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Sample records for pediatric computed tomography

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special ... the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... information about radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will be taken to ... in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... is used to evaluate: complications from infections such as pneumonia a tumor that arises in the lung ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to ... Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... your child. top of page Additional Information and Resources The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging's " ... A child being prepared for a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... wear during the procedure. Metal objects including jewelry, eyeglasses, hearing aids, non-permanent retainers and hairpins may ... and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... your child. top of page Additional Information and Resources The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging's " ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT scans that are not clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI ... for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging's "Image Gently" Campaign top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) ...

  17. Practical techniques for pediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, C.R.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Kirks, D.R.; Kaufman, R.A.; Berger, P.E.; Kuhn, J.P.; Siegel, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Donald Kirks has assembled this section on Practical Techniques for Pediatric Computed Tomography. The material is based on a presentation in the Special Interest session at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Society for Pediatric Radiology in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA in 1982. Meticulous attention to detail and technique is required to ensure an optimal CT examination. CT techniques specifically applicable to infants and children have not been disseminated in the radiology literature and in this respect it may rightly be observed that ''the child is not a small adult''. What follows is a ''cookbook'' prepared by seven participants and it is printed in Pediatric Radiology, in outline form, as a statement of individual preferences for pediatric CT techniques. This outline gives concise explanation of techniques and permits prompt dissemination of information. (orig.)

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... or better than those obtained by CT scanning. Working together, your primary care physician or ... Safety in Pediatric Imaging's "Image Gently" Campaign top of ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are located in ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series of pictures, or slices of the ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... which are then displayed on a monitor. Special software can also generate three-dimensional (3-D) images ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... detectors rotate around the patient. At the same time, the examination table is moving through the scanner, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series of pictures, or slices of the body, to ...

  7. Computed Tomography of pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyoung Hee; Cho, Bum Shin; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    The development of Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has revolutionized the role of radiology in the management of the pediatric head trauma. The procedure is safe and can be repeated to reasses a changing neurologic picture, thereby correlation the clinical and pathologic changes. This study included evaluation of CT of 178 infants and children with head trauma during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. 1. Age distribution of the total 178 pediatric patients was ranging from one month to 16 years. The pediatric patient population was comprised of 128 males and 50 females, and its male to female ratio was about 2.5 : 1. The incidence of age occurring in 3 to 6 years was 38.2% and 7 to 10 years was 29.2%. Therefore the distribution of age between 3 to 6 years and 7 to 10 years was occurred in two-thirds of all pediatric patients. 2. Of all cases of injuries, traffic accidents were 60.1% and falls were 34.8%. 3. Skull fracture were roentgenographically detected in 61 (34.3%). However, the incidence of fractures in pretoddler group (0-2 years) was 61.1% and 7 to 10 years was 37.8%, 3 to 6 years was 36.8%. More common site of skull fracture was occipital bone,next partietal bone. 4. 54.8% of pediatric head trauma due to a full had a skull fracture, as did 25.2 % of those who were injured in traffic accident. 5. Cerebral Computed Tomography (CT) of the total 178 pediatric patients were revealed as following study.: Normal was 74.2%, epidural hematoma was 8.9%, subdural hematoma was 5.1%, cerebral contusion was 4.5%, intracerebral hematoma was 2.2% etc. 6. Of 25 cases of the epidural and subdural hematoma, supratentorial area was 15 cases, infratentorial area was 10 cases. 7. Most of the epidural hematoma was demonstrated a clear mental state. 8. However, intracerebral hematoma and cerebral contusion were occurred almost impairment of mental state

  8. Pediatrics patient in computed tomography: risk awareness among medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation about risk awareness in pediatrics computed tomography among medical staff are presented. Questionnaires were distributed along seven hospitals, 84 people were enrolled in this investigation. The results showed awareness of the potential risks associated with ionizing radiation in computed tomography. However, there is still widespread underestimation of relative doses and risks in case of pediatric patients. (author) [sr

  9. Intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation for pediatric computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Robinson, Fay; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Mason, Keira P

    2015-05-01

    This prospective observational pilot study evaluated the aerosolized intranasal route for dexmedetomidine as a safe, effective, and efficient option for infant and pediatric sedation for computed tomography imaging. The mean time to sedation was 13.4 minutes, with excellent image quality, no failed sedations, or significant adverse events. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01900405. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

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    Kook, Shin Ho; Ko, Eun Joo; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jung Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients.

