes de pediatría y urgencias Clinical skills at the pediatric patient with severe asthma of Pediatrics and Emergency residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loría-Castellanos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Construir, validar y aplicar un instrumento para evaluar la aptitud clínica de los residentes de pediatría y urgencia ante los pacientes pediátricos con asma grave. Sujetos y métodos. Estudio observacional autorizado por el comité de investigación. El instrumento se construyó a través de cinco casos clínicos reales, validado por consenso de expertos en pediatría, urgencias e investigación educativa, obteniéndose una versión final de 150 ítems con una consistencia de 0,89. Se evaluaron 10 residentes de pediatría y 21 de urgencias. Se realizó un análisis estadístico no paramétrico. Resultados. La mayoría de los residentes (79,73% se ubicaron en los niveles bajos-muy bajos de aptitud clínica, ninguno alcanzó niveles superiores. Las pruebas estadísticas no encontraron diferencias entre los grados académicos o la especialidad. Conclusiones. El instrumento construido tiene una adecuada consistencia. El proceso educativo al que se han sometido estos residentes parece no favorecer el desarrollo de reflexión, lo que podría limitar su práctica profesional real.Aim. To develop, validate and implement a tool to assess the clinical competence of pediatric residents and medical emergencies to pediatric patients with severe asthma. Subjects and methods. An observational study approved by the research committee. The instrument was built through five problematized clinical cases, validated by consensus by experts in pediatrics, emergency and educational research, obtaining a final version of 150 items with a consistency of 0.89. It evaluated 10 pediatric residents and 21 of emergency. We performed a nonparametric statistical analysis. Results. Most residents (79.73% were located in low-very low levels of clinical competence, none reached higher levels. Statistical tests found no differences between academic degrees or specialty. Conclusions. The educational process that these students have had seems to favor the development

  13. Emergency department visits by pediatric patients sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Allison; Owen, Stephanie; Hoffman, Shelley M; Davis, Stephen M; Sharon, Melinda J

    2018-01-02

    Currently only 5 out of the 50 states in the United States have laws restricting the age of passengers permitted to ride on a motorcycle. This study sought to characterize the visits by patients under the age of 16 to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) for injuries sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the years 2006 to 2011. Pediatric patients who were passengers on a motorcycle that was involved in a crash were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) External Cause of Injury codes. We also examined gender, age, disposition, regional differences, common injuries, and charges. Between 2006 and 2011 there were an estimated 9,689 visits to U.S. EDs by patients under the age of 16 who were passengers on a motorcycle involved in a crash. The overall average patient age was 9.4 years, and they were predominately male (54.5%). The majority (85%) of these patients were treated and released. The average charges for discharged patients were $2,116.50 and amounted to roughly $17,500,000 during the 6 years. The average cost for admission was $51,446 per patient and totaled over $54 million. The most common primary injuries included superficial contusions; sprains and strains; upper limb fractures; open wounds of head, neck, and trunk; and intracranial injuries. Although there were only about 9,700 visits to U.S. EDs for motorcycle crashes involving passengers less than 16 years old for 2006 to 2011, the total cost of visits that resulted in either ED discharge or hospital admission amounted to over $71 million.

  14. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  15. Ambient versus traditional environment in pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patricia S; Green, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine the effect of exposure to an ambient environment in a pediatric emergency department. We hypothesized that passive distraction from ambient lighting in an emergency department would lead to reduction in patient pain and anxiety and increased caregiver satisfaction with services. Passive distraction has been associated with lower anxiety and pain in patients and affects perception of wait time. A pediatric ED was designed that optimized passive distraction techniques using colorful ambient lighting. Participants were nonrandomly assigned to either an ambient ED environment or a traditional ED environment. Entry and exit questionnaires assessed caregiver expectations and experiences. Pain ratings were obtained with age-appropriate scales, and wait times were recorded. A total of 70 participants were assessed across conditions, that is, 40 in the ambient ED group and 30 in the traditional ED group. Caregivers in the traditional ED group expected a longer wait, had higher anxiety pretreatment, and felt more scared than those in the ambient ED group. Caregivers in the ambient ED group felt more included in the care of their child and rated quality of care higher than caregivers in the traditional ED group. Pain ratings and administrations of pain medication were lower in the ambient ED group. Mean scores for the ambient ED group were in the expected direction on several items measuring satisfaction with ED experiences. Results were suggestive of less stress in caregivers, less pain in patients, and higher satisfaction levels in the ambient ED group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Evaluation of hospital admissions: admission guidelines implementation in a pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Manuel; Warshawsky, Sheila S; Rosen, Shirley; Barak, Nurit; Press, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    To develop and implement locally tailored pediatric admission guidelines for use in a pediatric emergency department and evaluate the appropriateness of admissions based on these guidelines. Our Study was based on the development of admission guidelines by senior physicians, using the Delphi Consensus Process, for use in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) at Soroka University Medical Center (Soroka). We evaluated the appropriateness of admissions to the pediatric departments of Soroka on 33 randomly selected days in 1999 and 2000 prior to guideline implementation and 30 randomly selected days in 2001, after guideline implementation. A total of 1037 files were evaluated. A rate of 12.4% inappropriate admissions to the pediatric departments was found based on locally tailored admission guidelines. There was no change in the rate of inappropriate admissions after implementation of admission guidelines in PED. Inappropriate admissions were associated with age above 3 years, hospital stay of two days or less and the season. The main reasons for evaluating an admission as inappropriate were that the admission did not comply with the guidelines and that the case could be managed in an ambulatory setting. There were distinctive differences in the characteristics of the Bedouin and Jewish populations admitted to the pediatric departments, although no difference was found in the rate of inappropriate admissions between these populations. Patient management in Soroka PED is tailored to the conditions of this medical center and to the characteristics of the population it serves. The admission guidelines developed reflect these special conditions. Lack of change in the rate of inappropriate admissions following implementation of the guidelines indicates that the guidelines reflect the physicians' approach to patient management that existed in Soroka PED prior to guideline implementation. Hospital admission guidelines have a role in the health management system; however

  17. Identification of At-Risk Youth by Suicide Screening in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Cwik, Mary; Van Eck, Kathryn; Goldstein, Mitchell; Alfes, Clarissa; Wilson, Mary Ellen; Virden, Jane M; Horowitz, Lisa M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2017-02-01

    The pediatric emergency department (ED) is a critical location for the identification of children and adolescents at risk for suicide. Screening instruments that can be easily incorporated into clinical practice in EDs to identify and intervene with patients at increased suicide risk is a promising suicide prevention strategy and patient safety objective. This study is a retrospective review of the implementation of a brief suicide screen for pediatric psychiatric ED patients as standard of care. The Ask Suicide Screening Questions (ASQ) was implemented in an urban pediatric ED for patients with psychiatric presenting complaints. Nursing compliance rates, identification of at-risk patients, and sensitivity for repeated ED visits were evaluated using medical records from 970 patients. The ASQ was implemented with a compliance rate of 79 %. Fifty-three percent of the patients who screened positive (237/448) did not present to the ED with suicide-related complaints. These identified patients were more likely to be male, African American, and have externalizing behavior diagnoses. The ASQ demonstrated a sensitivity of 93 % and specificity of 43 % to predict return ED visits with suicide-related presenting complaints within 6 months of the index visit. Brief suicide screening instruments can be incorporated into standard of care in pediatric ED settings. Such screens can identify patients who do not directly report suicide-related presenting complaints at triage and who may be at particular risk for future suicidal behavior. Results have the potential to inform suicide prevention strategies in pediatric EDs.

  18. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network head injuryprediction rules: on the basis of cost and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökharman, Fatma Dilek; Aydın, Sonay; Fatihoğlu, Erdem; Koşar, Pınar Nercis

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Head injuries are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Noncontrast enhanced cranial CT is the method of choice to detect possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concerns about ionizing radiation exposure make the evaluation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rules in predicting clinically important TBI and to determine the amount of medical resource waste and unnecessary radiation exposure.Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 1041 pediatric patients presented to the emergency department. The patients were divided into subgroups of "appropriate for cranial CT", "not appropriate for cranial CT" and "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate". To determine the effectiveness of the PECARN rules, data were analyzed according to the presence of pathological findings Results: "Appropriate for cranial CT" results can predict pathology presence 118,056-fold compared to the "not appropriate for cranial CT" results. With "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate" results, pathology presence was predicted 11,457-fold compared to "not appropriate for cranial CT" results.Conclusion: PECARN rules can predict pathology presence successfully in pediatric TBI. Using PECARN can decrease resource waste and exposure to ionizing radiation.

  19. Pediatric fractures – an educational needs assessment of Canadian pediatric emergency medicine residents

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    Dixon AC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrew C Dixon Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Objectives: To determine the gaps in knowledge of Canadian pediatric emergency medicine residents with regards to acute fracture identification and management. Due to their predominantly medical prior training, fractures may be an area of weakness requiring a specific curriculum to meet their needs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed examining comfort level and performance on knowledge based questions of trainees in the following areas: interpreting musculoskeletal X-rays; independently managing pediatric fractures, physical examination techniques, applied knowledge of fracture management, and normal development of the bony anatomy. Using modified Dillman technique the instrument was distributed to pediatric emergency medicine residents at seven Canadian sites. Results: Out of 43 potential respondents, 22 (51% responded. Of respondents, mean comfort with X-ray interpretation was 69 (62–76 95% confidence interval [CI] while mean comfort with fracture management was only 53 (45–63 95% CI; mean comfort with physical exam of shoulder 60 (53–68 95% CI and knee 69 (62–76 95% CI was low. Less than half of respondents (47%; 95% CI 26%–69% could accurately identify normal wrist development, correctly manage a supracondylar fracture (39%; 95% CI 20%–61%, or identify a medial epicondyle fracture (44%; 95% CI 24%–66%. Comfort with neurovascular status of the upper (mean 82; 95% CI 75–89 and lower limb (mean 81; 95% CI 74–87 was high. Interpretation: There are significant gaps in knowledge of physical exam techniques, fracture identification and management among pediatric emergency medicine trainees. A change in our current teaching methods is required to meet this need. Keywords: pediatric, fractures, education, radiologic interpretation

  20. Effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine, compared with oral midazolam, for the prevention of emergence delirium in the pediatric patient undergoing general anesthesia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzSimons, James; Bonanno, Laura S; Pierce, Stephanie; Badeaux, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury. A newer drug, dexmedetomidine, is a selective alpha-2 agonist, which works in the brain and spinal cord that has sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic properties. Dexmedetomidine also has the ability to lower the overall anesthetic requirements by reducing sympathetic outflow in response to painful surgical stimulation. In current literature, there is not a systematic review that compares the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine administration against oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium. The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared to oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in the pediatric patient undergoing general anesthesia. This review considered studies that included pediatric patients aged three to seven years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification of I or II, and undergoing general anesthesia for elective/ambulatory surgery. This review excluded studies that included patients who had special needs including: developmental delay, chronic pain issues, and/or any preexisting mental or physical health disorders which categorized them above an ASA II. This review considered studies that compared preoperative intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine with preoperative oral administration of midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium. This review considered both experimental and non-experimental study

  1. Hospital-Level Factors Associated with Pediatric Emergency Department Return Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsenbarger, Zachary; Thurm, Cary; Neuman, Mark; Spencer, Sandra; Simon, Harold; Gosdin, Craig; Shah, Samir; McClead, Richard; Stack, Anne; Alpern, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Return visits (RVs) and RVs with admission (RVAs) are commonly used emergency department quality measures. Visit- and patient-level factors, including several social determinants of health, have been associated with RV rates, but hospital-specific factors have not been studied. To identify what hospital-level factors correspond with high RV and RVA rates. Multicenter mixed-methods study of hospital characteristics associated with RV and RVA rates. Pediatric Health Information System with survey of emergency department directors. Adjusted return rates were calculated with generalized linear mixed-effects models. Hospitals were categorized by adjusted RV and RVA rates for analysis. Twenty-four hospitals accounted for 1,456,377 patient visits with an overall adjusted RV rate of 3.7% and RVA rate of 0.7%. Hospitals with the highest RV rates served populations that were more likely to have government insurance and lower median household incomes and less likely to carry commercial insurance. Hospitals in the highest RV rate outlier group had lower pediatric emergency medicine specialist staffing, calculated as full-time equivalents per 10,000 patient visits: median (interquartile range) of 1.9 (1.5-2.1) versus 2.9 (2.2-3.6). There were no differences in hospital population characteristics or staffing by RVA groups. RV rates were associated with population social determinants of health and inversely related to staffing. Hospital-level variation may indicate population-level economic factors outside the control of the hospital and unrelated to quality of care. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  2. Replacement of Dislodged Gastrostomy Tubes After Stoma Dilation in the Pediatric Emergency Department

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    Shiloni Bhambani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dislodged gastrostomy tube (GT is a common complaint that requires evaluation in the pediatric emergency department (ED and, on occasion, will require stoma dilation to successfully replace the GT. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency that stoma dilation is required, the success rate of replacement, complications encountered, and the techniques used to confirm placement of the GT after dilation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of children 0–18 years who presented to the pediatric ED from February 2013 through February 2015 with a dislodged GT that required stoma dilation by pediatric emergency physicians with serially increasing Foley catheter sizes prior to successful placement of the GT. Results: We reviewed a total of 302 encounters in 215 patients, with 97 (32% of the encounters requiring stoma dilation prior to replacing a GT. The median amount of dilation was 2 French between the initial Foley catheter size and the final GT size. There was a single complication of a mal-positioned balloon that was identified at the index visit. No delayed complications were encountered. We performed confirmation of placement in all patients. The two most common forms of confirmation were aspiration of gastric contents (56/97 [58%] followed by contrast radiograph in 39 (40%. Conclusion: The practice of serial dilation of a gastrostomy stoma site to allow successful replacement of a gastrostomy tube in pediatric patients who present to the ED with a dislodged gastrostomy tube is generally successful and without increased complication. All patients received at least one form of confirmation for appropriate GT placement with the most common being aspiration of gastric contents.

  3. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A.

    1997-01-01

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  4. The Effectiveness of Ultrasonography in Detecting Emergent Pediatric Pathologies and Requirement for Additional Imaging Techniques: A Retrospective Study

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    Betül Tiryaki Baştuğ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In emergency cases, ultrasonography is used in guiding resuscitation, to provide procedural guidance, and confirm a clinical diagnosis. In addition, it may prevent unnecessary exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation and risks caused by transporting the patient away from monitoring. This paper aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonography in detecting emergent pediatric pathologies in a state hospital radiology unit, and to identify whether additional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography, were required. Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective investigation. A group of 536 patients were randomly selected from 1.401 pediatric patients who underwent ultrasonography for non-traumatic emergent pathologies between 2015 and 2016. Results: Of the 536 patients, 46 were diagnosed with appendicitis, 14 with pathologies of the urinary system, 1 with ileus, 29 with mesenteric lymphadenitis, 4 with intussusception, 3 with ovarian cyst rupture, 1 with ovarian torsion, and 32 with scrotal pathologies. Computed tomography was performed for 20 patients. Ureteral calculi and appendicitis were confirmed by computed tomography in 5 and 14 patients, respectively, after being identified as secondary findings by ultrasonography. In 1 patient, ileus was verified by computed tomography. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was determined to be 85.7%. Only 14% of patients were not given definite pathological diagnoses by ultrasonography alone. Subsequent computed tomography for verifying secondary findings detected by ultrasonography was essential in only 20 patients. Conclusion: Our results promote the use of ultrasonography as the initial imaging test for evaluating pediatric patients with suspected emergency pathologies.

  5. Pediatric neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is an emerging multidisciplinary field of medicine and a new frontier in pediatric critical care and pediatric neurology. Central to pediatric neurocritical care is the goal of improving outcomes in critically ill pediatric patients with neurological illness or injury and limiting secondary brain injury through optimal critical care delivery and the support of brain function. There is a pressing need for evidence based guidelines in pediatric neurocritical care, notably in pediatric traumatic brain injury and pediatric stroke. These diseases have distinct clinical and pathophysiological features that distinguish them from their adult counterparts and prevent the direct translation of the adult experience to pediatric patients. Increased attention is also being paid to the broader application of neuromonitoring and neuroprotective strategies in the pediatric intensive care unit, in both primary neurological and primary non-neurological disease states. Although much can be learned from the adult experience, there are important differences in the critically ill pediatric population and in the circumstances that surround the emergence of neurocritical care in pediatrics.

  6. Pediatric emergence delirium: Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H David; Mervitz, Deborah; Cravero, Joseph P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric emergence agitation/delirium (ED) is a cluster of behaviors seen in the early postanesthetic period with negative emotional consequences for families and increased utilization of healthcare resources. Many studies have looked at identifying risk factors for ED and at pharmacologic regimens to prevent ED. There are few published reports on treatment options and efficacy for established ED episodes, and essentially no data concerning current practice in the treatment of ED. We sought to elicit the experience and opinions of Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists on the incidence of ED in their practice, definitions and diagnostic criteria, preventative strategies, treatments, and their perceived efficacy. A web-based survey was sent to pediatric anesthesiologists working at academic health science centers across Canada. The participants were selected based on being members of the Canadian Pediatric Anesthesia Society (CPAS), which represents the subspecialty in Canada. All members of CPAS who had e-mail contact information available in the membership database were invited to participate. A total of 209 members out of the total of 211 fulfilled these criteria and were included in the study population. The response rate was 51% (106/209). Of respondents, 42% felt that ED was a significant problem at their institutions, with 45% giving medication before or during anesthesia to prevent the development of ED. Propofol was the most common medication given to prevent ED (68%) and to treat ED (42%). Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was considered by 38% of respondents as a technique used to prevent ED. Medications used for treatment included propofol (42%), midazolam (31%), fentanyl (10%), morphine (7%), and dexmedetomidine (5%), with 87% of respondents rating effectiveness of treatment as 'usually works quickly with one dose'. We present information on current practice patterns with respect to prophylaxis and treatment of ED among a specialized group of pediatric

  7. Pediatric wound care and management in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jennifer E; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-10-23

    Traumatic wounds and lacerations are common pediatric presenting complaints to emergency departments. Although there is a large body of literature on wound care, many emergency clinicians base management of wounds on theories and techniques that have been passed down over time. Therefore, controversial, conflicting, and unfounded recommendations are prevalent. This issue reviews evidence-based recommendations for wound care and management, including wound cleansing and irrigation, anxiolysis/sedation techniques, closure methods, and post-repair wound care. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  8. Color Perception in Pediatric Patient Room Design: American versus Korean Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Park, Jin Gyu; Park, Changbae

    2013-01-01

    This study simultaneously addresses the issues of the scarcity of information about pediatric patient color preferences, conflicting findings about the impact of culture on color preferences, and limitations of previous research instruments. Effects of culture and gender on color preferences were investigated using American and Korean pediatric patients. Much of the existing research in environmental design has focused on environments for healthy children and adults, but those findings cannot be confidently applied to environments for pediatric patients. In previous studies, the impact of culture on color preferences has been suggested, though the effects appear to vary. Moreover, the results of previous studies were typically based on perceptions of small color chips, which are different from seeing a color on wall surfaces. Previous studies also failed to control for confounding variables such as color attributes and light sources. Instead of using color chips, this study used physical model simulation to investigate environmental color preferences in real contexts. Cultural difference was found in white. Other than white, no significant cultural difference was found. Gender differences were found across both of the groups. Korean pediatric patients showed significantly higher preference scores for white than Americans did. Other than white, both groups reported blue and green as their most preferred colors; white was the least preferred. Both groups reported similar gender effects. Overall, male patients reported significantly lower preference scores for red and purple than female patients did. These results can help healthcare providers and professionals better understand appropriate colors for pediatric populations. Evidence-based design, healing environment, patients, pediatric, satisfaction.

  9. Hemodynamic variables predict outcome of emergency thoracotomy in the pediatric trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Deidre L; Dassinger, Melvin S; Bozeman, Andrew P; Porter, Austin; Maxson, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding indications for resuscitative emergency thoracotomy (ETR) in the pediatric population. We attempt to define the presenting hemodynamic parameters that predict survival for pediatric patients undergoing ETR. We reviewed all pediatric patients (age <18years), entered into the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2010, who underwent ETR within one hour of ED arrival. Mechanism of injury and hemodynamics were analyzed using Chi squared and Wilcoxon tests. 316 children (70 blunt, 240 penetrating) underwent ETR, 31% (98/316) survived to discharge. Less than 5% of patients survived when presenting SBP was ≤50mmHg or heart rate was ≤70bpm. For blunt injuries there were no survivors with a pulse ≤80bpm or SBP ≤60mmHg. When survivors were compared to nonsurvivors, blood pressure, pulse, and injury type were statistically significant when treated as independent variables and in a logistic regression model. When ETR was performed for SBP ≤50mmHg or for heart rate ≤70bpm less than 5% of patients survived. There were no survivors of blunt trauma when SBP was ≤60mmHg or pulse was ≤80bpm. This review suggests that ETR may have limited benefit in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Intubation by Paramedics in a Large Emergency Medical Services System: Process, Challenges, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prekker, Matthew E; Delgado, Fernanda; Shin, Jenny; Kwok, Heemun; Johnson, Nicholas J; Carlbom, David; Grabinsky, Andreas; Brogan, Thomas V; King, Mary A; Rea, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric intubation is a core paramedic skill in some emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The literature lacks a detailed examination of the challenges and subsequent adjustments made by paramedics when intubating children in the out-of-hospital setting. We undertake a descriptive evaluation of the process of out-of-hospital pediatric intubation, focusing on challenges, adjustments, and outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis of EMS responses between 2006 and 2012 that involved attempted intubation of children younger than 13 years by paramedics in a large, metropolitan EMS system. We calculated the incidence rate of attempted pediatric intubation with EMS and county census data. To summarize the intubation process, we linked a detailed out-of-hospital airway registry with clinical records from EMS, hospital, or autopsy encounters for each child. The main outcome measures were procedural challenges, procedural success, complications, and patient disposition. Paramedics attempted intubation in 299 cases during 6.3 years, with an incidence of 1 pediatric intubation per 2,198 EMS responses. Less than half of intubations (44%) were for patients in cardiac arrest. Two thirds of patients were intubated on the first attempt (66%), and overall success was 97%. The most prevalent challenge was body fluids obscuring the laryngeal view (33%). After a failed first intubation attempt, corrective actions taken by paramedics included changing equipment (33%), suctioning (32%), and repositioning the patient (27%). Six patients (2%) experienced peri-intubation cardiac arrest and 1 patient had an iatrogenic tracheal injury. No esophageal intubations were observed. Of patients transported to the hospital, 86% were admitted to intensive care and hospital mortality was 27%. Pediatric intubation by paramedics was performed infrequently in this EMS system. Although overall intubation success was high, a detailed evaluation of the process of intubation revealed specific

  11. Managing acute complications of sickle cell disease in pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Chao, Jennifer H; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2016-11-22

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic hematologic disease with a variety of acute, and often recurring, complications. Vaso-occlusive crisis, a unique but common presentation in sickle cell disease, can be challenging to manage. Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, occurring in more than half of patients who are hospitalized with a vaso-occlusive crisis. Uncommon diagnoses in children, such as stroke, priapism, and transient red cell aplasia, occur more frequently in patients with sickle cell disease and necessitate a degree of familiarity with the disease process and its management. Patients with sickle cell trait generally have a benign course, but are also subject to serious complications. This issue provides a current review of evidence-based management of the most common acute complications of sickle cell disease seen in pediatric patients in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  12. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolen EH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ester H Coolen,1 Jos M Draaisma,2 Sabien den Hamer,3 Jan L Loeffen2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Department of Pediatrics, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 3Department of Communication Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods: We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results: The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8 is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1. This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion: The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. Keywords

  13. Epidemiology of Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus With Fever in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of 381 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Miyama, Sahoko; Inoue, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2016-09-01

    Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus with fever is common in the emergency setting but leads to severe neurological sequelae in some patients. To explore the epidemiology of convulsive status epilepticus with fever, a retrospective cohort covering all convulsive status epilepticus cases with fever seen in the emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital were consecutively collected. Of the 381 consecutive cases gathered, 81.6% were due to prolonged febrile seizure, 6.6% to encephalopathy/encephalitis, 0.8% to meningitis, and 7.6% to epilepsy. In addition, seizures were significantly longer in encephalopathy/encephalitis cases than in prolonged febrile seizure cases (log rank test, P status epilepticus with fever in the emergency setting, and will help optimize the management of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with convulsive status epilepticus with fever. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Pediatric orthopedic injuries: evidence-based management in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Jamie; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-09-22

    Upper and lower extremity injuries are common in children, with an overall risk of fracture estimated at just under 1 in 5 children. Pediatric bone anatomy and physiology produce age specific injury patterns and conditions that are unique to children, which can make accurate diagnosis difficult for emergency clinicians. This issue reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of child-specific fractures, as well as common injuries of the upper and lower extremities. Evidence-based recommendations for management of pediatric fractures, including appropriate diagnostic studies and treatment, are also discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  15. Impact of Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak on the use of emergency medical resources in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunho; Jeong, Sikyoung; Oh, Juseok; Woo, Seon Hee; So, Byung Hak; Wee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Im, Ji Yong; Choi, Seung Pill; Park, Kyoungnam; Cho, Byul Nim Hee; Hong, Sungyoup

    2017-06-01

    Outbreaks of transmissible respiratory infection are suspected to have significant effects on the health of pediatric and geriatric patients. The objective was to assess the impact of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak on the use of emergency resources. An ecologic analysis of emergency department (ED) records between September and December 2015, was performed. Data was obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System database for Korea. All demographic and diagnostic data from patients presenting with febrile symptoms as a main complaint were collected. The data were compared to the equivalent period in the three years preceding the MERS outbreak in Korea. Following the MERS outbreak, there was an increase in overall ED visits by febrile patients and the proportion of visits by febrile patients, relative to total ED attendances. This effect was more prominent in the children under five years. The duration of the chief complaint before ED arrival and the length of ED stay were significantly increased among younger pediatric patients. Decreased body temperature on arrival was observed in younger pediatric patients. MERS outbreak appears to have had a significant effects on ED use by febrile patients. The use of emergency care services by pediatric patients makes them more vulnerable to an outbreak of a transmissable disease. An effective strategy to control emergency center visits by non-urgent febrile patients and provide proper medical services is urgently needed.

  16. Physician Confidence in Dental Trauma Treatment and the Introduction of a Dental Trauma Decision-Making Pathway for the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Matthew; Cully, Jennifer; Nietert, Paul J; Titus, M Olivia

    2018-04-24

    The objectives of this study were to (1) survey and report the awareness and confidence of pediatric emergency medicine physicians in the management of dental trauma and (2) determine the prevalence of dental trauma decision-making pathway utilization in the pediatric emergency department. A survey was distributed through e-mail to the pediatric emergency medicine discussion list via Brown University LISTSERV. The survey study included 10 questions and was multiple-choice. The survey contained questions about physician confidence and their use of a dental trauma decision-making pathway. A total of 285 individuals responded to the survey. Somewhat confident was the most common response (61%) followed by not confident (20%) and confident (19%) by respondents in treating dental trauma. Forty-one percent of respondents felt comfortable, 39% somewhat comfortable, 19% not comfortable, and 1% not sure in replanting an avulsed tooth. Only 6% of respondents reported that their pediatric emergency department always or sometimes uses a dental trauma decision-making pathway, whereas 78% of pediatric emergency departments do not. We believe that the adoption of a decision-making pathway will provide timely management, improve emergency physician comfort, and enhance outcomes for pediatric patients presenting with a dental trauma. A future multicenter review will aim to evaluate these goals based on the utilization of our dental trauma decision-making pathway.

  17. Evaluation of Pediatric Forensic Cases in Emergency Department: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Korkmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the properties of pediatric forensic cases and to discuss the precautions in order to prevent the occurrence of these forensic events. Methods: The patient files and forensic reports of pediatric (age 0-18 years forensic cases, who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital between January 01, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were retrospectively investigated. Results: A total of 421 forensic pediatric cases with a median age of 9.9±5.5 years were included in the study. Off the cases, 61% (n=257 were male and 47.3% were in 5-14 age group. The type of the events were traffic accident (50.4%, fall (18.3%, stab injuries (10.9%, intoxication (5.9%, pounding (5.0% and other incidents (9.5%. There were nine cases of suicide attempt (all of them were above 14 years of age and four cases of physical abuse (three of them were under 15 years of age. After the observation period, 79.8% of the cases were discharged from the emergency department, whilst 20.2% of cases were hospitalized in one of the clinics. Conclusion: Because most of the cases were traffic accident, this situation show us that these injuries are preventable. Prevention and intervention strategies should be developed for providing a safe environment for children.

  18. A Very General Overview of the Development Pediatric Emergency Medicine as a Specialty in the United States and Advocacy for Pediatric Healthcare; the Charge to Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron D. Waldrop

    2017-12-01

    with appropriate resources, funding, facilities and training. As such it is now inconceivable that an appropriate healthcare system in the United States could exist without easily available pediatric specific resources such as PEM. Nonetheless, pediatrics continues to compete with adult specialties for resources as adults continue to have a conscious and unconscious bias toward them because of perceived greater adult patient productivity and contribution to society as a whole. In conclusion, no matter what country, there will always be a need for committed individual and organizational advocates for the specific needs of children including the firm belief in pediatric subspecialties such as pediatric emergency medicine.

  19. Predictors of psychiatric boarding in the pediatric emergency department: implications for emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharff, Elizabeth A; Ginnis, Katherine B; Ross, Abigail M; Blood, Emily A

    2011-06-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and require psychiatric hospitalization may wait in the ED or be admitted to a medical service because there are no available inpatient psychiatric beds. These patients are psychiatric "boarders." This study describes the extent of the boarder problem in a large, urban pediatric ED, compares characteristics of psychiatrically hospitalized patients with boarders, and compares predictors of boarding in 2 ED patient cohorts. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2007-2008. The main outcome measure was placement into a psychiatric facility or boarding. Predictors of boarding in the present analysis were compared with predictors from a similar study conducted in the same ED in 1999-2000. Of 461 ED patient encounters requiring psychiatric admission, 157 (34.1%) boarded. Mean and median boarding duration for the sample were 22.7(SD, 8.08) and 21.18 hours, respectively. Univariate generalized estimating equations demonstrated increased boarding odds for patients carrying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnoses of autism, mental retardation, and/or developmental delay (P = 0.01), presenting during the weekend (P = 0.03) or presenting during months without school vacation (P = 0.02). Suicidal ideation (SI) significantly predicted boarding status, with increased likelihood of boarding for severe SI (P = 0.02). Age, race, insurance status, and homicidal ideation did not significantly predict boarding in the 2007-2008 patient cohort, although they did in the earlier study. Systemic factors and SI predicted boarding status in both cohorts. Suicidal patients continue to board. Limits within the system, including timing of ED presentation and a dearth of specialized services, still exist, elevating the risk of boarding for some populations. Implications for pediatric ED psychiatric care delivery are discussed.

  20. Update on epinephrine (adrenaline) for pediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David M

    2009-06-01

    Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a medication widely used in the pediatric emergency department. This article reviews the most recent evidence and recommendations behind the many applications of epinephrine as they apply to the care of children in emergency departments. Recent publications address epinephrine's role in the treatment of anaphylaxis, croup, asthma, bronchiolitis and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. Additionally, authors discuss epinephrine autoinjectors and the various routes of epinephrine administration. Epinephrine is the recommended first-line treatment for anaphylaxis and moderate-to-severe croup. Its role in asthma and bronchiolitis is less clear. Traditional beta2-agonists are seen as first-line therapies for moderate bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbations. Epinephrine may have a role for subsets of patients with both of these illnesses. The preferred route for parenteral treatment is intramuscular. Epinephrine is well tolerated as an adjunct to local anesthesia when used in digital blocks in digits with normal perfusion. Although autoinjectors allow faster access to epinephrine for anaphylaxis, there are many issues surrounding their use and indications.

  1. Child abuse training and knowledge: a national survey of emergency medicine, family medicine, and pediatric residents and program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Suzanne P; Heisler, Kurt W; Paulson, James F; Youmans, Eren

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, comfort, and training related to the medical management of child abuse among pediatrics, emergency medicine, and family medicine residents. Surveys were administered to program directors and third-year residents at 67 residency programs. The resident survey included a 24-item quiz to assess knowledge regarding the medical management of physical and sexual child abuse. Sites were solicited from members of a network of child abuse physicians practicing at institutions with residency programs. Analyzable surveys were received from 53 program directors and 462 residents. Compared with emergency medicine and family medicine programs, pediatric programs were significantly larger and more likely to have a medical provider specializing in child abuse pediatrics, have faculty primarily responsible for child abuse training, use a written curriculum for child abuse training, and offer an elective rotation in child abuse. Exposure to child abuse training and abused patients was highest for pediatric residents and lowest for family medicine residents. Comfort with managing child abuse cases was lowest among family medicine residents. On the knowledge quiz, pediatric residents significantly outperformed emergency medicine and family medicine residents. Residents with high knowledge scores were significantly more likely to come from larger programs and programs that had a center, provider, or interdisciplinary team that specialized in child abuse pediatrics; had a physician on faculty responsible for child abuse training; used a written curriculum for child abuse training; and had a required rotation in child abuse pediatrics. By analyzing the relationship between program characteristics and residents' child abuse knowledge, we found that pediatric programs provide far more training and resources for child abuse education than emergency medicine and family medicine programs. As leaders, pediatricians must

  2. Testing and Treatment After Adolescent Sexual Assault in Pediatric Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Scribano, Philip V; French, Benjamin; Wood, Joanne N

    2015-12-01

    To examine rates of recommended of testing and prophylaxis for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pregnancy in adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault across pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and to determine whether specialized sexual assault pathways and teams are associated with performance of recommended testing and prophylaxis. In this retrospective study of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents diagnosed with sexual assault at 38 EDs in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database from 2004 to 2013, information regarding routine practice for sexual assault evaluations and presence and year of initiation of specialized ED sexual assault pathways and teams was collected via survey. We examined across-hospital variation and identified patient- and hospital-level factors associated with testing and prophylaxis using logistic regression models, accounting for clustering by hospital. Among 12,687 included cases, 93% were female, 79% were <16 years old, 34% were non-Hispanic white, 38% were non-Hispanic black, 21% were Hispanic, and 52% had public insurance. Overall, 44% of adolescents received recommended testing (chlamydia, gonorrhea, pregnancy) and 35% received recommended prophylaxis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, emergency contraception). Across EDs, unadjusted rates of testing ranged from 6% to 89%, and prophylaxis ranged from 0% to 57%. Presence of a specialized sexual assault pathway was associated with increased rates of prophylaxis even after adjusting for case-mix and temporal trends (odds ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.86). Evaluation and treatment of adolescent sexual assault victims varied widely across pediatric EDs. Adolescents cared for in EDs with specialized sexual assault pathways were more likely to receive recommended prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Impact of boarding pediatric psychiatric patients on a medical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudius, Ilene; Donofrio, J Joelle; Lam, Chun Nok; Santillanes, Genevieve

    2014-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders account for an increasing number of pediatric hospitalizations. Due to lack of psychiatric beds, patients on involuntary psychiatric holds may be admitted to medical units. Our objectives were to evaluate the rate of admission of psychiatric patients to a medical unit, psychiatric care provided, and estimated cost of care. The study involved retrospective chart review of all patients on involuntary psychiatric holds presenting to 1 pediatric emergency department from July 2009 to December 2010. We determined the rate of admission to a medical unit, the rate of counseling or psychiatric medication administration, and the estimated cost of nonmedical admissions (boarding) of patients on the medical unit. A total of 555 (50.1%) of 1108 patients on involuntary psychiatric holds were admitted to the pediatric medical unit. The majority (523 [94.2%]) were admitted for boarding because no psychiatric bed was available. Thirty-two (6.1%) patients admitted for isolated psychiatric reasons had counseling documented, and 105 (20.1%) received psychiatric medications. Patients admitted to an affiliated psychiatric hospital were significantly more likely to receive counseling and medications. Psychiatric patients were boarded in medical beds for 1169 days at an estimated cost of $2 232 790 or $4269 per patient over the 18-month period. We found high admission rates of patients on involuntary psychiatric holds to a pediatric medical unit with little psychiatric treatment in 1 hospital. Further research in other centers is required to determine the extent of the issue. Future studies of longer term outcomes (including readmission rates and assessments of functioning) are needed.

  4. Apneic oxygenation reduces hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Adam A; Hanson, Holly R; Murphy, Shelley L; Mercurio, Danielle; Sheedy, Craig A; Arnold, Donald H

    2018-04-18

    Apneic oxygenation (AO) has been evaluated in adult patients as a means of reducing hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation (ETI). While less studied in pediatric patients, its practice has been largely adopted. Determine association between AO and hypoxemia in pediatric patients undergoing ETI. Observational study at an urban, tertiary children's hospital emergency department. Pediatric patients undergoing ETI were examined during eras without (January 2011-June 2011) and with (August 2014-March 2017) apneic oxygenation. The primary outcome was hypoxemia, defined as pulse oximetry (SpO 2 ) < 90%. The χ 2 and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests examined differences between cohorts. Multivariable regression models examined adjusted associations between covariates and hypoxemia. 149 patients were included. Cohorts were similar except for greater incidence of altered mental status in those receiving AO (26% vs. 7%, p = 0.03). Nearly 50% of the pre-AO cohort experienced hypoxemia during ETI, versus <25% in the AO cohort. Median [IQR] lowest SpO 2 during ETI was 93 (69, 99) for pre-AO and 100 [95, 100] for the AO cohort (p < 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, hypoxemia during ETI was associated with AO (aOR 0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.8), increased age (for 1 year, aOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0), lowest SpO 2 before ETI (for 1% increase, aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-1.0), and each additional intubation attempt (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.2). Apneic oxygenation is an easily-applied intervention associated with decreases in hypoxemia during pediatric ETI. Nearly 50% of children not receiving AO experienced hypoxemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Pediatric Patients Performed by Emergency Medicine Residents versus Radiology Residents

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    Farhad Heydari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST has been shown to be useful to detect intraperitoneal free fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT. Objective: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of FAST performed by emergency medicine residents (EMRs and radiology residents (RRs in pediatric patients with BAT. Method: In this prospective study, pediatric patients with BAT and high energy trauma who were referred to the emergency department (ED at Al-Zahra and Kashani hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, were evaluated using FAST, first by EMRs and subsequently by RRs. The reports provided by the two resident groups were compared with the final outcome based on the results of the abdominal computed tomography (CT, operative exploration, and clinical observation. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 6.75 ± 3.2 years were enrolled in the study between January 2013 and May 2014. These patients were evaluated using FAST, first by EMRs and subsequently by RRs. A good diagnostic agreement was noted between the results of the FAST scans performed by EMRs and RRs (κ = 0.865, P < 0.001. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy in evaluating the intraperitoneal free fluid were 72.2%, 85.5%, 52%, 93.3%, and 83.2%, respectively, when FAST was performed by EMRs and 72.2%, 86.7%, 54.2%, 93.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, when FAST was performed by RRs. No significant differences were seen between the EMR- and RR-performed FAST. Conclusion: In this study, FAST performed by EMRs had acceptable diagnostic value, similar to that performed by RRs, in patients with BAT.

  6. Intravenous regional anaesthesia (Bier's block) for pediatric forearm fractures in a pediatric emergency department-Experience from 2003 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ivan S Y; Chong, S L; Ong, Gene Y K

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy (length of stay in the emergency department and failure rate of Bier's block) and safety profile (death and major complications) of Bier's block in its use for manipulation and reduction of paediatric forearm fractures. This is a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients in KKWomen's and Children's Hospital Children's Emergency Department with forearm fractures between Jan 2003 and Dec 2014 who underwent manipulation and reduction using Bier's block. Demographic data, time from registration to discharge, major complications and success rate were collated in a standardized data collection form. A subanalysis of the Bier's block group from 2009 to 2014 was performed and compared to a corresponding data set of paediatric patients who underwent manipulation and reduction of forearm fractures using ketamine for procedural sedation from 2009 to 2014. 1781 cases of paediatric forearm fractures were analysed. The mean age of patients in the Bier's block group was 12.0 years (range 5.5-17.8 years old). Of all patients undergoing Bier's block, 1471 out of 1781 patients were male (82.7%). The mean length of stay (LOS) in the department was 168±72min, measured from time of registration till departure. From our subanalysis of data from 2009 to 2014, the mean LOS for the Bier's block group was shorter - 170min compared to 238min for the ketamine group (P block which required a repeat procedural sedation using ketamine. 96% of patients who underwent Bier's block were discharged with an outpatient orthopaedic appointment. There were no deaths or major complications identified in our study. Bier's block is a safe technique for reduction of fractures when used in the appropriate population and fracture types, with a low failure rate and no major complications including death. Compared to the ketamine group, it has a shorter length of stay in the emergency department. We recommend the adoption of this practice for manipulation and reduction of

  7. Interdisciplinary development and implementation of communication checklist for postoperative management of pediatric airway patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang W; Maturo, Stephen; Dwyer, Danielle; Monash, Bradley; Yager, Phoebe H; Zanger, Kerstin; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe their multidisciplinary experience in applying the Institute of Health Improvement methodology to develop a protocol and checklist to reduce communication error during transfer of care for postoperative pediatric surgical airway patients. Preliminary outcome data following implementation of the protocol and checklist are also presented. Prospective study from July 1, 2009, to February 1, 2011. Tertiary care center. Subjects. One hundred twenty-six pediatric airway patients who required coordinated care between Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Massachusetts General Hospital. Two sentinel events involving airway emergencies demonstrated a critical need for a standardized, comprehensive instrument that would ensure safe transfer of care. After development and implementation of the protocol and checklist, an initial pilot period on the first set of 9 pediatric airway patients was reassessed. Subsequent prospective 11-month follow-up data of 93 pediatric airway patients were collected and analyzed. A multidisciplinary pediatric team developed and implemented a formalized, postoperative checklist and transfer protocol. After implementation of the checklist and transfer protocol, prospective analysis showed no adverse events from miscommunication during transfer of care over the subsequent 11-month period involving 93 pediatric airway patients. There has been very little written in the quality and safety patient literature about coordinating effective transfer of care between the pediatric surgical and medical subspecialty realms. After design and implementation of a simple, electronically based transfer-of-care checklist and protocol, the number of postsurgical pediatric airway information transfer and communication errors decreased significantly.

  8. US Emergency Department Trends in Imaging for Pediatric Nontraumatic Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Lauren M; Goyal, Monika K; Badolato, Gia M; Chamberlain, James M; Cohen, Joanna S

    2017-10-01

    To describe national emergency department (ED) trends in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound imaging for the evaluation of pediatric nontraumatic abdominal pain from 2007 through 2014. We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to measure trends in CT and ultrasound use among children with nontraumatic abdominal pain. We performed multivariable logistic regression to measure the strength of the association of ED type (pediatric versus general ED) with CT and ultrasound use adjusting for potential confounding variables. Of an estimated 21.1 million ED visits for nontraumatic abdominal pain, 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2%-16.0%) had CT imaging only, 10.9% (95% CI, 9.7%-12.1%) had ultrasound imaging only, and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.4%) received both CT and ultrasound. The overall use of CT and ultrasound did not significantly change over the study period ( P trend .63 and .90, respectively). CT use was lower among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17-0.69). Conversely, ultrasound use was higher among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 2.14; 95% CI, 1.29-3.55). CT imaging for pediatric patients with nontraumatic abdominal pain has plateaued since 2007 after the steady increase seen in the preceding 9 years. Among this population, an increased likelihood of CT imaging was demonstrated in general EDs compared with pediatric EDs, in which there was a higher likelihood of ultrasound imaging. Dissemination of pediatric-focused radiology protocols to general EDs may help optimize radiation exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Pediatric emergency in Brazil: the consolidation of an area in the pediatric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson P. Piva

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric emergency training will be a powerful stimulus to attract talented individuals, to establish them in this key area of medicine, where they can exercise their leadership by promoting care qualification, research, and teaching, as well as acting decisively in their management.

  10. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.  Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/19/2014.

  11. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use.

  12. Opportunistic Screening for Exposure to Bullying in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marlene; Menoch, Margaret; Chen, Charity

    2017-01-01

    To assess opportunistic screening for exposure to bullying in the pediatric emergency department (ED), an anonymous survey inquiring about exposure to physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying behaviors was given to ED patients 5 to 18 years old. The survey asked about being the recipient, perpetrator, and/or witness of bullying; the frequency of exposure; liking school; missing school; and presenting complaint. Either the child or parent could complete the survey. A total of 909 surveys were analyzed. Exposure was 78.7%. A greater proportion of females reported being victims and witnesses. Youth who reported being both victims and witnesses represented the largest group, with witness-only the second largest. Parents reported less cyber-bullying and witness status to all types of bullying. For children who did not like school, there was a significant difference in exposure versus nonexposure. There was no association with presenting complaint. Opportunistic screening for bullying exposure in pediatric ED patients warrants consideration as it may increase detection of preclinical status and clinical sequelae.

  13. Screening for iron deficiency anemia in at risk children in the pediatric emergency department: a survey of Canadian pediatric emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Roberta; Matsui, Doreen; Lynch, Tim

    2007-05-01

    To determine the attitudes and reported practices of physicians regarding screening for iron deficiency anemia in at-risk children in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) across Canada. A standardized survey was mailed to 183 PED physicians at 10 tertiary care PED across Canada. The practices and attitudes regarding screening for iron deficiency anemia were collected via a questionnaire consisting of single select closed-ended items and items which required ranking in order of importance. Sixty-one percent (111/183) of physicians responded to the survey. Ninety-six percent of respondents do not routinely screen for iron deficiency anemia. One third of respondents believed that screening for iron deficiency anemia in the PED is possible. The remaining stated lack of time, difficulty with follow-up, it not being an emergent issue and cost as prohibitive factors. One third of participants stated that 21% to 40% of the pediatric patients seen in their PED did not have a primary care physician. The main considerations in deciding on whom to perform venipuncture were based on dietary history and physical examination with a history of consumption of milk greater than 24 ounces per day (94%) and conjunctival or skin pallor (97%, 94%, respectively) selected as the most important items. The results of this study indicate that Canadian PED physicians are not routinely screening for iron deficiency anemia, although they demonstrate knowledge of the risk factors for iron deficiency anemia and recognize the importance of diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term morbidity.

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the HEADS-ED: A Rapid Screening Tool for Pediatric Patients in Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Kate; Curran, Janet; Racek, Jakub; Cloutier, Paula; Cappelli, Mario

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the HEADS-ED, a screening tool appropriate for use in the emergency department (ED) that facilitates standardized assessments, discharge planning, charting, and linking pediatric mental health patients to appropriate community resources. A qualitative theory-based design was used to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool. Focus groups were conducted with participants recruited from 6 different ED settings across 2 provinces (Ontario and Nova Scotia). The Theoretical Domains Framework was used as a conceptual framework to guide data collection and to identify themes from focus group discussions. The following themes spanning 12 domains were identified as reflective of participants' beliefs about the barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool: knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, social professional role and identity, optimism, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, environmental context and resources, social influences, emotion, behavioral regulation and memory, and attention and decision process. The HEADS-ED has the potential to address the need for better discharge planning, complete charting, and standardized assessments for the increasing population of pediatric mental health patients who present to EDs. This study has identified potential barriers and facilitators, which should be considered when developing an implementation plan for adopting the HEADS-ED tool into practice within EDs.

  15. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  16. Family presence during trauma activations and medical resuscitations in a pediatric emergency department: an evidence-based practice project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Jennifer; O'Connell, Karen; Guzzetta, Cathie E; Edens, Jacki Curreri; Atabaki, Shireen; Mecherikunnel, Anne; Brown, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    The existing family presence literature indicates that implementation of a family presence policy can result in positive outcomes. The purpose of our evidence-based practice project was to evaluate a family presence intervention using the 6 A's of the evidence cycle (ask, acquire, appraise, apply, analyze, and adopt/adapt). For step 1 (ask), we propose the following question: Is it feasible to implement a family presence intervention during trauma team activations and medical resuscitations in a pediatric emergency department using national guidelines to ensure appropriate family member behavior and uninterrupted patient care? Regarding steps 2 through 4 (acquire, appraise, and apply), our demonstration project was conducted in a pediatric emergency department during the implementation of a new family presence policy. Our family presence intervention incorporated current appraisal of literature and national guidelines including family screening, family preparation, and use of family presence facilitators. We evaluated whether it was feasible to implement the steps of our intervention and whether the intervention was safe in ensuring uninterrupted patient care. With regard to step 5 (analyze), family presence was evaluated in 106 events, in which 96 families were deemed appropriate and chose to be present. Nearly all families (96%) were screened before entering the room, and all were deemed appropriate candidates. Facilitators guided the family during all events. One family presence event was terminated. In all cases patient care was not interrupted. Regarding step 6 (adopt/adapt), our findings document the feasibility of implementing a family presence intervention in a pediatric emergency department while ensuring uninterrupted patient care. We have adopted family presence as a standard practice. This project can serve as the prototype for others. Copyright (c) 2010 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergency radiology of the pediatric chest: What every radiologist should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiology plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of thoracic disease seen in the pediatric emergency room. The history and physical examination of a small infant or an ill child are less reliable than in the adult. Physical examination of the chest in an uncooperative infant is difficult or nonspecific at best and impossible at worst. This does not, however, negate the importance of an adequate history and physical examination before radiologic evaluation. Numerous chest abnormalities in children have a similar history and similar manifestations or physical examination despite specific radiolic features. Conversely, a nonspecific radiologic appearance may become diagnostic when interpreted in the proper clinical context. This paper presents an overview of emergency radiology of pediatric chest disease. The emphasis is on practical matters: acute pediatric chest conditions that are commonly seen in the emergency room, outpatient clinic, or private office are illustrated and discussed. Practical aspects of imaging techniques, interpretative approach, pulmonary infection, asthma, airway foreign body, hydrocarbon aspiration, and near-drowning are emphasized

  18. Evaluation and Impact of the 'Advanced Pediatric Life Support' Course in the Care of Pediatric Emergencies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Javier; Luaces-Cubells, Carlos; Mintegi, Santiago; Manrique Martínez, Ignacio; De la Torre Espí, Mercedes; Miguez Navarro, Concepción; Vazquez López, Paula; Campos Calleja, Carmen; Ferres Serrat, Francesc; Alonso Salas, María Teresa; González Del Rey, Javier

    2017-06-12

    The Advanced Pediatric Life Support (APLS) course was introduced in the training of professionals who care for pediatric emergencies in Spain in 2005. To analyze the impact of the APLS course in the current clinical practice in Spanish PEDs. The directors of APLS courses were asked about information regarding the courses given to date, especially on the results of the satisfaction survey completed by students at the end of the course. Furthermore, in December 2014, a survey was conducted through Google Drive, specifically asking APLS students about the usefulness of the APLS course in their current clinical practice. In the last 10 years since the APLS course was introduced in Spain, there have been 40 courses in 6 different venues. They involved a total of 1520 students, of whom 958 (63.0%) felt that the course was very useful for daily clinical practice. The survey was sent to 1,200 students and answered by 402 (33.5%). The respondent group most represented was pediatricians, 223 (55.5%), of whom 61 (27.3%) were pediatric emergency physicians, followed by pediatric residents, 122 (30.3%). One hundred three (25.6%) respondents had more than 10 years of professional practice and 291 (72.4%) had completed the course in the preceding four years. Three hundred forty-one of the respondents (84.9%: 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.9-87.9) said that they always use the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) and 131 (32.6%: 95% CI, 28-37.1) reported that their organization has introduced this tool into their protocols. Two hundred twenty-three (55.5%: 95% CI, 50.6-60.3) believed that management of critically ill patients has improved, 328 (81.6%: 95% CI, 77.8-85.3) said that the PAT and the systematic approach, ABCDE, help to establish a diagnosis, and 315 (78.4%: 95% CI, 74.3-82.4) reported that the overall number of treatments has increased but that these treatments are beneficial for patients. Hospital professionals (191; 47.5%) include the PAT in their protocols more

  19. Prehospital Care for the Adult and Pediatric Seizure Patient: Current Evidence Based Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Silverman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS agencies in California. Methods: We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. We analyzed the type and route of medication administered, number of additional rescue doses permitted, and requirements for glucose testing prior to medication. The treatment for eclampsia and seizures in pediatric patients were analyzed separately. Results: Protocols across EMS Agencies in California varied widely. We identified multiple drugs, dosages, routes of administration, re-dosing instructions, and requirement for blood glucose testing prior to medication delivery. Blood glucose testing prior to benzodiazepine administration is required by 61% (20/33 of agencies for adult patients and 76% (25/33 for pediatric patients. All agencies have protocols for giving intramuscular benzodiazepines and 76% (25/33 have protocols for intranasal benzodiazepines. Intramuscular midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult dose, 2 to 8 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intranasal midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult or pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intravenous/intrasosseous midazolam dosages ranged from 1 to 6 mg per single adult dose, 1 to 5 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Eclampsia is specifically addressed by 85% (28/33 of agencies. Forty-two percent (14/33 have a protocol for administering magnesium sulfate, with intravenous dosages ranging from 2 to 6 mg, and 58% (19/33 allow benzodiazepines to be

  20. Anaphylaxis in pediatric population: A 1-year survey on the Medical Emergency Service in Liguria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, Silvano; Barberi, Salvatore; Bernardo, Luca; Ferrara, Francesca; Furgani, Andrea; Tosca, Maria Angela; Schiavetti, Irene; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized, or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The diagnosis is mainly based on a clinical ground. This study aimed to evaluate the records of both phone calls and medical visits for anaphylaxis managed by the Liguria Medical Emergency Service (MES) in a pediatric population, occurred during 2013. The phone call is managed at each center and classified according to a level of care intensity and a presumed level of criticality, according to established criteria. Criticality is then re-evaluated (detected criticality) at the end of the medical visit following the same score adding the black code for patients who died. Most of the phone calls (86) to the MES were recorded in summer (40.7%), followed by spring (26.7%), autumn (16.3%), and winter (16.3%). Forty-eight patients (55.8%) were male. Anaphylaxis was confirmed in about half of patients. In addition, almost all subjects (97.7%) were referred to the Emergency Room. In conclusion, the present study shows that anaphylaxis represents a serious and relevant medical problem in the pediatric population and should be ever carefully managed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Myxedema coma: A case report of pediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueniu; Qiu, Wenjuan; Deng, Mengyan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    Myxedema coma (MC) is extremely rare but lethal in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism leading to altered mental status and hypothermia. But there is no clinical guideline for such cases. A 6-year-old Chinese girl presented with coma and hypothermia preceded by pneumonia. Her lab results were: free thyroxin (T4) 4.18 pmol/L and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) > 150 μIU/mL with extremely elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin. Pneumonia, mild pleural, and pericardial effusion were seen on computed tomographic (CT) scan. MC, autoimmune hypothyroidism, pneumonia and sepsis were diagnosed. Gastric levothyroxine, intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics were administered. Her consciousness was restored and temperature returned to normal 2 days after starting levothyroxine. She was discharged two weeks later. MC is rare but may be the initial presentation in pediatric patients with prolonged untreated hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis could cause hypothyroidism in children. MC should be suspected in pediatric patients with altered mental status, hypothermia and cardiovascular instability. Treatment with 100 mg/m of gastric levothyroxine is an option for pediatric patients with MC.

  2. Pediatric сlinic of Odessa National Medical University: the quality of emergency medical care for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Starets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to discuss the issue of improving the quality of emergency care for children with the most common diseases. Materials and methods. The quality of medical care includes 6 characteristics: 1 effectiveness — evidencebased health care results in improved health outcomes; 2 relevancy: health care is delivered in a manner that maximizes resource use and avoids wasting and provided in a setting where skills and resources are appropriate to medical need; 3 accessibility: health care is provided timely, reasonable and affordable; 4 acceptability/patient-centered: health care provided takes into account the preferences and aspirations of individual service users; 5 equity: health care provided does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics or socioeconomic status; 6 safety: health care provided minimizes risks and harm to service users and providers. Results. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU started working in the Pediatric Clinic of the Odessa National Medical University on February 1, 2017. The main task of ICU is the treatment of children with emergency conditions (who needs monitoring of breathing and cardiac activity, oxygen therapy, large-volume rehydration therapy, etc. The patients admit to the ICU according the results of triage. Triage is the process of rapidly screening of sick children soon after their addmission to hospital and in ICU, in order to identify those with emergency signs — obstruc-ted breathing or severe respiratory distress; central cyanosis; signs of shock; signs of severe dehydration; those with priority signs — very high temperature, severe pallor, respiratory distress etc. The local guidelines for the most common diseases in children have been developed in the Pediatric Clinic. These local guidelines are based on: 1 modern national guidelines; 2 WHO: Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common childhood illnesses (2013; clinical

  3. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  4. Long-acting reversible contraception in the pediatric emergency department: clinical implications and common challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Dorfman, David H; Forcier, Michelle M

    2015-04-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is recommended as first-line contraception for adolescents and young adults. As the use of LARC increases, pediatric emergency medicine clinicians should be able to recognize different types of LARC and address their common adverse effects, adverse reactions, and complications. This continuing medical education activity provides an overview of LARC and will assist clinicians in the evaluation and management of patients with LARC-associated complaints.

  5. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients: Consensus Recommendations from a Children’s Oncology Group Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P.; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M.; Bondurant, Patricia G.; Cohn, Susan L.; Dobrozsi, Sarah K.; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C.; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R.; Rodgers, Cheryl C.; Ruccione, Kathleen S.; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children’s Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology. PMID:27385664

  6. Development and feasibility testing of the Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Taylor, Alexandra; Chorney, Jill; Porter, Stephen; Murphy, Andrea; MacPhee, Shannon; Bishop, Andrea; Haworth, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Discharge communication is an important aspect of high-quality emergency care. This study addresses the gap in knowledge on how to describe discharge communication in a paediatric emergency department (ED). The objective of this feasibility study was to develop and test a coding scheme to characterize discharge communication between health-care providers (HCPs) and caregivers who visit the ED with their children. The Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme (PEDICS) and coding manual were developed following a review of the literature and an iterative refinement process involving HCP observations, inter-rater assessments and team consensus. The coding scheme was pilot-tested through observations of HCPs across a range of shifts in one urban paediatric ED. Overall, 329 patient observations were carried out across 50 observational shifts. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 16% of the observations. The final version of the PEDICS contained 41 communication elements. Kappa scores were greater than .60 for the majority of communication elements. The most frequently observed communication elements were under the Introduction node and the least frequently observed were under the Social Concerns node. HCPs initiated the majority of the communication. Pediatric Emergency Discharge Interaction Coding Scheme addresses an important gap in the discharge communication literature. The tool is useful for mapping patterns of discharge communication between HCPs and caregivers. Results from our pilot test identified deficits in specific areas of discharge communication that could impact adherence to discharge instructions. The PEDICS would benefit from further testing with a different sample of HCPs. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cardiomyopathy in the pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a group of myocardial diseases with complex taxonomies. Cardiomyopathy can occur in children at any age, and it is a common cause of heart failure and heart transplantation in children. The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy is increasing with time. They may be associated with variable comorbidities, which are most often arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden death. Medical imaging technologies, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear cardiology, are helpful in reaching a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, endomyocardial biopsy is the final diagnostic method of diagnosis. Patients warrant surgical operations, such as palliative operations, bridging operations, ventricular septal maneuvers, and heart transplantation, if pharmaceutical therapies are ineffective. Individual therapeutic regimens due to pediatric characteristics, genetic factors, and pathogenesis may improve the effects of treatment and patients' survival. Key Words: cardiomyopathy, classification, pediatrics

  8. Identifying Local Hotspots of Pediatric Chronic Diseases Using Emergency Department Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C.; Yi, Stella S.; Fong, Hiu-Fai; Athens, Jessica K.; Ravenell, Joseph E.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wall, Stephen P.; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use novel geographic methods and large-scale claims data to identify the local distribution of pediatric chronic diseases in New York City. Methods Using a 2009 all-payer emergency claims database, we identified the proportion of unique children aged 0 to 17 with diagnosis codes for specific medical and psychiatric conditions. As a proof of concept, we compared these prevalence estimates to traditional health surveys and registry data using the most geographically granular data available. In addition, we used home addresses to map local variation in pediatric disease burden. Results We identified 549,547 New York City children who visited an emergency department at least once in 2009. Though our sample included more publicly insured and uninsured children, we found moderate to strong correlations of prevalence estimates when compared to health surveys and registry data at pre-specified geographic levels. Strongest correlations were found for asthma and mental health conditions by county among younger children (0.88, p=0.05 and 0.99, pdisease prevalence with higher geographic resolution. More studies are needed to investigate limitations of these methods and assess reliability of local disease estimates. What’s New This study demonstrated how emergency department surveillance may improve estimates of pediatric disease prevalence with higher geographic resolution. We identified 29% of New York City children with a single year of data and identified local hotspots of pediatric chronic diseases. PMID:28385326

  9. Outcome of Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatients With Fever and Central Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Thomas; Blatt, Julie; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Jhaveri, Ravi; Jobson, Meghan; Freeman, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Although management algorithms for fever and central venous catheters (CVCs) have been implemented for pediatric oncology (PO) patients, management of pediatric outpatients with noncancer diagnoses and CVCs lacks clear protocols. The aim of the study was to assess outcomes for pediatric outpatients with gastrointestinal disorders presenting with fever and CVC. Using a microbiology database and emergency department records, we created a database of pediatric gastroenterology (PGI) and PO outpatients with fever and a CVC who presented to our emergency department or clinics from January 2010 through December 2012. We excluded patients who had severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, gastroenterology outpatients with fever and a CVC have a high prevalence of bloodstream infection. Algorithms for management need to be subspecialty specific. Pediatric gastroenterology patients presenting to emergency departments or clinics with fever and CVC require admission for monitoring and management.

  10. Retrospective Survey of Biopsied Oral Lesions in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lin Wang

    2009-11-01

    Conclusion: The mucous extravasation phenomenon, odontoma, or dentigerous cyst was the most common inflammatory and reactive, neoplastic, or cystic lesion, respectively, in pediatric patients. The relatively high incidence of inflammatory and reactive lesions in pediatric patients implies the importance of stringent oral hygiene in children. Most oral neoplastic lesions in pediatric patients are benign, and malignant oral tumors rarely occur in pediatric patients.

  11. [Pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium after elective ambulatory surgery: etiology, risk factors and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobov, Alik; Todris, Liat; Berman, Yakov; Rosenberg-Gilad, Zipi; Schlaeffer, Pnina; Kenett, Ron; Ben-Jacob, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-04-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a common problem among children and adults recovering from general anesthesia after surgery. Its symptoms include psychomotor agitation, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior. The phenomenon, which is most probably an adverse effect of general anesthesia agents, harms the recovery process and endangers the physical safety of patients and their health. Ranging between 10% and 80%, the exact prevalence of ED is unknown, and the risk factors of the phenomenon are unclear. The aim of the current retrospective study was to determine the prevalence rate of ED in 3947 children recovering from general anesthesia after short elective ambulatory surgery, and to map the influence of various risk factors on this phenomenon. Data were collected using electronic medical records. ED severity was assessed using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale. Results showed the prevalence of ED among children. ED was significantly correlated with patients' age, type of surgery and premedication. ED was not correlated with severity of pain, type of anesthesia or with patients' sex.

  12. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  13. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Corticosteroid use in management of pediatric emergency conditions [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Asalim; Greenfield, Tyler; Cantor, Richard M; Wilson, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  15. Age-associated impact on presentation and outcome for penetrating thoracic trauma in the adult and pediatric patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollberg, Nathan M; Tabachnick, Deborah; Lin, Fang-Ju; Merlotti, Gary J; Varghese, Thomas K; Arensman, Robert M; Massad, Malek G

    2014-02-01

    Studies reporting on penetrating thoracic trauma in the pediatric population have been limited by small numbers and implied differences with the adult population. Our objectives were to report on a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma and to determine age-related impacts on management and outcome through comparison with an adult cohort. A Level I trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2012. All patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, admission physiology, and outcome were recorded. Patients were compared, and outcomes were analyzed based on age at presentation, with patients 17 years or younger defining our pediatric cohort. A total of 1,423 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma were admitted during the study period. Two hundred twenty patients (15.5%) were pediatric, with 205 being adolescents (13-17 years) and 15 being children (≤ 12 years). In terms of management for the pediatric population, tube thoracostomy alone was needed in 32.7% (72 of 220), whereas operative thoracic exploration was performed in 20.0% (44 of 220). Overall mortality was 13.6% (30 of 220). There was no significant difference between the pediatric and adult population with regard to injury mechanism or severity, need for therapeutic intervention, operative approach, use of emergency department thoracotomy, or outcome. Stepwise logistic regression failed to identify age as a predictor for the need for either therapeutic intervention or mortality between the two age groups as a whole. However, subgroup analysis revealed that being 12 years or younger (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-11.4) was an independent predictor of mortality. Management of traumatic penetrating thoracic injuries in terms of the need for therapeutic intervention and operative approach was similar between the adult and pediatric populations. Mortality from

  16. Fertility Preservation for Pediatric Patients: Current State and Future Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Finlayson, Courtney; Rowell, Erin E; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Lockart, Barbara; Orwig, Kyle E; Brannigan, Robert E; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of pediatric fertility preservation. Topics covered include the patient populations who could benefit, the current state of fertility preservation options and research, and considerations related to ethics and program development. A broad Embase® and PubMed® search was performed to identify publications discussing investigational, clinical, ethical and health care delivery issues related to pediatric fertility preservation. Relevant publications were reviewed and summarized. Populations who could benefit from fertility preservation in childhood/adolescence include oncology patients, patients with nononcologic conditions requiring gonadotoxic chemotherapy, patients with differences/disorders of sex development and transgender individuals. Peripubertal and postpubertal fertility preservation options are well established and include cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos or sperm. Prepubertal fertility preservation is experimental. Multiple lines of active research aim to develop technologies that will enable immature eggs and sperm to be matured and used to produce a biological child in the future. Ethical challenges include the need for parental proxy decision making and the fact that fertility preservation procedures can be considered not medically necessary. Successful multidisciplinary fertility preservation care teams emphasize partnerships with adult colleagues, prioritize timely consultations and use standardized referral processes. Some aspects of fertility preservation are not covered by insurance and out-of-pocket costs can be prohibitive. Pediatric fertility preservation is an emerging, evolving field. Fertility preservation options for prepubertal patients with fertility altering conditions such as cancer and differences/disorders of sex development are currently limited. However, multiple lines of active research hold promise for the future. Key considerations include establishing a multidisciplinary team to provide

  17. Pediatric Supportive Care (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric supportive care is an important aspect of cancer care as children and adolescents face unique challenges compared to adult patients. Learn more about supportive care for pediatric patients during and after treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Pediatric emergency department census during major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tommy Y; Barcega, Besh B; Denmark, T Kent

    2012-11-01

    Our study attempted to evaluate the effects of major sporting events on the census of a pediatric emergency department (ED) in the United States specifically related to the National Football League Super Bowl, National Basketball Association (NBA) Finals, and Major League Baseball World Series. We performed a retrospective data analysis of our pediatric ED census on the number of visits during major sporting events over a 5-year period. Data during the same period 1 week after the major sporting event were collected for comparison as the control. We evaluated the medians of 2-hour increments around the event start time. Subgroup analysis was performed for games involving the local sporting teams. Our results showed no significant difference in ED census during the sporting events, except in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. Subgroup analysis of the Los Angeles Lakers showed the same significant findings in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. No major difference in pediatric ED census is observed during the most major sporting events in the United States.

  19. "A day in my life" photography project: the silent voice of pediatric bone marrow transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Carrie L; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    A photovoice project was conducted with pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients to examine their coping skills and interpretation of their experience during a BMT, especially when hospitalized. We also wanted to determine how photovoice could be used within a pediatric BMT unit. Sixteen children (ages 4-14) and 2 young adults (ages 22 and 25) from a pediatric BMT unit participated in the project. Six BMT outpatients participated in the data analysis and evaluation phase. Fourteen clinical staff evaluated the impact of the project on their practice. Three primary themes emerged from the pre- and post-BMT photos, accompanying detailed notes, and BMT outpatient analysis of the photos: (a) BMT is "torture," (b) BMT is "time slipping away," and (c) BMT requires normalization, comfort, distraction, and support. BMT patients and staff concluded that photovoice helped express and release emotions regarding the challenges of BMT. BMT staff noted that the results of this project reminded them of the importance of being patient-centered and mindful of patient experience and the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  20. Antidote use in a pediatric emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, L; Almario Hernández, AF; Escuredo Argullós, L; Mação, P; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Poisoning is an infrequent cause of consultation in a pediatric emergency department (PED), but it can be potentially serious. Pediatricians should know how to use the available antidotes properly. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the use of antidotes in a PED and to assess the suitability of their indications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of antidote use in a PED between January 2008 and June 2012. Inclusion criteria were age younger than 18 years and cons...

  1. Treatment of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elizabeth L.; Wheless, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients. PMID:26380568

  2. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  3. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  4. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases.

  5. Practical considerations in radionuclide imaging of pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A certain proportion of the patients encountered in the practice of nuclear medicine will fall within the pediatric age group. The pediatric age range is usually defined as extending from birth to 18 years. Therefore, the specialist in nuclear medicine may have to deal with pediatric patients weighing as little as 800 g or as much as 300 lb. This encounter may be pleasant or unpleasant, depending upon the physician's knowledge of the techniques required for handling children and obtaining an adequate study and a basic understanding of specific pediatric disorders. Among the issues that must be considered are the equipment, which must be suitable for handling and obtaining optimal images of small children; the development of a basic understanding of the peculiarities of radiopharmaceutical distribution in children, which differs from that in adults; and, importantly, a knowledge of radiation dosimetry as it relates to the pediatric patient. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to present a comprehensive dissertation on the topic of pediatric nuclear medicine. The theme therefore is limited to the general principles and techniques required for nuclear medicine studies on pediatric patients. In addition, studies that exhibit unique characteristics when performed on children are highlighted in an effort to define that essence of pediatric nuclear medicine that differentiates it from the practice of nuclear medicine in adults

  6. Development of Pediatric Neurologic Emergency Life Support Course: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwarul; Arif, Fehmina; Abass, Qalab; Ahmed, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    Acute neurological emergencies (ANEs) in children are common life-threatening illnesses and are associated with high mortality and severe neurological disability in survivors, if not recognized early and treated appropriately. We describe our experience of teaching a short, novel course "Pediatric Neurologic Emergency Life Support" to pediatricians and trainees in a resource-limited country. This course was conducted at 5 academic hospitals from November 2013 to December 2014. It is a hybrid of pediatric advance life support and emergency neurologic life support. This course is designed to increase knowledge and impart practical training on early recognition and timely appropriate treatment in the first hour of children with ANEs. Neuroresuscitation and neuroprotective strategies are key components of this course to prevent and treat secondary injuries. Four cases of ANEs (status epilepticus, nontraumatic coma, raised intracranial pressure, and severe traumatic brain injury) were taught as a case simulation in a stepped-care, protocolized approach based on best clinical practices with emphasis on key points of managements in the first hour. Eleven courses were conducted during the study period. One hundred ninety-six physicians including 19 consultants and 171 residents participated in these courses. The mean (SD) score was 65.15 (13.87%). Seventy percent (132) of participants were passed (passing score > 60%). The overall satisfaction rate was 85%. Pediatric Neurologic Emergency Life Support was the first-time delivered educational tool to improve outcome of children with ANEs with good achievement and high satisfaction rate of participants. Large number courses are required for future validation.

  7. Using a Multimedia Presentation to Enhance Informed Consent in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sandra P; Stoner, Michael J; Kelleher, Kelly; Cohen, Daniel M

    2015-08-01

    Informed consent is an ethical process for ensuring patient autonomy. Multimedia presentations (MMPs) often aid the informed consent process for research studies. Thus, it follows that MMPs would improve informed consent in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an MMP for the informed consent process for ketamine sedation improves parental satisfaction and comprehension as compared with standard practice. This 2-phase study compared 2 methods of informed consent for ketamine sedation of pediatric patients. Phase 1 was a randomized, prospective study that compared the standard verbal consent to an MMP. Phase 2 implemented the MMP into daily work flow to validate the previous year's results. Parents completed a survey evaluating their satisfaction of the informed consent process and assessing their knowledge of ketamine sedation. Primary outcome measures were parental overall satisfaction with the informed consent process and knowledge of ketamine sedation. One hundred eighty-four families from a free-standing, urban, tertiary pediatric emergency department with over 85,000 annual visits were enrolled. Different demographics were not associated with a preference for the MMP or improved scores on the content quiz. Intervention families were more likely "to feel involved in the decision to use ketamine" and to understand that "they had the right to refuse the ketamine" as compared with control families. The intervention group scored significantly higher overall on the content section than the control group. Implementation and intervention families responded similarly to all survey sections. Multimedia presentation improves parental understanding of ketamine sedation, whereas parental satisfaction with the informed consent process remains unchanged. Use of MMP in the emergency department for informed consent shows potential for both patients and providers.

  8. Evaluation of the medication process in pediatric patients: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Koumpagioti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to meta-analyze studies that have assessed the medication errors rate in pediatric patients during prescribing, dispensing, and drug administration. SOURCES: searches were performed in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Trip databases, selecting articles published in English from 2001 to 2010. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: a total of 25 original studies that met inclusion criteria were selected, which referred to pediatric inpatients or pediatric patients in emergency departments aged 0-16 years, and assessed the frequency of medication errors in the stages of prescribing, dispensing, and drug administration. CONCLUSIONS: the combined medication error rate for prescribing errors to medication orders was 0.175 (95% Confidence Interval: [CI] 0.108-0.270, the rate of prescribing errors to total medication errors was 0.342 (95% CI: 0.146-0.611, that of dispensing errors to total medication errors was 0.065 (95% CI: 0.026-0.154, and that ofadministration errors to total medication errors was 0.316 (95% CI: 0.148-0.550. Furthermore, the combined medication error rate for administration errors to drug administrations was 0.209 (95% CI: 0.152-0.281. Medication errors constitute a reality in healthcare services. The medication process is significantly prone to errors, especially during prescription and drug administration. Implementation of medication error reduction strategies is required in order to increase the safety and quality of pediatric healthcare.

  9. Epidemiology of acute otitis in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Perotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute otitis is one of the most common pediatric infectious diseases that requires an accurate diagnosis in order to direct appropriate therapy to reduce the risk of complications. In this study pathogens collected from pediatric patients and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were evaluated. Methods. Between May 2009 and May 2010, 739 samples (swabs taken from nasopharynx in case of acute otitis media and/or from ears in case of acute external otitis, collected from 680 patients, suffering of otalgia, admitted to the emergency department of our Hospital were studied.The specimens were submitted for routine bacterial cultures and the susceptibility tests were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards. Nitrocefin was used to detect ß-lactamase activity. Results. 316 samples (42.8% of 739 were negative, 102 (13.8% were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 97 (13.1% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 68 (9.2% for Haemophilus influenzae, 62 (8.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 49 (6.6% for Staphylococcus aureus, 36 (4.9% for Streptococcus pyogenes, 5 (0.7% for Gram negative and 4 (0.5% for Candida spp. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam were active against all Gram negative strains isolated.We found one strain of MRSA. Of 102 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 5 (4.9% were penicillin resistant and 25 (24.5% were erythromycin resistant, showing the prevalence of constitutive phenotype (80%. All M. catarrhalis strains were ß-lactamase producers while all H. influenzae were ß-lactamase negatives. Conclusions. The prevalent etiological agents in pediatric acute otitis are S. pneumoniae, M. catharralis, and H. influenzae, as reported in literature. In external acute otitis P. aeruginosa prevails in particular in summer.

  10. Ethical issues in pediatric emergency mass critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Powell, Tia; Miller, Jennifer E; Christian, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    As a result of recent events, including natural disasters and pandemics, mass critical care planning has become a priority. In general, planning involves limiting the scope of disasters, increasing the supply of medical resources, and allocating scarce resources. Entities at varying levels have articulated ethical frameworks to inform policy development. In spite of this increased focus, children have received limited attention. Children require special attention because of their unique vulnerabilities and needs. In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations.Steering Committee members established subgroups by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. Draft documents were subsequently developed and revised based on the feedback from the Task Force. The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29-30, 2010. This document reflects expert input from the Task Force in addition to the most current medical literature. The Ethics Subcommittee recommends that surge planning seek to provide resources for children in proportion to their percentage of the population or preferably, if data are available, the percentage of those affected by the disaster. Generally, scarce resources should be allocated on the basis of need, benefit, and the conservation of resources. Estimates of need, benefit, and resource utilization may be more subjective or objective. While the

  11. Premedication with dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Peng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Premedication is important in pediatric anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant for pediatric patients. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing dexmedetomidine premedication with midazolam or ketamine premedication or placebo in children. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5. The main parameters investigated included satisfactory separation from parents, satisfactory mask induction, postoperative rescue analgesia, emergence agitation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving 1190 patients were included. When compared with midazolam, premedication with dexmedetomidine resulted in an increase in satisfactory separation from parents (RD = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.30, p = 0.003 and a decrease in the use of postoperative rescue analgesia (RD = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.09, p = 0.0003. Children treated with dexmedetomidine had a lower heart rate before induction. The incidence of satisfactory mask induction, emergence agitation and PONV did not differ between the groups. Dexmedetomidine was superior in providing satisfactory intravenous cannulation compared to placebo. This meta-analysis suggests that dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam premedication because it resulted in enhanced preoperative sedation and decreased postoperative pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the dosing schemes and long-term outcomes of dexmedetomidine premedication in pediatric anesthesia.

  12. Validity Evidence for a Serious Game to Assess Performance on Critical Pediatric Emergency Medicine Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, James M; Scalzo, Anthony J; Borgman, Matthew A; Watson, Christopher M; Byrnes, Chelsie E; Chang, Todd P; Auerbach, Marc; Kessler, David O; Feldman, Brian L; Payne, Brian S; Nibras, Sohail; Chokshi, Riti K; Lopreiato, Joseph O

    2018-01-26

    We developed a first-person serious game, PediatricSim, to teach and assess performances on seven critical pediatric scenarios (anaphylaxis, bronchiolitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory failure, seizure, septic shock, and supraventricular tachycardia). In the game, players are placed in the role of a code leader and direct patient management by selecting from various assessment and treatment options. The objective of this study was to obtain supportive validity evidence for the PediatricSim game scores. Game content was developed by 11 subject matter experts and followed the American Heart Association's 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support Provider Manual and other authoritative references. Sixty subjects with three different levels of experience were enrolled to play the game. Before game play, subjects completed a 40-item written pretest of knowledge. Game scores were compared between subject groups using scoring rubrics developed for the scenarios. Validity evidence was established and interpreted according to Messick's framework. Content validity was supported by a game development process that involved expert experience, focused literature review, and pilot testing. Subjects rated the game favorably for engagement, realism, and educational value. Interrater agreement on game scoring was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.9). Game scores were higher for attendings followed by residents then medical students (Pc game and written test scores (r = 0.84, P game scores to assess knowledge of pediatric emergency medicine resuscitation.

  13. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature

  14. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pneumoparotitis with Cervicofacial Subcutaneous Emphysema in a Pediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Pin Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pediatric pneumoparotitis, being rare, is often misdiagnosed in acute care settings, resulting in inappropriate initial management and emergency department (ED disposition. We report the case of a previously well 11-year-old boy who presented to our ED with acute left cheek swelling and pain. He was diagnosed with pneumoparotitis with cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema with the aid of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS and radiographs. Despite appropriate initial ED and inpatient management, he developed bilateral involvement and pneumomediastinum. After 72 hours, his condition improved and he was discharged well after five days of hospitalization. This case report highlights the use of POCUS and radiographs to facilitate an early diagnosis and appropriate ED disposition.

  15. Medical home characteristics and the pediatric patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Deborah; Gunter, Kathryn E; Nocon, Robert S; Gao, Yue; Jin, Janel; Fairchild, Paige; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-11-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has roots in pediatrics, yet we know little about the experience of pediatric patients in PCMH settings. To examine the association between clinic PCMH characteristics and pediatric patient experience as reported by parents. We assessed the cross-sectional correlation between clinic PCMH characteristics and pediatric patient experience in 24 clinics randomly selected from the Safety Net Medical Home Initiative, a 5-state PCMH demonstration project. PCMH characteristics were measured with surveys of randomly selected providers and staff; surveys generated 0 (worst) to 100 (best) scores for 5 subscales, and a total score. Patient experience was measured through surveying parents of pediatric patients. Questions from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems-Clinician and Group instrument produced 4 patient experience measures: timeliness, physician communication, staff helpfulness, and overall rating. To investigate the relationship between PCMH characteristics and patient experience, we used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure. We included 440 parents and 214 providers and staff in the analysis. Total PCMH score was not associated with parents' assessment of patient experience; however, PCMH subscales were associated with patient experience in different directions. In particular, quality improvement activities undertaken by clinics were strongly associated with positive ratings of patient experience, whereas patient care management activities were associated with more negative reports of patient experience. Future work should bolster features of the PCMH that work well for patients while investigating which PCMH features negatively impact patient experience, to yield a better patient experience overall.

  16. TH-B-207B-00: Pediatric Image Quality Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department. Though pediatric cardiovascular MRI may be less common in the non-specialist hospitals, low pediatric volumes and unique cardiovascular anatomy make optimization of these techniques difficult. Therefore, our second speaker will review best practices in pediatric cardiovascular MRI based on experiences from a children’s hospital with a large volume of cardiac patients. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality for CT of children in the emergency room setting. To learn solutions for consistently high quality cardiovascular MRI of children

  17. TH-B-207B-00: Pediatric Image Quality Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department. Though pediatric cardiovascular MRI may be less common in the non-specialist hospitals, low pediatric volumes and unique cardiovascular anatomy make optimization of these techniques difficult. Therefore, our second speaker will review best practices in pediatric cardiovascular MRI based on experiences from a children’s hospital with a large volume of cardiac patients. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality for CT of children in the emergency room setting. To learn solutions for consistently high quality cardiovascular MRI of children.