  11. Comparative study of dose descriptor in pediatric computed tomography exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finatto, Jerusa Dalbosco; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da; Froner, Ana Paula Pastre; Pimentel, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the dose descriptor, volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI), a pediatric patients sample undergoing to skull CT, comparing the results with the diagnostic reference levels of the literature. Were collected volumetric CTDI values of all skull CT exams performed retrospectively in children of 0-10 years of age in a period of 12 months in a large hospital size. Patients, in a total of 103, were divided into four groups, where the criterion of separation used was age, trying to use the same division used in international references dose descriptors. In all acquisitions we used the pediatric protocol and the Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) available on the equipment. The CDTI values, with and without the use of AEC for pediatric studies, were compared. There was a reduction of approximately 100% in the absorbed dose value due to the use of the AEC. From the data collected and analyzed in this work, it is concluded that the use of dose reduction systems is relevant, such as the Care Dose, to maintain volumetric CTDI values within the reference levels. Also it is important the observation of range of children age to the appropriate choice of parameters used in the test protocol. The values obtained are according to the diagnostic reference levels from the literature

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography for pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano S, A. C.; Medina A, O.; Hidalgo T, S.; Azorin N, J.

    2015-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with interventional radiology, is considered as high-dose radiological procedure, so the optimization of the dose is necessary. Exposure to ionizing radiation in pediatric CT is of particular interest because the children are up to 10 times more sensitive to radiation than adults, the late somatic and genetic effects of radiation. The exposure and risk associated with ionizing radiation in CT is best characterized by the absorbed dose to each organ. Thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF: Mg, Ti are best suited for this purpose due to its characteristics such as high sensitivity, small size and its equivalence with the tissue. The results of dose measurements -in vivo- to the three types of CT studies (skull, thorax and abdomen) are presented. These results indicate that lower doses were obtained in skull study, while the highest was one of abdomen. (Author)

  13. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

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    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  14. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  15. Assessment of regional pediatric computed tomography dose indices in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    A Saravanakumar; K Vaideki; K N Govindarajan; S Jayakumar; B Devanand

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess Tamil Nadu pediatric computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation dose data for the most commonly performed CT examinations. This work was performed for thirty CT scanners installed in various parts of the Tamil Nadu region. The patient cohort was divided into two age groups:

  16. Flat detector computed tomography in diagnostic and interventional pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moesler, J.; Dittrich, S.; Gloeckler, M.; Rompel, O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the use of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT) in the catheterization of patients with congenital heart disease was evaluated. Application reports were created for various issues based on the achieved image quality in diverse anatomical regions. Materials and Methods: FD-CT was applied in 176 cases during catheterization between January 2010 and April 2012. A five-point Likert scale ('essential' to 'misleading') was used to evaluate image quality. All cases were analyzed retrospectively and application reports for the visualization of the aorta, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, semilunar valves, cavopulmonary connections and atrial baffles were generated. Contrast dye consumption and radiation dose were evaluated. Results: During the observation period FD-CT was applied in all 176 cases. The mean patient age was 7.0 years (0.01 - 42.53 years). The clinical value of FD-CT was rated superior to conventional angiography in 96.6 % of the cases and was never rated as 'misleading'. FD-CT was rated 'essential' in 3.4 % of all cases, 'very useful' in 77.3 % of all cases, 'useful' in 15.9 % of all cases and 'not useful' in 3.4 % of all cases. The mean dose-area product was 99 μGym 2 (19.3 - 1276.6 μGym 2 ), and the used contrast dye was 1.76 ml/kg (0.9 - 5 ml/kg). Application reports for the visualization of different anatomical regions are demonstrated. Conclusion: FD-CT is a new and auxiliary procedure in diagnostic and interventional catheterization of patients with congenital heart disease. Particularly extracardiac structures can be displayed in three-dimensional high resolution and be used for diagnosis, surgical planning and 3 D navigation. (orig.)

  17. Cranial radiotherapy guided by computed tomography with or without fields conformation in pediatric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Caussa, Lucas; Murina, Patricia; Zunino, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Many malignancies in children can be cured by radiotherapy, acute toxicity and the significant effect of delayed treatment are worrying for the patient, family and society. Therefore, the end of the pediatric radiotherapy is to maintain or improve the cure rate of cancer, diminishing the aftermath of treatment. The goal of this study is to measure differences in doses to the healthy tissue of the central nervous system with two radiotherapy techniques, both guided by computed tomography [es