  18. Sonography of iatrogenic pneumothorax in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air in the pleural cavity. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax in the pediatric population is 0.3–0.48 in 1000 patients. A conventional chest X-ray, in some cases supplemented with chest computed tomography, is a typical imaging examination used to confirm the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Within the last years, the relevance of transthoracic lung ultrasound in the diagnostic process of this disease entity has greatly increased. This is confirmed by the opinion of a group of experts in ultrasound lung imaging in patients in a life-threatening condition, who strongly recommend a transthoracic ultrasound examination for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in such patients. These data constituted the basis for initiating the prospective studies on the application of this method in pneumothorax diagnosis in patients of pediatric hematology and oncology wards. Aim The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using the transthoracic lung ultrasound in the diagnostic process of pneumothorax in pediatric patients, with particular attention paid to its iatrogenic form. The article discusses sonographic criteria for pneumothorax diagnosis in pediatric patients, including the sensitivity and specificity of the method, in relation to conventional chest X-ray. Material and methods The prospective studies included a group of patients treated in the Clinic of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Endocrinology of the Academic Clinical Centre (Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland) in whom a central venous catheter was placed in the subclavian veins. The studies lasted for one year – from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. The examined group comprised 63 patients – 25 girls (39.7%) and 38 boys (60.3%) aged from 1 to 17. The analysis included the results of 115 ultrasound examinations conducted in this group. Results In t he examined group with suspected or diagnosed neoplasm, iatrogenic pneumothorax was identified in 4 out

  19. Creation and Assessment of a Bad News Delivery Simulation Curriculum for Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B; Lorin, Martin I

    2016-05-01

    Background  Bad news in the context of health care has been broadly defined as significant information that negatively alters people's perceptions of the present or future. Effectively delivering bad news (DBN) in the setting of the emergency department requires excellent communication skills. Evidence shows that bad news is frequently given inadequately. Studies show that trainees need to devote more time to developing this skill through formalized training. This program's objectives were to utilize trained standardized patients in a simulation setting to assist pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows in the development of effective, sensitive, and compassionate communication with patients and family members when conveying bad news, and to recognize and respond to the patient/parent's reaction to such news. Methods PEM fellows participated in a novel curriculum utilizing simulated patients (SPs) acting as the patient's parent and immersive techniques in a realistic and supportive environment. A baseline survey was conducted to ascertain participant demographics and previous experience with simulation and DBN. Experienced, multi-disciplinary faculty participated in a training workshop with the SPs one week prior to course delivery. Three scenarios were developed for bad news delivery. Instructors watched via remote video feed while the fellows individually interacted with the SPs and then participated in a confidential debriefing. Fellows later joined for group debriefing. Fellow characteristics, experience, and self-perceived comfort pre/post-course were collected.   Results Baseline data demonstrated that 78% of fellows reported DBN two or more times per month. Ninety-three percent of fellows in this study were present during the delivery of news about the death of a child to a parent or family member in the six-month period preceding this course. Fellows' self-reported comfort level in DBN to a patient/family and dealing with patient and parent emotions

  20. Validation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score in Hospitalized Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnik, Asya; Forbes, Peter W; Stenquist, Nicole; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Kleinman, Monica

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the correlation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score with unplanned transfer to the PICU in hospitalized oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study, comparing the highest documented Pediatric Early Warning Score within 24 hours prior to unplanned PICU transfers in hospitalized pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients between September 2011 and December 2013. Controls were patients who remained on the inpatient unit and were matched 2:1 using age, condition (oncology vs hematopoietic stem cell transplant), and length of hospital stay. Pediatric Early Warning Scores were documented by nursing staff at least every 4 hours as part of routine care. Need for transfer was determined by a PICU physician called to evaluate the patient. A large tertiary/quaternary free-standing academic children's hospital. One hundred ten hospitalized pediatric oncology patients (42 oncology, 68 hematopoietic stem cell transplant) requiring unplanned PICU transfer and 220 matched controls. None. Using the highest score in the 24 hours prior to transfer for cases and a matched time period for controls, the Pediatric Early Warning Score was highly correlated with the need for PICU transfer overall (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.96), and in the oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant groups individually (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). The difference in Pediatric Early Warning Score results between the cases and controls was noted as early as 24 hours prior to PICU admission. Seventeen patients died (15.4%). Patients with higher Pediatric Early Warning Scores prior to transfer had increased PICU mortality (p = 0.028) and length of stay (p = 0.004). We demonstrate that our institution's Pediatric Early Warning Score is highly correlated with the need for unplanned PICU transfer in hospitalized oncology and

  1. The effect of medical trainees on pediatric emergency department flow: a discrete event simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Emerson D; Doan, Quynh

    2013-11-01

    Providing patient care and medical education are both important missions of teaching hospital emergency departments (EDs). With medical school enrollment rising, and ED crowding becoming an increasing prevalent issue, it is important for both pediatric EDs (PEDs) and general EDs to find a balance between these two potentially competing goals. The objective was to determine how the number of trainees in a PED affects patient wait time, total ED length of stay (LOS), and rates of patients leaving without being seen (LWBS) for PED patients overall and stratified by acuity level as defined by the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) using discrete event simulation (DES) modeling. A DES model of an urban tertiary care PED, which receives approximately 40,000 visits annually, was created and validated. Thirteen different trainee schedules, which ranged from averaging zero to six trainees per shift, were input into the DES model and the outcome measures were determined using the combined output of five model iterations. An increase in LOS of approximately 7 minutes was noted to be associated with each additional trainee per attending emergency physician working in the PED. The relationship between the number of trainees and wait time varied with patients' level of acuity and with the degree of PED utilization. Patient wait time decreased as the number of trainees increased for low-acuity visits and when the PED was not operating at full capacity. With rising numbers of trainees, the PED LWBS rate decreased in the whole department and in the CTAS 4 and 5 patient groups, but it rose in patients triaged CTAS 3 or higher. A rising numbers of trainees was not associated with any change to flow outcomes for CTAS 1 patients. The results of this study demonstrate that trainees in PEDs have an impact mainly on patient LOS and that the effect on wait time differs between patients presenting with varying degrees of acuity. These findings will assist PEDs in finding a

  2. High-fidelity hybrid simulation of allergic emergencies demonstrates improved preparedness for office emergencies in pediatric allergy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Jones, Stacie M; Porter, Nicholas; White, Marjorie L; Gephardt, Grace; Hill, Travis; Cantrell, Mary; Nick, Todd G; Melguizo, Maria; Smith, Chris; Boateng, Beatrice A; Perry, Tamara T; Scurlock, Amy M; Thompson, Tonya M

    2013-01-01

    Simulation models that used high-fidelity mannequins have shown promise in medical education, particularly for cases in which the event is uncommon. Allergy physicians encounter emergencies in their offices, and these can be the source of much trepidation. To determine if case-based simulations with high-fidelity mannequins are effective in teaching and retention of emergency management team skills. Allergy clinics were invited to Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric Understanding and Learning through Simulation Education center for a 1-day workshop to evaluate skills concerning the management of allergic emergencies. A Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation was developed to evaluate the competence of teams in several areas: leadership and/or role clarity, closed-loop communication, team support, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills. Four cases, which focus on common allergic emergencies, were simulated by using high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients. Teams were evaluated by multiple reviewers by using video recording and standardized scoring. Ten to 12 months after initial training, an unannounced in situ case was performed to determine retention of the skills training. Clinics showed significant improvements for role clarity, teamwork, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills during the 1-day workshop (all P clinics (all P ≤ .004). Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation scores demonstrated improved team management skills with simulation training in office emergencies. Significant recall of team emergency management skills was demonstrated months after the initial training. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute gastroenteritis: evidence-based management of pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, KeriAnne; Pade, Kathryn H

    2018-02-01

    Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  4. Emergency ultrasound in the detection of pediatric long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Isabel; Spencer, Robert; Suppiah, Ara; Raio, Christopher; Ward, Mary Frances; Sama, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Long-bone fractures represent one of the most commonly sustained injuries following trauma and account for nearly 4% of emergency department visits in the United States each year. These fractures are associated with a significant risk of bleeding and neurovascular compromise. Delays in their identification and treatment can lead to loss of limb and even death. Although emergency physicians currently rely predominantly on radiography for the examination of long-bone injuries, emergency ultrasound has several advantages over radiography and may be useful in the identification of long-bone fractures. Ultrasound is rapid, noninvasive, and cost-effective. Unlike radiography, ultrasound does not expose children to ionizing radiation, which has been linked to cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the agreement between emergency physicians' and radiologists' final assessments of suspected long-bone fractures using emergency ultrasound and radiography, respectively, in the pediatric population. This is a prospective study involving a convenience sample of pediatric patients (fracture. Suspected fractures were characterized by swelling, erythema, and localized pain. Patients who had a history of fracture, extremity deformity, orthopedic hardware in the traumatized area, or an open fracture were excluded from this study. Each investigator received limited, focused training in the use of ultrasonography for fracture identification and localization. This training consisted of a brief didactic session and video review of normal and fractured long-bones. A total of 53 subjects (mean age, 10.2 [SD, 3.8] years; 56.6% were male) were enrolled, which corresponded to 98 ultrasound examinations. Sixty-nine scans (70.4%) involved bones of the upper extremity, and 29 (29.6%) the lower extremity. Radiography identified a total of 43 fractures. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the detection of long-bone fractures were 95.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82

  5. Developing and Implementing a Pediatric Emergency Care Curriculum for Providers at District Level Hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Kenya

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    Colleen Diane Fant

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEmergency medicine is a relatively new field in sub-Saharan Africa and dedicated training in pediatric emergency care is limited. While guidelines from the African Federation of Emergency Medicine (AFEM regarding emergency training exist, a core curriculum in pediatric emergency care has not yet been established for providers at the district hospital level.MethodsThe objective of the project was to develop a curriculum for providers with limited training in pediatric emergencies, and contain didactic and simulation components with emphasis on treatment and resuscitation using available resources. A core curriculum for pediatric emergency care was developed using a validated model of medical education curriculum development and through review of existing guidelines and literature. Based on literature review, as well as a review of existent guidelines in pediatric and emergency care, 10 core topics were chosen and agreed upon by experts in the field, including pediatric and emergency care providers in Kenya and the United States. These topics were confirmed to be consistent with the principles of emergency care endorsed by AFEM as well as complimentary to existing Kenyan medical school syllabi. A curriculum based on these 10 core topics was created and subsequently piloted with a group of medical residents and clinical officers at a community hospital in western Kenya.ResultsThe 10 core pediatric topics prioritized were airway management, respiratory distress, thoracic and abdominal trauma, head trauma and cervical spine management, sepsis and shock, endocrine emergencies, altered mental status/toxicology, orthopedic emergencies, burn and wound management, and pediatric advanced life support. The topics were incorporated into a curriculum comprised of ten 1.5-h combined didactic plus low-fidelity simulation modules. Feedback from trainers and participating providers gave high ratings to the ease of information delivery, relevance, and

  6. Supine craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients by proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Righetto, Roberto; Fellin, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Francesco; Lorentini, Stefano; Widesott, Lamberto; Algranati, Carlo; Rombi, Barbara; Vennarini, Sabina; Amichetti, Maurizio; Schwarz, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Proton therapy is the emerging treatment modality for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in pediatric patients. Herein, special methods adopted for CSI at proton Therapy Center of Trento by pencil beam scanning (PBS) are comprehensively described. Twelve pediatric patients were treated by proton PBS using two/three isocenters. Special methods refer to: (i) patient positioning in supine position on immobilization devices crossed by the beams; (ii) planning field-junctions via the ancillary-beam technique; (iii) achieving lens-sparing by three-beams whole-brain-irradiation; (iv) applying a movable-snout and beam-splitting technique to reduce the lateral penumbra. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) program was performed using two-dimensional ion chamber array and γ-analysis. Daily kilovoltage alignment was performed. PBS allowed to obtain optimal target coverage (mean D98%>98%) with reduced dose to organs-at-risk. Lens sparing was obtained (mean D1∼730cGyE). Reducing lateral penumbra decreased the dose to the kidneys (mean Dmean4cm (mean γ>95%) than at depths<4cm. The reported methods allowed to effectively perform proton PBS CSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. International consensus on the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, H; Martinez-Saguer, I; Bork, K; Bowen, T; Craig, T; Frank, M; Germenis, A E; Grumach, A S; Luczay, A; Varga, L; Zanichelli, A

    2017-02-01

    The consensus documents published to date on hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) have focused on adult patients. Many of the previous recommendations have not been adapted to pediatric patients. We intended to produce consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE. During an expert panel meeting that took place during the 9th C1 Inhibitor Deficiency Workshop in Budapest, 2015 (www.haenet.hu), pediatric data were presented and discussed and a consensus was developed by voting. The symptoms of C1-INH-HAE often present in childhood. Differential diagnosis can be difficult as abdominal pain is common in pediatric C1-INH-HAE, but also commonly occurs in the general pediatric population. The early onset of symptoms may predict a more severe subsequent course of the disease. Before the age of 1 year, C1-INH levels may be lower than in adults; therefore, it is advisable to confirm the diagnosis after the age of one year. All neonates/infants with an affected C1-INH-HAE family member should be screened for C1-INH deficiency. Pediatric patients should always carry a C1-INH-HAE information card and medicine for emergency use. The regulatory approval status of the drugs for prophylaxis and for acute treatment is different in each country. Plasma-derived C1-INH, recombinant C1-INH, and ecallantide are the only agents licensed for the acute treatment of pediatric patients. Clinical trials are underway with additional drugs. It is recommended to follow up patients in an HAE comprehensive care center. The pediatric-focused international consensus for the diagnosis and management of C1-INH-HAE patients was created. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia

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    Meredith James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA is an evolving field in pediatric emergency medicine. As new drugs breach the boundaries of anesthesia in the Pediatric Emergency Department, parents, patients, and physicians are finding new and more satisfactory methods of sedation. Short acting, rapid onset agents with little or no lingering effects and improved safety profiles are replacing archaic regimens. This article discusses the warning signs and areas of a patient′s medical history that are particularly pertinent to procedural sedation and the drugs used. The necessary equipment is detailed to provide the groundwork for implementing safe sedation in children. It is important for practitioners to familiarize themselves with a select few of the PSA drugs, rather than the entire list of sedatives. Those agents most relevant to PSA in the pediatric emergency department are presented.

  9. Total artificial heart in the pediatric patient with biventricular heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S S; Sanders, D B; Smith, B P; Ryan, J; Plasencia, J; Osborn, M B; Wellnitz, C M; Southard, R N; Pierce, C N; Arabia, F A; Lane, J; Frakes, D; Velez, D A; Pophal, S G; Nigro, J J

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support emerged for the pediatric population in the late 1980s as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. The Total Artificial Heart (TAH-t) (SynCardia Systems Inc., Tuscon, AZ) has been approved for compassionate use by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation since 1985 and has had FDA approval since 2004. However, of the 1,061 patients placed on the TAH-t, only 21 (2%) were under the age 18. SynCardia Systems, Inc. recommends a minimum patient body surface area (BSA) of 1.7 m(2), thus, limiting pediatric application of this device. This unique case report shares this pediatric institution's first experience with the TAH-t. A 14-year-old male was admitted with dilated cardiomyopathy and severe biventricular heart failure. The patient rapidly decompensated, requiring extracorporeal life support. An echocardiogram revealed severe biventricular dysfunction and diffuse clot formation in the left ventricle and outflow tract. The decision was made to transition to biventricular assist device. The biventricular failure and clot formation helped guide the team to the TAH-t, in spite of a BSA (1.5 m(2)) below the recommendation of 1.7 m(2). A computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax, in conjunction with a novel three-dimensional (3D) modeling system and team, assisted in determining appropriate fit. Chest CT and 3D modeling following implantation were utilized to determine all major vascular structures were unobstructed and the bronchi were open. The virtual 3D model confirmed appropriate device fit with no evidence of compression to the left pulmonary veins. The postoperative course was complicated by a left lung opacification. The left lung anomalies proved to be atelectasis and improved with aggressive recruitment maneuvers. The patient was supported for 11 days prior to transplantation. Chest CT and 3D modeling were crucial in assessing whether the device would

  10. Anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Leopoldo Palheta; Pignaton, Wangles; Kusano, Priscila Sayuri; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Braz, Leandro Gobbo

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aimed to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE (1951-2011), PubMed (1966-2011), LILACS (1986-2011), and SciElo (1995-2011). Each paper was revised to identify the author(s), the data source, the time period, the number of patients, the time of death, and the perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Twenty trials were assessed. Studies from Brazil and developed countries worldwide documented similar total anesthesia-related mortality rates (anesthesia-related mortality rates in the past decade. Higher anesthesia-related mortality rates (2.4-3.3 per 10,000 anesthetics) were found in studies from developing countries over the same time period. Interestingly, pediatric perioperative mortality rates have increased over the past decade, and the rates are higher in Brazil (9.8 per 10,000 anesthetics) and other developing countries (10.7-15.9 per 10,000 anesthetics) compared with developed countries (0.41-6.8 per 10,000 anesthetics), with the exception of Australia (13.4 per 10,000 anesthetics). The major risk factors are being newborn or less than 1 year old, ASA III or worse physical status, and undergoing emergency surgery, general anesthesia, or cardiac surgery. The main causes of mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events. Our systematic review of the literature shows that the pediatric anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil and in developed countries are similar, whereas the pediatric perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil compared with developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with airway and cardiocirculatory events. The data regarding anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality rates may be useful in developing prevention strategies.

  11. Anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Palheta Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aimed to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE (1951-2011, PubMed (1966-2011, LILACS (1986-2011, and SciElo (1995-2011. Each paper was revised to identify the author(s, the data source, the time period, the number of patients, the time of death, and the perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Twenty trials were assessed. Studies from Brazil and developed countries worldwide documented similar total anesthesia-related mortality rates (<1 death per 10,000 anesthetics and declines in anesthesia-related mortality rates in the past decade. Higher anesthesia-related mortality rates (2.4-3.3 per 10,000 anesthetics were found in studies from developing countries over the same time period. Interestingly, pediatric perioperative mortality rates have increased over the past decade, and the rates are higher in Brazil (9.8 per 10,000 anesthetics and other developing countries (10.7-15.9 per 10,000 anesthetics compared with developed countries (0.41-6.8 per 10,000 anesthetics, with the exception of Australia (13.4 per 10,000 anesthetics. The major risk factors are being newborn or less than 1 year old, ASA III or worse physical status, and undergoing emergency surgery, general anesthesia, or cardiac surgery. The main causes of mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events. Our systematic review of the literature shows that the pediatric anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil and in developed countries are similar, whereas the pediatric perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil compared with developed countries. Most cases of anesthesiarelated mortality are associated with airway and cardiocirculatory events. The data regarding anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality rates may be useful in developing prevention

  12. Evaluation of patient satisfaction in pediatric dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sarah; Miller, Jonathan; Burrows, James F; Bertha, Ben Khallouq; Rosen, Paul

    2017-11-01

    There remains a lack of investigation into which factors patients and families value the most in their experience at pediatric dermatology clinics. Most of the current literature on quality improvement in dermatology does not encompass the pediatric population. To determine the drivers that are most predictive of a positive patient experience, we observed the indirect relationship between several factors of the patient experience and their role in patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction surveys were distributed after their visits to patients at four pediatric dermatology clinics in one children's academic health system. Data were collected and organized into the top 30 survey variables with which patients expressed satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) for each variable with regard to "likelihood of your recommending our practice to others" were calculated. A total of 516 families completed patient satisfaction surveys. Analyses of top box scores showed that the strongest predictors of patient satisfaction were the likelihood of recommending care provider (r = .77, P = dermatology. Identifying such variables that shape patients' assessments of their experience can guide future quality improvement plans in the specialty. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Brain Death in Pediatric Patients in Japan: Diagnosis and Unresolved Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takashi; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Brain death (BD) is a physiological state defined as complete and irreversible loss of brain function. Organ transplantation from a patient with BD is controversial in Japan because there are two classifications of BD: legal BD in which the organs can be donated and general BD in which the organs cannot be donated. The significance of BD in the terminal phase remains in the realm of scientific debate. As indicated by the increasing number of organ transplants from brain-dead donors, certain clinical diagnosis for determining BD in adults is becoming established. However, regardless of whether or not organ transplantation is involved, there are many unresolved issues regarding BD in children. Here, we will discuss the historical background of BD determination in children, pediatric emergencies and BD, and unresolved issues related to pediatric BD.

  14. Microbial pattern of pressure ulcer in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, D. A.; Khairina; Lubis, N. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Pressure ulcer (PU) is a localized trauma to the skin and or tissue beneath which lies in bony prominence due to pressure or pressure that combines with a sharp surface. Several studies have found that PU is a common problem in pediatrics population. Infection at the site of a PU is the most common complication in which the PU may host a resistant microorganism and may turn into a local infection that will be the source of bacteremia in hospitalized patients. To reveal which is the most common microbial species that underlie in pressure ulcer of pediatrics patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted in July-September 2017, involving 18 PU pediatric patients in Haji Adam Malik Hospital. To each subject, swab culture from the ulcer was madein microbial laboratory in Haji Adam Malik Hospital to determine the microbial pattern. This study found that the most common microbial pattern in pressure ulcers of pediatrics patient in Haji Adam Malik Hospital is Acinetobacter baumannii (22.2%).

  15. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  16. Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation

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    Kathryn Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.

  17. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

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    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  18. Optimization of electronic prescribing in pediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    2014-01-01

    Improving pediatric patient safety by preventing medication errors that may result in adverse drug events and consequent healthcare expenditure,is a worldwide challenge to healthcare. In pediatrics, reported medication error rates in general, and prescribing error rates in particular, vary between

  19. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

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    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  20. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-01-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency ...

  1. US pediatric trauma patient unplanned 30-day readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Xiang, Henry; Thakkar, Rajan K; Groner, Jonathan I

    2018-04-01

    We sought to determine readmission rates and risk factors for acutely injured pediatric trauma patients. We produced 30-day unplanned readmission rates for pediatric trauma patients using the 2013 National Readmission Database (NRD). In US pediatric trauma patients, 1.7% had unplanned readmissions within 30days. The readmission rate for patients with index operating room procedures was no higher at 1.8%. Higher readmission rates were seen in patients with injury severity scores (ISS)=16-24 (3.4%) and ISS ≥25 (4.9%). Higher rates were also seen in patients with LOS beyond a week, severe abdominal and pelvic region injuries (3.0%), crushing (2.8%) and firearm injuries (4.5%), and in patients with fluid and electrolyte disorders (3.9%). The most common readmission principal diagnoses were injury, musculoskeletal/integumentary diagnoses and infection. Nearly 39% of readmitted patients required readmission operative procedures. Most common were operations on the musculoskeletal system (23.9% of all readmitted patients), the integumentary system (8.6%), the nervous system (6.6%), and digestive system (2.5%). Overall, the readmission rate for pediatric trauma patients was low. Measures of injury severity, specifically length of stay, were most useful in identifying those who would benefit from targeted care coordination resources. This is a Level III retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative evaluation of antibiotic usage in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hindra Irawan Satari; Agus Firmansyah; Theresia Theresia

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drug for pediatric patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase morbidity, mortality, patient cost and bacterial antibiotic resistence. Antibiotic uses can be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Objective To qualitatively evaluate antibiotic use in patients using Gyssens algorithm. Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of matient medical records of those admitted to the pediatric ward fro...

  3. Ecballium Elaterium Poisoning in Pediatric Emergency Service: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı Gökay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ecballium elaterium is the only species belonging to the genus Ecballium of Cucurbitaceae family. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Despite its side effects, E. elaterium has still been being used as an alternative treatment agent for sinusitis, cirrhosis, rheumatic diseases and hemorrhoids for its anti-inflammatory and cathartic actions. Herein we discuss a pediatric case showing gastrointestinal side effects after ingesting E. elaterium. Case Report: A six-year-old boy admitted to Çukurova University Medical Faculty Pediatric Emergency Department, Turkey, for vomiting one hour after ingesting a green plant which he had tasted to satisfy his curiosity. Physical examination, vital signs and laboratory tests revealed normal. The ingested plant was defined to be E. elaterium. Maintenance fluid infusion, 1 mg/kg ranitidine and sucralfate medications were commenced. During the follow-up, the patient developed numbness of the tongue and hyper-salivation, without any signs of uvular edema or other system findings. Further follow-up showed stable vital signs within the normal range with no additional complications. The patient was sent home with the cure and recommendations. Discussion: The plants and herbs that are used as agents of alternative or complementary medicine may as well be accidentally or curiously taken by children leading to unwanted intoxication cases. Pre-encounter actions to prevent such cases are as important as any post-exposure clinical interventions to impede the unwanted consequences. One such measure might be a more intensive public information policy underscoring the fact that plants have the potential to be noxious and may cause serious side effects and even death.

  4. Mobile pediatric neurosurgery: rapid response neurosurgery for remote or urgent pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owler, Brian K; Carmo, Kathryn A Browning; Bladwell, Wendy; Fa'asalele, T Arieta; Roxburgh, Jane; Kendrick, Tina; Berry, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Time-critical neurosurgical conditions require urgent operative treatment to prevent death or neurological deficits. In New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory patients' distance from neurosurgical care is often great, presenting a challenge in achieving timely care for patients with acute neurosurgical conditions. A protocol was developed to facilitate consultant neurosurgery locally. Children with acute, time-critical neurosurgical emergencies underwent operations in hospitals that do not normally offer neurosurgery. The authors describe the developed protocol, the outcome of its use, and the lessons learned in the 9 initial cases where the protocol has been used. Three cases are discussed in detail. Nine children were treated by a neurosurgeon at 5 rural hospitals, and 2 children were treated at a smaller metropolitan hospital. Road ambulance, fixed wing aircraft, and medical helicopters were used to transport the Newborn and Paediatric Emergency Transport Service (NETS) team, neurosurgeon, and patients. In each case, the time to definitive neurosurgical intervention was significantly reduced. The median interval from triage at the initial hospital to surgical start time was 3:55 hours, (interquartile range [IQR] 03:29-05:20 hours). The median distance traveled to reach a patient was 232 km (range 23-637 km). The median interval from the initial NETS call requesting patient retrieval to surgical start time was 3:15 hours (IQR 00:47-03:37 hours). The estimated median "time saved" was approximately 3:00 hours (IQR 1:44-3:15 hours) compared with the travel time to retrieve the child to the tertiary center: 8:31 hours (IQR 6:56-10:08 hours). Remote urgent neurosurgical interventions can be performed safely and effectively. This practice is relevant to countries where distance limits urgent access for patients to tertiary pediatric care. This practice is lifesaving for some children with head injuries and other acute neurosurgical conditions.

  5. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

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    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  6. Trimming the fat: identification of risk factors associated with obesity in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Christiano-Smith, Danielle; Greenberger, Sarah; Cramm, Kelly; Latimer-Pierson, Janese; Modica, Renee F

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess which knowledge deficits and dietary habits in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) population are risk factors for obesity. This cross-sectional study in an urban pediatric ED used a modified version of the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, an in-person interview questionnaire, to collect data on demographics, dietary knowledge, and practices. All patients aged 2 to 17 years were enrolled in the study over a 4-month period. Subjects were excluded if they were in extremis, pregnant, incarcerated, institutionalized, considered an emancipated minor, or consumed only a modified consistency diet. One hundred seventy-nine subjects were enrolled in this study. Based on body mass index, the prevalence of obesity in our study population was 24%. Parents with obese children answered a mean of 62.9% (95% confidence interval, 60.4%-65.5%) of knowledge questions correctly, whereas all others scored 60.3% (95% confidence interval, 58.3%-62.3%) correctly. Based on the univariate analysis, 10 predictors met inclusion criteria into logistic regression analysis: screen time (P = 0.03), race (P = 0.08), sex (P = 0.04), parental education (P = 0.08), parental estimation that child is overweight (P obesity were independently associated with obesity. Knowledge deficiencies regarding healthy nutrition among parents in an urban pediatric ED population were not significantly associated with having obese children; however, specific habits were. Emergency physicians may provide a valuable role in identification and brief behavioral intervention in high-risk populations during the current epidemic of childhood obesity.

  7. Timing of mortality in pediatric trauma patients: A National Trauma Data Bank analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cory; Zagory, Jessica A; Fenlon, Michael; Park, Caron; Lane, Christianne J; Meeker, Daniella; Burd, Randall S; Ford, Henri R; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Jensen, Aaron R

    2018-02-01

    The classic "trimodal" distribution of death has been described in adult patients, but the timing of mortality in injured children is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to define the temporal distribution of mortality in pediatric trauma patients. A retrospective cohort of patients with mortality from the National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2014) was analyzed. Categorical comparison of 'dead on arrival', 'death in the emergency department', and early (≤24h) or late (>24h) inpatient death was performed. Secondary analyses included mortality by pediatric age, predictors of early mortality, and late complication rates. Children (N=5463 deaths) had earlier temporal distribution of death compared to adults (n=104,225 deaths), with 51% of children dead on arrival or in ED compared to 44% of adults (p<0.001). For patients surviving ED resuscitation, children and adolescents had a shorter median time to death than adults (1.2 d and 0.8 days versus 1.6 days, p<0.001). Older age, penetrating mechanism, bradycardia, hypotension, tube thoracostomy, and thoracotomy were associated with early mortality in children. Injured children have higher incidence of early mortality compared to adults. This suggests that injury prevention efforts and strategies for improving early resuscitation have potential to improve mortality after pediatric injury. Level III: Retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NSAID induced perforated peptic ulcer in a pediatric sickle cell patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Johnson-Mann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease is a relatively rare entity in the pediatric population. Given the trend toward multimodal pain control for pain crises in Sickle Cell Disease patients, they are at an increased risk of developing complications secondary to peptic ulcer disease. We discuss a case of a Sickle Cell Disease patient on multimodal therapy that presented with a perforated peptic ulcer requiring emergent surgery. While multimodal therapy helps ease the dependency on narcotic pain medication, it does present other potential problems like potential bleeding or perforation. For those that can be categorized in this select group of patients, routine surveillance with esophagogastroduodenoscopy should be considered for those at highest risk to prevent devastating complications.

  9. Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Heart Failure-Related Emergency Department Visits in the United States: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Erika J; O'Connor, Matthew J; Lin, Kimberly Y; Song, Lihai; Griffis, Heather; Mascio, Christopher E; Shamszad, Pirouz; Donoghue, Aaron; Ravishankar, Chitra; Shaddy, Robert E; Rossano, Joseph W

    2018-02-01

    To describe the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of heart failure-related emergency department (ED) visits in pediatric patients. We aimed to test the hypothesis that these visits are associated with higher admission rates, mortality, and resource utilization. A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2010 of patients ≤18 years of age was performed to describe ED visits with and without heart failure. Cases were identified using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and assessed for factors associated with admission, mortality, and resource utilization. Among 28.6 million pediatric visits to the ED, there were 5971 (0.02%) heart failure-related cases. Heart failure-related ED patients were significantly more likely to be admitted (59.8% vs 4.01%; OR 35.3, 95% CI 31.5-39.7). Among heart failure-related visits, admission was more common in patients with congenital heart disease (OR 5.0, 95% CI 3.3-7.4) and in those with comorbidities including respiratory failure (OR 78.3, 95% CI 10.4-591) and renal failure (OR 7.9, 95% CI 1.7-36.3). Heart failure-related cases admitted to the hospital had a higher likelihood of death than nonheart failure-related cases (5.9% vs 0.32%, P failure (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.2-9.2) and renal failure (OR 7.8, 95% CI 2.9-20.7). Heart failure-related ED visits were more expensive than nonheart failure-related ED visits ($1460 [IQR $861-2038] vs $778 [IQR $442-1375] [P failure-related visits represent a minority of pediatric ED visits but are associated with increased hospital admission and resource utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A national survey of terrorism preparedness training among pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelly D; Bush, Anneke C; Lynch, Julia A

    2006-09-01

    Domestic terrorism is a real threat focusing on a need to engage in effective emergency preparedness planning and training. Front-line physicians are an important component of any emergency preparedness plan. Potential victims of an attack include children who have unique physiologic and psychological vulnerabilities in disasters. Front-line providers need to have adequate training to effectively participate in local planning initiatives and to recognize and treat casualties including children. The goal of the survey was to assess the current state of terrorism preparedness training, including child victims, by emergency medicine, family practice, and pediatric residency programs in the United States and to assess methods of training and barriers to establishing effective training. A survey was e-mailed to a comprehensive list of all US pediatric, family practice, and emergency medicine residency programs 3 times between September 2003 and January 2004. The survey measured the perceived risk of terrorist attack, level of training by type of attack, level of training regarding children, method of training, and barriers to training. Overall, 21% of programs responded (46 of 182 pediatric, 75 of 400 family practice, and 29 of 125 emergency medicine programs). Across all of the event types, emergency medicine programs were more likely to report adequate/comprehensive training. However, terrorism preparedness funding, these data suggest that we are failing to provide adequate training to front-line providers who may care for children in a catastrophic domestic terrorist event.

  11. CBT for Pediatric Migraine: A Qualitative Study of Patient and Parent Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Ernst, Michelle M; Vaughn, Lisa; Slater, Shalonda; Powers, Scott W

    2018-03-08

    The goal of this study was to determine which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-HA) treatment components pediatric headache patient stakeholders would report to be most helpful and essential to reducing headache frequency and related disability to develop a streamlined, less burdensome treatment package that would be more accessible to patients and families. Pediatric migraine is a prevalent and disabling condition. CBT-HA has been shown to reduce headache frequency and related disability, but may not be readily available or accepted by many migraine sufferers due to treatment burden entailed. Research is needed to determine systematic ways of reducing barriers to CBT-HA. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 patients and 9 of their parents who had undergone CBT-HA. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis approach based upon modified grounded theory. Patients were 13-17.5 years of age (M = 15.4, SD = 1.63) and had undergone CBT-HA ∼1-2 years prior to participating in the study. Overall, patients and their parents reported that CBT-HA was helpful in reducing headache frequency and related disability. Although patients provided mixed reports on the effectiveness of different CBT-HA skills, the majority of patients indicated that the mind and body relaxation skills of CBT-HA (deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and activity pacing in particular) were the most helpful and most frequently used skills. Patients and parents also generally reported that treatment was easy to learn, and noted at least some aspect of treatment was enjoyable. Results from these qualitative interviews indicate that mind and body CBT-HA relaxation skills emerged as popular and effective based on patient and parent report. Future research examining the effectiveness of streamlined pediatric migraine nonpharmacological interventions should include these patient-preferred skills. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  12. Intestinal coccidia in Cuban pediatric patients with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez FA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From May to August 1999, we evaluated 401 patients from a pediatric hospital of Havana City. One group was composed of 113 patients with diarrhea admitted to the Gastroenterology ward and a second consisted of 288 patients without diarrhea, admitted for other reasons, and hospitalized within the same time period. Three stool samples were collected from each child and were examined using three parasitological techniques. When we compared the frequency of parasite species between both groups, we found Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis, only in the group of children with diarrhea (P 0.05. In addition, in those children infected with Cryptosporidium, the diarrhea had a more prolonged duration (P < 0.01, while those infected with Cyclospora, the abdominal cramps or pain, and acute diarrhea were more frequently detected (P < 0.01. Our results showed that emerging intestinal coccidia are pathogens strongly associated in this group of children with diarrhea.

  13. Predictors of Patient Satisfaction in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Josh; Burrows, James F; Ben Khallouq, Bertha; Rosen, Paul

    To understand key drivers of patient satisfaction in pediatric hematology/oncology. The "top-box" scores of patient satisfaction surveys from 4 pediatric hematology/oncology practices were collected from 2012 to 2014 at an integrated Children's Health Network. One item, "Likelihood of recommending practice," was used as the surrogate for overall patient satisfaction, and all other items were correlated to this item. A total of 1244 satisfaction surveys were included in this analysis. The most important predictors of overall patient satisfaction were cheerfulness of practice ( r = .69), wait time ( r = .60), and staff working together ( r = .60). The lowest scoring items were getting clinic on phone, information about delays, and wait time at clinic. Families bringing their children for outpatient care in a hematology/oncology practice want to experience a cheerful and collaborative medical team. Wait time at clinic may be a key driver in the overall experience for families with children with cancer. Future work should be directed at using this evidence to drive patient experience improvement processes in pediatric hematology/oncology.

  14. Pediatric Emergency Department and Primary Care Provider Attitudes on Assessing Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Murray, Ashlee; Mollen, Cynthia J; Wedin, Tara; Fein, Joel A; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to understand pediatric emergency department (ED) and primary care (PC) health care provider attitudes and beliefs regarding the intersection between childhood adversities and health care. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews in 2 settings (ED and PC) within an urban health care system. Purposive sampling was used to balance the sample among 3 health care provider roles. Interview questions were based on a modified health beliefs model exploring the "readiness to act" among providers. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Interviews continued until theme saturation was reached. Saturation was achieved after 26 ED and 19 PC interviews. Emergency department/primary care providers were similar in their perception of patient susceptibility to childhood adversity. Childhood mental health problems were the most frequently referenced adverse outcome, followed by poor childhood physical health. Adult health outcomes because of childhood adversity were rarely mentioned. Many providers felt that knowing about childhood adversity in the medical setting was important because it relates to provision of tangible resources. There were mixed opinions about whether or not pediatric health care providers should be identifying childhood adversities at all. Although providers exhibited knowledge about childhood adversity, the perceived effect on health was only immediate and tangible. The effect of childhood adversity on lifelong health and the responsibility and potential accountability health systems have in addressing these important health determinants was not recognized by many respondents in our study. Addressing these provider perspectives will be a critical component of successful transformation toward more accountable health care delivery systems.

  15. Teamwork skills in actual, in situ, and in-center pediatric emergencies: performance levels across settings and perceptions of comparative educational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael; Geis, Gary L

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric emergencies require effective teamwork. These skills are developed and demonstrated in actual emergencies and in simulated environments, including simulation centers (in center) and the real care environment (in situ). Our aims were to compare teamwork performance across these settings and to identify perceived educational strengths and weaknesses between simulated settings. We hypothesized that teamwork performance in actual emergencies and in situ simulations would be higher than for in-center simulations. A retrospective, video-based assessment of teamwork was performed in an academic, pediatric level 1 trauma center, using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (range, 0-44) among emergency department providers (physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, patient care assistants, and pharmacists). A survey-based, cross-sectional assessment was conducted to determine provider perceptions regarding simulation training. One hundred thirty-two videos, 44 from each setting, were reviewed. Mean total TEAM scores were similar and high in all settings (31.2 actual, 31.1 in situ, and 32.3 in-center, P = 0.39). Of 236 providers, 154 (65%) responded to the survey. For teamwork training, in situ simulation was considered more realistic (59% vs. 10%) and more effective (45% vs. 15%) than in-center simulation. In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program.

  16. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in pediatric cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Erika; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Donohoe, Clare; Hertz, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a component of many combination regimens for a variety of malignancies, including several common pediatric tumors. Vincristine treatment is limited by a progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is particularly challenging to detect and monitor in pediatric patients, in whom the side effect can diminish long term quality of life. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding VIPN, focusing on its description, assessment, prediction, prevention, and treatment. Significant progress has been made in our knowledge about VIPN incidence and progression, and tools have been developed that enable clinicians to reliably measure VIPN in pediatric patients. Despite these successes, little progress has been made in identifying clinically useful predictors of VIPN or in developing effective approaches for VIPN prevention or treatment in either pediatric or adult patients. Further research is needed to predict, prevent, and treat VIPN to maximize therapeutic benefit and avoid unnecessary toxicity from vincristine treatment. PMID:27904761

  17. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and psychological distress among intoxicated adolescents in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-02-01

    Studies have emphasized screening for psychiatric disorders, especially suicide risk in emergency departments. Psychiatric disorders and experimentation with alcohol increase in adolescence and intoxications among patients challenge the staff in emergency departments. This study examined the degree of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behavior in adolescents, and the extent to which they differed from non-suicidal patients in terms of alcohol use, psychological distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support. The study comprised 120 adolescents, a mean age of 14.2 years. Of them 60% were females. We collected data on the clinical characteristics and assessed the patient's psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. A consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient before discharge to evaluate potential SI or suicide attempt (SA) using structured and semi-structured scales. Of the 120 patients 20% had SI or had made a SA. High psychological distress in girls, low blood alcohol levels (BALs), as well as low scores on self-esteem, on social support and on familial support were associated with patients with SI/SA. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables with suicidal patients included low BAL and low self-esteem and high alcohol consumption. Psychological distress had a direct and mediational role in the suicidal patients. Adolescents referred to the pediatric emergency department with intoxication displaying high psychological distress and low self-esteem represent a high-risk group of teens. In this group, careful assessment of mental health status, screening for suicidal ideation, and SAs seems warranted.

  18. Clinical efficacy of cycling empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Refusal of medical treatment in the pediatric emergency service: analysis of reasons and aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Halil, Halit; Gürsoy, Cüneyt; Çifci, Atilla; Özgün, Seher; Kodaman, Tuğba; Sönmez, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Refusal of treatment for acutely ill children is still an important problem in the emergency service. When families refuse medical treatment for their acutely ill children, healthcare professionals may attempt to provide information and negotiate with the family concerning treatment refusal and its possible adverse outcomes, and request consent for refusal of medical treatment. There is insufficient data about refusal of treatment in our country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of treatment refusal in the pediatric emergency service. We collected data recorded on informed consent forms. During a 2-year-study period, 215 patients refused treatment recommended by acute health care professionals. The majorty of patients were in the 0-2 year age group. Hospitalization was the type of treatment most commonly refused; restrictions regarding family members staying with their children during hospitalization and admission to another hospital were the major reasons for refusal of treatment. Clarifying the reasons for treatment refusal may help us to overcome deficiencies, improve conditions, resolve problems and build confidence between healthcare providers and service users, increasing users' satisfaction in the future.

  20. Trends in CT Request and Related Outcomes in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Saiful Islam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study and to establish the overall trends of computed tomography (CT use and associated outcomes in the pediatric emergency department (PED at Royal Hospital, Oman, from 2010 to 2014. Methods: The hospital electronic medical record was retrospectively searched to find children (from birth to 12 years old who had visited the PED and the number of CT requests between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The types of CT examinations ordered were analyzed according to anatomical location and were as follows; head, abdomen/pelvis, chest, cervical spine/neck, and others. Results: There were a total of 67 244 PED visits during the study period, 569 of which received 642 CT scans. There was a remarkable rise in CT uses per 1000 visits from 7 in 2010 to 12 in 2014. There was a 56% hike in CT requests from 87 in 2010 to 175 in 2014 while the number of pediatric emergency visits rose by about 28% from 11 721 to 15 052. Although head CT scans were the most common, cervical spine CT scans had the highest rate of increase (600% followed by the chest (112%, head (54% and abdomen (13%. There were no significant changes in other CT scan requests. The cost of CT scans increased from $18 096 to $36 400 during the study period, which increased the average PED cost by about $2 per visit. The average time between a CT being requested and then performed was 1.24 hours. Conclusions: CT use in the pediatric emergency department has risen significantly at a rate that markedly exceeds the growth of emergency visits. This is associated with an increase in PED costs and longer waiting times.

  1. Pain Management for Sickle Cell Disease in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Medications and Hospitalization Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Chantel; Vaiselbuh, Sarah; Romanos-Sirakis, Eleny

    2017-10-01

    The majority of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are pain related. Adequate and timely pain management may improve quality of life and prevent worsening morbidities. We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with SCD seen in the ED, selected by sickle cell-related ICD-9 codes. A total of 176 encounters were reviewed from 47 patients to record ED pain management and hospitalization trends. Mean time to pain medication administration was 63 minutes. Patients received combination (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID] + narcotic) pain medications for initial treatment at a minority of ED encounters (19%). A higher percentage of patients who received narcotics alone as initial treatment were hospitalized as compared with those who received combination treatment initially ( P= 0.0085). Improved patient education regarding home pain management as well as standardized ED guidelines for assessment and treatment of sickle cell pain may result in superior and more consistent patient care.

  2. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  3. Environmental pediatrics: an emerging issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Patricia M; Matus, M Soledad; Araya, Gabriela I; Paris, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    To review the most relevant articles regarding environmental pediatrics, its potential effects on health, and especially its advances in prevention. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases. Articles from 1990 to 2010 were reviewed, in addition to book chapters related to environmental pediatrics. There is a significant variety of factors that make children highly vulnerable to environmental hazard exposure, which are mainly associated with children's comparatively greater consumption of water, food, and air in relation to body weight. According to the World Health Organization, every year more than 3 million children under the age of 5 die because of environment-related conditions. Approximately 30 to 40% of pediatric diseases are related to environmental factors. Children are constantly exposed to various environmental health hazards, among which the following stand out: contaminated water, lack of adequate sanitation facilities, air pollution, disease vectors, chemical hazards, injuries, and accidents. Nowadays, pediatricians are challenged to address environmental pediatrics health care needs. The pediatric health history needs to be more comprehensive by adding pointed questions to help identify potential environmental risks. Awareness and understanding of the noxious effects of various environmental conditions and knowledge of the related prevention measures will result in timely and adequate interventions that will improve our children's health and development.

  4. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Einollahi, Behzad; Taheri, Saeed; Panahi, Yunes; Maddani, Abbas; Esfahani, Taher; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation. (author)

  5. Music's relevance for pediatric cancer patients: a constructivist and mosaic research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa; Dun, Beth

    2011-06-01

    Music is important in most children's lives. To advance efficacious pediatric supportive care, it is necessary to understand young cancer patients' thoughts about music. Concern about inviting unwell children to express opinions has resulted in scant research examining their views. "Mosaic" research examines children's experiences through investigating multiple perspectives which inform a "co-constructed meaning." This study examines pediatric cancer patients' and their parents' perspectives about music and music therapy's role in the children's lives. Children were receiving care at three hospitals with the Paediatric Integrative Cancer Service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Children up to 14 years old with cancer and parents participated. Data included transcripts from semi-structured research interviews and observations of children's music behaviors. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Findings were compared with music therapists' perspectives examined elsewhere. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients, median age 5.7 years, and 28 parents. Data "saturation" was achieved. A substantive grounded theory emerged: Children's adverse cancer experiences are often alleviated by music usages. Broader family, social, and electronic musical interactions also promote children's resilience and "normal" development. Music therapy and associated programs often, but not always, alleviate children's distress. Positive effects may carry over into children's home lives and vicariously support families. Health professionals should consider ways to assist parents who are often using music to support children with cancer. Hospitals can promote pediatric cancer patients' resilience by providing music-based support services, including music therapy, and reducing unwanted stressful sounds.

  6. Αpproach techniques and psychological support in pediatric patients: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Patsiala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.

  7. Brown-McLean Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Martinez, Jaime D.; Berrones, David; Juárez-Domínguez, Brenda Y.; Beltrán, Francisco; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented for routine ophthalmic examination after congenital cataract surgery performed at 2 months of age. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral Brown-McLean syndrome by slit lamp examination. No treatment was required because the patient was asymptomatic and had a clear central cornea. This is the first described case of Brown-McLean syndrome in a pediatric patient, representing the importance of clinical examination in the pediatric age group after cataract surgery because of the risk for patients of developing peripheral edema. PMID:26034485

  8. TRANSFER FROM PEDIATRIC TO ADULT ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marybeth R; Robbins, Brett W; Augustine, Marilyn; Doyle, Jackie; Mack-Fogg, Jean; Jones, Heather; White, Patience H

    2017-07-01

    Adult and pediatric endocrinologists share responsibility for the transition of youth with type 1 diabetes from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to increase successful transfers to adult care in subspecialty practices by establishing a systematic health care transition (HCT) process. Providers from the adult and pediatric endocrinology divisions at the University of Rochester Medical Center met monthly to customize and integrate the Six Core Elements (6CEs) of HCT into clinical workflows. Young adult patients with type 1 diabetes having an outpatient visit during a 34-month pre-post intervention period were eligible (N = 371). Retrospective chart review was performed on patients receiving referrals to adult endocrinology (n = 75) to obtain (1) the proportion of patients explicitly tracked during transfer from the pediatric to adult endocrinology practice, (2) the providers' documentation of the use of the 6CEs, and (3) the patients' diabetes control and healthcare utilization during the transition period. The percent of eligible patients with type 1 diabetes who were explicitly tracked in their transfer more than doubled compared to baseline (11% vs. 27% of eligible patients; P<.01). Pediatric providers started to use transition readiness assessments and create medical summaries, and adult providers increased closed-loop communication with pediatric providers after a patient's first adult visit. Glycemic control and healthcare utilization remained stable. Successful implementation of the 6CEs into pediatric and adult subspecialty practices can result in improvements of planned transfers of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes to adult subspecialty providers. 6CEs = six core elements; AYA = adolescent and young adult; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; ED = emergency department; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HCT = health care transition.

  9. The art of communication: strategies to improve efficiency, quality of care and patient safety in the emergency department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The practice of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has been supported by wonderful advancements in diagnostic testing, particularly in medical imaging. One of the most remarkable has been CT, which has arguably become our most valuable diagnostic tool in the emergency department (ED). PEM specialists have grown increasingly aware of quality and safety concerns in the care of children in emergency medical settings, spurred in part by a rapid growth in ED utilization and significant overcrowding. In the midst of this comes the revelation that one of our most valued diagnostic tools might place our youngest patients at a significant risk for the development of fatal cancer. This article reinforces the fundamental importance of communication and teamwork as a means to promote patient care quality and safety in the ED, and it offers partnership strategies for PEM and pediatric radiology specialists to consider as they address these important concerns. (orig.)

  10. The art of communication: strategies to improve efficiency, quality of care and patient safety in the emergency department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Steven E. [Northwestern University, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The practice of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has been supported by wonderful advancements in diagnostic testing, particularly in medical imaging. One of the most remarkable has been CT, which has arguably become our most valuable diagnostic tool in the emergency department (ED). PEM specialists have grown increasingly aware of quality and safety concerns in the care of children in emergency medical settings, spurred in part by a rapid growth in ED utilization and significant overcrowding. In the midst of this comes the revelation that one of our most valued diagnostic tools might place our youngest patients at a significant risk for the development of fatal cancer. This article reinforces the fundamental importance of communication and teamwork as a means to promote patient care quality and safety in the ED, and it offers partnership strategies for PEM and pediatric radiology specialists to consider as they address these important concerns. (orig.)

  11. Surgical care of the pediatric Crohn's disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dylan

    2017-12-01

    Despite the significant advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease over the last decade, surgery continues to play a major role in the management of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). While adult and pediatric Crohn's disease may share many clinical characteristics, pediatric Crohn's patients often have a more aggressive phenotype, and the operative care given by the pediatric surgeon to the newly diagnosed Crohn's patient is very different in nature to the surgical needs of adult patients after decades of disease progression. Children also have the unique surgical indication of growth failure to consider in the overall clinical decision making. While surgery is never curative in CD, it has the ability to transform the disease process in children, and appropriately timed operations may have tremendous impact on a child's physical and mental maturation. This monograph aims to address the surgical care of Crohn's disease in general, with a specific emphasis on the surgical treatment of small intestinal and ileocecal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Epidemiology of Pediatric Prehospital Basic Life Support Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Leigh Ann; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; De Leo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Children have unique medical needs compared to adults. Emergency medical services personnel need proper equipment and training to care for children. The purpose of this study is to characterize emergency medical services pediatric basic life support to help better understand the needs of children transported by ambulance. Pediatric basic life support patients were identified in this retrospective descriptive study. Descriptive statistics were used to examine incident location, possible injury, cardiac arrest, resuscitation attempted, chief complaint, primary symptom, provider's primary impression, cause of injury, and procedures performed during pediatric basic life support calls using the largest aggregate of emergency medical services data available, the 2013 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) Public Release Research Data Set. Pediatric calls represented 7.4% of emergency medical services activations. Most pediatric patients were male (49.8%), White (40.0%), and of non-Hispanic origin (56.5%). Most incidents occurred in the home. Injury, cardiac arrest, and resuscitation attempts were highest in the 15 to 19 year old age group. Global complaints (37.1%) predominated by anatomic location and musculoskeletal complaints (26.9%) by organ system. The most common primary symptom was pain (30.3%) followed by mental/psychiatric (13.4%). Provider's top primary impression was traumatic injury (35.7%). The most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident (32.3%). The most common procedure performed was patient assessment (27.4%). Median EMS system response time was 7 minutes (IQR: 5-12). Median EMS scene time was 12 minutes (IQR: 8-19). Median transport time was 14 minutes (IQR: 8-24). Median EMS total call time was 51 minutes (IQR: 33-77). The epidemiology of pediatric basic life support can help to guide efforts in both emergency medical services operations and training.

  14. Sensitivity and Specificity of Empiric Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kristen; Tuchman, Lisa; Hayes, Katie L; Badolato, Gia; Goyal, Monika K

    2017-10-01

    To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment. We calculated test characteristics comparing clinician judgment for presumptive treatment for a sexually transmitted infection with the reference standard of the actual results of testing for a sexually transmitted infection. Of 1223 patient visits meeting inclusion criteria, 284 (23.2%) had a positive GC and/or CT test result. Empiric treatment was provided in 615 encounters (50.3%). Provider judgment for presumptive treatment had an overall sensitivity of 67.6% (95% CI, 61.8-73.0) and a specificity of 55% (95% CI, 51.7-58.2) for accurate GC and/or CT detection. Many adolescents tested for GC and CT receive empiric treatment at the initial emergency department visit. Provider judgment may lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for identifying infected patients, resulting in the potential for undertreatment of true disease, overtreatment of uninfected patients, or both. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pediatric chronic patients at outpatient clinics: a study in a Latin American University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveno, Renata A; Miranda, Caroline V; Passone, Caroline G; Waetge, Aurora R; Hojo, Elza S; Farhat, Sylvia C L; Odone-Filho, Vicente; Tannuri, Uenis; Carvalho, Werther B; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Silva, Clovis A

    2017-10-02

    To describe the characteristics of children and adolescentes with chronic diseases of outpatient clinics at a tertiary university hospital. A cross-sectional study was performed with 16,237 patients with chronic diseases followed-up in one year. The data were collected through the electronic system, according to the number of physician appointments in 23 pediatric specialties. Patients were divided in two groups: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) adolescent groups were also analyzed. Of the total sample, 56% were children and 46% were adolescents. The frequencies of following pediatric specialties were significantly higher in adolescents when compared with children: cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, nephrology/renal transplantation, neurology, nutrology, oncology, palliative and pain care, psychiatry, and rheumatology (p<0.05). The frequencies of emergency service visits (30% vs. 17%, p<0.001), hospitalizations (23% vs. 11%, p<0.001), intensive care unit admissions (6% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and deaths (1% vs. 0.6%, p=0.002) were significantly lower in adolescents than in children. However, the number of physician appointments (≥13) per patient was also higher in the adolescent group (5% vs. 6%, p=0.018). Further analysis comparison between early and late adolescents revealed that the first group had significantly more physician appointments (35% vs. 32%, p=0.025), and required more than two pediatric specialties (22% vs. 21%, p=0.047). Likewise, the frequencies of emergency service visits (19% vs. 14%, p<0.001) and hospitalizations (12% vs. 10%, p=0.035) were higher in early adolescents. This study evaluated a large population in a Latin American hospital and suggested that early adolescents with chronic diseases required many appointments, multiple specialties and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of orofacial pain management in a pediatric emergency department and at home after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar de la Red, Yurena; Manrique Martín, Gema; Guerrero Marquez, Gloria; González Herrero, Concepción; Vázquez López, Paula; Míguez Navarro, Concepción

    2018-02-01

    An inadequate pain management is common in the emergency department. Our objective was to analyze pain management among children with an orofacial infection or trauma in the emergency department and to assess compliance and satisfaction with analgesia prescribed at discharge. Cross-sectional, observational and analytical study in children attending the emergency department for an orofacial infection or trauma over 2 months. Pain management in the emergency department, analgesia prescribed at home and, following a call to parents, treatment provided and its adequacy to control pain were registered. In total, 252patients (mean age: 4.5 years, SD: 3.89) were included. Pain assessment was recorded at the triage for 8.7%, and in the medical report, for 3.6%. Analgesia was administered to 41.3% in the emergency room. At discharge, no analgesia was prescribed to 13.9%; scheduled analgesia, to 25.4%; and as needed, to 60.3%. Pediatricians prescribed scheduled analgesia more frequently than surgeons (34.4% versus 16.5%, p Pain assessment and management was scarce in the emergency department. The most common prescription was as needed, contrary to what is recommended in the guidelines. Analgesic control worked better for trauma injuries than for infections. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  17. The dose analysis of 131I treatment in pediatric patients with Graves hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yan; Zhao Deshan; Fu Songhai; Feng Fei; Geng Huixia; Sun Qiting; Lu Keyi; Li Baojun; Li Sijin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the radioactive 131 I dose of treatment in pediatric patients with Graves hyperthyroidism. Method: Fifty one pediatric patients with hyperthyroidism and 150 adult patients with hyperthyroidism were retrospectively analyzed, who were contraindicated or refractory for medical therapy and treated with 131 I in this study. All pediatric and adult patients treated with 131 I were divided into five groups according to the thyroid weight. Group 1: ≤30 g,Group 2: 31∼50 g, Group 3: 51∼70 g, Group 4: 71 ∼90 g and Group 5: >90 g. The pediatric patients were comparable to the adult patients in data distribution of the thyroid weight. All pediatric patients who were either contraindicated or refractory to antithyroid drugs treatment and adult patients received radioactive 131 I treatment with a dose of (2.41±0.71), (3.27±0.97) MBq/g thyroid tissue respectively. The total administrated doses of 131 I in all pediatric and adult patients were (224.36±130.10) MBq and (354.88 ±308.04) MBq respectively. All the pediatric and adult patients treated with 131 I were followed-up (median 32 months, range 24 to 83 months; median 23 months,range 15 to 62 months, respectively). The treatment results were divided into euthyroid, hyperthyroidism, late-onset hypothyroidism and relapsed. Results: The results by followed-up found that 16 and 65 patients became euthyroid, 22 and 56 patients developed late-onset hypothyroidism, 12 and 25 patients still had hyperthyroidism, 1 and 4 patients relapsed after radioiodine therapy in pediatric group and adult group who were treated with 131 I, respectively. The total efficiency was 98% and 97.3%, respectively. There were no statistical significance of treatment effect between pediatric and adult patients (χ 2 =0.058, P>0.05). Conclusion: When the radioactive 131 I dose was administrated in pediatric patients with hyperthyroidism, who were contraindicated or refractory for medical therapy, it is recommended that the

  18. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Elizabeth; Meier, Mary Dawn; Elward, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common hospital-acquired infection among pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Empiric therapy for VAP accounts for approximately 50% of antibiotic use in pediatric ICUs. VAP is associated with an excess of 3 days of mechanical ventilation among pediatric cardiothoracic surgery patients. The attributable mortality and excess length of ICU stay for patients with VAP have not been defined in matched case control studies. VAP is as...

  19. Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs. An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors. Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children's health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%). By understanding health care professionals' information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.

  20. High-Fidelity Simulation of Pediatric Emergency Care: An Eye-Opening Experience for Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Sandra P; Colbourne, Peggy A; Murray, Cynthia L

    2018-01-01

    Background Little attention has been given to in-depth examination of what high-fidelity simulation is like for nursing students within the context of a pediatric emergency, such as a cardiopulmonary arrest. It is possible that such high-fidelity simulation could provoke in nursing students intense psychological reactions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to learn about baccalaureate nursing students' lived experience of high-fidelity simulation of pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Method Phenomenological methods were used. Twenty-four interviews were conducted with 12 students and were analyzed for themes. Results The essence of the experience is that it was eye-opening. The students found the simulation to be a surprisingly realistic nursing experience as reflected in their perceiving the manikin as a real patient, thinking that they were saving their patient's life, feeling like a real nurse, and feeling relief after mounting stress. It was a surprisingly valuable learning experience in that the students had an increased awareness of the art and science of nursing and increased understanding of the importance of teamwork and were feeling more prepared for clinical practice and wanting more simulation experiences. Conclusion Educators should capitalize on the benefits of high-fidelity simulation as a pedagogy, while endeavoring to provide psychologically safe learning.

  1. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  2. Evaluation of radiation dose to pediatric patients during certain special procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Elhag, B.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to measure pediatric entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and effective dose during micturating cystourethrography (MCU), intravenous urography (IVU) and barium studies (barium meal, enema, and swallow) and to propose a local diagnostic reference level (DRL). ESAK was measured for patients using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 236 special pediatric procedures were investigated. 21.7% of the sample comprised barium procedures, 18.6% were MCU procedures while 59.5% of the sample were IVU procedures. The mean ESAK measurements (mGy) were 2.1±0.8, 3.0±23 and 1.2±0.2 for barium meal, enema and swallow in the same order. The mean patient dose for IVU procedures was 12.4±8.7 mGy per procedure and the mean patient dose per MCU procedure was 5.8±7 mGy. Local DRLs were proposed for all procedures. The patient doses in this study are within the reported values, suggesting that pediatric patients are adequately protected. - Highlights: • Pediatric radiation dose has been evaluated for three of the most common fluoroscopic procedures. • Radiation doses were measured using calibrated TLD GR200A. • Pediatric patients of concern and ESAK doses showed large variations. • The patient doses in this study are within the reported studies suggesting that the pediatric patients are adequately protected

  3. Ultrasound Accuracy in Diagnosing Appendicitis in Obese Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bryan E; Camelo, Monica; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Kriger, Diego; Ludi, Daniel; Nguyen, Henry

    2017-10-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in pediatric patients has been growing with the improvement of ultrasound technology and operator skills, but its utility in the increasingly obese pediatric population has not been thoroughly investigated. A retrospective review of all pediatric (≤18 years old) patients with appendicitis who were admitted at a single hospital from 2014 to 2016 was conducted. Patients were stratified into body mass index (BMI) percentile categories based on the centers for disease control guidelines. Comparisons were then made. There were 231 patients with an average BMI percentile of 72.6; 99 (42.9%) who had an ultrasound, of which 54 (54.5%) were positive for acute appendicitis, whereas 43 (43.4%) were nondiagnostic. In patients who had a nondiagnostic ultrasound, 37 had a CT demonstrating acute appendicitis. These were compared with 123 patients who had CT alone demonstrating acute appendicitis. The CT-only group was older (12 vs 9, P appendicitis.

  4. Validation of a pediatric early warning system for hospitalized pediatric oncology patients in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnik, Asya; Méndez Aceituno, Alejandra; Mora Robles, Lupe Nataly; Forbes, Peter W; Soberanis Vasquez, Dora Judith; Mack, Ricardo; Antillon-Klussmann, Federico; Kleinman, Monica; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2017-12-15

    Pediatric oncology patients are at high risk of clinical deterioration, particularly in hospitals with resource limitations. The performance of pediatric early warning systems (PEWS) to identify deterioration has not been assessed in these settings. This study evaluates the validity of PEWS to predict the need for unplanned transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) among pediatric oncology patients in a resource-limited hospital. A retrospective case-control study comparing the highest documented and corrected PEWS score before unplanned PICU transfer in pediatric oncology patients (129 cases) with matched controls (those not requiring PICU care) was performed. Documented and corrected PEWS scores were found to be highly correlated with the need for PICU transfer (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.940 and 0.930, respectively). PEWS scores increased 24 hours prior to unplanned transfer (P = .0006). In cases, organ dysfunction at the time of PICU admission correlated with maximum PEWS score (correlation coefficient, 0.26; P = .003), patients with PEWS results ≥4 had a higher Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) (P = .028), and PEWS results were higher in patients with septic shock (P = .01). The PICU mortality rate was 17.1%; nonsurvivors had higher mean PEWS scores before PICU transfer (P = .0009). A single-point increase in the PEWS score increased the odds of mechanical ventilation or vasopressors within the first 24 hours and during PICU admission (odds ratio 1.3-1.4). PEWS accurately predicted the need for unplanned PICU transfer in pediatric oncology patients in this resource-limited setting, with abnormal results beginning 24 hours before PICU admission and higher scores predicting the severity of illness at the time of PICU admission, need for PICU interventions, and mortality. These results demonstrate that PEWS aid in the identification of clinical deterioration in this high-risk population, regardless of a hospital

  5. Usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide as an indicator of dehydration in pediatric emergency departments: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Won; Jeon, Woochan; Min, Young Gi; Lee, Ji Sook

    2017-09-01

    Physician assessment of hydration status is one of the most important factors in the management of dehydration in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Overestimating dehydration may lead to overtreatment with intravenous fluids or unnecessary hospitalization, whereas underestimation may lead to delayed therapy and aggravation of symptoms. Various methods to estimate hydration status have been proposed, including use of physical findings, body weight, and laboratory results. These methods are subjective, invasive, or inappropriate for application in the ED. A few studies have investigated the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as an acidosis parameter in cases of gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of ETCO2 as an objective and noninvasive dehydration parameter for children.A retrospective observational study was conducted in the regional emergency center of a tertiary university hospital for a period of 1 year. We included patients from the ED whose primary diagnosis was acute gastroenteritis. Among these, we enrolled patients with recorded ETCO2 and bicarbonate concentration (HCO3) levels. We collected information of clinical characteristics, vital signs, clinical dehydration scale (CDS) scores, laboratory test results, and final disposition. Correlations between ETCO2 and HCO3 as well as CDS scores were analyzed.A total of 105 children were finally enrolled in the study. All participants underwent laboratory testing and were mildly to severely dehydrated, with mean serum HCO3 20.7 ± 3.5 mmol/L. A total 95 (90.5%) patients had a CDS score dehydration, and 10 (9.5%) patients had CDS ≥5, considered moderate-to-severe dehydration. The mean ETCO2 level was 32.1 ± 6.1 mmHg. Pearson correlation indicated a weak link between ETCO2 and HCO3 (correlation coefficient = 0.32), despite being statistically significant (P = .001). In addition, ETCO2 and CDS score showed a weak negative correlation (r

  6. Constipation in pediatric patients with lower urinary tract symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Nawaz, G.; Jamil, I.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of constipation in patients with pediatric age group presenting with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient Department of Urology in Pakistan Kidney Institute at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from November 2012 to February 2014. Methodology: Two hundred pediatric patients presenting with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) were studied in terms of age, gender, obstructive and irritative types of LUTS along with any associated symptoms. Constipation was assessed by Bristol stool chart in these patients. Patients with exstrophy of bladder were excluded from the study. Descriptive statistics were measured for both qualitative and quantitative variables. For qualitative variables like gender, presenting symptoms, constipation and stool types, percentages and frequencies were calculated. For quantitative variables like age, percentages / mean ± SD were calculated. Results: Mean age was 6.87 ± 3.64 years with a range of 2 - 14 years. Constipation was found in 37.5% of the pediatric patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Conclusion: Constipation is frequent and overlooked problem in pediatric patients having urinary symptoms. Irritative lower urinary tract symptoms are more common. Children up to 5 years of age are the most common sufferers. Knowing the burden of constipation in such patients can help physicians in better treatment of such cases. (author)

  7. Emergency wounds treated with cyanoacrylate and long-term results in pediatrics: a series of cases; what are the advantages and boards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursoy Sonnur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (ECA is a tissue adhesive material applied to close superficial wounds. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of cyanoacrylates in the emergency department in children with current application with regard to cost-effectiveness, satisfaction and long follow up. Findings Patients were treated after assignment of the consent with an explanation by the relatives in a tertiary emergency department (ED, 2007. The evaluation was based on different superficial wound repairs due to blunt trauma within a 2-hour time period ( A total of 9 patients were evaluated and followed for 6 months. Except for one, all children were treated without any serious complications. ECA was cost-effective, time-saving, and provided successful repair satisfaction by a blinded plastic surgeon and patient/parents. Conclusion This report displayed the pediatric effective use of cyanoacrylates, even in non- traditional repairs in the emergency departments.

  8. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D

    2002-01-01

    Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice. PMID:12460456

  9. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Camilo; Murcia, Diana J.; Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn; Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  10. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Camilo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Murcia, Diana J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Quality and Safety Office, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S. [Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  11. Development and assessment of a pediatric emergency medicine simulation and skills rotation: meeting the demands of a large pediatric clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine K. Fielder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To implement a curriculum using simulation and skills training to augment a Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM rotation within a pediatric clerkship. Background: PEM faculty are often challenged with a high learner to teacher ratio in a chaotic clinical setting. This challenge was heightened when our pediatric clerkship's traditional 1-week PEM rotation (consisting of 4 students completing four 8-hour ED shifts/week expanded to 8 students every 2 weeks. We sought to meet this challenge by integrating simulation-based education into the rotation. Methods: Clerkship students from March to June 2012 completed our traditional rotation. Students between July and October 2012 completed the new PEM-SIM curriculum with 19 hours ED shifts/week and 16 hours/week of simulation/skills training. Pre/post-tests evaluated 1 medical management/procedural comfort (five-point Likert scale; and 2 PEM knowledge (15 multiple-choice questions. Results: One hundred and nine students completed the study (48 traditional, 61 PEM-SIM. Improvement in comfort was significantly higher for the PEM-SIM group than the traditional group for 6 of 8 (75% medical management items (p<0.05 and 3 of 7 (43% procedures, including fracture splinting, lumbar puncture, and abscess incision/drainage (p<0.05. PEM-SIM students had significantly more improvement in mean knowledge compared to the traditional group (p<0.001. Conclusions: We have successfully integrated 16 hours/week of faculty-facilitated simulation-based education into a PEM rotation within our clerkship. This curriculum is beneficial in clinical settings with high learner to teacher ratios and when patient care experiences alone are insufficient for all students to meet rotation objectives.

  12. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF DATA PREPROCESSING AND GEOSPATIAL MEASURES FOR OPTIMIZING THE NEUROLOGICAL AND OTHER PEDIATRIC EMERGENCIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Time management, optimal and timed determination of emergency severity as well as optimizing the use of available human and material resources are crucial areas of emergency services. A starting point for achieving these optimizations can be considered the analysis and preprocess of real data from the emergency services. The benefits of performing this method consist in exposing more useful structures to data modelling algorithms which consequently will reduce overfitting and improves accuracy. This paper aims to offer practical recommendations for data preprocessing measures including feature selection and discretization of numeric attributes regarding age, duration of the case, season, period, week period (workday, weekend and geospatial location of neurological and other pediatric emergencies. An analytical, retrospective study was conducted on a sample consisting of 933 pediatric cases, from UPU-SMURD Sibiu, 01.01.2014 – 27.02.2017 period.

  13. Childhood Drowning: Review of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Departments of 2 Large Tertiary Care Pediatric Hospitals Near and Distant From the Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Neta; Scolnik, Dennis; Rimon, Ayelet; Balla, Uri; Glatstein, Miguel

    2018-02-05

    Drowning is a leading cause of death among infants and toddlers. Unique physiological and behavioral factors contribute to high mortality rates. Drowning incidents predominantly occur during warmer months and holidays. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of pediatric drowning victims who attended 2 different emergency departments (EDs), 1 near and 1 distant from the sea coast, to recognize risk factors, complications, causes of death, and the educational needs of families and caregivers. Retrospective cohort analysis of incident history, clinical presentation, treatments, and outcomes of drowning victims was performed. Data were analyzed both by age group and proximity of institution to the sea coast. From 2005 to 2015, 70 drowning patients presented to the 2 institutions; there was no difference in incident history or outcomes based on proximity to the sea coast. Fifty-six percent of patients were younger than 6 years, the majority drowning in pools. More of the older children drowned in the sea (48% vs 23%). Half of all patients were treated and followed in the ED or ward, and the other half were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit; 12 suffered severe complications, including 5 diagnosed with brain death. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed in 80% of the fatal group and 23% of the nonfatal group (P = 0.006). Seven children who experienced a cardiac arrest with hypothermia were treated before arrival in the ED, and 5 had ongoing cardiac arrest upon arrival in the ED (these were the 5 suffering brain death). Most of patients younger than 6 years drowned in swimming pools, suggesting that parents are perhaps less vigilant in these circumstances, even though they may remain in close proximity. Active adult supervision entails attention, proximity, and continuity. Educational efforts should be aimed at reminding parents of this, especially in the summer months.

  14. Pediatric hospitalist comanagement of surgical patients: structural, quality, and financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, David I; Rosenberg, Rebecca E; Shaughnessy, Erin E; Schaffzin, Joshua K; O'Connor, Katherine M; Melwani, Anjna; McLeod, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Comanagement of surgical patients is occurring more commonly among adult and pediatric patients. These systems of care can vary according to institution type, comanagement structure, and type of patient. Comanagement can impact quality, safety, and costs of care. We review these implications for pediatric surgical patients. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. Nonaccidental injury in pediatric patients: detection, evaluation, and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Beucher, Meghan; Bechtel, Kirsten; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-07-21

    Emergency clinicians are likely to encounter physical abuse in children, and they must be prepared to recognize its many manifestations and take swift action. Pediatric nonaccidental injury causes considerable morbidity and mortality that can often be prevented by early recognition. Nonaccidental injuries present with a wide array of symptoms that may appear to be medically inconsequential (such as bruising in a premobile infant), but are actually sentinel injuries indicative of child abuse. This issue provides guidance regarding factors that contribute to abuse in children, key findings on history and physical examination that should trigger an evaluation for physical abuse, and laboratory and radiologic tests to perform when child abuse is suspected. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  16. Comparison of two analgesia protocols for the treatment of pediatric orthopedic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryObjective:to compare the efficacy of two analgesia protocols (ketamine versus morphine associated with midazolam for the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children.Methods:randomized clinical trial comparing morphine (0.1mg/kg; max 5mg and ketamine (2.0mg/kg, max 70mg associated with midazolam (0.2mg/kg; max 10mg in the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children treated at the pediatrics emergency room (October 2010 and September 2011. The groups were compared in terms of the times to perform the procedures, analgesia, parent satisfaction and orthopedic team.Results:13 patients were allocated to ketamine and 12 to morphine, without differences in relation to age, weight, gender, type of injury, and pain scale before the intervention. There was no failure in any of the groups, no differences in time to start the intervention and overall procedure time. The average hospital stay time was similar (ketamine = 10.8+5.1h versus morphine = 12.3+4.4hs; p=0.447. The median pain (faces pain scale scores after the procedure was 2 in both groups. Amnesia was noted in 92.3% (ketamine and 83.3% (morphine (p=0.904. Parents said they were very satisfied in relation to the analgesic intervention (84.6% in the ketamine group and 66.6% in the morphine group; p=0.296. The satisfaction of the orthopedist regarding the intervention was 92.3% in the ketamine group and 75% in the morphine group (p=0.222.Conclusion:by producing results similar to morphine, ketamine can be considered as an excellent option in pain management and helps in the reduction of dislocations and closed fractures in pediatric emergency rooms.

  17. Disrupted latent decision processes in medication-free pediatric OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhan, Ceyla; Bulut, Gresa Çarkaxhiu; Gökçe, Sebla; Ozbas, Duru; Turkakin, Esin; Dursun, Onur Burak; Yazgan, Yanki; Balcı, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Pediatric OCD patients were less efficient than controls in accumulating perceptual evidence and showed a tendency to be more cautious. In comparison to post-correct decisions, OCD patients increased decision thresholds after erroneous decisions, whereas healthy controls decreased decision thresholds. These changes were coupled with weaker evidence accumulation after errors in both groups. The small sample size limited the power of the study. Our results demonstrate poorer decision-making performance in pediatric OCD patients at the level of latent processes, specifically in terms of evidence accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NMO in pediatric patients: brain involvement and clinical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, neuroimaging characteristics and positivity of the acquaporin water channel (NMO-IgG in pediatric patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO. This disorder could have a variable clinical expression. To address such variability, the term NMO spectrum has been suggested. METHOD: We evaluated six pediatric patients, with a median age of 11 years at the time of the study, with the diagnosis of NMO by the Wingerchuck criteria. RESULTS: All the cases exhibited bilateral optic neuritis (ON. Four patients had abnormalities on brain MRI from the onset,although only three of them developed symptoms correlated to those lesions during the course of their disorder. NMO-IgG was positive in 80%. CONCLUSION: Optic neuropathy is the most impaired feature in NMO patients. Brain MRI lesions are not compatible with multiple sclerosis and positivity of the NMO-IgG are also present in NMO pediatric patients, confirming the heterogeneity in the expression of this disorder.

  19. Near misses and unsafe conditions reported in a Pediatric Emergency Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Richard M; Chamberlain, James M; Mahajan, Prashant V; Funai, Tomohiko; O'Connell, Karen J; Blumberg, Stephen; Lichenstein, Richard; Gramse, Heather L; Shaw, Kathy N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient safety may be enhanced by using reports from front-line staff of near misses and unsafe conditions to identify latent safety events. We describe paediatric emergency department (ED) near-miss events and unsafe conditions from hospital reporting systems in a 1-year observational study from hospitals participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Design This is a secondary analysis of 1 year of incident reports (IRs) from 18 EDs in 2007–2008. Using a prior taxonomy and established method, this analysis is of all reports classified as near-miss (events not reaching the patient) or unsafe condition. Classification included type, severity, contributing factors and personnel involved. In-depth review of 20% of IRs was performed. Results 487 reports (16.8% of eligible IRs) are included. Most common were medication-related, followed by laboratory-related, radiology-related and process-related IRs. Human factors issues were related to 87% and equipment issues to 11%. Human factor issues related to non-compliance with procedures accounted for 66.4%, including 5.95% with no or incorrect ID. Handoff issues were important in 11.5%. Conclusions Medication and process-related issues are important causes of near miss and unsafe conditions in the network. Human factors issues were highly reported and non-compliance with established procedures was very common, and calculation issues, communications (ie, handoffs) and clinical judgment were also important. This work should enable us to help improve systems within the environment of the ED to enhance patient safety in the future. PMID:26338681

  20. Kocuria kristinae: a true pathogen in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Mao; Chi, Hsin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Fu-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a Gram-positive microorganism, which has rarely been reported as a pathogen that causes infection in humans. Recently, a few studies had concluded that this pathogen can indeed cause infection in immunocompromised hosts. However, the number of reports on K. kristinae infection in pediatric patients is still relatively limited. Clinical data on pediatric patients who had K. kristinae cells isolated from their blood specimens during the period from January 2008 to May 2012 in a tertiary-care hospital in northern Taiwan were gathered and analyzed. Among 12 patients with K. kristinae cells isolated from their blood specimens, laboratory test results confirmed seven to have K. kristinae bloodstream infection. Six of them were premature babies, and one had acute leukemia. The infections were all healthcare associated. All the six premature babies had clinical presentation of sepsis and were inserted with percutaneous central venous catheters. One patient had two sets of blood culture positive for K. kristinae infection, and two premature patients had two sets of K. kristinae isolated, one from blood culture and the other from catheter tip culture, both of which were done at the same time. The leukemic child was inserted with a Broviac catheter and had K. kristinae isolated from both blood specimen and Broviac catheter. In the remaining five patients, K. kristinae infection was considered to be contaminant because they had only one set of positive blood culture and had other recognized infections. K. kristinae can cause infections in premature babies and immunocompromised pediatric patients using long-term intravenous catheters. Therefore, K. kristinae should be considered as a true pathogen and proper treatment should be provided to all susceptible pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Peregrination in the problem pediatric patient. The pediatric Münchhausen syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J

    1984-10-01

    Peregrinating pediatric patients are those who go from physician to physician either within hospitals or from clinic to clinic within a community. They are often the symptom bearers of dysfunctional multiproblem families requiring an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. Because of the obscure nature of the child's pediatric problems, such children are often shunned by the medical profession and other social agencies, setting in motion a sequence of events that can prove detrimental to the child, his family, the community, and the state. This article illustrates the need for an anticipatory, coordinated approach in the management of this complex psychosocial condition.

  2. Implementation and assessment of a training course for residents in neonatology and pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, D; Bellot, A; Villedieu, F; Fazilleau, L; Brouard, J; Guillois, B

    2017-05-01

    Residents must balance patient care and the ongoing acquisition of medical knowledge. With increasing clinical responsibilities and patient overload, medical training is often left aside. In 2010, we designed and implemented a training course in neonatology and pediatric emergency medicine for residents in pediatrics, in order to improve their medical education. The course was made of didactic sessions and several simulation-based seminars for each year of residency. We conducted this study to assess the impact of our program on residents' satisfaction and self-assessed clinical skills. A survey was conducted at the end of each seminar. The students were asked to complete a form on a five-point rating scale to evaluate the courses and their impact on their satisfaction and self-assessed clinical skills, following the French National Health Institute's adapted Kirkpatrick model. Sixty-four (84%) of the 76 residents who attended the courses completed the form. The mean satisfaction score for the entire course was 4.78±0.42. Over 80% of the students felt that their clinical skills had improved. Medical education is an important part of residency training. Our training course responded to the perceived needs of the students with consistently satisfactory evaluations. Before the evaluation of the impact of the course on patient care, further studies are needed to assess the acquisition of knowledge and skills through objective evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in characteristics among new pediatric neurology patients: the effect of a newly established private pediatric neurology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Woodruff, Brian; Freed, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    To investigate changes in volume and characteristics of new patients referred when a private pediatric neurology practice (PP) opened in 2004 in an area served primarily by an academic medical center's (AMC) pediatric neurology practice. Retrospective analysis of medical and billing records to examine changes in volume, diagnosis, and sociodemographic factors of new patients at the AMC from July 2004 to June 2005; the PP during the same period; and the AMC during the year before. One year after the PP opened, 40% more new pediatric neurology patients were seen in this area than the year before. Compared with the AMC, PP saw a greater proportion of seizures (34% vs 26%, P 20 miles from the practice (32% vs 64%, P pediatric neurology patients in this area. After the PP opened, the AMC continued to care for most patients with rare diseases and fewer financial resources. Future research should examine whether the increase in volume reflects relief of pent-up demand or increased referral rates due to eased access, and should elucidate how differences in patient populations at academic and private subspecialty practices relate to access to subspecialty care and financial well-being of academic practices.

  4. Patient doses in CT with special emphasis on pediatric patients in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia; Merad, Ahmed; Toutaoui, Aek; Bairi, Souad; Tsapaki, Virginia; Mansouri, Boudjema

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To estimate the frequency of CT examinations in children 0-15 years of age, to investigate whether exposure factors for children are different than for adults and to evaluate patient dose, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAF 9033). Material and Methods: Two CT machines were included in the study. Weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ). Results: Pediatric CT examinations accoutered for 12-20% of the total exams performed in the CT facilities. For head, chest and abdomen examinations, mAs were reduced for pediatric patients, mainly on an arbitrary manner. One of the CT machines allowed change of kV and in that case kV was reduced for pediatric patients. Chest, Chest-High Resolution, Abdomen, Lumbar spine and Pelvis CTDI w and DLP were lower and IAEA guidance levels in almost all types of exams. It was observed, however, that DLP in one hospital was almost double than the other hospital that was mostly attributed to larger extent of scan length. ) for a single slice and dose length product (DLP) for a complete examination were used to evaluate patient dose. Kilovoltage (kV) and mAs were the exposure factors investigated. Conclusion: The study showed that pediatric examinations reach up to 1/5 of the total exams performed. It is encouraging that exposure factors are reduced, but a more standard method of reduction should be applied. Patient doses were lower that IAEA standards. Further optimization could be done by reducing scan length. (author)

  5. A Qualitative Examination of Physician Gender and Parental Status in Pediatric End-of-Life Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; White, Marjorie Lee; Tofil, Nancy M; Clair, Jeffrey Michael; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-07-01

    In this study we utilized the framework of patient-centered communication to explore the influence of physician gender and physician parental status on (1) physician-parent communication and (2) care of pediatric patients at the end of life (EOL). The findings presented here emerged from a larger qualitative study that explored physician narratives surrounding pediatric EOL communication. The current study includes 17 pediatric critical care and pediatric emergency medicine physician participants who completed narrative interviews between March and October 2012 to discuss how their backgrounds influenced their approaches to pediatric EOL communication. Between April and June of 2013, participants completed a second round of narrative interviews to discuss topics generated out of the first round of interviews. We used grounded theory to inform the design and analysis of the study. Findings indicated that physician gender is related to pediatric EOL communication and care in two primary ways: (1) the level of physician emotional distress and (2) the way physicians perceive the influence of gender on communication. Additionally, parental status emerged as an important theme as it related to EOL decision-making and communication, emotional distress, and empathy. Although physicians reported experiencing more emotional distress related to interacting with patients at the EOL after they became parents, they also felt that they were better able to show empathy to parents of their patients.