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  20. Operational modeling of dose and noise for computed tomography in a pediatric hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Clemente, Rafael A.; Perez Diaz, Marlen; Mora Reyes, Yudel; Rodriguez Garlobo, Maikel; Castillo Salazar, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Noise becomes a critical factor in Computed Tomography (CT) because most detailed applications on soft tissue show a low contrast nature. Noise establishes an inferior limit to the contrast detectable by the observer. Various pixel noise models had been devised taking into account operational parameters on Single and Multi Detector Slice CT. The aim of this work was to obtain a predictive operational model for image noise addressed to pediatric protocols, taking into account scanning factors with a Single Slice CT unit dedicated to pediatric applications. A multiple linear regression model is proposed to predict noise in images of uniform phantoms equivalent to head and abdomen. A model for reported volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI VOL ) was obtained too for tradeoffs analysis approaching optimization purposes in pediatric applications. Eight independent variables were considered: phantom diameter, reconstruction mode, tube current, tube kVp, collimation, Field of View (FOV), reconstruction filter, and post processing filter. Results show good agreement with measurements, with adjusted coefficients of multiple determination of 0.936 and 0.744 for noise and CTDI VOL models respectively. Tube current, object diameter, collimation and reconstruction filters were the most influencing variables. The model application contributes to identify each factor's influence enhancing the operational possibilities approaching optimization of noise and dose tradeoffs. Acceptable noise levels and optimization strategies can be devised from models obtained towards lower tube current values combined with greater slice thickness and kVp taking into account the doses to pediatric patients. (author)

  1. Assessment of Regional Pediatric Computed Tomography Dose Indices in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S; Devanand, B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess Tamil Nadu pediatric computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation dose data for the most commonly performed CT examinations. This work was performed for thirty CT scanners installed in various parts of the Tamil Nadu region. The patient cohort was divided into two age groups: <1 year, and 1-5 years. CT dose indices were measured using a 10 cm 3 pencil ion chamber with pediatric head and body polymethyl methacrylate phantoms. Dose data such as volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v ) and dose length product (DLP) on a minimum of twenty average-sized pediatric patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDI v and DLP value. The rounded 75 th percentile was used to calculate a pediatric DRL for each hospital, and then region by compiling all results. Data were collected for 3600 pediatric patients. Pediatric CT DRL for two age groups: <1 year (CTDI v and DLP of head [20 mGy, 352 mGy.cm], chest [7 mGy, 120 mGy.cm] and abdomen [12 mGy, 252 mGy.cm]), and 1-5 years (CTDI v and DLP of head [38 mGy, 505 mGy.cm], chest [8 mGy, 132 mGy.cm] and abdomen [14 mGy, 270 mGy.cm]) for select procedures have been calculated. Proposed pediatric DRLs of CTDI v and DLP for head procedure were lower, and for chest and abdomen procedures were higher than European pediatric DRLs for both age groups.

  2. Pediatric computed tomography dose of head and chest exams: a bibliography revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Capaverde, Alexandre S.; Vanni, Stefania; Mazzola, Carolina F.S.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da

    2015-01-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) imaging diagnosis it is responsible for over 34% of the radiation dose given to society, only in Brazil there is around 3833 CT equipment. There are two dose index in CT, the CTDI vol and DLP that represents the Computed Tomography dose index and the product of the CTDI vol by the length of irradiation. This paper has as objective describe the values of CTDI vol e DLP for pediatric exams of chest and head. This is an exploratory study of bibliography revision on the PubMed data base using the index terms with the following crossing: Computed Tomography AND Reference Levels AND Dose. The search was limited by published studies on the last 5 years with patients among 0 and 15 years, in English or Portuguese. Besides that, were included references guides suggest by scientific and governmental organizations on the last 5 years. The data analysis was made using the four readings of Gil: exploratory, selective, analytic and interpretative. By the Exploratory Reading were located 23 articles. On the Selective Reading were excluded 4 articles and on the Analytic Reading 9 articles. The Interpretative Reading was made using 7 publications. Regarding the references guides were includes 3 guides. The Portaria MS453/98 was included for being the only national publication. All data were characterized between practical levels and reference levels. The conclusion is that there is no consensus between the reference levels for the selected articles, for pediatric exams. Besides that, the national legislation do not have reference levels for pediatric CT. (author)

  3. Effect of Hemoconcentration on Dural Sinus Computed Tomography Density in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttutan, Nursel; Kizildag, Betul; Sarica, Mehmet Akif; Baykara, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT) is inexpensive, easily available, and the first-choice imaging modality for patients presenting with various neurologic symptoms. Venous thrombosis is not rare in childhood, but diagnosis can be difficult. In some cases, only denser vessels can be used to highlight an issue. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the relationship between X-ray attenuation and hemoconcentration in a pediatric population. This study enrolled 99 pediatric patients who had been referred radiology department for unenhanced brain CT. Images were retrospectively evaluated for measurement of dural sinus densities from four distinct dural sinus locations. Correlation between mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values and hemoglobin/hematocrit (Hb/Htc) levels, as well as age and gender were further analyzed. There was a strong correlation between mean HU and Hb levels (r = 0.411; standard deviation: 0.001) and also between mean HU and Htc levels (r = 0.393; p pediatric group. In conclusion, before deciding between a diagnosis of thrombosis and a determination of normal findings during an evaluation of unenhanced CT in a pediatric population, radiologists should consider complete blood count results as well as H:H ratios. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