  6. [A prospective cohort study of the risk factors of emergence agitation in pediatric after general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hao; Tao, Fan; Wan, Hai-fang; Luo, Hong

    2012-05-08

    To evaluate risk factors associated with emergence agitation (EA) in pediatrics after general anesthesia. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 268 pediatric patients aged 2-9 years, who received general anesthesia for various operative procedures in our hospital between January 2008 and October 2011. The incidence of EA was assessed. Difficult parental-separation behavior, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and adverse events were also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the factors associated with EA. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. One hundred and sixteen children (43.3%) had EA, with an average duration of 9.1 ± 6.6 minutes. EA associated with adverse events occurred in 35 agitated children (30.2%). From univariate analysis, factors associated with EA were difficult parental-separation behavior, preschool age (2 - 5 years), and general anesthesia with sevoflurane. However, difficult parental-separation behavior, and preschool age were the only factors significantly associated with EA in the multiple Logistic regression analysis with OR = 3.091 (95%CI: 1.688, 5.465, P < 0.01) and OR = 1.965 (95%CI: 1.112, 3.318, P = 0.024), respectively. The present study indicated that the incidence of EA was high in PACU. Preschool children and difficult parental-separation behavior were the predictive factors of emergence agitation.

  7. Diagnostic Dilemma of Cardiac Syncope in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranya A Hegazy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims Syncope is defined as temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone resulting from an abrupt transient decrease in cerebral blood flow. The present work aimed at determining how diagnostic tests are used in the evaluation of pediatric syncope at a tertiary pediatric referral center and to report on the utility and the yield of these tests.Settings and Design Retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral arrhythmolology serviceMethods and Material The clinical charts of 234 pediatric patients presenting with a primary complaint of syncope with an average age of 7.48 ± 3.82(3.5-16 years were reviewed by the investigators.Statistical analysis used Statistical Package of social science (SPSS version 9,0 was used for analysis of data.Results The commonest trigger for syncope in the study population was early following exercise (n=65 and the commonest prodrome was palpitation, noted in 25 patients. A murmur was present in 19 of our patients (8.3% while 10.7% (n=25 had abnormal ECGs. Of the 106 echocardiograms done, 14 (13.2% were abnormal. Only two of them were missed by ECG. All patients were offered ambulatory 24 hour ECG. One patient with sick sinus syndrome was diagnosed only with Holter.Conclusions Clues to the presence of cardiac syncope may include acute onset of syncope, frequent episodes, low difference between blood pressure readings in supine and erect positions (after standing for 2 minutes and most importantly an abnormal 12 lead ECG. Transthoracic echo and Holter monitoring have low yield in pediatric syncope.

  8. Critical evaluation of emergency stockpile ventilators in an in vitro model of pediatric lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Jason W; Watson, Christopher M; Dwyer, Joe; Kaczka, David W; Simon, Brett A; Easley, R Blaine

    2011-11-01

    Modern health care systems may be inadequately prepared for mass casualty respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Current health policy has focused on the "stockpiling" of emergency ventilators, though little is known about the performance of these ventilators under conditions of respiratory failure in adults and children. In this study, we seek to compare emergency ventilator performance characteristics using a test lung simulating pediatric lung injury. Evaluation of ventilator performance using a test lung. Laboratory. None. Six transport/emergency ventilators capable of adult/child application were chosen on the basis of manufacturer specifications, Autovent 3000, Eagle Univent 754, EPV 100, LP-10, LTV 1200, and Parapac 200D. Manufacturer specifications for each ventilator were reviewed and compared with known standards for alarms and functionality for surge capacity ventilators. The delivered tidal volume, gas flow characteristics, and airway pressure waveforms were evaluated in vitro using a mechanical test lung to model pediatric lung injury and integrated software. Test lung and flow meter recordings were analyzed over a range of ventilator settings. Of the six ventilators assessed, only two had the minimum recommended alarm capability. Four of the six ventilators tested were capable of being set to deliver a tidal volume of less than 200 mL. The delivered tidal volume for all ventilators was within 8% of the nominal setting at a positive end expiratory pressure of zero but was reduced significantly with the addition of positive end expiratory pressure (range, ±10% to 30%; p ventilators tested performed comparably at higher set tidal volumes; however, only three of the ventilators tested delivered a tidal volume across the range of ventilator settings that was comparable to that of a standard intensive care unit ventilator. Multiple ventilators are available for the provision of ventilation to children with respiratory failure in a mass

  9. An update on local anesthesia for pediatric dental patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Vijayan, Ajoy

    2013-01-01

    Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the relevant data on topics involved, and on the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients. PMID:25885712

  10. An update on local anesthesia for pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Vijayan, Ajoy

    2013-01-01

    Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the relevant data on topics involved, and on the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients.

  11. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patient and parental characteristics differ by care management type

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates whether certain patient or parental characteristics are associated with gastroenterology (GI) referral versus primary pediatrics care for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A retrospective clinical trial sample of patients meeting pediatric Rome III IBS criteria was assem...

  12. The utility of presacral drainage in penetrating rectal injuries in adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Kate B; Beazley, Thomas M; Cleveland, Brent; Khaneki, Sina; Markel, Troy A; Hammer, Peter M; Savage, Stephanie; Williams, Regan F

    2017-11-01

    With changing weaponry associated with injuries in civilian trauma, there is no clinical census on the utility of presacral drainage (PSD) in penetrating rectal injuries (PRIs), particularly in pediatric patients. Patients with PRI from July 2004-June 2014 treated at two free-standing children's hospitals and two adult level 1 trauma centers were compared by age (pediatric patients ≤16 years) and PSD. A stratified analysis was performed based on age. The primary outcome was pelvic/presacral abscess. We identified 81 patients with PRI; 19 pediatric, 62 adult. Forty patients had PSD; only three pediatric patients had a drain. Adult patients were more likely to have sustained gunshot wounds (84%), whereas pediatric patients were more likely to sustain impalement injuries (59%). Pediatric patients were more likely to have distal extraperitoneal injuries (56% versus 27% in adults, P = 0.03). PSD was more common in adult patients (59% versus 14%, P = 0.0004), African-Americans (71% versus 11% Caucasian, P adult and pediatric patients. There were three cases of pelvic/presacral abscess, all in the adult patients (P = 0.31); one patient with PSD and two without PSD (P = 0.58). In stratified analysis, there were no differences in any infectious complication between those with and without PSD. Pelvic/presacral abscess is a rare complication of PRI, especially in pediatric patients. PSD is not associated with decreased rates of infectious complications and may not be necessary in the treatment of PRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Telemedicine: Pediatric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bryan L.; Hall, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    Telemedicine is a technological tool that is improving the health of children around the world. This report chronicles the use of telemedicine by pediatricians and pediatric medical and surgical specialists to deliver inpatient and outpatient care, educate physicians and patients, and conduct medical research. It also describes the importance of telemedicine in responding to emergencies and disasters and providing access to pediatric care to remote and underserved populations. Barriers to telemedicine expansion are explained, such as legal issues, inadequate payment for services, technology costs and sustainability, and the lack of technology infrastructure on a national scale. Although certain challenges have constrained more widespread implementation, telemedicine’s current use bears testimony to its effectiveness and potential. Telemedicine’s widespread adoption will be influenced by the implementation of key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, technological advances, and growing patient demand for virtual visits. PMID:26122813

  14. The 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado: integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    To empirically describe the integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care after the April 27, 2011, tornado in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a community with no pediatric emergency department or pediatric intensive care unit and few pediatric subspecialists. Data were obtained in interviews with key informants including professional staff and managers from public health and emergency management agencies, prehospital emergency medical services, fire departments, hospital nurses, physicians, and the trauma program coordinator. A single hospital in Tuscaloosa served 800 patients on the night of the tornado. More than 100 of these patients were children, including more than 20 with critical injuries. Many children were unaccompanied and unidentified on arrival. Resuscitation and stabilization were performed by nonpediatric prehospital and emergency department staff. More than 20 children were secondarily transported to the nearest children's hospital an hour's drive away under the care of nonpediatric local emergency medical services providers. No preventable adverse events were identified in the resuscitation and secondary transport phases of care. Stockpiled supplies and equipment were adequate to serve the needs of the disaster victims, including the children. Essential aspects of preparation include pediatric-specific clinical skills, supplies and equipment, operational disaster plans, and interagency practice embedded in everyday work. Opportunities for improvement identified include more timely response to warnings, improved practices for identifying unaccompanied children, and enhanced child safety in shelters. Successful responses depended on integration of pediatric services into regional systems of care. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Patients Experience in Peadiatric Emergency Waiting Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Siebert, Johan; Wipfli, Rolf; Duret, Cyrille; Gervaix, Alain; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    When visiting the emergency department, the perception of the time spent in the waiting room before the beginning of the care, may influence patients' experience. Based on models of service evaluation, highlighting the importance of informing people about their waiting process and their place in the queue, we have developed an innovative information screen aiming at improving perception of time by patients. Following an iterative process, a group of experts including computer scientists, ergonomists and caregivers designed a solution adapted to the pediatric context. The solution includes a screen displaying five lanes representing triage levels. Patients are represented by individual avatars, drawn sequentially in the appropriate line. The interface has been designed using gamification principle, aiming at increasing acceptance, lowering learning curve and improving satisfaction. Questionnaire based evaluation results revealed high satisfaction from the 278 respondents even if the informative content was not always completely clear.

  16. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally announced. The EZ-IO intraosseous infusion system has received expanded EU CE mark approval for an extended dwell time of up to 72 h and for insertion in pediatric patients in the distal femur. Key values of blood samples for laboratory analysis can be obtained with only 2 ml of blood/marrow waste and do also offer reliable values using an I-Stat point-of-care analyzer. Most problems in using an intraosseous infusion are provider-dependent. In pediatric anesthesia, the perioperative setting should further contribute to reduce these problems. Nevertheless, regular training, thorough anatomical knowledge and prompt availability especially in the pediatric age group are paramount to get a seldom used technique work properly under pressure. More longitudinal data on large cohorts were preferable to further support the safety of the intraosseous infusion technique in pediatric patients.

  17. Avoiding Errors in the Management of Pediatric Polytrauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kenneth; Abzug, Joshua; Bae, Donald S; Horn, Bernard D; Herman, Martin; Eberson, Craig P

    2016-01-01

    Management of pediatric polytrauma patients is one of the most difficult challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Multisystem injuries frequently include complex orthopaedic surgical problems that require intervention. The physiology and anatomy of children and adolescent trauma patients differ from the physiology and anatomy of an adult trauma patient, which alters the types of injuries sustained and the ideal methods for management. Errors of pediatric polytrauma care are included in two broad categories: missed injuries and inadequate fracture treatment. Diagnoses may be missed most frequently because of a surgeon's inability to reliably assess patients who have traumatic brain injuries and painful distracting injuries. Cervical spine injuries are particularly difficult to identify in a child with polytrauma and may have devastating consequences. In children who have multiple injuries, the stabilization of long bone fractures with pediatric fixation techniques, such as elastic nails and other implants, allows for easier care and more rapid mobilization compared with cast treatments. Adolescent polytrauma patients who are approaching skeletal maturity, however, are ideally treated as adults to avoid complications, such as loss of fixation, and to speed rehabilitation.

  18. Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Pickler, Rita H; Lin, Li; Shaw, Richard J; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Redington, Andrew; Curley, Martha A Q

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. Descriptive self-report survey. A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses). None. One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia. Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Uysalol; Ezgi Paslı Uysalol; Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu; Semra Kayaoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide into...

  20. Nonoperative management of pancreatic injuries in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigdem, M.K.; Senturk, S.; Onen, A.; Siga, M.; Akay, H.; Otcu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nonoperative management of minor pancreatic injury is the generally accepted approach. However, the management of major pancreatic injury remains controversial in pediatric patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the safety and efficacy of nonoperative management of pancreatic injury in pediatric patients. Between 2003 and 2009, 31 patients, 28 male and 3 female, with pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma were treated in our clinic. All patients were evaluated by ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and evaluation of serum amylase levels. Patients with ongoing hemodynamic instability after resuscitation or signs of bowel perforation underwent immediate laparotomy, and the remaining patients were conservatively treated. Conservative treatment consisted of nasogastric tube replacement, total parenteral nutrition, monitoring of amylase levels, and serial clinical examination. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall (35.4%). Ten patients (32.2%) had associated extraabdominal injuries, and 18 patients (58.1%) had associated abdominal injuries. The spleen was the most common site of intra-abdominal injury that was associated with pancreatic trauma. Initial amylase levels were normal in 5 patients, whose CT scans revealed pancreatic injury. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) were conservatively treated. Six patients (19.4%) required surgical intervention because of a hollow viscus or diaphragmatic injury and hemodynamic instability. A pseudocyst developed in 11 of the 25 patients who were nonoperatively treated; 6 patients required intervention for the pseudocyst (percutaneous drainage and cystogastrostomy). No patient succumbed to injury. The majority of the pancreatic injuries in pediatric patients can be successfully treated conservatively, unless there is hemodynamic instability and a hollow viscus injury. The most common complication is a pseudocyst. (author)

  1. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice.

  2. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  3. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  4. The Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effectiveness of STRONGkids Tool in the Identification of Malnutrition Risks among Pediatric Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Ulukaya Durakbaşa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of malnutrition along with the risk for the development of malnutrition in hospitalised children has been reported. However, this problem remains largely unrecognised by healthcare workers. Aims: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and effectiveness of STRONGkids nutritional risk screening (NRS tool in the identification of malnutrition risk among pediatric surgical patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 494 pediatric surgical patients (median age 59 months, 75.8% males were included in this prospective study conducted over 3 months. SD-scores 60 months (13.4 vs. 6.6%, p=0.012. Chronic malnutrition was identified in 23 (4.6% of patients with no significant difference between age groups. There were 7 (1.4% children with coexistent acute and chronic malnutrition. The STRONGkids tool revealed that 35.7% of patients were either in the moderate or high risk group for malnutrition. Malnutrition, as revealed by anthropometric measurements, was more likely in the presence of gastrointestinal (26.9%, p=0.004 and inguinoscrotal/penile surgery (4.0%, p=0.031, co-morbidities affecting nutritional status (p<0.001 and inpatient admissions (p=0.014. Among patients categorized as low risk for malnutrition, there were more outpatients than inpatients (89.3 vs. 10.7%, p<0.001 and more elective surgery cases than emergency surgery cases (93.4 vs. 6.6%, p<0.001. Conclusion: Providing data on the prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in a prospectively recruited group of hospitalised pediatric surgical patients, the data acquired in the present study emphasise the need to raise clinician’s awareness about the importance of nutritional status assessment among hospitalised pediatric patients and the benefits of identifying patients at the risk of nutritional depletion before malnutrition occurs. Our findings support the use of the STRONGkids tool among pediatric surgical patients to

  5. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  6. Ultrasound-guided peripheral and truncal blocks in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bilal Delvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound has added a feather in the cap of the anesthesiologists as real-time nerve localization and drug deposition around the nerve structure under real-time guidance is now a reality, as the saying "seeing is believing" has been proven true with the advent of ultrasound in anesthesia. Pediatric patients are a unique group regarding their anatomical and physiological features in comparison with adults; regional blocks in adults with the anatomical landmark and surface marking are almost uniform across the adult population. The landmark technique in pediatric patients is not reliable in all patients due to the variability in the age and size; the advent of ultrasound in assisting nerve localization has changed the way regional blocks are achieved in children and the range of blocks performed on adults can now be performed on pediatric patients; with advances in the technology and dexterity of ultrasound equipment, the chances of success of blocks has increased with a smaller dose of the local anesthetic in comparison to the traditional methods. Anesthesiologists are now able to perform blocks with more accuracy and avoid complications like intravascular injection and injury to the pleura and peritoneum during routine practice with the assistance of high-frequency transducers and top of the range portable ultrasound machines; catheters can be inserted to provide a continuous analgesia in the postoperative period. This review article describes the common peripheral blocks in pediatric patients; the readers are encouraged to gain experience by attending workshops, hands-on practice under supervision, and conduct random controlled trials pertaining to ultrasound-guided blocks in the pediatric age group. The recent literature is encouraging and further research is promising; a wide range of blocks being described in detail by many prominent experts from all over the world.

  7. A Survey of Graduates of Combined Emergency Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Programs: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Ashley M; Chasm, Rose M; Woolridge, Dale P

    2016-10-01

    In 1998, emergency medicine-pediatrics (EM-PEDS) graduates were no longer eligible for the pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) sub-board certification examination. There is a paucity of guidance regarding the various training options for medical students who are interested in PEM. We sought to to determine attitudes and personal satisfaction of graduates from EM-PEDS combined training programs. We surveyed 71 graduates from three EM-PEDS residences in the United States. All respondents consider their combined training to be an asset when seeking a job, 92% find it to be an asset to their career, and 88% think it provided added flexibility to job searches. The most commonly reported shortcoming was their ineligibility for the PEM sub-board certification. The lack of this designation was perceived to be a detriment to securing academic positions in dedicated children's hospitals. When surveyed regarding which training offers the better skill set for the practice of PEM, 90% (44/49) stated combined EM-PEDS training. When asked which training track gives them the better professional advancement in PEM, 52% (23/44) chose combined EM-PEDS residency, 27% (12/44) chose a pediatrics residency followed by a PEM fellowship, and 25% (11/44) chose an EM residency then a PEM fellowship. No EM-PEDS respondents considered PEM fellowship training after the completion of the dual training program. EM-PEDS graduates found combined training to be an asset in their career. They felt that it provided flexibility in job searches, and that it was ideal training for the skill set required for the practice of PEM. EM-PEDS graduates' practices varied, including mixed settings, free-standing children's hospitals, and community emergency departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomaly-Related Pathologic Atlantoaxial Displacement in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Olga M; Ryabykh, Sergey O; Burcev, Alexander V; Gubin, Alexander V

    2018-06-01

    To analyze clinical and radiologic features of pathologic atlantoaxial displacement (PAAD) in pediatric patients and to compose a treatment algorithm for anomaly-related PAAD. Criteria of different types of PAAD and treatment algorithms have been widely reported in the literature but are difficult to apply to patients with odontoid abnormalities, C2-C3 block, spina bifida C1, and children. We evaluated results of treatment of 29 pediatric patients with PAAD caused by congenital anomalies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), treated in Ilizarov Center in 2009-2017, including 20 patients with atlantoaxial displacement (AAD) and 9 patients with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. There were 14 males (48.3%) and 15 females (51.7%). We singled out 3 groups of patients: nonsyndromic (6 patients, 20.7%), Klippel-Feil syndrome (13 patients, 44.8%), and syndromic (10 patients, 34.5%). Odontoid abnormalities and C1 dysplasia were widely represented in the syndromic group. Local symptoms predominated in the nonsyndromic and KFS groups. In the syndromic group, all patients had AAD and myelopathy. A pronounced decrease of space available for chord C1 and increase of anterior atlantodental interval were noted compared with other groups. We present a unified treatment algorithm of pediatric anomaly-related PAAD. Syndromic AAD are often accompanied by anterior and central dislocation and myelopathy and atlantooccipital dissociation. These patients require early aggressive surgical treatment. Nonsyndromic and Klippel-Feil syndrome AAD, atlantoaxial subluxation, and atlantoaxial fixation often manifest by local symptoms and need to eliminate CVJ instability. Existing classifications of symptomatic atlantoaxial displacement are not always suitable for patients with CVJ abnormalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: is computerized tomography a must?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Abdullah; Tutus, Ali; Kayan, Devrim; Yılmaz, Yakup; Bircan, Kamuran

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) cases, and discuss the results and necessity of non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) in these cases. In all, 48 pediatric patients who underwent PNL were retrospectively evaluated. Before PNL, either intravenous urography or CT was performed. In all patients, we evaluated the PNL time, scopy time with stone burden, and complications. During the PNL procedure, we switched to open surgery in two cases: in one because of renal pelvis perforation and in the other because of transcolonic access. In one patient who was scheduled to undergo PNL, we performed open surgery, primarily because we detected a retrorenal colon with CT. The stone burden in 45 patients who underwent PNL was 445 ± 225 mm(2), the PNL time was 51 ± 23 min, and the scopy time was 6.1 ± 2.7 min. We removed nephrostomy tubes 1-4 days after the procedure. In two patients, 24 h after removal of nephrostomy tubes, we inserted double J stents because of prolonged urine extravasation from the tract. In all, 34 of the 45 patients were stone-free, 5 patients had clinically insignificant stone fragments, and 6 patients had residual stones. PNL is a safe and effective method in the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney stones. Clinical experience is the most important factor in obtaining stone-free results. CT should be performed in all pediatric patients in order to prevent colon perforation.

  10. [Music as an adjuvant treatment for anxiety in pediatric oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Herrera-Zaragoza, Octavio René; Jaramillo-Villanueva, Leonel; Anaya-Segura, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Music has been used as adjuvant therapy for anxiety and it is based on scientific principles. Tone, rhythm, harmony and time are crucial for its efficacy. Chemotherapy treatment frequently produces important stress in pediatric patients. This may delay treatment occasionally. Our objective was to determine if adjuvant therapy with music reduces anxiety in pediatric oncologic patients under ambulatory chemotherapy. Time series design. We included patients from 8 to 16 years of age who received ambulatory intravenous chemotherapy at the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. They received treatment as usual on the first day, and music therapy during the second day of chemotherapy. A visual scale was used to categorize the level of anxiety prior and after treatment on both days. We included 22 patients. All patients experienced both moderate and high levels of anxiety prior to chemotherapy treatment on both days. There was a statistically significant reduction of anxiety on both groups after chemotherapy, but with lower levels of anxiety in the intervention group. There is an additional benefit with the use of music therapy in the reduction of anxiety in pediatric patients who receive ambulatory chemotherapy.

  11. Pediatric Early Warning Systems aid in triage to intermediate versus intensive care for pediatric oncology patients in resource-limited hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnik, Asya; Nadkarni, Anisha; Mora Robles, Lupe Nataly; Soberanis Vasquez, Dora Judith; Mack, Ricardo; Antillon-Klussmann, Federico; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2018-04-10

    Pediatric oncology patients hospitalized in resource-limited settings are at high risk for clinical deterioration resulting in mortality. Intermediate care units (IMCUs) provide a cost-effective alternative to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Inappropriate IMCU triage, however, can lead to poor outcomes and suboptimal resource utilization. In this study, we sought to characterize patients with clinical deterioration requiring unplanned transfer to the IMCU in a resource-limited pediatric oncology hospital. Patients requiring subsequent early PICU transfer had longer PICU length of stay. PEWS results prior to IMCU transfer were higher in patients requiring early PICU transfer, suggesting PEWS can aid in triage between IMCU and PICU care. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Management Issues in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients with Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Omar Z; Burd, Randall S

    2017-10-01

    The management of critically ill pediatric patients with trauma poses many challenges because of the infrequency and diversity of severe injuries and a paucity of high-level evidence to guide care for these uncommon events. This article discusses recent recommendations for early resuscitation and blood component therapy for hypovolemic pediatric patients with trauma. It also highlights the specific types of injuries that lead to severe injury in children and presents challenges related to their management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Efficacy and Select Characteristics in Nurses Who Respond to a Pediatric Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Nurses at a suburban northeastern U.S. community hospital reported that they felt unprepared to effectively respond to a pediatric emergency. Empirical data were not available to identify if this local problem was due to a lack of the nurses' self-confidence or if other factors were involved. The purpose of this study was to determine if there…

  14. [Drug administration to pediatric patients: Evaluation of the nurses' preparation habits in pediatric units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétré, S; Weber, M; Socha, M; Le Tacon, S; May, I; Schweitzer, C; Demoré, B

    2018-04-01

    In hospitals, the nursing staff is often confronted with the problem of the preparation and administration of drugs for their pediatric patients because of the lack of indication, pediatric dosage, and appropriate galenic form. The goal of this study was to give an overview of the nurses' preparation habits in pediatric units and highlight their daily problems. This single-center prospective study was conducted through an observation of the nursing staff during the drug preparation process in medicine, surgery and intensive care units. We included 91 patients (55 boys and 36 girls), with an average age of 6.3 years (youngest child, 10 days old; oldest child, 18 years old). We observed a mean 2.16 drug preparations per patient [1-5]. We collected 197 observation reports regarding 66 injectable drugs and 131 oral drugs (71 liquid forms and 60 solid forms). The majority of these reports concerned central nervous system drugs (63/197), metabolism and digestive system drugs (50/197), and anti-infective drugs (46/197). The study highlights the nurses' difficulties: modification of the solid galenic forms, lack of knowledge on oral liquid form preservation or reconstitution methods, withdrawal of small volumes, and vague and noncompliant labeling. This study led to the creation of a specific working group for pediatrics. This multidisciplinary team meets on a regular basis to work toward improving the current habits to both simplify and secure drug administration to hospitalized children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Referral Criteria from Community Clinics to Pediatric Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Urkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to a pediatric emergency department (PED should be medically justified and the need for referral well communicated. The objectives of this paper were (1 to create a list of criteria for referral from the community to the PED, (2 to describe how community physicians categorize their need for referral, and (3 to determine agreement between the physician's referral letter and the selected criteria. We present a descriptive study of referrals to the PED of Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel, during February to April 2003. A list of 22 criteria for referral was created, using the Delphi method for reaching consensus. One or more criteria could be selected from this list for each referral, by the referring community physicians and, independently, based on the physicians' referral letters, by two consultants, and compared. There were 140 referrals included in the study. A total of 262 criteria for referral were selected by the referring community physicians. The criteria most frequently selected were: “Need for same-day consultation/laboratory/imaging result not available in the community” (32.1%, “Suspected life- or organ-threatening infection” (16.4%, and “Need for hospitalization” (15.7%. Rates of agreement regarding criteria for referral between the referring physicians and the two consultants, and a senior community pediatrician and a senior PED pediatrician, were 57.9 and 48.6%, respectively. We conclude that the standard referral letter does not convey in full the level of need for referral to the PED. A list of criteria for referral could augment efficient utilization of emergency department services and improve communication between community physicians and the PED.

  16. Pediatric catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: descriptive analysis of 45 patients from the "CAPS Registry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Horacio; Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Cervera, Ricard; Gregory, Simone; de Meis, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Carlos Ewerton Maia; Aikawa, Nádia Emi; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Springer, Janusz; Niedzwiecki, Maciej; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Given the lack of information about catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pediatric patients, the objective of the current study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment, and outcome of pediatric patients with catastrophic APS and compare them with the adult patients with catastrophic APS. We identified patients who were under 18years of age at time of catastrophic APS diagnosis included in the international registry of patients with catastrophic APS (CAPS Registry). Their main demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment, and outcome were described and compared with those of adult patients with catastrophic APS. From the 446 patients included in the CAPS Registry as of May 2013, 45 (10.3%) patients developed 46 catastrophic events before 18years of age (one patient presented two episodes). Overall, 32 (71.1%) patients were female and the mean age was 11.5±4.6years (range, 3months-18years). A total of 31 (68.9%) patients suffered from primary APS and 13 (28.9%) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The main differences between the two groups of patients were the higher prevalence of infections as precipitating factor for catastrophic event in the pediatric population (60.9% versus 26.8% in the adult population, p<0.001) and of peripheral vessel thrombosis (52.2% versus 34.3%, p=0.017). In addition, catastrophic APS was the first manifestation of APS more frequently in pediatric patients (86.6% versus 45.2%, p<0.001). Interestingly, pediatric patients showed a trend of lower mortality, although the difference was not statistically significant (26.1% versus 40.2%; odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-3.79; p=0.063). No differences were found neither in the laboratory features nor in the isolated or combination treatments between groups. Catastrophic APS in pediatric patients is a rare disease. There are minimal differences in the clinical and laboratory features, treatment, and

  17. Mucoceles of the oral cavity in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wei Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are quite common in the oral cavity, but reports on pediatric patients are very rare. The aims of this study were to present our data and experience in the treatment of mucoceles of the oral cavity in pediatric patients, to compare them with those of other countries, and to remind the pediatric physician to devote much attention to lesions of the oral cavity in children. This retrospective study is based on the record of the patients who received surgical treatment for mucoceles of the oral cavity with pathologic confirmation at the Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, between 2000 and 2004. Patients younger than 18 years were included in this study. The analyzed data included age, gender, site, size, histopathologic findings, surgical methods, and complications. There were a total of 289 patients with mucoceles confirmed by histopathologic examination. As many as 64 patients were younger than 18 years. Of the 64, 34 were girls and 30 were boys; 89.1% of the lesions were in the lower lip; and 48.4% of the lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter. Histopathologic findings showed that all mucoceles were of the extravasation type. As many as 30 patients were treated by carbon dioxide laser vaporization, and two cases recurred (6.67%; 34 patients were treated by surgical excision, and the recurrence rate (5.88% was not statistically different for the treatment methods. The laser vaporization has the advantage of less bleeding, no sutures, and saving time, especially suitable for children with oral mucocele.

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Elizabeth; Meier, Mary Dawn; Elward, Alexis

    2007-07-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common hospital-acquired infection among pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Empiric therapy for VAP accounts for approximately 50% of antibiotic use in pediatric ICUs. VAP is associated with an excess of 3 days of mechanical ventilation among pediatric cardiothoracic surgery patients. The attributable mortality and excess length of ICU stay for patients with VAP have not been defined in matched case control studies. VAP is associated with an estimated $30,000 in attributable cost. Surveillance for VAP is complex and usually performed using clinical definitions established by the CDC. Invasive testing via bronchoalveolar lavage increases the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis. The pathogenesis in children is poorly understood, but several prospective cohort studies suggest that aspiration and immunodeficiency are risk factors. Educational interventions and efforts to improve adherence to hand hygiene for children have been associated with decreased VAP rates. Studies of antibiotic cycling in pediatric patients have not consistently shown this measure to prevent colonization with multidrug-resistant gram-negative rods. More consistent and precise approaches to the diagnosis of pediatric VAP are needed to better define the attributable morbidity and mortality, pathophysiology, and appropriate interventions to prevent this disease.

  19. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  20. Can We Tune Our Pediatric Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Ritu; Kaur, Rajwinder

    2011-01-01

    For the pedodontic team, a child?s dental anxiety poses major management problems. Previously, wide variety of aversive techniques have been used with varying success rates to manage anxious child patients. The present trend advocates the use of nonaversive techniques like distraction in the management of anxious pediatric patients. So the aim of this study is to compare the effect of audio distraction with the normal set up operatory. Thirty patients of age between 4 and 8 years were include...

  1. Dedicated pediatric behavioral health unit: serving the unique and individual needs of children in behavioral health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Purva; Lee, Timothy

    2013-02-01

    Pediatric mental health emergencies are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because emergency departments have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure that is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. The emergency services for behavioral health unit at Akron Children's Hospital is an innovative model for delivering care to pediatric patients with mental health emergencies. A multidisciplinary team using the expertise of emergency services, psychiatry, social work, parent advisory counsel, security services, and engineering/architecture developed the emergency services for behavioral health unit blueprint, process, and staffing model.

  2. Pleurodesis for effusions in pediatric oncology patients at end of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, Fredric A.; Hancock, Michael L.; Rai, Shesh N.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Oigbokie, Nikita; Rao, Bhaskar

    2007-01-01

    Pleurodesis for end-of-life care has been used in adults for decades, but little is known about the usefulness of this technique in improving the quality of care for pediatric patients. To assess whether intractable pleural effusions in pediatric oncology patients at end of life could be sufficiently relieved by pleurodesis. Eleven pleurodeses were performed with doxycycline in seven pediatric cancer patients (age 3-21 years) with intractable pleural effusions at the end of life. Five patients had unilateral pleurodeses and two had a unilateral followed by bilateral pleurodeses. Respiratory rates decreased in all seven patients (P = 0.016) and aeration improved significantly after chest tube placement (P = 0.033). The chest tubes were placed a median of 1 day before pleurodesis. Eight of nine chest tubes (89%) were removed before discharge at a median of 3 days after pleurodesis. Pain secondary to the pleurodesis lasted 1 day or less. Improvement in the respiratory rate remained after pleurodesis and chest tube removal (P = 0.031). Five of seven patients (70%) were able to leave the hospital to return home. The five patients discharged lived 10 to 49 days (median 19 days) after discharge. Pediatric oncology patients with intractable effusions at end of life can have respiratory benefit from pleurodeses and, as a result, are more likely to return home for terminal care. (orig.)

  3. Pleurodesis for effusions in pediatric oncology patients at end of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Fredric A. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Department of Radiology, R-5438, Seattle, WA (United States); Hancock, Michael L.; Rai, Shesh N. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Hinds, Pamela S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Nursing Research, Memphis, TN (United States); Oigbokie, Nikita [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Rao, Bhaskar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Pleurodesis for end-of-life care has been used in adults for decades, but little is known about the usefulness of this technique in improving the quality of care for pediatric patients. To assess whether intractable pleural effusions in pediatric oncology patients at end of life could be sufficiently relieved by pleurodesis. Eleven pleurodeses were performed with doxycycline in seven pediatric cancer patients (age 3-21 years) with intractable pleural effusions at the end of life. Five patients had unilateral pleurodeses and two had a unilateral followed by bilateral pleurodeses. Respiratory rates decreased in all seven patients (P = 0.016) and aeration improved significantly after chest tube placement (P = 0.033). The chest tubes were placed a median of 1 day before pleurodesis. Eight of nine chest tubes (89%) were removed before discharge at a median of 3 days after pleurodesis. Pain secondary to the pleurodesis lasted 1 day or less. Improvement in the respiratory rate remained after pleurodesis and chest tube removal (P = 0.031). Five of seven patients (70%) were able to leave the hospital to return home. The five patients discharged lived 10 to 49 days (median 19 days) after discharge. Pediatric oncology patients with intractable effusions at end of life can have respiratory benefit from pleurodeses and, as a result, are more likely to return home for terminal care. (orig.)

  4. Pediatric issues in disaster management, part 2: evacuation centers and family separation/reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E; Sharieff, Ghazala; Bern, Andrew; Benjamin, Lee; Burbulys, Dave; Johnson, Ramon; Schreiber, Merritt

    2010-01-01

    Although children and infants are likely to be victims in a disaster and are more vulnerable in a disaster than adults, disaster planning and management has often overlooked the specific needs of pediatric patients. We discuss key components of disaster planning and management for pediatric patients including emergency medical services, hospital/facility issues, evacuation centers, family separation/reunification, children with special healthcare needs, mental health issues, and overcrowding/surge capacity. Specific policy recommendations and an appendix with detailed practical information and algorithms are included. The first part of this three part series on pediatric issues in disaster management addresses the emergency medical system from the field to the hospital and surge capacity including the impact of crowding. The second part addresses the appropriate set up and functioning of evacuation centers and family separation and reunification. The third part deals with special patient populations: the special healthcare needs patient and mental health issues.

  5. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Recurrent severe abdominal pain in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homme, James L; Foster, Ashley A

    2014-05-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is a blockage occurring at the junction of the ureter and the renal pelvis. Pediatric patients with UPJO pose a diagnostic challenge when they present to the emergency department (ED) with severe recurrent abdominal pain if there is not a level of suspicion for this condition. Our aim was to review presentation of UPJO to the ED, methods of diagnosis, and treatment of this common but often overlooked condition. We report on 2 patients, a 9-year-old and 3-year-old, who had multiple presentations to health care providers and the ED with intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain. Subsequent testing, including ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) with diuretic-recreated symptoms, revealed UPJO. Open pyeloplasty was performed, resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. UPJO is an important diagnosis to consider when patients present to the ED with recurrent abdominal pain. US can be helpful in suspecting the diagnosis, but often CT, magnetic resonance urography, or diuretic scintigraphy is required for confirmation. Diuretics can be used to aid diagnostic testing by reproducing abdominal pain at the time of imaging. Referral to a urologist for open pyeloplasty is definitive treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric morphea (localized scleroderma): review of 136 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen-Zaech, Stéphanie; Hakim, Miriam D; Afsar, F Sule; Paller, Amy S

    2008-09-01

    Morphea is an autoimmune inflammatory sclerosing disorder that may cause permanent functional disability and disfigurement. We sought to determine the clinical features of morphea in a large pediatric cohort. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 136 pediatric patients with morphea from one center, 1989 to 2006. Most children showed linear morphea, with a disproportionately high number of Caucasian and female patients. Two patients with rapidly progressing generalized or extensive linear morphea and arthralgias developed restrictive pulmonary disease. Initial oral corticosteroid treatment and long-term methotrexate administration stabilized and/or led to disease improvement in most patients with aggressive disease. Retrospective analysis, relatively small sample size, and risk of a selected referral population to the single site are limitations. These data suggest an increased prevalence of morphea in Caucasian girls, and support methotrexate as treatment for problematic forms. Visceral manifestations rarely occur; the presence of progressive problematic cutaneous disease and arthralgias should trigger closer patient monitoring.

  8. Putting patient participation into practice in pediatrics-results from a qualitative study in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Katharina Maria; Wangmo, Tenzin; De Clercq, Eva; Badarau, Domnita Oana; Ansari, Marc; Kühne, Thomas; Niggli, Felix; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2016-09-01

    Adequate participation of children and adolescents in their healthcare is a value underlined by several professional associations. However, little guidance exists as to how this principle can be successfully translated into practice. A total of 52 semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 parents, 17 children, and 16 pediatric oncologists. Questions pertained to participants' experiences with patient participation in communication and decision-making. Applied thematic analysis was used to identify themes with regard to participation. Three main themes were identified: (a) modes of participation that captured the different ways in which children and adolescents were involved in their healthcare; (b) regulating participation, that is, regulatory mechanisms that allowed children, parents, and oncologists to adapt patient involvement in communication and decision-making; and (c) other factors that influenced patient participation. This last theme included aspects that had an overall impact on how children participated. Patient participation in pediatrics is a complex issue and physicians face considerable challenges in facilitating adequate involvement of children and adolescents in this setting. Nonetheless, they occupy a central role in creating room for choice and guiding parents in involving their child. Adequate training of professionals to successfully translate the principle of patient participation into practice is required. •Adequate participation of pediatric patients in communication and decision-making is recommended by professional guidelines but little guidance exists as to how to translate it into practice. What is New: •The strategies used by physicians, parents, and patients to achieve participation are complex and serve to both enable and restrict children's and adolescents' involvement.

  9. [Management of agitated, violent or psychotic patients in the emergency department: an overdue protocol for an increasing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Busselo, M T; Aragó Domingo, J; Nuño Ballesteros, A; Loño Capote, J; Ochando Perales, G

    2005-12-01

    Patients with extreme agitation, delirium, violent behavior or acute psychosis are frequently evaluated in the emergency departments of general hospitals. However, the traditional infrequency of this type of situation in pediatric emergency services can lead to a certain lack of foresight and efficiency in the initial management of these patients. Because of the current known increase of psychosocial disorders in pediatric emergencies, new pharmacological treatments for juvenile psychotic processes, and particularly the lack of compliance with these treatments, as well as the earlier consumption of ever more varied illicit drugs among young people, the frequency and diversity of this kind of disorder is on the increase. The treatment of agitation, aggression and violence begins with successful management of the acute episode, followed by strategies designed to reduce the intensity and frequency of subsequent episodes. The key to safety is early intervention to prevent progression from agitation to aggression and violence. Consequently, urgent measures designed to inhibit agitation should be adopted without delay by the staff initially dealing with the patient, usually in the emergency unit. Patients with psychomotor agitation disorder (PMAD) may require emergency physical and/or chemical restraints for their own safety and that of the healthcare provider in order to prevent harmful clinical sequelae and to expedite medical evaluation to determine the cause. However, the risks of restraint measures must be weighed against the benefits in each case. This review aims to present the emergency measures to be taken in children with PMAD. The distinct etiological situations and criteria for the choice of drugs for chemical restraint in each situation, as well as the complications associated with certain drugs, are discussed. It is advisable, therefore, that health professionals become familiar with the distinct pharmacological options.

  10. Establishing research priorities for patient safety in emergency medicine: a multidisciplinary consensus panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Amy C; Stang, Antonia S; Calder, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety in the context of emergency medicine is a relatively new field of study. To date, no broad research agenda for patient safety in emergency medicine has been established. The objective of this study was to establish patient safety-related research priorities for emergency medicine. These priorities would provide a foundation for high-quality research, important direction to both researchers and health-care funders, and an essential step in improving health-care safety and patient outcomes in the high-risk emergency department (ED) setting. A four-phase consensus procedure with a multidisciplinary expert panel was organized to identify, assess, and agree on research priorities for patient safety in emergency medicine. The 19-member panel consisted of clinicians, administrators, and researchers from adult and pediatric emergency medicine, patient safety, pharmacy, and mental health; as well as representatives from patient safety organizations. In phase 1, we developed an initial list of potential research priorities by electronically surveying a purposeful and convenience sample of patient safety experts, ED clinicians, administrators, and researchers from across North America using contact lists from multiple organizations. We used simple content analysis to remove duplication and categorize the research priorities identified by survey respondents. Our expert panel reached consensus on a final list of research priorities through an in-person meeting (phase 3) and two rounds of a modified Delphi process (phases 2 and 4). After phases 1 and 2, 66 unique research priorities were identified for expert panel review. At the end of phase 4, consensus was reached for 15 research priorities. These priorities represent four themes: (1) methods to identify patient safety issues (five priorities), (2) understanding human and environmental factors related to patient safety (four priorities), (3) the patient perspective (one priority), and (4) interventions for

  11. Mucoceles of the oral cavity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Han Jen; Chen, Chun-Ming; Huang, I-Yueh

    2011-07-01

    Mucoceles are quite common in the oral cavity, but reports on pediatric patients are very rare. The aims of this study were to present our data and experience in the treatment of mucoceles of the oral cavity in pediatric patients, to compare them with those of other countries, and to remind the pediatric physician to devote much attention to lesions of the oral cavity in children. This retrospective study is based on the record of the patients who received surgical treatment for mucoceles of the oral cavity with pathologic confirmation at the Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, between 2000 and 2004. Patients younger than 18 years were included in this study. The analyzed data included age, gender, site, size, histopathologic findings, surgical methods, and complications. There were a total of 289 patients with mucoceles confirmed by histopathologic examination. As many as 64 patients were younger than 18 years. Of the 64, 34 were girls and 30 were boys; 89.1% of the lesions were in the lower lip; and 48.4% of the lesions were less than 5mm in diameter. Histopathologic findings showed that all mucoceles were of the extravasation type. As many as 30 patients were treated by carbon dioxide laser vaporization, and two cases recurred (6.67%); 34 patients were treated by surgical excision, and the recurrence rate (5.88%) was not statistically different for the treatment methods. The laser vaporization has the advantage of less bleeding, no sutures, and saving time, especially suitable for children with oral mucocele. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma.

  13. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aube, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma. (orig.)

  14. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aube, Christophe [University Hospital of Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France)

    2016-12-15

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma. (orig.)

  15. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  16. Pediatric invasive fungal rhinosinusitis: An investigation of 17 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Daniel; Yim, Michael; Dutta, Ankhi; Jones, John K; Zhang, Wei; Sitton, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    To investigate outcomes of pediatric patients at a single institution with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) and to determine variables that impact overall survival. All pediatric patients at a large tertiary children's hospital diagnosed with IFRS confirmed by surgical pathology from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, underlying diseases, symptoms, antifungal therapy, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), surgical management,and outcomes were analyzed. Seventeen patients were identified with IFRS with an average age of 8.7 years and 53% male. Hematologic malignancy was the most common (n = 13) underlying disease. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (82%) and congestion (41%). 15 patients had severe neutropenia (Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) IFRS. Overall survival at 6 months was 41%. Pediatric IFRS is a life-threatening disease that requires a coordinated surgical and medical approach. Despite a relatively high local control rate, overall mortality remains disappointingly high, reflecting the disease's underlying pathogenesis - lack of host defense and risk of disseminated fungal infection. Further investigation is necessary to reveal optimal management with regards to antifungal therapy, surgery, and utility of labs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How Residents Learn From Patient Feedback: A Multi-Institutional Qualitative Study of Pediatrics Residents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogetz, Alyssa L; Orlov, Nicola; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Bhavaraju, Vasudha; McQueen, Alisa; Rassbach, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Residents may view feedback from patients and their families with greater skepticism than feedback from supervisors and peers. While discussing patient and family feedback with faculty may improve residents' acceptance of feedback and learning, specific strategies have not been identified. We explored pediatrics residents' perspectives of patient feedback and identified strategies that promote residents' reflection on and learning from feedback. In this multi-institutional, qualitative study conducted in June and July 2016, we conducted focus groups with a purposive sample of pediatrics residents after their participation in a randomized controlled trial in which they received written patient feedback and either discussed it with faculty or reviewed it independently. Focus group transcripts were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. Thirty-six of 92 (39%) residents participated in 7 focus groups. Four themes emerged: (1) residents valued patient feedback but felt it may lack the specificity they desire; (2) discussing feedback with a trusted faculty member was helpful for self-reflection; (3) residents identified 5 strategies faculty used to facilitate their openness to and acceptance of patient feedback (eg, help resident overcome emotional responses to feedback and situate feedback in the context of lifelong learning); and (4) residents' perceptions of feedback credibility improved when faculty observed patient encounters and solicited feedback on the resident's behalf prior to discussions. Discussing patient feedback with faculty provided important scaffolding to enhance residents' openness to and reflection on patient feedback.

  18. Music distraction - its efficacy in management of anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the anxiety of pediatric dental patient has long been the purview of dentists over many years. Various techniques have been used with moderate and variant success rates over the last few years. The main aim of this study was to ascertain if music distraction is an effective means of managing anxiety in pediatric dental patients. Forty children aged between 4 and 8 years were selected for the study. The assessment of anxiety was done using Venham′s picture test, Venham′s anxiety rating scale, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation during different treatment visits. The values were statistically analyzed and it was concluded that audio distraction did decrease the anxiety level in pediatric dental patients, but not to a very significant level.

  19. Reimbursement for pediatric diabetes intensive case management: a model for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joni K; Logan, Kathy J; Hamm, Robert M; Sproat, Scott M; Musser, Kathleen M; Everhart, Patricia D; McDermott, Harrold M; Copeland, Kenneth C

    2004-01-01

    Current reimbursement policies serve as potent disincentives for physicians who provide evaluation and management services exclusively. Such policies threaten nationwide availability of care for personnel-intensive services such as pediatric diabetes. This report describes an approach to improving reimbursement for highly specialized, comprehensive pediatric diabetes management through prospective contracting for services. The objective of this study was to determine whether pediatric diabetes intensive case management services are cost-effective to the payer, the patient, and a pediatric diabetes program. A contract with a third-party payer was created to reimburse for 3 key pediatric diabetes intensive case management components: specialty education, 24/7 telephone access to an educator (and board-certified pediatric endocrinologist as needed), and quarterly educator assessments of self-management skills. Data were collected and analyzed for 15 months after signing the contract. Within the first 15 months after the contract was signed, 22 hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in 16 different patients. After hospitalizations for DKA, all 16 patients were offered participation in the program. All were followed during the subsequent 1 to 15 months of observation. Ten patients elected to participate, and 6 refused participation. Frequency of rehospitalization, emergency department visits, and costs were compared between the 2 groups. Among the 10 participating patients, there was only 1 subsequent DKA admission, whereas among the 6 who refused participation, 5 were rehospitalized for DKA on at least 1 occasion. The 10 patients who participated in the program had greater telephone contact with the team compared with those who did not (16 crisis-management calls vs 0). Costs (education, hospitalization, and emergency department visits) per participating patient were approximately 1350 dollars less than those for nonparticipating patients

  20. Preparation of pediatric patients for treatment with proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Ayuzawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Toshio; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukushima, Takashi; Fukushima, Hiroko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Anesthesia is often used in proton beam therapy (PBT) for pediatric patients and this may prolong the treatment time. The aim of the study was to examine preparation of pediatric patients to allow smooth performance of PBT. Material and methods: Preparation was initiated 1–2 days before treatment planning CT and continued for 10 days. The patient first visited the facility to become familiar with the treatment room and staff. As the second step, the patient stayed in the treatment bed for a certain time with their mother, and then stayed on the treatment bed alone. Special fixtures painted with characters, music, and gifts were also prepared. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 111 pediatric patients underwent PBT. These patients were divided into 3 groups: 40 who could follow instructions well (group A, median age: 13.6 years old), 60 who could communicate, but found it difficult to stay alone for a long time (group B, median age: 4.6 years old), and 11 who could not follow instructions (group C, median age: 1.6 years old). Preparation was used for patients in group B. The mean treatment times in groups A, B and C were 13.6, 17.1, and 15.6 min, respectively, on PBT treatment days 2–6, and 11.8, 13.0, and 16.9 min, respectively, for the last 5 days of PBT treatment. The time reduction was significant in group B (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Preparation is useful for pediatric patients who can communicate. This approach allows PBT to be conducted more smoothly over a shorter treatment time

  1. Zolpidem and Sleep in Pediatric Burn Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Stephanie D; Gottschlich, Michele M; Gose, Lacy M; Kagan, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Existing research shows that hospitalized patients, especially pediatric burn patients, are often sleep deprived. A pre-existing diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) further compounds a burn patient's inability to sleep. This retrospective study compared the effectiveness of zolpidem on patients with acute burns with ADHD (n = 23) and patients with acute burns without ADHD (n = 23). Effectiveness was defined based on the need for a change in the sleep medication or an increase in the zolpidem dose during the first 12 days of treatment. This study found that sleep dysfunction was similar in pediatric burn patients with and without a concurrent diagnosis of ADHD. Sixteen (69.6%) patients with and 13 (56.5%) patients without ADHD required a sleep medication change (p = 0.541). Further, while patients with ADHD required a sleep medication change (median = 5 days) sooner than those without ADHD (median = 9 days), it appears that zolpidem is not an effective drug for managing sleep in pediatric burn patients with or without ADHD.

  2. Dose survey of pediatric and adult patients in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M.; Azevedo, A.C.P.; And others

    2006-01-01

    A survey of radiation doses to children and adults from diagnostic radiography has been carried out in seven hospitals in Sudan. In four hospitals only pediatric examinations were died. In two hospitals only adult patients were recorded and in one hospital both kinds of patients (pediatric and adults) were evaluated. For pediatric patients only chest x-ray examination was evaluated and children were divided according to age ranges: from (0-1) and 5) years for chest AP only and from (5-10) and (10-15) for chest PA. For adult patients the examinations were chest AP and PA, abdomen AP and skull AP and PA. Entrance Surface Dose SD) and the Effective Dose (E) were calculated using the Dose Cal software. The mean ESD r children, measured in p.Gy, ranged from (45-53) and (53-56) for (0-1) and (1-5) years, respectively and from (55-71) and (68-85) for (5-10) and (10-15) years, respectively. In two of le pediatric hospitals the mean ESD values were greater than the CEC Reference Dose Levels. In El bulk and Si nar hospitals the values ranged from 167-261 and 186-308 μGy for the age ranges (0-1) and (1-5) respectively and 167-194 and 279-312 μGy for the age ranges of (5-10) and (10-15) respectively. For adult patients the ESD and E dose values evaluated in Alfisal hospital presented values comparable with the CEC Reference Dose Level. However for Alshorta hospital the values were higher for the chest AP and PA with results for ESD 0.446 and 0.551 mGy respectively

  3. Race and acute abdominal pain in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond; Cross, Keith P

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the demographic and clinical factors of children who present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and their outcomes. A review of the electronic medical record of patients 1 to 18 years old, who presented to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh ED with a complaint of abdominal pain over the course of 2 years, was conducted. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as visit outcomes, were reviewed. Subjects were grouped by age, race, and gender. Results of evaluation, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared between groups by using multivariate analysis and recursive partitioning. There were 9424 patient visits during the study period that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Female gender comprised 61% of African American children compared with 52% of white children. Insurance was characterized as private for 75% of white and 37% of African American children. A diagnosis of appendicitis was present in 1.9% of African American children and 5.1% of white children. Older children were more likely to be admitted and have an operation associated with their ED visit. Appendicitis was uncommon in younger children. Constipation was commonly diagnosed. Multivariate analysis by diagnosis as well as recursive partitioning analysis did not reflect any racial differences in evaluation, treatment, or outcome. Constipation is the most common diagnosis in children presenting with abdominal pain. Our data demonstrate that no racial differences exist in the evaluation, treatment, and disposition of children with abdominal pain.

  4. Trends in the aggressiveness of end-of-life care for Korean pediatric cancer patients who died in 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Dong Park

    Full Text Available In light of the Korean Supreme Court's 2009 ruling favoring a patient's right to die with dignity, we evaluated trends in aggressive care in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective study that used administrative data for patients who died in 2007-2010 among the 5,203 pediatric cancer patients registered at the Korean Cancer Central Registry (KCCR during 2007-2009.In the time period covered, 696 patients died. The proportion who had received chemotherapy in the last 30 days of life decreased from 58.1% to 28.9% (P<0.001, those who received new chemotherapy in the same time period decreased from 55.2% to 15.1% (P<0.001, and those who received treatment in the last 2 weeks of life decreased from 51.4% to 21.7% (P<0.001. In the last 30 days of life, the proportion of patients whose hospital admission period was over 14 days increased from 70.5% to 82.5% (P = 0.03, the proportion who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation decreased from 28.6% to 9.6% (P<0.001, and we found no statistically significant trends in the proportion of emergency department visits, intensive care unit admissions, or mechanical ventilation.In this study, in contrast with earlier ones, the aggressiveness of end-of-life care of Korean pediatric cancer patients decreased dramatically.

  5. Too many pediatric trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, R A; Street, K A; Schunk, J E

    1999-05-01

    Recent reports note a dramatic increase in the number of pediatric trampoline injuries (PTI) during the past several years. In 1996, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that 83 000 patients received treatment for trampoline injuries in US hospital emergency departments (EDs), and that approximately 75% of these patients were trampolines accounted for 99% of PTI. Most injuries (66%) occurred on the trampoline, 28% resulted from falls off, and 4% from imaginative mechanisms. One hundred eleven patients (15%) suffered severe injury (1990 Abbreviated Injury Scale value >/=3), usually of an extremity (89 out of 111). Fractures occurred in 324 patients (45%). Spinal injuries were common (12%), including 7 patients with cervical or thoracic fractures, and 1 with C7 paraplegia. Fractures were more frequently associated with falls off the trampoline, whereas spinal injuries more frequently occurred on the trampoline. Eighty patients (11%) required prehospital medical transport to our ED, 584 (80%) had ED radiographs, and 382 (53%) required pediatric surgical subspecialty involvement. Seventeen percent of PTI patients (125 out of 727) were admitted to the hospital, including 9 to the pediatric intensive care unit; 99 (14%) required one or more operations. Mean hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-63 days); 24 stays (19%) were for >/=3 days. We estimate that the hospital charges for the acute medical care of PTI study patients at our institution totaled approximately $700 000. PTI are dramatically increasing in number, and result in considerable childhood morbidity. Most PTI occur on privately owned trampolines. Few, if any, safety recommendations for the trampoline are followed. We support recommendations for a ban on the recreational, school, and competitive pediatric use of trampolines.

  6. Alternative management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a Brazilian pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoldelli Roberta D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DKA is a severe metabolic derangement characterized by dehydration, loss of electrolytes, hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, acidosis and progressive loss of consciousness that results from severe insulin deficiency combined with the effects of increased levels of counterregulatory hormones (catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone. The biochemical criteria for diagnosis are: blood glucose > 200 mg/dl, venous pH 3 mmol/L and presence of ketonuria. A patient with DKA must be managed in an emergency ward by an experienced staff or in an intensive care unit (ICU, in order to provide an intensive monitoring of the vital and neurological signs, and of the patient's clinical and biochemical response to treatment. DKA treatment guidelines include: restoration of circulating volume and electrolyte replacement; correction of insulin deficiency aiming at the resolution of metabolic acidosis and ketosis; reduction of risk of cerebral edema; avoidance of other complications of therapy (hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyperchloremic acidosis; identification and treatment of precipitating events. In Brazil, there are few pediatric ICU beds in public hospitals, so an alternative protocol was designed to abbreviate the time on intravenous infusion lines in order to facilitate DKA management in general emergency wards. The main differences between this protocol and the international guidelines are: intravenous fluid will be stopped when oral fluids are well tolerated and total deficit will be replaced orally; if potassium analysis still indicate need for replacement, it will be given orally; subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analog is administered at 0.15 U/kg dose every 2-3 hours until resolution of metabolic acidosis; approximately 12 hours after treatment initiation, intermediate-acting (NPH insulin is initiated at the dose of 0.6-1 U/kg/day, and it will be lowered to 0.4-0.7 U/kg/day at discharge from hospital.

  7. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  8. Triage tools for detecting cervical spine injury in pediatric trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaar, Annelie; Fockens, M. M.; Wang, Junfeng; Maas, Mario; Wilson, David J.; Goslings, J. Carel; Schep, Niels Wl; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injury (CSI) after blunt trauma is rare. Nonetheless, missing these injuries can have severe consequences. To prevent the overuse of radiographic imaging, two clinical decision tools have been developed: The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria

  9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is safe and effective for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Bi, Ya-Wei; Ji, Jun-Tao; Xin, Lei; Pan, Jun; Liao, Zhuan; Du, Ting-Ting; Lin, Jin-Huan; Zhang, Di; Zeng, Xiang-Peng; Ye, Bo; Zou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Hui; Xie, Ting; Li, Bai-Rong; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Li, Zhao-Shen; Hu, Liang-Hao

    2017-05-01

    Background and aims  Pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (P-ESWL) is recommended as the first-line treatment for pancreatic stones. However, how well P-ESWL performs in pediatric patients remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of P-ESWL for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods  This prospective observational study was conducted in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis who underwent P-ESWL. Patients aged under 18 years were included in the pediatric group; patients aged over 18 years who underwent P-ESWL in the same period were assigned to the control group. For investigation of long-term follow-up, the pediatric group were matched with patients from the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcomes were P-ESWL complications and pain relief. The secondary outcomes included: stone clearance, physical and mental health, quality of life score, and growth and developmental state. Results  From March 2011 to March 2015, P-ESWL was performed in 1135 patients (72 in the pediatric group, 1063 in the control group). No significant differences were observed in the occurrence of P-ESWL complications between the two groups (11.1 % vs. 12.8 %; P  = 0.68). Among the 67 pediatric patients (93.1 %) who underwent follow-up for 3.0 years (range 1.3 - 5.2), complete pain relief was achieved in 52 patients (52 /67; 77.6 %); this value was not significantly different from that of the matched controls (55 /69; 79.7 %; P  = 0.94). Conclusions  P-ESWL is safe and effective for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. It can promote significant pain relief and stone clearance, and can benefit growth and development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Halley; O'Donnell, Jennifer M; Gordon, Catherine M

    2017-11-01

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is a vital tool for assessing bone health in patients at risk for fragility fractures. In pediatric patients, this technology is used in conjunction with clinical fracture history to diagnosis osteoporosis and monitor treatment response. Childhood and adolescence is characterized by linear growth and bone mass accrual; thus there are important differences in the interpretation of bone measurements obtained by DXA in these young patients. This review aims to explore the current indications for DXA use and interpretation of DXA in the pediatric age group using currently available reference databases. Limitations of DXA in pediatric patients, specifically in children with short stature, will be explored. We will review several pathophysiologic mechanisms that may lead to low bone density in children, discussing representative diseases and the recommendations for monitoring bone health with DXA in these conditions. Finally, we will highlight new methods by which DXA imaging can gather additional information on bone health in children and may improve our ability to predict fractures and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Definitive Diagnosis of Children Presenting to A Pediatric Emergency Department With Fever and Extremity Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiabasis, Nicolas V; Schlechter, John A

    2017-09-01

    Children who present to the emergency department (ED) with complaint of fever and new-onset joint or extremity pain can be a diagnostic dilemma for many emergency and consulting physicians. The purpose of our study was to identify the etiologies of pediatric fever and extremity pain presenting to a tertiary care pediatric ED and to define factors that were associated with advanced imaging, admission, and surgical intervention. The electronic medical records of children presenting to our institution's pediatric ED with fever and extremity pain were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included demographic characteristics, laboratory studies, diagnostic imaging, need for admission, and surgical procedures. The initial ED diagnosis was consistent with the definitive diagnosis 42% of the time. Children with the inability to bear weight on the affected limb were more likely to have a bacterial infection, such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or intramuscular abscess (p = 0.016). An erythrocyte sedimentation rate >36 mm/hour and C-reactive protein levels >60 mg/L were found in children with osteomyelitis or septic arthritis (p = 0.043 and diagnosis. The inability to bear weight, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are associated with bacterial infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful imaging modality in determining an accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sedation of Pediatric Patients in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricks, Alesia

    2000-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to explore the combination sedative of ketamine, midazolam, and atropine administered intramuscularly and determine if it is safe and effective for pediatric patients...

  13. Radiation Measurement And Risk Estimation For Pediatric Patients During Routine Diagnostic Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushra, E.; Sulieman, A.; Osman, H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to the patient using Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) during some common routine pediatrics X-ray examinations in main pediatrics hospitals in Sudan. ESD and Effective Dose (E) for pediatrics have been carried out for 250 patients undergoing five different examinations. The mean ESD ranged for neonates ranged between 0.17 mGy-0.30 mGy per radiograph with scattered thyroid dose 0.01 to 0.19 mGy. The risk of radiation induced cancer of was 0.13 x 10-6.

  14. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  15. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  16. Characterizing mortality in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamura, Jamie L; Yuen, Sonia; Kawai, Kosuke; Gergin, Ozgul; Adil, Eelam; Rahbar, Reza; Watters, Karen

    2017-07-01

    To assess the longitudinal risk of death following tracheostomy in the pediatric age group. Retrospective cohort study. Hospital records of 513 children (≤18 years) at a tertiary care children's hospital who underwent tracheostomy between 1984 and 2015 were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was time from tracheostomy to death. Secondary patient demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed, with likelihood of death using χ 2 tests and the Cox proportional hazards model. Median age at time of tracheostomy was 0.8 years (interquartile range, 0.3-5.2 years).The highest mortality rate (27.8%) was observed in patients in the 13- to 18-year-old age category; their mortality rate was significantly higher when compared to the lowest mortality risk group patients (age 1-4 years, P = .031). Timing of death was evenly distributed: 1 year after tracheostomy (35.3%). Patients who underwent tracheostomy for cardiopulmonary disease had an increased risk of mortality compared with airway obstruction (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.72-7.24, P tracheostomy have a high mortality rate, with an increased risk of death associated with a cardiopulmonary indication for undergoing tracheostomy. The majority of deaths occur after the index hospitalization during which the tracheostomy was performed. BPD and CHD are independent predictors of mortality in pediatric tracheostomy patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1701-1706, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Clinical forms of shoulder instability in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav N. Proshchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recurrence rate of adolescent chronic shoulder instability is approximately 56%–68%. However, this pathology is often missed in childhood and adolescence. Aim. To identify the clinical forms of shoulder joint instability in pediatric patients. Materials and methods. The authors present the data from 57 pediatric patients aged 3−17 years with a total of 61 unstable shoulder joints. All patients were divided into groups according to the form of instability. Traumatic chronic shoulder instability was identified in 40 patients (Bankart and Hill–Sachs injuries. Of these, non-traumatic shoulder instability was diagnose in 17, including five with recurrent dislocation, and spontaneous shoulder dislocation due to dysplasia of glenoid and labrum was diagnosed in 12. Of the 57 patients in the study cohort, 53 underwent surgery. Postoperatively, two patients developed recurrent shoulder dislocation (Andreev–Boichev technique due type III shoulder dysplasia in the first patient and multidirectional injury in the second. Conclusions. Shoulder joint instability should be considered as the traumatic or non-traumatic form. Treatment decisions should be based on anatomical characteristics that predispose to recurrent dislocation.

  18. Dosing of Appropriate Antibiotics and Time to Administration of First Doses in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Abby M; Stephan, Maria; Weant, Kyle A; Justice, Stephanie Baker

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) providers are faced with the challenge of diagnosing and treating patients in a timely fashion given many obstacles including limited patient information, complex disease states, and high patient turnover. Time delays in administration or selection of appropriate drug therapies have been associated with negative outcomes in severe infections. This study was conducted to assess the impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist (EPh) on the selection of appropriate antibiotics and the timeliness of administration in pediatric patients in the ED. Patients younger than 18 years were evaluated who were admitted through the ED and received 1 dose of intravenous antibiotic for the following conditions: community-acquired pneumonia, complicated skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), meningitis, and sepsis. To evaluate the impact of the presence of an EPh, patients with orders placed during the EPh's hours of 1 pm and 11 pm were compared to those with an order placed between 11 pm and 1 pm. A total of 142 patients were included in the study. Patients seen during EPh hours received an appropriate first antibiotic 93.4% of the time (p = 0.157) and second antibiotic 96.8% of the time (p = 0.023). Time from order to verification was significantly shorter for the first 2 antimicrobials in the EPh group (10.5 minutes [p = 0.003] and 11.4 minutes [p = 0.047], respectively). The days from discharge to return to readmission to the ED were also significantly different (17.5 days vs. 62.4 days, p = 0.008). The available data suggest that patients are more likely to receive appropriate doses of antimicrobials, and in a more timely fashion, whenever the EPh is present. Areas for future investigation include whether the presence of EPhs at the bedside has the potential to impact areas of patient care, including readmission rates, drug costs, and medication errors.

  19. Randomized, controlled trial of antibiotics in the management of community-acquired skin abscesses in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Myto; Markwell, Stephen; Peter, John; Barenkamp, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections are increasing with the discovery of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Whether abscesses treated surgically also require antibiotics is controversial. There are no published pediatric randomized controlled trials evaluating the need for antibiotics in skin abscess management. We determine the benefits of antibiotics in surgically managed pediatric skin abscesses. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatric patients were randomized to receive 10 days of placebo or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole after incision and draining. Follow-up consisted of a visit/call at 10 to 14 days and a call at 90 days. Primary outcome was treatment failure at the 10-day follow-up. Secondary outcome was new lesion development at the 10- and 90-day follow-ups. Noninferiority of placebo relative to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for primary and secondary outcomes was assessed. One hundred sixty-one patients were enrolled, with 12 lost to follow-up. The failure rates were 5.3% (n=4/76) and 4.1% (n=3/73) in the placebo and antibiotic groups, respectively, yielding a difference of 1.2%, with a 1-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) (-infinity to 6.8%). Noninferiority was established with an equivalence threshold of 7%. New lesions occurred at the 10-day follow-up: 19 on placebo (26.4%) and 9 on antibiotics (12.9%), yielding a difference of 13.5%, with 95% 1-sided CI (-infinity to 24.3%). At the 3-month follow-up, 15 of 52 (28.8%) in the placebo group and 13 of 46 (28.3%) in the antibiotic group developed new lesions. The difference was 0.5%, with 95% 1-sided CI (-infinity to 15.6%). Antibiotics are not required for pediatric skin abscess resolution. Antibiotics may help prevent new lesions in the short term, but further studies are required. Copyright 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of airway obstruction and stridor in pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Ashley; Langhan, Melissa L; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-11-22

    Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  1. Outdoor recreational fires: a review of 329 adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaman, Keith C; Do, Viet H; Olenzek, Emily K; Baca, Marissa; Ford, Ronald D; Wilcox, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor recreational fires are a frequent occurrence during the summer months and can be associated with burns resulting in significant morbidity. Both pediatric and adult populations can be affected, and their mechanism of injury is often different. Understanding these mechanisms is important when designing prevention programs. It is the goal of this study to review our experience with outdoor recreational fires. All patients who presented to Spectrum Health Blodgett Regional Burn Unit for burns secondary to an outdoor recreational fire over an 8-year period were reviewed. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, body area involved, TBSA burned, treatments undertaken, and subsequent complications were recorded. Pediatric patients (aged 16 years and younger) were analyzed independently, and risk factors were determined. A total of 329 patients suffered burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires over the length of the study. More than 35% required inpatient treatment, with an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hands were the most frequently affected body part, with the mean TBSA involved being 3.5%. Ninety-four patients (28.6%) required split-thickness skin grafting. The most common mechanism of injury in both adult and pediatric populations was falling into an ongoing fire. Wound infection was the most common complication. Alcohol intoxication was associated with a higher burn severity and complication rate. Pediatric patients represented 39.8% of the sample. Burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires are associated with significant morbidity. Adult prevention programs should target awareness with respect to alcohol consumption and campfires secondary to the morbidity associated with these injuries. Pediatric patients are particularly susceptible, and parents should remain diligent about campfire safety and be educated about the inherent dangers of both active and extinguished fires.

  2. Computational modeling and engineering in pediatric and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Recent methodological advances in computational simulations are enabling increasingly realistic simulations of hemodynamics and physiology, driving increased clinical utility. We review recent developments in the use of computational simulations in pediatric and congenital heart disease, describe the clinical impact in modeling in single-ventricle patients, and provide an overview of emerging areas. Multiscale modeling combining patient-specific hemodynamics with reduced order (i.e., mathematically and computationally simplified) circulatory models has become the de-facto standard for modeling local hemodynamics and 'global' circulatory physiology. We review recent advances that have enabled faster solutions, discuss new methods (e.g., fluid structure interaction and uncertainty quantification), which lend realism both computationally and clinically to results, highlight novel computationally derived surgical methods for single-ventricle patients, and discuss areas in which modeling has begun to exert its influence including Kawasaki disease, fetal circulation, tetralogy of Fallot (and pulmonary tree), and circulatory support. Computational modeling is emerging as a crucial tool for clinical decision-making and evaluation of novel surgical methods and interventions in pediatric cardiology and beyond. Continued development of modeling methods, with an eye towards clinical needs, will enable clinical adoption in a wide range of pediatric and congenital heart diseases.

  3. Diagnostic radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Marissa A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Locke, Paul; Ziegfeld, Susan; Brown, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The amount of imaging studies performed for disease diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. We examined the amount of radiation exposure that pediatric trauma patients receive because they are an at-risk population. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to high levels of radiation during a single hospital visit. Retrospective review of children who presented to Johns Hopkins Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. Radiographic studies were recorded for each patient and doses were calculated to give a total effective dose of radiation. All radiographic studies that each child received during evaluation, including any associated hospital admission, were included. A total of 945 children were evaluated during the study year. A total of 719 children were included in the analysis. Mean age was 7.8 (±4.6) years. Four thousand six hundred three radiographic studies were performed; 1,457 were computed tomography (CT) studies (31.7%). Average radiation dose was 12.8 (±12) mSv. We found that while CT accounted for only 31.7% of the radiologic studies performed, it accounted for 91% of the total radiation dose. Mean dose for admitted children was 17.9 (±13.8) mSv. Mean dose for discharged children was 8.4 (±7.8) mSv (pcumulative radiation exposure can be high. In young children with relatively long life spans, the benefit of each imaging study and the cumulative radiation dose should be weighed against the long-term risks of increased exposure.

  4. Upper extremity open fractures in hospitalized road traffic accident patients: adult versus pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Rozen, Nimrod

    2017-10-24

    Fractures in pediatrics show epidemiological characteristics which are different from fractures in adults. The objective of this study was to examine the injury profiles of open upper extremity fractures (UEFs) in all modes of injury related to road traffic accidents (RTAs) in adult and pediatric hospitalized patients. Data on 103,465 RTA patients between 1997 and 2013 whose records were entered in a centralized country trauma database were reviewed. Data on open UEFs related to mode of injury (car, motorcycle, bicycle, and pedestrian) was compared between adult (18+ years) and pediatric (0-17 years) RTA patients. Of 103,465 RTA cases, 17,263 (16.7%) had UEFs. Of 73,087 adults, 13,237 (18.1%) included UEFs and of 30,378 pediatric cases, 4026 (13.2%) included UEFs (p open fractures. Adults had a greater risk for open fractures (2221, 13%) than the pediatric cases (522, 10.3%) (p open UEFs than the pediatric group (11 vs 8%, p = 0.0012). This study demonstrates the difference between adult and pediatric open fractures in hospitalized RTAs. We showed that adults had a greater risk for open UEFs compared to children, and the adult pedestrian group particularly had a significantly higher risk for open UEFs than the pediatric group.

  5. [Triage evaluation making in a pediatric emergency department of a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Fernández, Ma Cristina; Ignacio-Cerro, Ma Carmen; Jiménez-Carrascosa, Ma Amalia

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation triage level assignments depending level of the professionals' education and experience in the unit. This was a retrospective and observational study to triages making from January to March 2012 in Pediatric Emergency Department of tertiary hospital in Madrid. The collection data included variables from Pediatric Canadian Triage with five levels, triage tool using in the unit. 6443 triages were evaluated. The most common mistakes was: not to register pain level, 1445 (22.4%); not to register hydration level, 377 (5.9%); principal symptoms inappropriate, 232 (3.6%). Didn't indicate pain level 140 (5.6%) nurses with 12 hour formal training on triage; 492 (14.5%) with training in the unit, and 92 (16.3%) without training in the last year (p hydration level 296 (7.7%). The triage education favors better adaptation in the triage assignment. The most common errors are: not to register level pain and hydration when it's needed for the principal symptoms.

  6. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D M; Kingsley, P; Johnson-West, J

    2001-07-01

    Literacy is a national and international problem. Studies have shown the readability of adult and pediatric patient education materials to be too high for average adults. Materials should be written at the 8th-grade level or lower. To determine the general readability of pediatric patient education materials designed for adults on the World Wide Web (WWW). GeneralPediatrics.com (http://www.generalpediatrics.com) is a digital library serving the medical information needs of pediatric health care providers, patients, and families. Documents from 100 different authoritative Web sites designed for laypersons were evaluated using a built-in computer software readability formula (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid reading levels) and hand calculation methods (Fry Formula and SMOG methods). Analysis of variance and paired t tests determined significance. Eighty-nine documents constituted the final sample; they covered a wide spectrum of pediatric topics. The overall Flesch Reading Ease score was 57.0. The overall mean Fry Formula was 12.0 (12th grade, 0 months of schooling) and SMOG was 12.2. The overall Flesch-Kincaid grade level was significantly lower (Peducation materials on the WWW are not written at an appropriate reading level for the average adult. We propose that a practical reading level and how it was determined be included on all patient education materials on the WWW for general guidance in material selection. We discuss suggestions for improved readability of patient education materials.

  7. How pediatric surgeons use social media to attract new patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-08-01

    Social media has changed the landscape of online interaction for all doctors including pediatric surgeons. Of course the public including our patients and potential new patients having immediate access to these sites through mobile devices and iPads has contributed immensely to this phenomenon. Nonetheless, it seems that we are all rushing to get in front of our target audience and to engage in a relationship with them in a cost-effective fashion. This article will discuss the role of the Internet and media and how you can use this technology to attract new pediatric patients to your practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Clinical and Neurobiological Perspectives of Empowering Pediatric Cancer Patients Using Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Meveshni; Bowen, Randy C.; German, Massiell L.; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric oncology patients often experience fatigue and physical and mental deconditioning during and following chemotherapy treatments, contributing to diminished quality of life. Patient empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care and reflects one's ability to positively affect his or her own health behavior and health status. Empowerment interventions may enhance patients' internal locus of control, resilience, coping skills, and self-management of symptoms related to disease and therapy. Clinical and technological advancements in therapeutic videogames and mobile medical applications (mobile health) can facilitate delivery of the empowerment interventions for medical purposes. This review summarizes clinical strategies for empowering pediatric cancer patients, as well as their relationship with developing a “fighting spirit” in physical and mental health. To better understand physiological aspects of empowerment and to elucidate videogame-based intervention strategies, brain neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters during stress, fear, and resilience are also discussed. Neuroimaging studies point to the role of the reward system pathways in resilience and empowerment in patients. Taken together, videogames and mobile health applications open translational research opportunities to develop and deliver empowerment interventions to pediatric cancer patients and also to those with other chronic diseases. PMID:26287927

  9. Clinical and Neurobiological Perspectives of Empowering Pediatric Cancer Patients Using Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Meveshni; Bowen, Randy C; German, Massiell L; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Bruggers, Carol S

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric oncology patients often experience fatigue and physical and mental deconditioning during and following chemotherapy treatments, contributing to diminished quality of life. Patient empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care and reflects one's ability to positively affect his or her own health behavior and health status. Empowerment interventions may enhance patients' internal locus of control, resilience, coping skills, and self-management of symptoms related to disease and therapy. Clinical and technological advancements in therapeutic videogames and mobile medical applications (mobile health) can facilitate delivery of the empowerment interventions for medical purposes. This review summarizes clinical strategies for empowering pediatric cancer patients, as well as their relationship with developing a "fighting spirit" in physical and mental health. To better understand physiological aspects of empowerment and to elucidate videogame-based intervention strategies, brain neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters during stress, fear, and resilience are also discussed. Neuroimaging studies point to the role of the reward system pathways in resilience and empowerment in patients. Taken together, videogames and mobile health applications open translational research opportunities to develop and deliver empowerment interventions to pediatric cancer patients and also to those with other chronic diseases.

  10. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Firinci, Binali; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Commentary: The Diagnosis of Delirium in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, D. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric patients seem to be especially vulnerable to toxic, metabolic, or traumatic CNS insults and are at greater risk of delirium with fever regardless of the etiology. Developmental limitations, in the areas of communication and cognition, prevent a thorough evaluation of the young patient for delirium. Only the most severe cases are…

  12. Associated factors to repeated consultations to the urgencies service for asthma in pediatric patient: Implications for an educational program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is one of the most frequent respiratory diseases in childhood. Recurrent emergency department visits for asthma produce anxiety and high costs for the system of health and for the family. It is important to know the factors related to these recurrent emergency department visits to assist the targeting of appropriate future interventions aimed at reducing this avoidable presentation. The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with recurrent emergency department visits for asthma in children liable to be modified by means of an education program. Data obtained from a survey of parents of 146 pediatric patients with asthma attending an asthma clinic and educational program were examined. Parents completed an asthma knowledge and attitudes questionnaire that also included other socio demographic and illness-related variables, including the number of consultations to emergency department by their children asthma in the previous 6 months. Of the 146 asthmatic patients enrolled, 41 (28.1%) consulted repeatedly to the emergency department for asthma. After controlling for age of the patient, educational level of the parents, and functional severity of the disease, we found that parents who reported that they attended to emergency room because asthma attacks of their children were severe enough to go elsewhere (OR, 4.57; CL95%, 1.76- 11.85; P = 0.002), parents who reported that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic moments (OR 278, CL 95%, 1.05 - 7.33, P = 0.038 and parents that did not recognize the fact that asthma attacks can be avoided if medications are administered when there are no symptoms (between asthma attacks) (OR 2.61; CL95%; 1.03 - 7.02; p = 0,045), had a greater probability to attend rapidly the emergency room because of asthma of their children. The fact that parents of asthmatic patients have thought that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic patients, that they hadn

  13. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anthony T.W.; Miller, Joshua W.; Craig, Sarah M.; To, Patricia L.; Lin, Xin; Samarron, Sandra L.; Chen, Peter C.Y.; Zwerdling, Theodore; Wun, Ted; Li, Chin-Shang; Green, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation in 14 pediatric and 8 adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients was studied using computer-assisted intravital microscopy. The bulbar conjunctiva in SCA patients in both age groups exhibited a blanched/avascular appearance characterized by decreased vascularity. SCA patients from both age groups had many of the same abnormal morphometric {vessel diameter, vessel distribution, morphometry (shape), tortuosity, arteriole:venule (A:V) ratio, and hemosiderin deposits} and dynamic {vessel sludging/sludged flow, boxcar blood (trickled) flow and abnormal flow velocity} abnormalities. A severity index (SI) was computed to quantify the degree of vasculopathy for comparison between groups. The severity of vasculopathy differed significantly between the pediatric and adult patients (SI: 4.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.6 ± 2.4; p=0.028), indicative of a lesser degree of overall severity in the pediatric patients. Specific abnormalities that were less prominent in the pediatric patients included abnormal vessel morphometry and tortuosity. Sludged flow, abnormal vessel distribution, abnormal A:V ratio, and boxcar flow, appeared in high prevalence in both age groups. The results indicate that SCA microvascular abnormalities develop in childhood and the severity of vasculopathy likely progresses with age. Intervention and effective treatment/management modalities should target pediatric patients to ameliorate, slow down or prevent progressive microvascular deterioration. PMID:20872552

  14. Clinical analysis of bronchoscopic electrocoagulation in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Caiyun; Yu, Huafeng; Han, Xiaorong; Meng, Chen; Zhang, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment for pediatric disease of poor ventilation. Seventy pediatric patients of airway stenosis and obstruction as well as pharyngeal and laryngeal cysts received bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment, including 15 cases of epiglottic cyst, 13 cases of cicatricial hyperplasia of fibrous tissue after trachea intubation, 5 cases of foreign body in bronchus and 37 cases of endobronchial tuberculosis. Before and after the last electrocoagulation treatment, treatment efficacy was evaluated by examining the patients’ clinical presentations and lesions in airway under bronchoscope, examining chest CT and pulmonary function, and estimating pulmonary atelectasis and ventilation function. Seventy cases of pediatric patients were treated by bronchoscopic electrocoagulation, with the total treatment number of 106 times. Among them, 66 cases were treated with marked efficacy and 4 cases were with effective treatment. There was no invalid treatment. The treatment efficacy was 100% without complications. Bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment is a fast, effective and safe therapeutic method in treating airway stenosis and obstruction, such as foreign body in bronchus, granulation tissue hyperplasia, and epiglottic cysts. It is worthy of being widely applied in clinic. PMID:25664086

  15. Evaluation of Patient Satisfaction Surveys in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Lee S; Plantikow, Carla; Hall, Randon; Wilson, Kristina; Shrader, M Wade

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction survey scores are increasingly being tied to incentive compensation, impact how we practice medicine, influence decisions on where patients seek care, and in the future may be required for accreditation. The goal of this study is to compare the results of an internal distribution of patient satisfaction surveys at the point of care to responses received by mail in a hospital-based, high-volume pediatric orthopaedic practice. A pediatric outpatient survey is used at our institution to evaluate patient satisfaction. Surveys are randomly mailed out to families seen in our clinic by the survey vendor, and the results are determined on a quarterly basis. We distributed the same survey in a similar manner in our clinic. The results of the surveys, external/mailed (EXM) versus internal/point of care (INP) over the same 3-month time period (second quarter 2013) were compared. The survey questions are dichotomized from an ordinal scale into either excellent (9 to 10) or not excellent (0 to 8) commonly used in patient satisfaction methodology. We evaluated the raw data from the INP surveys for the question on provider rating by evaluating the mean score, the standard excellent response (9 to 10), and an expanded excellent response (8 to 10). Response rate was 72/469 (15.4%) for EXM, and 231/333 (69.4%) for INP. An excellent response for the "rating your provider" question was 72.2% (EXM) versus 84.8% (INP) (P=0.015). Our analysis of the raw data (INP) has a mean rating of 9.42. The expanded scale (8 to 10) for an excellent response increased the provider rating to 94.4% (P=0.001). Waiting time response within 15 minutes was the only item that correlated with rating of provider (P=0.02). For the majority of the items, the INP responses were consistently higher than the EXM responses, including 6/7 responses that were statistically significant (Ppatient satisfaction surveys will be important in determining health care outcomes. Properly designed and

  16. Hospital-Level Variation in Practice Patterns and Patient Outcomes for Pediatric Patients Hospitalized With Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Jamie; Flores, Samuel; Morse, Keith; Kelleher, Kelly; Carter, Jodi; Bode, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Constipation is a common pediatric condition with a prevalence of 3% to 5% in children aged 4 to 17 years. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric patients hospitalized with constipation. The primary objective was to evaluate practice patterns and patient outcomes for the hospital management of functional constipation in US children's hospitals. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years hospitalized for functional constipation from 2012 to 2014 by using the Pediatric Health Information System. Patients were included by using constipation and other related diagnoses as classified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Patients with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Outcome measures included percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation, therapies used, length of stay, and 90-day readmission rates. Statistical analysis included means with 95% confidence intervals for individual hospital outcomes. A total of 14 243 hospitalizations were included, representing 12 804 unique patients. The overall percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation was 0.65% (range: 0.19%-1.41%, P hospitalization included: electrolyte laxatives: 40% to 96%; sodium phosphate enema: 0% to 64%; mineral oil enema: 0% to 61%; glycerin suppository: 0% to 37%; bisacodyl 0% to 47%; senna: 0% to 23%; and docusate 0% to 11%. Mean length of stay was 1.97 days (range: 1.31-2.73 days, P hospitalized with functional constipation across US children's hospitals. Collaborative initiatives to adopt evidence-based best practices guidelines could help standardize the hospital management of pediatric functional constipation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Use of a Dedicated, Non-Physician-led Mental Health Team to Reduce Pediatric Emergency Department Lengths of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspal, Neil G; Rutman, Lori E; Kodish, Ian; Moore, Ann; Migita, Russell T

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of emergency departments (EDs) for pediatric mental health (MH) complaints is increasing. These patients require more resources and have higher admission rates than those with nonpsychiatric complaints. A multistage, multidisciplinary process to reduce length of stay (LOS) and improve the quality of care for patients with psychiatric complaints was performed at a tertiary care children's hospital's ED using Lean methodology. This process resulted in the implementation of a dedicated MH team, led by either a social worker or a psychiatric nurse, to evaluate patients, facilitate admissions, and arrange discharge planning. We conducted a retrospective, before-and-after study analyzing data 1 year before through 1 year after new process implementation (March 28, 2011). Our primary outcome was mean ED LOS. After process implementation there was a statistically significant decrease in mean ED LOS (332 minutes vs. 244 minutes, p vs. 204 minutes, p = 0.001), security physical interventions (2.0% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.004), and restraint use (1.7% vs. 0.1%, p safety. Use of quality improvement methodology led to a redesign that was associated with a significant reduction in mean LOS of patients with psychiatric complaints and improved ED staff perception of care. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anjana; Dolan-Oves, Rebecca; Dimmers, Martha A; Towle, Cara B; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2013-02-01

    To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant's feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child's care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: A pilot program☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anjana; Dolan-Oves, Rebecca; Dimmers, Martha A.; Towle, Cara B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child’s care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed. PMID:23337565

  20. A novel drainage technique during micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: double angiocath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penbegul, Necmettin; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Daggulli, Mansur; Dede, Onur; Bozkurt, Yasar; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Atar, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) is a recently introduced percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) technique that has the smallest tract size. The absence of an amplatz sheath during the microperc technique is a fundamental difference that distinguishes it from all other types of PNL (standard, mini, ultramini). Increasing of the intrarenal pelvic pressure (IPP) was demonstrated by the authors in adult patients but this problem may be even more serious in pediatric patients. Previously, the authors defined the use of a 14 gauge angiocath needle and sheath (microsheath) during microperc surgery for pediatric patient to reduce the IPP. In this novel technique, a second angiocath is used to access the renal collecting system to drain fluid during surgery. This technique is more effective in reducing IPP during microperc, especially in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network: a history of multicenter collaboration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimenatos, Leah; Kim, Emily; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review the history and progress of a large multicenter research network pertaining to emergency medical services for children. We describe the history, organization, infrastructure, and research agenda of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and highlight some of the important accomplishments since its inception. We also describe the network's strategy to grow its research portfolio, train new investigators, and study how to translate new evidence into practice. This strategy ensures not only the sustainability of the network in the future but the growth of research in emergency medical services for children in general.

  2. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juste, B.; Verdu, G.; Tortosa, R.; Villaescusa, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia Universitary Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  3. A Simulation-Based Quality Improvement Initiative Improves Pediatric Readiness in Community Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfill, Travis; Gawel, Marcie; Auerbach, Marc

    2017-07-17

    The National Pediatric Readiness Project Pediatric Readiness Survey (PRS) measured pediatric readiness in 4149 US emergency departments (EDs) and noted an average score of 69 on a 100-point scale. This readiness score consists of 6 domains: coordination of pediatric patient care (19/100), physician/nurse staffing and training (10/100), quality improvement activities (7/100), patient safety initiatives (14/100), policies and procedures (17/100), and availability of pediatric equipment (33/100). We aimed to assess and improve pediatric emergency readiness scores across Connecticut's hospitals. The aim of this study was to compare the National Pediatric Readiness Project readiness score before and after an in situ simulation-based assessment and quality improvement program in Connecticut hospitals. We leveraged in situ simulations to measure the quality of resuscitative care provided by interprofessional teams to 3 simulated patients (infant septic shock, infant seizure, and child cardiac arrest) presenting to their ED resuscitation bay. Assessments of EDs were made based on a composite quality score that was measured as the sum of 4 distinct domains: (1) adherence to sepsis guidelines, (2) adherence to cardiac arrest guidelines, (3) performance on seizure resuscitation, and (4) teamwork. After the simulation, a detailed report with scores, comparisons to other EDs, and a gap analysis were provided to sites. Based on this report, a regional children's hospital team worked collaboratively with each ED to develop action items and a timeline for improvements. The National Pediatric Readiness Project PRS scores, the primary outcome of this study, were measured before and after participation. Twelve community EDs in Connecticut participated in this project. The PRS scores were assessed before and after the intervention (simulation-based assessment and gap analysis/report-out). The average time between PRS assessments was 21 months. The PRS scores significantly improved 12

  4. Anesthesia through an intraosseous line using an 18-gauge intravenous needle for emergency pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Riyadh Khudeir; Hartmans, Sharon; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    To describe the success and complication rate of intraosseous (IO) access for delivery of anesthesia with the use of an 18-gauge (G) intravenous (IV) needle. Prospective study. Children's Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. 300 critically ill infants and toddlers, age 3 weeks to 16 months, requiring emergency surgery for intra-abdominal or pelvic conditions, in whom peripheral or central access was not obtainable. Patients presented for surgery between 2007 and 2010. In 26 patients, the IO catheter was established when peripheral access was not obtained at the outset of surgery; in 4 patients standard peripheral vascular access failed during the surgical procedure and IO access was obtained. An 18-G IV needle was placed into the proximal tibia and attached to an extension set with a 3-way stopcock to deliver anesthesia. For 26 critically ill children and 4 other children, IV access failed during delivery of anesthesia; vascular access was successfully obtained within minutes in all 30 infants (100%) using the intraosseous route. Ninety percent (27/30) of patients awoke immediately postoperatively in good condition; 10% (3/30) went to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further care due to their critical preoperative condition. Complications associated with use of the IO route were considered minor (3/30 pts [10%]) and included extravasation of fluid in two cases and cellulitis in one. The IO route provided for rapid delivery of anesthesia, induction, and maintenance in this series of critically ill infants undergoing emergency surgery when other vascular access routes failed. Few complications were noted. Intraosseous access was achieved through a simple technique using an 18-gauge IV needle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Helicopter overtriage in pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R

    2014-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Implementation of adapted PECARN decision rule for children with minor head injury in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Silvia; Romanato, Sabrina; Mion, Teresa; Zanconato, Stefania; Da Dalt, Liviana

    2012-07-01

    Of the currently published clinical decision rules for the management of minor head injury (MHI) in children, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rule, derived and validated in a large multicenter prospective study cohort, with high methodologic standards, appears to be the best clinical decision rule to accurately identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injuries (ciTBI) in the pediatric emergency department (PED). This study describes the implementation of an adapted version of the PECARN rule in a tertiary care academic PED in Italy and evaluates implementation success, in terms of medical staff adherence and satisfaction, as well as its effects on clinical practice. The adapted PECARN decision rule algorithms for children (one for those younger than 2 years and one for those older than 2 years) were actively implemented in the PED of Padova, Italy, for a 6-month testing period. Adherence and satisfaction of medical staff to the new rule were calculated. Data from 356 visits for MHI during PECARN rule implementation and those of 288 patients attending the PED for MHI in the previous 6 months were compared for changes in computed tomography (CT) scan rate, ciTBI rate (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for longer than 24 hours, or hospital admission at least for two nights associated with TBI) and return visits for symptoms or signs potentially related to MHI. The safety and efficacy of the adapted PECARN rule in clinical practice were also calculated. Adherence to the adapted PECARN rule was 93.5%. The percentage of medical staff satisfied with the new rule, in terms of usefulness and ease of use for rapid decision-making, was significantly higher (96% vs. 51%, puse of the adapted PECARN rule in clinical practice was 100% (95% CI=36.8 to 100; three of three patients with ciTBI who received CT scan at first evaluation), while efficacy was 92.3% (95% CI=89 to 95; 326 of 353 patients without ci

  7. Incidence, admission rates, and economic burden of pediatric emergency department visits for urinary tract infection: data from the nationwide emergency department sample, 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Penna, Frank J; Eleswarapu, Sriram; Pucheril, Dan; Weaver, John; Abd-El-Barr, Abd-El-Rahman; Wagner, Jordan C; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse D; Elder, Jack S

    2015-10-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is being increasingly utilized as a pathway for management of acute conditions such as the urinary tract infections (UTIs). We sought to assess the contemporary trends in pediatric UTI associated ED visits, subsequent hospitalization, and corresponding financial expenditure, using a large nationally representative pediatric cohort. Further, we describe the predictors of admission following a UTI associated ED visit. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS; 2006-2011) was queried to assess temporal-trends in pediatric (age ≤17 years) ED visits for a primary diagnosis of UTI (ICD9 CM code 590.X, 595.0, and 599.0), subsequent hospital admission, and total charges. These trends were examined using the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) method. Multivariable regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations (GEE) identified the predictors of hospital admission. Of the 1,904,379 children presenting to the ED for management of UTI, 86 042 (4.7%) underwent hospital admission. Female ED visits accounted for almost 90% of visits and increased significantly (EAPC 3.28%; p = 0.003) from 709 visits per 100 000 in 2006 to 844 visits per 100 000 in 2011. Male UTI incidence remained unchanged over the study-period (p = 0.292). The overall UTI associated ED visits also increased significantly during the study-period (EAPC 3.14%; p = 0.006) because of the increase in female UTI associated ED visits. Overall hospital admissions declined significantly over the study-period (EAPC -5.59%; p = 0.021). Total associated charges increased significantly at an annual rate of 18.26%, increasing from 254 million USD in 2006 to 464 million USD in 2011 (p predictors of admission included younger age (p pediatric UTI is on the rise. This rise in incidence could be due to several factors, including increasing prevalence of metabolic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in children predisposing them to infections, or

  8. Malignancy and mortality in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ridder, Lissy; Turner, Dan; Wilson, David C

    2014-01-01

    working group of ESPGHAN conducted a multinational-based survey of cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD. METHODS: A survey among pediatric gastroenterologists of 20 European countries and Israel on cancer and/or mortality in the pediatric patient population with IBD was undertaken. One representative...... were diagnosed with IBD (ulcerative colitis, n = 21) at a median age of 10.0 years (inter quartile range, 3.0-14.0). Causes of mortality were infectious (n = 14), cancer (n = 5), uncontrolled disease activity of IBD (n = 4), procedure-related (n = 3), other non-IBD related diseases (n = 3), and unknown...

  9. Pediatric Sepsis Secondary to an Occult Dental Abscess: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Peter; Hellmich, Thomas; Homme, James

    2017-05-01

    In general, hematogenous spread of bacteria in children is uncommon. Bacteremia, however, is a known complication of dental procedures and severe caries, but is infrequently associated with primary, asymptomatic, non-procedural-related, dentoalveolar infection. The patient is a 7-year-old previously healthy boy who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with "fever, mottling, and shaking chills." In the ED, he appeared systemically ill with fever, mottling, delayed capillary refill, and rigors. Physical examination by three different physicians failed to reveal any focus of infection. Laboratory evaluation, including blood cultures, was obtained. The patient later developed unilateral facial swelling and pain, and a dentoalveolar abscess was found. He was started on antibiotics, underwent pulpectomy and eventually, extraction, prior to improvement in symptoms. Blood cultures grew two separate anaerobic bacteria (Veillonella and Lactobacillus). This is, to our knowledge, one of the first reported cases of pediatric sepsis with two different anaerobic organisms secondary to occult dentoalveolar abscess in a pediatric patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is imperative for emergency physicians to recognize the possibility of pediatric sepsis in the setting of acute maxillary or mandibular pain, as well as in patients for whom no clear focus of infection can be found. This is particularly important for those who appear ill at presentation or meet systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and would benefit from further laboratory evaluation, including blood cultures, and possibly antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing the Pediatric Drug Development Framework to Deliver Better Pediatric Therapies Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina

    2017-10-01

    Health care professionals involved in the clinical management of children have long appreciated the limited number of therapies suitably evaluated for their optimal use in the pediatric population. In the past century, advances in regulatory policy significantly evolved adult drug evaluation. The scarcity of available patient populations, practical complexities of drug development research, and minimal financial returns have hampered pharmaceutical investment in the study of therapies for children. More recently, pediatric policy and legislation in the United States and Europe have instituted a system of obligations and incentives to stimulate investment in pediatric drug development. These initiatives, in conjunction with a more sophisticated process of drug discovery and development, have led to significant advancements in the labeling of drugs for pediatric use. Facilitated by the emergence of new targets, precision medicine, and innovations in regulatory science, there is now a subtle shift in focus toward drug development research for children rather than simply in children. Although there has been an increase in pediatric studies of investigational agents and labeling of pediatric information for use, there have been unintended consequences of existing policies. As a result, limited progress has been made in certain therapeutic areas and for off-patent therapies. Future policy reform to enhance the availability and accessibility of pediatric medicines should not only reflect an understanding not only of the successes of existing policy and legislative initiatives but also constructively address failures and unintended consequences. Taken together, policy reform, global cooperation, and innovation in regulatory science will more ably deliver better pediatric therapies tomorrow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  12. A Quantitative Ethnopharmacological Documentation of Natural Pharmacological Agents Used by Pediatric Patients in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pediatric population constitutes the most vulnerable patients due to a dearth of approved drugs. Consequently, there is a pressing need to probe novel natural pharmacological agents in an endeavour to develop new drugs to address pediatric illnesses. To date, no studies have explored the use of natural therapies for pediatric health care in Mauritius. Parents (n=325 from different regions of the island were interviewed. Quantitative indexes such as fidelity level (FL, informant consensus factor (FIC, and use-value (UV were calculated. Thirty-two plants were reported to be used by pediatric patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (FIC=0.97 encompassing regurgitation, infantile colic, and stomach aches were the most common ailments managed with herbs. Matricaria chamomilla used for infantile colic and its pharmacological properties has previously been documented for pediatric patients. Product from A. mellifera (UV = 0.75 was the most utilized zootherapy for managing cough. Most plants and animal products reported in this study have bioactive constituents supported by existing scientific literature but their use for the pediatric population is scant. The present ethnopharmacological study has opened new perspectives for further research into their pharmacology, which can subsequently support and facilitate timely pediatric medicinal product development.

  13. The Respiratory Presentation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Two Mennonite Children at a Tertiary Centre Highlighting the Importance of Recognizing This Pediatric Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID is considered to be a pediatric emergency, with respiratory distress being the most common presenting symptom. The authors present two cases of SCID in children <4 months of age with respiratory distress at a tertiary care centre due to a recently described homozygous CD3 delta mutation found only in the Mexican Mennonite population. Failure to respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics prompted investigation for possible SCID. Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid from both patients grew Pneumocystis jiroveci, and flow cytometry revealed absent T cells. The CD3 delta gene is believed to be important in T cell differentiation and maturation. The present article reminds pediatricians and pediatric respirologists that the key to diagnosing SCID is to have a high index of suspicion if there is poor response to conventional therapies.

  14. Music distraction - its efficacy in management of anxious pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah N; Prabhakar A; Raju O

    2005-01-01

    Managing the anxiety of pediatric dental patient has long been the purview of dentists over many years. Various techniques have been used with moderate and variant success rates over the last few years. The main aim of this study was to ascertain if music distraction is an effective means of managing anxiety in pediatric dental patients. Forty children aged between 4 and 8 years were selected for the study. The assessment of anxiety was done using Venham′s picture test, Venham′s...

  15. Comparison of reversal and adverse effects of sugammadex and combination of -Anticholinergic-Anticholinesterase agents in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Özgün

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to compare clinical effects of sugammadex versus combination of anticholinergic-anticholinesterase agents for reversing of nondepolarizing neuromuscular block in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 pediatric patients whom should be performed general anesthesia in the supine position were enrolled to this randomized double-blinded clinical trial. Fentanyl 1 μg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg were used in induction and sevofluran, 50% O 2 -50% N 2 O in maintenance of anesthesia. Neuromuscular conductions were assessed by train of four (TOF-Watch SX (Organon, Schering-Plough, Ireland acceleromyograph. Patients were intubated at the moment of TOF 0. At the end of the operation emergence of T2 point was replied by 2 mg/kg sugammadex administration in group 1 and 0.06 mg/kg neostigmine +0.02 mg/kg atropine in group 2. At the moment of T0.9 inhalation, gases were ceased, and patients were extubated. Hemodynamic alterations, access to T0.9, extubation time, recovery parameters, drug consumptions and adverse effects were recorded. Results: Train of four scores showed a lesser increase in group 2 than group 1 from 15 th s to 30 th min during post reverse period (from 6.9 ± 6.4 to 91.7 ± 7.2 in group 2 vs. from 35.4 ± 21.4 to 99.5 ± 1.0 in group 1 (p < 0.0004. Group 1 patients exhibited much more complete muscle strength rates than group 2 (P < 0.001. T0.9 and extubation times were significantly longer in group 2 than group 1 (P < 0.001. Comparison of adverse effects yielded no difference. Conclusion: Sugammadex can be considered as a safe agent in order to reverse neuromuscular block in pediatric patients.

  16. Pediatrics patient in computed tomography: risk awareness among medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation about risk awareness in pediatrics computed tomography among medical staff are presented. Questionnaires were distributed along seven hospitals, 84 people were enrolled in this investigation. The results showed awareness of the potential risks associated with ionizing radiation in computed tomography. However, there is still widespread underestimation of relative doses and risks in case of pediatric patients. (author) [sr

  17. Repetitive Pediatric Anesthesia in a Non-Hospital Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Douglas, James G.; Jackson, Jeffrey L.; Simoneaux, R. Victor; Hines, Matthew; Bratton, Jennifer; Kerstiens, John; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repetitive sedation/anesthesia (S/A) for children receiving fractionated radiation therapy requires induction and recovery daily for several weeks. In the vast majority of cases, this is accomplished in an academic center with direct access to pediatric faculty and facilities in case of an emergency. Proton radiation therapy centers are more frequently free-standing facilities at some distance from specialized pediatric care. This poses a potential dilemma in the case of children requiring anesthesia. Methods and Materials: The records of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center were reviewed for patients requiring anesthesia during proton beam therapy (PBT) between June 1, 2008, and April 12, 2012. Results: A total of 138 children received daily anesthesia during this period. A median of 30 fractions (range, 1-49) was delivered over a median of 43 days (range, 1-74) for a total of 4045 sedation/anesthesia procedures. Three events (0.0074%) occurred, 1 fall from a gurney during anesthesia recovery and 2 aspiration events requiring emergency department evaluation. All 3 children did well. One aspiration patient needed admission to the hospital and mechanical ventilation support. The other patient returned the next day for treatment without issue. The patient who fell was not injured. No patient required cessation of therapy. Conclusions: This is the largest reported series of repetitive pediatric anesthesia in radiation therapy, and the only available data from the proton environment. Strict adherence to rigorous protocols and a well-trained team can safely deliver daily sedation/anesthesia in free-standing proton centers

  18. Sodium valproate-induced enuresis in a pediatric bipolar patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wentao Cheng,1,* Xiaoling Lin,2,* Dali Lu1 1Department of Pediatric and Geriatric Psychiatry, Fuzhou Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of China; 2School of Nursing of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sodium valproate (SV is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of epilepsy and mood disorders. There are several cases of SV-induced enuresis noted in epileptic patients. No alternative medication has been suggested to manage this problem. We present the first case of a pediatric bipolar patient who developed diurnal and nocturnal enuresis during SV therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this side effect, as it has not been reported in nonepileptic patients, and it may be detrimental to treatment adherence. Keywords: sodium valproate, enuresis, bipolar disorder

  19. Factors associated with successful decannulation in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nozomi; Takano, Kenichi; Mitsuzawa, Hiroaki; Kurose, Maokoto; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the outcome of pediatric tracheostomy and identify predictive factors for successful decannulation. We performed a retrospective chart review of a series of 42 consecutive patients of less than 24 months of age who underwent a tracheostomy between 2012 and 2015. Successful decannulation was achieved in 11 patients (26%). Thirty-one patients (74%) remained tracheostomy-dependent. Of the 11 patients who were successfully decannulated, 10 (91%) had only structural disorders and nine (82%) were able to walk unassisted; importantly, nine (82%) were able to swallow following decannulation. In contrast, of the 31 patients who did not tolerate decannulation, 21 (68%) had functional disorders and 18 (58%) were unable to walk unassisted; 20 (65%) of the tracheostomy-dependent patients were unable to swallow after undergoing surgery. Following pediatric tracheostomy procedures, patients with solely structural disorders were significantly more likely to be successfully decannulated compared to patients with functional disorders. Furthermore, the capacity to walk unassisted and swallow after surgery is associated with positive outcomes for decannulation. Our results suggest that an objective evaluation of the ability to walk unassisted, and to ingest food, may be useful for predicting the outcome and effects of tracheostomy procedures and decannulation in children.

  20. Primary Pediatric Hypertension: Current Understanding and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Andrew C; Bishop, Michael D; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Villar, Van Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms. One renal mechanism relates to sodium transport. The impaired renal sodium handling in primary hypertension and salt sensitivity may be caused by aberrant counter-regulatory natriuretic and anti-natriuretic pathways. The sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems are examples of antinatriuretic pathways. An important counter-regulatory natriuretic pathway is afforded by the renal autocrine/paracrine dopamine system, aberrations of which are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including that associated with obesity. We present updates on the complex interactions of these two systems with dietary salt intake in relation to obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We review how insults during pregnancy such as maternal and paternal malnutrition, glucocorticoid exposure, infection, placental insufficiency, and treatments during the neonatal period have long-lasting effects in the regulation of renal function and BP. Moreover, these effects have sex differences. There is a need for early diagnosis, frequent monitoring, and timely management due to increasing evidence of premature target organ damage. Large controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of the treatment of elevated BP during childhood, especially to establish the validity of the current definition and treatment of pediatric hypertension.

  1. Considerations for conducting qualitative research with pediatric patients for the purpose of PRO development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zabin S; Jensen, Sally E; Lai, Jin-Shei

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of methodological considerations when conducting qualitative research with pediatric patients for the purpose of patient-reported outcome measure development A literature review of qualitative methods in pediatric measure development was completed. Eight clinicians providing care to pediatric patients were interviewed for their expert input. Thematic analysis of the literature and clinician interviews was used to identify themes for consideration. Findings from the literature and expert interviews emphasized the way in which cognitive, linguistic, and social developmental factors affect pediatric patients' understanding of their condition and ability to communicate about their experiences in an interview. There was consensus among the experts that traditional semi-structured interviews with children younger than eight lack characteristics necessary to yield meaningful information about condition and symptom report because they may fail to capture children's understanding and awareness of their condition and may limit their ability to express themselves comfortably. Our findings include recommended strategies to optimize data collected in qualitative interviews with pediatric patients, including modifications to the interview process to establish rapport, construction of interview questions to ensure they are developmentally appropriate, and the use of supplementary techniques to facilitate communication. When employing qualitative methods in pediatric measure development, interview guides, methods, and length require careful tailoring to ensure the child's perspectives are captured. This may be best achieved through research performed with narrow age bands that employs flexibility in methods to allow children a comfortable way in which to communicate about their experiences.

  2. Pediatric emergency medicine asynchronous e-learning: a multicenter randomized controlled Solomon four-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Pham, Phung K; Sobolewski, Brad; Doughty, Cara B; Jamal, Nazreen; Kwan, Karen Y; Little, Kim; Brenkert, Timothy E; Mathison, David J

    2014-08-01

    Asynchronous e-learning allows for targeted teaching, particularly advantageous when bedside and didactic education is insufficient. An asynchronous e-learning curriculum has not been studied across multiple centers in the context of a clinical rotation. We hypothesize that an asynchronous e-learning curriculum during the pediatric emergency medicine (EM) rotation improves medical knowledge among residents and students across multiple participating centers. Trainees on pediatric EM rotations at four large pediatric centers from 2012 to 2013 were randomized in a Solomon four-group design. The experimental arms received an asynchronous e-learning curriculum consisting of nine Web-based, interactive, peer-reviewed Flash/HTML5 modules. Postrotation testing and in-training examination (ITE) scores quantified improvements in knowledge. A 2 × 2 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tested interaction and main effects, and Pearson's correlation tested associations between module usage, scores, and ITE scores. A total of 256 of 458 participants completed all study elements; 104 had access to asynchronous e-learning modules, and 152 were controls who used the current education standards. No pretest sensitization was found (p = 0.75). Use of asynchronous e-learning modules was associated with an improvement in posttest scores (p effect (partial η(2) = 0.19). Posttest scores correlated with ITE scores (r(2) = 0.14, p e-learning is an effective educational tool to improve knowledge in a clinical rotation. Web-based asynchronous e-learning is a promising modality to standardize education among multiple institutions with common curricula, particularly in clinical rotations where scheduling difficulties, seasonality, and variable experiences limit in-hospital learning. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Comparison of different tests to determine difficult intubation in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Turan Inal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difficulties with airway management is the main reason for pediatric anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the value of modified Mallampati test, Upper-Lip-Bite test, thyromental distance and the ratio of height to thyromental distance to predict difficult intubation in pediatric patients. Design: Prospective analysis. Measurements and results: Data were collected from 5 to 11 years old 250 pediatric patients requiring tracheal intubation. The Cormack and Lehane classification was used to evaluate difficult laryngoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and AUC values for each test were measured. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of modified Mallampati test were 76.92% and 95.54%, while those for ULBT were 69.23% and 97.32%. The optimal cutoff point for the ratio of height to thyromental distance and thyromental distance for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 23.5 (sensitivity, 57.69%; specificity, 86.61% and 5.5 cm (sensitivity, 61.54%; specificity, 99.11%. The modified Mallampati was the most sensitive of the tests. The ratio of height to thyromental distance was the least sensitive test. Conclusion: These results suggested that the modified Mallampati and Upper-Lip-Bite tests may be useful in pediatric patients for predicting difficult intubation.

  4. Emergency pediatric surgery: Comparing the economic burden in specialized versus nonspecialized children's centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnovsky, Charlotte L; Lumpkins, Kimberly; Diaz, Jose J; Chun, Jeannie Y

    2018-05-01

    The American College of Surgeons has developed a verification program for children's surgery centers. Highly specialized hospitals may be verified as Level I, while those with fewer dedicated resources as Level II or Level III, respectively. We hypothesized that more specialized children's centers would utilize more resources. We performed a retrospective study of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) database from 2009 to 2013. We assessed total charge, length of stay (LOS), and charge per day for all inpatients with an emergency pediatric surgery diagnosis, controlling for severity of illness (SOI). Using published resources, we assigned theoretical level designations to each hospital. Two hospitals would qualify as Level 1 hospitals, with 4593 total emergency pediatric surgery admissions (38.5%) over the five-year study period. Charges were significantly higher for children treated at Level I hospitals (all P<0.0001). Across all SOI, children at Level I hospitals had significantly longer LOS (all P<0.0001). Hospitals defined as Level II and Level III provided the majority of care and were able to do so with shorter hospitalizations and lower charges, regardless of SOI. As care shifts towards specialized centers, this charge differential may have significant impact on future health care costs. Level III Cost Effectiveness Study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physician Communication in Pediatric End-of-Life Care: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; Tofil, Nancy M; White, Marjorie Lee; Dure, Leon S; Clair, Jeffrey Michael; Needham, Belinda L

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory study is to describe communication between physicians and the actor parent of a standardized 8-year-old patient in respiratory distress who was nearing the end of life. Thirteen pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric critical care fellows and attendings participated in a high-fidelity simulation to assess physician communication with an actor-parent. Fifteen percent of the participants decided not to initiate life-sustaining technology (intubation), and 23% of participants offered alternatives to life-sustaining care, such as comfort measures. Although 92% of the participants initiated an end-of-life conversation, the quality of that discussion varied widely. Findings indicate that effective physician-parent communication may not consistently occur in cases involving the treatment of pediatric patients at the end of life in emergency and critical care units. The findings in this study, particularly that physician-parent end-of-life communication is often unclear and that alternatives to life-sustaining technology are often not offered, suggest that physicians need more training in both communication and end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Pediatric Patients: Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Marra, Alexandre R.; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos; Sukiennik, Teresa; Behar, Paulo Renato Petersen; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Ribeiro, Julival; Girão, Evelyne; Correa, Luci; Guerra, Carla; Carneiro, Irna; Brites, Carlos; Reis, Marise; de Souza, Marta Antunes; Tranchesi, Regina; Barata, Cristina U.; Edmond, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are the most frequent type of nosocomial infection in pediatric patients. Methods We identified the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nosocomial bloodstream isolates in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age) in the Brazilian Prospective Surveillance for nBSIs at 16 hospitals from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010 (Br SCOPE project). Results In our study a total of 2,563 cases of nBSI were reported by hospitals participating in the Br SCOPE project. Among these, 342 clinically significant episodes of BSI were identified in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age). Ninety-six percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 49.0% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 42.6%, and fungi caused 8.4%. The most common pathogens were Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (9.2%). The crude mortality was 21.6% (74 of 342). Forty-five percent of nBSIs occurred in a pediatric or neonatal intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 95 patients (27.8%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (66.4%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 37 S. aureus isolates (27.1%). Of the Klebsiella spp. isolates, 43.2% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42.9% and 21.4%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem. Conclusions In our multicenter study, we found a high mortality and a large proportion of gram-negative bacilli with elevated levels of resistance in pediatric patients. PMID:23861860

  7. Pediatric patients with severe head injury in Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. Analysis of the prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of the pediatric patients in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank: Project 2004. Project 2004 consisted of severe head injury patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission or during course and patients who were operated for traumatic intracranial lesion between 2004-2006. The subjects were 101 pediatric patients aged 15 years old or less (mean: 7.8 y/o). We retrospectively examined the patients' age, GCS, cause of injury, duration and time of patient transfer, pupillary abnormality, body temperature, serum glucose level, Injury Severity Score (ISS) excluding cranio-cervical score, skull fracture, CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank (TCDB), main lesion of focal brain injury on CT, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on CT. The mortality rate in children is lower than in adults: 18.8% vs. 39.7%. The factors that correlated to the poor outcome in pediatric patients are lower GCS score on admission, pupillary abnormality, hyperglycemia (more than 200 mg/dl), complications of severe other organ injury, diffuse injury III according to classification of CT, acute subdural hematoma and SAH. Pathophysiologically pediatric patients are not miniatures of adult patients. The data of Project 2004 is extremely significant and indicates the profile of one general view of pediatric patients with severe head injury in Japan. However, further collection of data and careful analysis are necessary for standardizing pediatric head trauma care. (author)

  8. Serum amino acid abnormalities in pediatric patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasma amino acid concentrations have been reported to be abnormal in patients with chronic renal failure. L-Arginine has been used to improve endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The present study aim at investigating the status of plasma amino acids in pediatric patients with ...

  9. Approach to Pediatric Patients during Surgical Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Seher Ünver; Meltem Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    A child’s surgical period usually contains unpleasant and difficult experiences, for the child and the parents. The child in this period experiences greater anxiety and distress. On the other hand, pediatric patients have complex states that directly effects their perioperative care during. Because their perioperative care includes not only the knowledge of general surgical procedure and care of a patient in the operating room. It also includes the specific understanding of a child’s airway, ...

  10. Nutrition support of the pediatric patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, M; Stanish, M

    1987-04-01

    Maintaining optimal nutrition in the pediatric patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is challenging, but it may be one of the most effective therapies. Patients experience numerous complications that compromise nutritional status. Infection, fever, diarrhea, feeding problems, and decreased intake all contribute to malnutrition, which in turn predisposes the patient even more to infection and malabsorption. Nutrition assessment should be done routinely so that new problems may be identified and treated. High-calorie, high-protein feedings, vitamin supplementation, and, when necessary, gavage feedings or parenteral nutrition are recommended to improve nutritional status and prevent further deficits. Maintaining optimal nutrition in the pediatric patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) poses a significant challenge to the health care team. Patients may experience numerous complications that compromise nutritional status. The patient is at high risk for opportunistic infections, especially of the lungs, central nervous system, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and skin. Such infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality. Impaired nutritional status may further impair the patient's immunocompetence. A study by Kotler and Gaety demonstrated severe progressive malnutrition in adult AIDS patients, with the lowest measures of lean body mass occurring in those patients close to death at the time of the study. While no studies of children with AIDS have been done to date, we have subjectively observed feeding problems, weight loss, and malnutrition in most of the patients we have seen.

  11. Sedation and Monitoring in the Pediatric Patient during Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Kee; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2016-07-01

    Sedation is a fundamental component of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures. The 2 main types of sedation for pediatric endoscopy remain general anesthesia and procedural sedation. Although anesthesiologist-administered sedation protocols are more common, there is no ideal regimen for endoscopy in children. This article discusses specific levels of sedation for endoscopy as well as various regimens that can be used to achieve each. Risks and considerations that may be specific to performing gastrointestinal procedures in children are reviewed. Finally, potential future directions for sedation and monitoring that may change the practice of pediatric gastroenterology and ultimately patient outcomes are examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Malnutrition in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: Assessment, Prevalence, and Association to Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Efstratia; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Augoustides-Savvopoulou, Persefone

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent finding in pediatric health care settings in the form of undernutrition or excess body weight. Its increasing prevalence and impact on overall health status, which is reflected in the adverse outcomes, renders imperative the application of commonly accepted and evidence-based practices and tools by health care providers. Nutrition risk screening on admission and nutrition status evaluation are key points during clinical management of hospitalized pediatric patients, in order to prevent health deterioration that can lead to serious complications and growth consequences. In addition, anthropometric data based on commonly accepted universal growth standards can give accurate results for nutrition status. Both nutrition risk screening and nutrition status assessment are techniques that should be routinely implemented, based on commonly accepted growth standards and methodology, and linked to clinical outcomes. The aim of the present review was to address the issue of hospital malnutrition in pediatric settings in terms of prevalence, outline nutrition status evaluation and nutrition screening process using different criteria and available tools, and present its relationship with outcome measures. Key teaching points • Malnutrition-underweight or excess body weight-is a frequent imbalance in pediatric settings that affects physical growth and results in undesirable clinical outcomes. • Anthropometry interpretation through growth charts and nutrition screening are cornerstones for the assessment of malnutrition.To date no commonly accepted anthropometric criteria or nutrition screening tools are used in hospitalized pediatric patients. • Commonly accepted nutrition status and screening processes based on the World Health Organization's growth standards can contribute to the overall hospital nutrition care of pediatric patients.

  13. A-Frame free Vascularized Fibular Graft and Femoral Lengthening for Osteosarcoma Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Megan; Coombs, Christopher; Torode, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric limb reconstruction after resection of a malignant tumor presents specific challenges. Multiple surgical techniques have been used to treat these patients. This paper describes a staged surgical technique for the reconstruction of large distal femoral defects due to tumor resection in skeletally immature patients. Three pediatric patients with osteosarcoma of the distal femur underwent staged reconstruction. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was followed by en bloc tumor resection and immediate reconstruction of the distal femoral defect with a vascularized free fibular autograft utilizing a unique A-frame construct combined with intramedullary nail fixation. The second stage was a planned gradual lengthening of the healed construct, over a custom-made magnetically driven expandable intramedullary nail. All patients achieved bony union and satisfactory length with minimal complications. The patients all returned to full, unlimited physical activities. The early results confirm that the described technique is a safe and reliable procedure for the reconstruction of large femoral defects in pediatric patients with osteosarcoma. Level IV-therapeutic.

  14. New serological markers in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Márta; Müller, Katalin Eszter; Papp, Mária; Lakatos, Péter László; Csöndes, Mihály; Veres, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of serological markers associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly growing. Due to frequently delayed or missed diagnoses, the application of non-invasive diagnostic tests for IBD, as well as differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), would be useful in the pediatric population. In addition, the combination of pancreatic autoantibodies and antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies/perinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) improved the sensitivity of serological markers in pediatric patients with CD and UC. Some studies suggested that age-associated differences in the patterns of antibodies may be present, particularly in the youngest children. In CD, most patients develop stricturing or perforating complications, and a significant number of patients undergo surgery during the disease course. Based on recent knowledge, serum antibodies are qualitatively and quantitatively associated with complicated CD behavior and CD-related surgery. Pediatric UC is characterized by extensive colitis and a high rate of colectomy. In patients with UC, high levels of anti-CBir1 and pANCA are associated with the development of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Thus, serologic markers for IBD can be applied to stratify IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups with respect to disease progression. In conclusion, identification of patients at an increased risk of rapid disease progression is of great interest, as the application of early and more aggressive pharmaceutical intervention could have the potential to alter the natural history of IBD, and reduce complications and hospitalizations. PMID:24803798

  15. Establishing a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit - Special considerations in a limited resources environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cardiac intensive care has evolved as a distinct discipline in well-established pediatric cardiac programs in developed nations. With increasing demand for pediatric heart surgery in emerging economies, a number of new programs are being established. The development of robust pediatric cardiac intensive care units (PCICU is critical to the success of these programs. Because of substantial resource limitations existing models of PCICU care cannot be applied in their existing forms and structure. A number of challenges need to be addressed to deliver pediatric cardiac intensive care in the developing world. Limitations in infrastructure, human, and material resources call for a number of innovations and adaptations. Additionally, a variety of strategies are required to minimize costs of care to the individual patient. This review provides a framework for the establishment of a new PCICU program in face of resource limitations typically encountered in the developing world and emerging economies.

  16. Pediatric Tape: Accuracy and Medication Delivery in the National Park Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D. Campagne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective is to evaluate the accuracy of medication dosing and the time to medication administration in the prehospital setting using a novel length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. Methods: This study was a two-period, two-treatment crossover trial using simulated pediatric patients in the prehospital setting. Each participant was presented with two emergent scenarios; participants were randomized to which case they encountered first, and to which case used the National Park Service (NPS emergency medical services (EMS length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. In the control (without tape case, providers used standard methods to determine medication dosing (e.g. asking parents to estimate the patient’s weight; in the intervention (with tape case, they used the NPS EMS length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. Each scenario required dosing two medications (Case 1 [febrile seizure] required midazolam and acetaminophen; Case 2 [anaphylactic reaction] required epinephrine and diphenhydramine. Twenty NPS EMS providers, trained at the Parkmedic/Advanced Emergency Medical Technician level, served as study participants. Results: The only medication errors that occurred were in the control (no tape group (without tape: 5 vs. with tape: 0, p=0.024. Time to determination of medication dose was significantly shorter in the intervention (with tape group than the control (without tape group, for three of the four medications used. In case 1, time to both midazolam and acetaminophen was significantly faster in the intervention (with tape group (midazolam: 8.3 vs. 28.9 seconds, p=0.005; acetaminophen: 28.6 seconds vs. 50.6 seconds, p=0.036. In case 2, time to epinephrine did not differ (23.3 seconds vs. 22.9 seconds, p=0.96, while time to diphenhydramine was significantly shorter in the intervention (with tape group (13 seconds vs. 37.5 seconds, p<0.05. Conclusion: Use of a length-based pediatric emergency

  17. Pediatric acute gastroenteritis: understanding caregivers' experiences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Hartling, Lisa; Scott, Shannon D

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common condition with high health care utilization, persistent practice variation, and substantial family burden. An initial approach to resolve these issues is to understand the patient/caregiver experience of this illness. The objective of this study was to describe caregivers' experiences of pediatric AGE and identify their information needs, preferences, and priorities. A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted. Caregivers of a child with AGE were recruited for this study in the pediatric emergency department (ED) at a tertiary hospital in a major urban centre. Individual interviews were conducted (n=15), and a thematic analysis of interview transcripts was completed using a hybrid inductive/deductive approach. Five major themes were identified and described: 1) caregiver management strategies; 2) reasons for going to the ED; 3) treatment and management of AGE in the ED; 4) caregivers' information needs; and 5) additional factors influencing caregivers' experiences and decision-making. A number of subthemes within each major theme were identified and described. This qualitative descriptive study has identified caregiver information needs, preferences, and priorities regarding pediatric AGE. This study also identified inconsistencies in the treatment and management of pediatric AGE at home and in the ED that influence health care utilization and patient outcomes related to pediatric AGE.

  18. Pediatric emergency care capacity in a low-resource setting: An assessment of district hospitals in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Hategeka

    Full Text Available Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management. The results of the study will shed light on the resources and support that are currently available to implement ETAT+, which aims to improve care for severely ill infants and children.A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in eight district hospitals across Rwanda focusing on the availability of physical and human resources, as well as hospital services organizations to provide emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care for severely ill infants and children.Many of essential resources deemed necessary for the provision of emergency care for severely ill infants and children were readily available (e.g. drugs and laboratory services. However, only 4/8 hospitals had BVM for newborns; while nebulizer and MDI were not available in 2/8 hospitals. Only 3/8 hospitals had F-75 and ReSoMal. Moreover, there was no adequate triage system across any of the hospitals evaluated. Further, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation and management of malaria were available in 5/8 and in 7/8 hospitals, respectively; while those for child resuscitation and management of sepsis, pneumonia, dehydration and severe malnutrition were available in less than half of the hospitals evaluated.Our assessment provides evidence to inform new strategies to enhance the capacity of

  19. Pediatric emergency care capacity in a low-resource setting: An assessment of district hospitals in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Jean; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kenyon, Cynthia; Cechetto, David F.; Lynd, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)–a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program–in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management. The results of the study will shed light on the resources and support that are currently available to implement ETAT+, which aims to improve care for severely ill infants and children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in eight district hospitals across Rwanda focusing on the availability of physical and human resources, as well as hospital services organizations to provide emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care for severely ill infants and children. Results Many of essential resources deemed necessary for the provision of emergency care for severely ill infants and children were readily available (e.g. drugs and laboratory services). However, only 4/8 hospitals had BVM for newborns; while nebulizer and MDI were not available in 2/8 hospitals. Only 3/8 hospitals had F-75 and ReSoMal. Moreover, there was no adequate triage system across any of the hospitals evaluated. Further, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation and management of malaria were available in 5/8 and in 7/8 hospitals, respectively; while those for child resuscitation and management of sepsis, pneumonia, dehydration and severe malnutrition were available in less than half of the hospitals evaluated. Conclusions Our assessment provides evidence to inform new strategies

  20. Risk factors for venous thromboembolic events in pediatric surgical patients: Defining indications for prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Sarah B; Lautz, Timothy B; Schaefer, Beverly A; Yu, Guan; Naseem, Hibbut-Ur-Rauf; Rothstein, David H

    2017-12-27

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric surgical patients is a rare event. The risk factors for VTE in pediatric general surgery patients undergoing abdominopelvic procedures are unknown. The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database (2012-2015) was queried for patients with VTE after abdominopelvic general surgery procedures. Patient and operative variables were assessed to identify risk factors associated with VTE and develop a pediatric risk score. From 2012-2015, 68 of 34,813 (0.20%) patients who underwent abdominopelvic general surgery procedures were diagnosed with VTE. On multivariate analysis, there was no increased risk of VTE based on concomitant malignancy, chemotherapy, inflammatory bowel disease, or laparoscopic surgical approach, while a higher rate of VTE was identified among female patients. The odds of experiencing VTE were increased on stepwise regression for patients older than 15 years and those with preexisting renal failure or a diagnosis of septic shock, patients with American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) classification ≥ 2, and for anesthesia time longer than 2 h. The combination of age > 15 years, ASA classification ≥ 2, anesthesia time > 2 h, renal failure, and septic shock was included in a model for predicting risk of VTE (AUC = 0.907, sensitivity 84.4%, specificity 88.2%). VTE is rare in pediatric patients, but prediction modeling may help identify those patients at heightened risk. Additional studies are needed to validate the factors identified in this study in a risk assessment model as well as to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis methods. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Radiation risk index for pediatric CT. A patient-derived metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Tian, Xiaoyu; Paul Segars, W.; Frush, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a benefit in characterizing radiation-induced cancer risk in pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT: a singular metric that represents the whole-body radiation burden while also accounting for age, gender and organ sensitivity. To compute an index of radiation risk for pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT. Using a protocol approved by our institutional review board, 42 pediatric patients (age: 0-16 years, weight: 2-80 kg) were modeled into virtual whole-body anatomical models. Organ doses were estimated for clinical chest and abdominopelvic CT examinations of the patients using validated Monte Carlo simulations of two major scanner models. Using age-, size- and gender-specific organ risk coefficients, the values were converted to normalized effective dose (by dose length product) (denoted as the k factor) and a normalized risk index (denoted as the q factor). An analysis was performed to determine how these factors are correlated with patient age and size for both males and females to provide a strategy to better characterize individualized risk. The k factor was found to be exponentially correlated with the average patient diameter. For both genders, the q factor also exhibited an exponential relationship with both the average patient diameter and with patient age. For both factors, the differences between the scanner models were less than 8%. The study defines a whole-body radiation risk index for chest and abdominopelvic CT imaging, that incorporates individual estimated organ dose values, organ radiation sensitivity, patient size, exposure age and patient gender. This indexing metrology enables the assessment and potential improvement of chest and abdominopelvic CT performance through surveillance of practice dose profiles across patients and may afford improved informed communication. (orig.)

  2. Radiation risk index for pediatric CT. A patient-derived metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Tian, Xiaoyu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Paul Segars, W. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Frush, Donald P. [Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    There is a benefit in characterizing radiation-induced cancer risk in pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT: a singular metric that represents the whole-body radiation burden while also accounting for age, gender and organ sensitivity. To compute an index of radiation risk for pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT. Using a protocol approved by our institutional review board, 42 pediatric patients (age: 0-16 years, weight: 2-80 kg) were modeled into virtual whole-body anatomical models. Organ doses were estimated for clinical chest and abdominopelvic CT examinations of the patients using validated Monte Carlo simulations of two major scanner models. Using age-, size- and gender-specific organ risk coefficients, the values were converted to normalized effective dose (by dose length product) (denoted as the k factor) and a normalized risk index (denoted as the q factor). An analysis was performed to determine how these factors are correlated with patient age and size for both males and females to provide a strategy to better characterize individualized risk. The k factor was found to be exponentially correlated with the average patient diameter. For both genders, the q factor also exhibited an exponential relationship with both the average patient diameter and with patient age. For both factors, the differences between the scanner models were less than 8%. The study defines a whole-body radiation risk index for chest and abdominopelvic CT imaging, that incorporates individual estimated organ dose values, organ radiation sensitivity, patient size, exposure age and patient gender. This indexing metrology enables the assessment and potential improvement of chest and abdominopelvic CT performance through surveillance of practice dose profiles across patients and may afford improved informed communication. (orig.)

  3. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric patients with seizure from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric seizures in developing countries are often poorly investigated and consequently poorly managed. ..... irrespective of age or sex of the patient; considering that, .... clinical presenting symptom in children with brain tumors.

  4. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  5. Transpalatal distraction for the management of maxillary constriction in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients. Clinical paper. Since 2010 TPD has been applied to six pediatric patients during mixed dentition when severe maxillary constriction was present and conventional orthodontic widening has already failed. Individually selected devices (Surgitec, Belgium) were inserted in general anaesthesia and distraction was performed according to well known parameters. Maxillary constriction could be improved in all six patients without any drawbacks by bone borne devices during mixed dentition. Skeletal conditions were obviously improved for subsequent orthodontic or orthognathic therapy without functional impairment. Follow-up is up to 36 months after device removal. Transpalatal Distraction is recommendable in selected pediatric patients if massive growth disturbance is present or has to be expected. TPD allows for individually adapted maxillary expansion by selection and positioning of appropriate devices in combination with intraoperative testing of maxillary movements and controlled bone removal.

  6. Irinotecan for relapsed Wilms tumor in pediatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hol, Janna A; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Graf, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    While irinotecan has been studied in various pediatric solid tumors, its potential role in Wilms tumor (WT) is less clear. We evaluated response and outcome of irinotecan-containing regimens in relapsed WT and compared our results to the available literature. Among 14 evaluable patients, one...

  7. The impact of intrapulmonary shunting after liver transplantation in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Di Liang

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Among pediatric ESLD patients with preoperative IPS, approximately 6% continue to have mild IPS after LT. Patients with mild IPS after LT remain asymptomatic and have good liver graft function.

  8. [Depressive disorder in Mexican pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Alonso, Hilda Lilian; García-Moreno, Norberta Prisilia; Rodríguez-Arreola, Brenda; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of depression in Mexican pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Analytical transversal study including patients aged 7-16 years with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus seen at the Pediatric Rheumatology Consultation Service. The disease was classified by means of the MEX-SLEDAI questionnaire. Descriptive statistics with central tendency and dispersion and comparative measurements with chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression and association with odds ratios. SPSS v.21.0 statistical software package. We evaluated 45 patients who presented depression, n=9 (20%), including eight females (89%) and one male (11%), median age 13 years (range, 7-16) in children with depression vs. 13 years (range, 9-14) p=0.941, depression more frequent in schoolchildren. Habitual residence, disease evolution time, and duration of the immunosuppressor did not show a significant difference between both groups. Divorced parents p=0.037. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of lupus presented in 2.2% of all patients and in 100% of patients with depression. Disease activity index (MEX-SLEDAI) did not demonstrate a relationship with the presence of depression. Prevalences in pediatric populations are less that that reported in adults, association with disease activity, evolution time, and immunosuppressor use and duration not found.

  9. Adapting protocols of CT imaging in a pediatric emergency department. Evaluation of image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Casares Magaz, O.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the picture quality in relation to the radiation dose delivered in CT studies of computer tomograph Pediatric Emergency Department of Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC) in order to optimize the technical parameters used these radiological examinations so as to obtain optimal image quality at the lowest possible dose.

  10. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...

  11. An in-situ simulation-based educational outreach project for pediatric trauma care in a rural trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, Lilly; Ashley, Sarah; Brady, Jackie; Lake, Bryan; Keeter, Morgan; Schiller, David; Robey, Walter C; Charles, Stephen; Beasley, Kari M; Toschlog, Eric A; Longshore, Shannon W

    2018-02-01

    Outcome disparities between urban and rural pediatric trauma patients persist, despite regionalization of trauma systems. Rural patients are initially transported to the nearest emergency department (ED), where pediatric care is infrequent. We aim to identify educational intervention targets and increase provider experience via pediatric trauma simulation. Prospective study of simulation-based pediatric trauma resuscitation was performed at three community EDs. Level one trauma center providers facilitated simulations, providing educational feedback. Provider performance comfort and skill with tasks essential to initial trauma care were assessed, comparing pre-/postsimulations. Primary outcomes were: 1) improved comfort performing skills, and 2) team performance during resuscitation. Provider comfort with the following improved (p-values education improves provider comfort and performance. Comparison of patient outcomes to evaluate improvement in pediatric trauma care is warranted. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Patient Resources Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Pediatric Stroke » Introduction Introduction What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Introduction Types of Stroke Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  13. [Current emergency medicine for neurological disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the number of pediatric outpatients consulting our hospital during non-practice hours increased by 218.1% of that in 1996. The number of pediatric inpatients during non-practice hours in 2006 increased by 71.3% of that in 1996. In 2006, the number of patients who were admitted with neurological disorders in children during non-practice hours increased to 213.3% of that in 1996. The proportion of these pediatric patients among those who were admitted during non-practice hours was 16.6% in our hospital, suggesting the importance of neurological disorders in pediatric emergency medicine. More than 60% of inpatients with neurological disorders in children were 3 years old or younger. The most common neurological symptoms observed at admission included convulsion (81.6%) and disturbance of consciousness (8.5%). The disorders were mainly febrile seizure (41.4%) and epilepsy (29.0%). Most patients with severe disorders requiring emergency medicine, such as head bruise, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy, purulent meningitis, and head trauma, were admitted during non-practice hours. The prognoses of most neurological disorders in children were favorable. However, patients with sequelae (especially, hypoxic encephalopathy, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy) showed an unfavorable neurological prognosis. Early rehabilitation during admission was useful as a support method for their families. In the future, a comprehensive rehabilitation program for children with acquired brain injury should be established and laws to promote home care must be passed.

  14. Device therapy in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naokata Sumitomo, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Despite the limited experience, limitations of device implantations owing to the size of the devices, and necessity for nonendocardial electrode placement, device implantations are required in more pediatric and CHD patients than expected.

  15. Subclinical nephritic syndrome in children cohabiting with pediatric patients, Presenting acute nephritic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Tinoco Gustavo Adolfo; Julio-Barrios Emil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: subclinical nephritic syndrome is the presence of hematuria, hypocomplementemiaand/or proteinuria without the presence of signs and/or symptoms.Objective: to determine the incidence of subclinical nephritic syndrome in childrenliving with pediatric patients diagnosed with acute nephritic syndrome.Methods: family visit to identify children living together in the two previous months, with pediatric patients hospitalized with acute nephritic syndrome, at Hospital InfantilNapoleon F...

  16. Discharge against medical advice in a pediatric emergency center in the State of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdulateef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze cases that had left the Pediatric Emergency Center Al Sadd, Doha (PEC against medical advice, with the aim of developing policies to help reduce this occurrence. Methodology: All patients that were admitted to the main PEC observation room for treatment and/or investigation and subsequently left against medical advice from February 18, 2007 to June 18, 2007, were followed by a phone call, and a questionnaire, which was completed by the departmental patient representative. Results: 99,133 patients attended the facility during the study period. Of those, 106 left the facility against medical advice. Ninety-four guardians were successfully contacted. 90% of the cases were in children below 2 years of age. In 87% of the cases the mother was the main decision maker for leaving against medical advice. Domestic obligations were the leading cause of DAMA (discharge against medical advice, reported in 45% of the cases. Respondents reported that the consequences of DAMA were well explained by medical staff before they left the facility however, they had not met with the departmental patient representative during their stay. Conclusion:As the majority of DAMA cases occurred in infants, medical staff should address the concerns of this group early on in the course of treatment. Maintaining communication and providing support, in particular for mothers of higher risk groups may help to reduce the rate of DAMA cases.

  17. Association of an Asthma Improvement Collaborative With Health Care Utilization in Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in an Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Beck, Andrew F; Sauers-Ford, Hadley; Simmons, Jeffrey; Wiener, Brandy; Crosby, Lisa; Wade-Murphy, Susan; Schoettker, Pamela J; Chundi, Pavan K; Samaan, Zeina; Mansour, Mona

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood. Hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma are more frequently experienced by minority children and adolescents and those with low socioeconomic status. To reduce asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits for Medicaid-insured pediatric patients residing in Hamilton County, Ohio. From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015, a multidisciplinary team used quality-improvement methods and the chronic care model to conduct interventions in inpatient, outpatient, and community settings in a large, urban academic pediatric hospital in Hamilton County, Ohio. Children and adolescents aged 2 to 17 years who resided in Hamilton County, had a diagnosis of asthma, and were Medicaid insured were studied. Interventions were implemented in 3 phases: hospital-based inpatient care redesign, outpatient-based care enhancements, and community-based supports. Plan-do-study-act cycles allowed for small-scale implementation of change concepts and rapid evaluation of how such tests affected processes and outcomes of interest. The study measured asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits per 10 000 Medicaid-insured pediatric patients. Data were measured monthly on a rolling 12-month mean basis. Data from multiple previous years were used to establish a baseline. Data were tracked with annotated control charts and with interrupted time-series analysis. Of the estimated 36 000 children and adolescents with asthma in Hamilton County (approximately 13 000 of whom are Medicaid insured and 6000 of whom are cared for in Cincinnati Children's Hospital primary care practices), asthma-related hospitalizations decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.7-8.5) to 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3-5.1) per 10 000 Medicaid patients per month by June 30, 2014, a 41.8% (95% CI, 41.7%-42.0%) relative reduction. Emergency department visits decreased from 21.5 (95% CI, 20.6-22.3) to 12.4 (95% CI, 11.5-13.2) per 10 000 Medicaid patients per

  18. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  19. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G.; Taylor, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of Liver Stiffness in Pediatric Fontan Patients Using Transient Elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic fibrosis is a potential complication following Fontan surgery and heralds long-term risk for cirrhosis. Transient elastography (TE is a rapid, noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. Objectives. To compare liver stiffness and liver biochemistries in pediatric Fontan patients with age- and sex-matched controls and to determine patients’ acceptance of TE. Methods. Patients were recruited from British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Twenty-two Fontan patients (15 males were identified. Demographic information and cardiac data were collected. TE was measured using size-appropriate probes. Results. The median age of the Fontan cohort was 13.7 (5.9–16.8 years. Time from Fontan surgery to TE was 9.6 (1.0–12.9 years. The median Fontan circuit pressure was 13 (11–14 mmHg. TE values were higher in Fontan patients versus controls (18.6 versus 4.7 kPa, p<0.001. There was no association between TE values and patient age (r=0.41, p=0.058, time since Fontan surgery (r=0.40, p=0.062, or median Fontan circuit pressure (CVP (r=0.35, p=0.111. Patients found TE to be nonpainful, convenient, and safe. Conclusions. TE is feasible to assess liver stiffness in children following Fontan surgery. Pediatric Fontan patients have markedly elevated liver stiffness values. TE may have important utility in liver care follow-up of pediatric Fontan patients.

  1. Medical errors in hospitalized pediatric trauma patients with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compares medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with and without chronic conditions. Methods: The 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database, which included 123,303 trauma discharges, was analyzed. Medical errors were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The medical error rates per 100 discharges and per 1000 hospital days were calculated and compared between inpatients with and without chronic conditions. Results: Pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions experienced a higher medical error rate compared with patients without chronic conditions: 4.04 (95% confidence interval: 3.75–4.33 versus 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.16 per 100 discharges. The rate of medical error differed by type of chronic condition. After controlling for confounding factors, the presence of a chronic condition increased the adjusted odds ratio of medical error by 37% if one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.21–1.5, and 69% if more than one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–1.53. In the adjusted model, length of stay had the strongest association with medical error, but the adjusted odds ratio for chronic conditions and medical error remained significantly elevated even when accounting for the length of stay, suggesting that medical complexity has a role in medical error. Higher adjusted odds ratios were seen in other subgroups. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are associated with significantly higher rate of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients. Future research should evaluate interventions or guidelines for reducing the risk of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions.

  2. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Isabel Correia Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years, and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45% patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%, erosive esophagitis in two (18%, and a whitish stippling in one (9% patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73% cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils.

  3. Technical study of craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients with patient position and field matching

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    Itoh, Masanori; Ise, Toshihide; Umezu, Mikio [Kangawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hioki, Minoru

    2000-05-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in leukemia and medulloblastoma patients is usually a three-field technique that involves parallel-opposed lateral cranial fields adjacent and orthogonal to a posterior spinal field. Since sedation is often necessary for pediatric patients, the supine position is more favorable than the prone position for respiratory monitoring. We practiced CSI in the supine position in one case of leukemia and three cases of medulloblastoma. Each location of the isocenter was determined by moving the couch to fit the center of the CSI on the basis of incisura intertragica. The angles of collimator rotation and couch rotation were calculated according to each treatment field size. The junction was also moved 2 cm day by day during the course of treatment so that over- and underdose at the junction would be prevented. The supine position did not allow us to visually confirm the proper junction between the lateral cranial fields and the spinal field. However, we succeeded in practicing complete conjunction between the fields by proper collimator and couch rotations on the assessment of the film-dose method. CSI in the supine position is naturally comfortable for pediatric patients and seems effective in pediatric treatments, which often require respiratory monitoring for sedation. (author)

  4. The 2015 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's INDO-US Joint Working Group White Paper on Establishing an Academic Department and Training Pediatric Emergency Medicine Specialists in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Prashant; Batra, Prerna; Shah, Binita R; Saha, Abhijeet; Galwankar, Sagar; Aggrawal, Praveen; Hassoun, Ameer; Batra, Bipin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Shah, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    The concept of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is virtually nonexistent in India. Suboptimally, organized prehospital services substantially hinder the evaluation, management, and subsequent transport of the acutely ill and/or injured child to an appropriate facility. Furthermore, the management of the ill child at the hospital level is often provided by overburdened providers who, by virtue of their training, lack experience in the skills required to effectively manage pediatric emergencies. Finally, the care of the traumatized child often requires the involvement of providers trained in different specialities, which further impedes timely access to appropriate care. The recent recognition of Doctor of Medicine (MD) in Emergency Medicine (EM) as an approved discipline of study as per the Indian Medical Council Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to introduce PEM as a formal academic program in India. PEM has to be developed as a 3-year superspeciality course (in PEM) after completion of MD/Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Pediatrics or MD/DNB in EM. The National Board of Examinations (NBE) that accredits and administers postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in India also needs to develop an academic program – DNB in PEM. The goals of such a program would be to impart theoretical knowledge, training in the appropriate skills and procedures, development of communication and counseling techniques, and research. In this paper, the Joint Working Group of the Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (JWG-ACEE-India) gives its recommendations for starting 3-year DM/DNB in PEM, including the curriculum, infrastructure, staffing, and training in India. This is an attempt to provide an uniform framework and a set of guiding principles to start PEM as a structured superspeciality to enhance emergency care for Indian children. PMID:26807394

  5. The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care: an overview of the changes to pediatric basic and advanced life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Chacko, Jisha; Sallee, Donna

    2011-06-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has a strong commitment to implementing scientific research-based interventions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. This article presents the 2010 AHA major guideline changes to pediatric basic life support (BLS) and pediatric advanced life support (PALS) and the rationale for the changes. The following topics are covered in this article: (1) current understanding of cardiac arrest in the pediatric population, (2) major changes in pediatric BLS, and (3) major changes in PALS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Acute Abdomen in Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department

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    Yu-Ching Tseng

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: The etiology of acute abdomen varied depending on the age of the patient. Acute appendicitis was the most common cause of acute abdomen in children older than 1 year of age, followed by traumatic injury. Abdominal CT scanning was a useful diagnostic imaging modality in patients with both traumatic and non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  7. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  8. Pediatric portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Clarissa Barbon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options. PMID:28406835

  9. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging for surgical planning in pediatric patients: a preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jarod L; Griffin, Natalie; Hacker, Carl D; Vellimana, Ananth K; Akbari, S Hassan; Shimony, Joshua S; Smyth, Matthew D; Leuthardt, Eric C; Limbrick, David D

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Cerebral mapping for surgical planning and operative guidance is a challenging task in neurosurgery. Pediatric patients are often poor candidates for many modern mapping techniques because of inability to cooperate due to their immature age, cognitive deficits, or other factors. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is uniquely suited to benefit pediatric patients because it is inherently noninvasive and does not require task performance or significant cooperation. Recent advances in the field have made mapping cerebral networks possible on an individual basis for use in clinical decision making. The authors present their initial experience translating rs-fMRI into clinical practice for surgical planning in pediatric patients. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed cases in which the rs-fMRI analysis technique was used prior to craniotomy in pediatric patients undergoing surgery in their institution. Resting-state analysis was performed using a previously trained machine-learning algorithm for identification of resting-state networks on an individual basis. Network maps were uploaded to the clinical imaging and surgical navigation systems. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics, including need for sedation during imaging and use of task-based fMRI, were also recorded. RESULTS Twenty patients underwent rs-fMRI prior to craniotomy between December 2013 and June 2016. Their ages ranged from 1.9 to 18.4 years, and 12 were male. Five of the 20 patients also underwent task-based fMRI and one underwent awake craniotomy. Six patients required sedation to tolerate MRI acquisition, including resting-state sequences. Exemplar cases are presented including anatomical and resting-state functional imaging. CONCLUSIONS Resting-state fMRI is a rapidly advancing field of study allowing for whole brain analysis by a noninvasive modality. It is applicable to a wide range of patients and effective even under general anesthesia. The nature of resting

  10. Treating Mucocele in Pediatric Patients Using a Diode Laser: Three Case Reports

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    Sara M. Bagher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mucocele is the most common minor salivary gland disease and among the most common biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a round well-circumscribed painless swelling ranging from deep blue to mucosa alike in color. Mucoceles rarely resolve on their own and surgical removal under local anesthesia is required in most cases. Different treatment options are described in the literature, including cryosurgery, intra-lesion injection of corticosteroid, micro-marsupialization and conventional surgical removal using a scalpel, and laser ablation. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to report three cases of mucocele removal in pediatric patients using a diode laser with a one-month follow-up. Mucoceles were removed by a pediatric dentist using a diode laser with a wavelength of 930 nm in continuous mode and a power setting of 1.8 Watts. In all cases, no bleeding occurred during or after the procedure and there was no need for suturing. On clinical examination during the one-month follow-up, in all three cases there was minimal or no scarring, minimal post-operative discomfort or pain, and no recurrence. Diode lasers provide an effective, rapid, simple, bloodless and well accepted procedure for treating mucocele in pediatric patients. Minimal post-operative discomfort and scarring was reported by all the three patients.

  11. Treating Mucocele in Pediatric Patients Using a Diode Laser: Three Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, Sara M; Sulimany, Ayman M; Kaplan, Martin; Loo, Cheen Y

    2018-05-09

    A mucocele is the most common minor salivary gland disease and among the most common biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a round well-circumscribed painless swelling ranging from deep blue to mucosa alike in color. Mucoceles rarely resolve on their own and surgical removal under local anesthesia is required in most cases. Different treatment options are described in the literature, including cryosurgery, intra-lesion injection of corticosteroid, micro-marsupialization and conventional surgical removal using a scalpel, and laser ablation. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to report three cases of mucocele removal in pediatric patients using a diode laser with a one-month follow-up. Mucoceles were removed by a pediatric dentist using a diode laser with a wavelength of 930 nm in continuous mode and a power setting of 1.8 Watts. In all cases, no bleeding occurred during or after the procedure and there was no need for suturing. On clinical examination during the one-month follow-up, in all three cases there was minimal or no scarring, minimal post-operative discomfort or pain, and no recurrence. Diode lasers provide an effective, rapid, simple, bloodless and well accepted procedure for treating mucocele in pediatric patients. Minimal post-operative discomfort and scarring was reported by all the three patients.

  12. Pediatric Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested in ... sinuses are present at birth. Unlike in adults, pediatric sinusitis is difficult to diagnose because symptoms of ...

  13. Patient doses from fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L C; Vano, E; Gutierrez, F; Rodriguez, C; Gilarranz, R; Manzanas, M J

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children are a higher risk population for radiation cancer induction compared to adults. Although some values on pediatric patient doses for cardiac procedures have been reported, data to determine reference levels are scarce, especially when compared to those available for adults in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this study is to make a new contribution to the scarce published data in pediatric cardiac procedures and help in the determination of future dose reference levels. This paper presents a set of patient dose values, in terms of air kerma area product (KAP) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), measured in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory equipped with a biplane x-ray system with dynamic flat panel detectors. Cardiologists were properly trained in radiation protection. The study includes 137 patients aged between 10 days and 16 years who underwent diagnostic catheterizations or therapeutic procedures. Demographic data and technical details of the procedures were also gathered. The x-ray system was submitted to a quality control programme, including the calibration of the transmission ionization chamber. The age distribution of the patients was 47 for 2 respectively for the four age bands. These KAP values increase by a factor of 8 when moving through the four age bands. The probability of a fatal cancer per fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedure is about 0.07%. Median values of ESAK for the four age bands were 46, 50, 56 and 163 mGy, which lie far below the threshold for deterministic effects on the skin. These dose values are lower than those published in previous papers

  14. Analysis of online patient education materials in pediatric ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ann M; John, Elizabeth S; Hansberry, David R; Thomas, Prashant J; Guo, Suqin

    2015-10-01

    Patients increasingly consult online resources for healthcare information. The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that online education resources be written between a 3rd- and 7th-grade level. This study assesses whether online health information abides by these guidelines. Ten pediatric ophthalmology conditions were entered into a commonly used search engine, Google.com, and analyzed using 10 validated readability scales. Scientific articles and articles written on patient forums were excluded. The 10 conditions--amblyopia, cataract, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, nystagmus, retinoblastoma, retinopathy of prematurity, strabismus, stye, and glaucoma--were also searched and analyzed separately from widely used websites, including Wikipedia and WebMD, as well as those of professional societies, including the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) and the American Optometric Association (AOA). The majority of articles were written above recommended guidelines. All scales showed that the 100 articles were written at a mean grade-level of 11.75 ± 2.72. Only 12% of articles were written below a 9th-grade level and only 3% met recommended criteria. The articles accrued separately from Wikipedia, WebMD, AAPOS, and AOA also had average grade levels above the recommended guidelines. The readability of online patient education material exceeds NIH and AMA guidelines. This disparity can adversely affect caregiver comprehension of such resources and contribute to poor decision making. Pediatric ophthalmology online articles are generally written at a level too high for average caregiver comprehension. Revision of articles can increase satisfaction, improve outcomes, and facilitate the patient-ophthalmologist relationship. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A Grounded Theory Qualitative Analysis of Interprofessional Providers' Perceptions on Caring for Critically Ill Infants and Children in Pediatric and General Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Sandeep; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Gawel, Marcie; Walsh, Barbara M; Brown, Linda L; Lavoie, Megan; Tay, Khoon-Yen; Auerbach, Marc A

    2016-10-04

    The objective of this study was to explore pediatric emergency department (PED) and general emergency department (GED) providers' perceptions on caring for critically ill infants and children. This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the perceptions of emergency department providers caring for critically ill infants and children. Teams of providers participated in 4 in situ simulation cases followed by facilitated debriefings. Debriefings were recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were reviewed independently and followed by group coding discussions to identify emerging themes. Consistent with grounded theory, the team iteratively revised the debriefing script as new understanding was gained. A total of 188 simulation debriefings were recorded in 24 departments, with 15 teams participating from 8 PEDs and 32 teams from 16 GEDs. Twenty-four debriefings were audiotaped and professionally transcribed verbatim. Thematic saturation was achieved after 20 transcripts. In our iterative qualitative analysis of these transcripts, we observed 4 themes: (1) GED provider comfort with algorithm-based pediatric care and overall comfort with pediatric care in PED, (2) GED provider reliance on cognitive aids versus experience-based recall by PED providers, (3) GED provider discomfort with locating and determining size or dose of pediatric-specific equipment and medications, and (4) PED provider reliance on larger team size and challenges with multitasking during resuscitation. Our qualitative analysis produced several themes that help us to understand providers' perceptions in caring for critically ill children in GEDs and PEDs. These data could guide the development of targeted educational and improvement interventions.

  16. Blood conservation operations in pediatric cardiac patients: a paradigm shift of blood use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Weatherred, Ted; Qadeer, Ahsan; Rosenberg, Carol Ann; Hudacko, Andrea; Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is associated with high morbidity in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects and outcomes of blood conservation for our pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 168 pediatric patients who underwent biventricular (BV) and univentricular (UV) cardiac operations from 2006 to 2010. Patients were grouped into no blood conservation (n = 86 [BV = 74, UV = 12]) and blood conservation (n = 82 [BV = 68, UV = 14]) cohorts. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, and preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels in the BV groups. Even though the blood conservation group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (p conservation group, there were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, CPB and cross-clamp times, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and red blood cell transfusions despite lower intraoperative hemoglobin levels (p conservation group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between intraoperative blood transfusion and increased inotropic score, longer duration on the ventilator, and increased length of hospitalization. Blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations is associated with fewer ventilator days, lower inotropic scores, and shorter lengths of stay. These findings, in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Complications in pediatric anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, K

    2014-07-01

    As in adult anesthesia, morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced in pediatric anesthesia in recent decades. This fact cannot conceal the fact that the incidence of anesthetic complications in children is still much more common than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Newborns and infants in particular but also children with emergency interventions and severe comorbidities are at increased risk of potential complications. Typical complications in pediatric anesthesia are respiratory problems, medication errors, difficulties with the intravenous puncture and pulmonal aspiration. In the postoperative setting, nausea and vomiting, pain, and emergence delirium can be mentioned as typical complications. In addition to the systematic prevention of complications in pediatric anesthesia, it is important to quickly recognize disturbances of homeostasis and treat them promptly and appropriately. In addition to the expertise of the performing anesthesia team, the institutional structure in particular can improve quality and safety in pediatric anesthesia.

  18. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at...

  19. Injuries Associated with Hoverboard Use: A Case Series of Emergency Department Patients

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    Gregory S. Weingart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since hoverboards became available in 2015, 2.5 million have been sold in the US. An increasing number of injuries related to their use have been reported, with limited data on associated injury patterns. We describe a case series of emergency department (ED visits for hoverboard-related injuries. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on patients presenting to 10 EDs in southeastern Virginia from December 24, 2015, through June 30, 2016. We used a free-text search feature of the electronic medical record to identify patients documented to have the word “hoverboard” in the record. We reported descriptive statistics for patient demographics, types of injuries, body injury location, documented helmet use, injury severity score (ISS, length of stay in the ED, and ED charges. Results: We identified 83 patients in our study. The average age was 26 years old (18 months to 78 years. Of these patients, 53% were adults; the majority were female (61.4% and African American (56.6%. The primary cause of injury was falls (91%, with an average ISS of 5.4 (0–10. The majority of injuries were contusions (37.3% and fractures (36.1%. Pediatric patients tended to have more fractures than adults (46.2% vs 27.3%. Though 20% of patients had head injuries, only one patient reported using a helmet. The mean and median ED charges were $2,292.00 (SD $1,363.64 and $1,808.00, respectively. Head injuries resulted in a significantly higher cost when compared to other injuries; median cost was $2,846.00. Conclusion: While the overall ISS was low, more pediatric patients suffered fractures compared to adults. Documented helmet use was low, yet 20% of our population had head injuries. Further investigation into proper protective gear and training is warranted.

  20. Analysis of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Admissions in Postoperative Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Elizabeth K; Gabriel, Rodney A; Beutler, Sascha; Dutton, Richard P; Urman, Richard D

    2017-03-01

    Currently, there are only a few retrospective, single-institution studies that have addressed the prevalence and risk factors associated with unplanned admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery. Based on the limited amount of studies, it appears that airway and respiratory complications put a child at increased risk for unplanned ICU admission. A more extensive and diverse analysis of unplanned postoperative admissions to the ICU is needed to address risk factors that have yet to be revealed by the current literature. To establish a rate of unplanned postoperative ICU admissions in pediatric patients using a large, multi-institution data set and to further characterize the associated risk factors. Data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry were analyzed. We recorded the overall risk of unplanned postoperative ICU admission in patients younger than 18 years and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the associated patient, surgical, and anesthetic-related characteristics. Of the 324 818 cases analyzed, 211 reported an unexpected ICU admission. There was an increased likelihood of unplanned postoperative ICU in infants (age anesthesia were also associated with unplanned ICU admissions. This study establishes a rate of unplanned ICU admission following surgery in the heterogeneous pediatric population. This is the first study to utilize such a large data set encompassing a wide range of practice environments to identify risk factors leading to unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Our study revealed that patient, surgical, and anesthetic complexity each contributed to an increased number of unplanned ICU admissions in the pediatric population.

  1. Out of Hospital emergency pediatric assistance and resuscitation in a rural area in the interior of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lopes Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: The rapid response vehicles (VMER are intended for emergency pre-hospital medical intervention, and 5-15% of their activations are for pediatric patients. The aim of the study was to characterize the assistance of the pediatric VMER-Vila Real services, to better identify gaps and develop strategies to correct them. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of children reports’ less than 18 years of age assisted by VMER-Vila Real between January 2005 and December 2012 (eight years. Results: During the study period, VMER-Vila Real was activated 8131, of which 463 (5.7% were children less than 18 years with with a mean age of 8.2 years. The mean time of arrival at the site of assistance was 18 minutes. In 22.2% of situations, rendez-vous was made. The main reason for activation was acute disease (39.5%, of which 43.2% presented seizures. Trauma accounted for 36.5%. Acute disease was more prevalent in children under two years of age and trauma in adolescents (p <0.001. Advanced life support procedures were instituted in 5.2% of patients. Three hundred ninety-eight patients were transported to local hospitals (86%. There were 13 deaths (2.8% during this period. Discussion: The main reasons for the activation were acute illness in patients under two years of age and trauma in the adolescence. The average time of arrival at patients’ location, high percentage of rendez-vous and deliveries can be justified by the peculiar regional topography. The total number of activations within this age group, which presents itself with specific needs in terms of treatment, puts in evidence the need of additional investment in the training of human resources.

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

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    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  3. Non union of an epiphyseal fibular fracture in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Roya; Schuberth, John M

    2006-01-01

    There are few reports on delayed or nonunion in the pediatric ankle fracture. The authors present a case of a nonunion of a mid-epiphyseal fracture of the distal fibula, described as a type 7 pediatric fracture. Both the occurrence of this injury pattern and a nonunion has not been reported in the same patient. Operative reduction of the nonunion resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  4. Physician identification and patient satisfaction in the emergency department: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Mary P; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Patient satisfaction has become a quality indicator tracked closely by hospitals and emergency departments (EDs). Unfortunately, the primary factors driving patient satisfaction remain poorly studied. It has been suggested that correct physician identification impacts patient satisfaction in hospitalized patients, however, the limited studies that exist have demonstrated mixed results. In this study, we sought to identify factors associated with improved satisfaction among ED patients, and specifically, to test whether improving physician identification by patients would lead to increased satisfaction. We performed a pre- and postintervention, survey-based study of patients at the end of their ED visits. We compared patient satisfaction scores as well as patients' abilities to correctly identify their physicians over two separate 1-week periods: prior to and after introducing a multimedia presentation of the attending physicians into the waiting room. A total of 486 patients (25% of all ED visits) were enrolled in the study. In the combined study population, overall patient satisfaction was higher among patients who correctly identified their physicians than among those who could not identify their physicians (combined mean satisfaction score of 8.1 vs. 7.2; odds ratio [OR] 1.07). Overall satisfaction was also higher among parents or guardians of pediatric patients than among adult patients (satisfaction score of 8.4 vs. 7.4; OR 1.07), and among patients who experienced a shorter door-to-doctor time (satisfaction score of 8.2 for shorter waiting time vs. 5.6 for longer waiting time; OR 1.15). Ambulance patients showed decreased satisfaction over some satisfaction parameters, including physician courtesy and knowledge. No direct relationship was demonstrated between the study intervention (multimedia presentation) and improved patient satisfaction or physician identification. Improved patient satisfaction was found to be positively correlated with correct physician

  5. Patient-specific dose estimation for pediatric chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Current methods for organ and effective dose estimations in pediatric CT are largely patient generic. Physical phantoms and computer models have only been developed for standard/limited patient sizes at discrete ages (e.g., 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old) and do not reflect the variability of patient anatomy and body habitus within the same size/age group. In this investigation, full-body computer models of seven pediatric patients in the same size/protocol group (weight: 11.9-18.2 kg) were created based on the patients' actual multi-detector array CT (MDCT) data. Organs and structures in the scan coverage were individually segmented. Other organs and structures were created by morphing existing adult models (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. Organ and effective dose of these patients from a chest MDCT scan protocol (64 slice LightSpeed VCT scanner, 120 kVp, 70 or 75 mA, 0.4 s gantry rotation period, pitch of 1.375, 20 mm beam collimation, and small body scan field-of-view) was calculated using a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated to simulate radiation transport in the same CT system. The seven patients had normalized effective dose of 3.7-5.3 mSv/100 mAs (coefficient of variation: 10.8%). Normalized lung dose and heart dose were 10.4-12.6 mGy/100 mAs and 11.2-13.3 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. Organ dose variations across the patients were generally small for large organs in the scan coverage (<7%), but large for small organs in the scan coverage (9%-18%) and for partially or indirectly exposed organs (11%-77%). Normalized effective dose correlated weakly with body weight (correlation coefficient: r=-0.80). Normalized lung dose and heart dose correlated strongly with mid-chest equivalent diameter (lung: r=-0.99, heart: r=-0.93); these strong correlation relationships can be used to estimate patient-specific organ

  6. Implementation of a patient blood management program in pediatric scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferrer, A; Gredilla-Díaz, E; de Vicente-Sánchez, J; Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, F; Gilsanz-Rodríguez, F

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the implementation of a blood conservation program, and the adoption and progressive association of different methods, reduces transfusion requirements in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery of different origins. Quasi-experimental, nonrandomized, descriptive study, approved by the Ethics Committee for Research of our institution. 50 pediatric patients (ASA I-III) aged 5 to 18 years, undergoing scoliosis surgery of any etiology by a single posterior or double approach (anterior and posterior) were included. A historical group with no alternatives to transfusion: Group No ahorro=15 patients (retrospective data collection) was compared with another 3 prospective study groups: Group HNA (acute normovolemic hemodilution)=9 patients; Group HNA+Rec (intraoperative blood salvage)=14 patients, and Group EPO (HNA+Rec+erythropoietin±preoperative donation)=12 patients; according with the implementation schedule of the transfusion alternatives in our institution. The rate of transfusion in different groups (No ahorro, HNA, HNA+Rec, EPO) was 100, 66, 57, and 0% of the patients, respectively, with a mean±SD of 3.40±1.59; 1.33±1.41; 1.43±1.50; 0±0 RBC units transfused per patient, respectively. Statistically significant differences (P<.001) were found in both the transfusion rate and number of RBC units. The application of a multimodal blood transfusion alternatives program, individualized for each pediatric patient undergoing scoliosis surgery can avoid transfusion in all cases. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric Patients' Malnutrition and Its Relation to Hospitalization Times and Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarey, Luis M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Relates the nutritional status of 1,378 hospitalized pediatric patients to length of hospitalization and definitive hospitalization diagnosis. Findings indicated the length of hospitalization time increased markedly with malnutrition, especially for patients with diarrhea. (BJD)

  8. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Knox, Christy L; Smith, Gary A; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Although an estimated 6.5 million United States (US) children aged 6-17 practiced a martial art in 2004, there have been no nationally representative studies comparing pediatric injuries among the three most popular disciplines, karate, taekwondo, and judo. Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003. We reviewed all martial arts injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC), National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). An estimated 128,400 children injuries from 1990 to 2003. Injured tended to be male (73.0%) and had a mean age of 12.1 years. Most injuries were attributed to karate (79.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was being kicked (25.6%), followed by falling (20.6%) and kicking (18.0%). The majority of injuries occurred to the lower leg/foot/ankle (30.1%) and hand/wrist (24.5%). The most common injury diagnoses were sprains/strains (29.3%), contusions/abrasions (27.8%), and fractures (24.6%). Participants in judo sustained significantly higher proportions of shoulder/upper arm injuries than karate (IPR=4.31, 95% CI: 2.84-6.55) or taekwondo (IPR=9.75, 95% CI: 3.53-26.91) participants. There were also higher proportions of neck injuries sustained by judo participants compared to karate (IPR=4.73, 95% CI: 1.91-11.70) or taekwondo (IPR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.02-17.06) participants. Pediatric martial arts injuries differ by discipline. Understanding these injury patterns can assist with the development of discipline-specific preventive interventions.

  9. Pediatric patients with common variable immunodeficiency: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadinejad, P; Aghamohammadi, A; Abolhassani, H; Sadaghiani, M S; Abdollahzade, S; Sadeghi, B; Soheili, H; Tavassoli, M; Fathi, S M; Tavakol, M; Behniafard, N; Dara