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    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  5. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  6. Study of dosimetric quantities and image quality in pediatric examinations of chest and abdomen computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This work had the objective to achieve the knowledge of the dosimetric quantities related to chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations of pediatric patients, in Belo Horizonte city. The reason of this work is based on the fact that the probability of health detriment in children, which it may be caused by radiation, is higher than in adults. Besides, although in many countries the knowledge and control of patient doses is a normal procedure, this safety culture does not exist in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to compare the dosimetric quantity values with the Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs); when it was needed, an optimization process was applied and the quality of the diagnostic image obtained with the optimized technical parameters was analyzed. This study was carried out in five hospitals, where the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric air kerma index (Cvol), the air kerma - length product (PKL,CT), the Effective Dose (E) and the Normalized Effective Dose (En) were determined; three methods were adopted for measurements: the ionization chamber inside a chest pediatric phantom, radiochromic films and the CT-EXPO software. The optimization process was applied to a single hospital through variations in the current (mA) and voltage (kV) of the x-ray tube for the protocols used for abdomen CT examinations. The analysis of the quality of the diagnostic image was done by Normal Distribution and ROC analysis; spatial resolution analysis was used through MTF determination and the noise level was judged in terms quantitative and qualitative. Results of the dosimetric quantities showed that they significantly differed between single-slice and multi-slice tomography units, but their values were always below the recommended DRLs. The optimized values of the dosimetric quantities obtained after the optimization process showed that it was possible to reduce the radiation exposure of pediatric patient without losing the image quality

  7. Utility of computed axial tomography angiography in anatomic evaluation of pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, Walter A; Reyes P, Rafael; Aguilera N, Favio M; Breton, Cesar A; Buitrago, Danuby A; Suarez J Ramiro; Castillo, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Although echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization are used as first option tools for congenital heart diseases diagnosis, computed tomography angiography is a minimally invasive exam that through two to three dimensional images in real time gives an adequate approach to patients having this type of pathologies that require a rapid and precise evaluation of its extra cardiac anatomy. Objective: describe the institutional experience from August 2005 to August 2006 in the use of angiography by tomography as a complementary diagnostic method in the evaluation of pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases. Method: serial descriptive study. 58 pediatric patients with clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart diseases were evaluated through the General Electric Multislice Light peed/16 scanner. Results: 58 patients with history of congenital heart disease were evaluated through CT angiography. Mean age was 2.4 ± 4.03 years. Twenty (33.8%) had diagnosis of pulmonary atresia, four (6.7%) had tricuspid atresia, eight (13.5%,) had double-outlet right ventricle, seven (11.8%) had tetralogy of Fallot, nine (15.2%) had alterations of the aortic arch, seven (11.8%) had coarctation of the aorta two (3.3%) had interrupted aortic arch, six (10.3%) had persistent ductus arteriosus, four (6.7%) had anomalous venous drainage and three (5.1 %) had transposition of the great arteries. High quality images that allowed assessing the precise vascular anatomy were obtained. Conclusions: computed tomography angiography turned out to be a useful tool in the diagnostic approach of congenital heart diseases, because it allowed a tridimensional anatomic reconstruction. New studies that may permit the assessment of sensitivity, specificity and concordance level of this technique with other invasive diagnostic methods available for the diagnosis of this type of diseases, are required

  8. Quantitative analysis of computed tomography images and early detection of cerebral edema for pediatric traumatic brain injury patients: retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hakseung; Kim, Gwang-dong; Yoon, Byung C; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Byung-Jo; Choi, Young Hun; Czosnyka, Marek; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify whether the distribution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) values across the intracranial area in computed tomography (CT) images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for determining the severity of cerebral edema in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Methods CT images, medical records and radiology reports on 70 pediatric patients were collected. Based on radiology reports and the Marshall classification, the patients were group...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography for pediatric patients; Dosimetria termoluminiscente en tomografia computada para pacientes pediatricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano S, A. C.; Medina A, O.; Hidalgo T, S.; Azorin N, J., E-mail: alicesar1993@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with interventional radiology, is considered as high-dose radiological procedure, so the optimization of the dose is necessary. Exposure to ionizing radiation in pediatric CT is of particular interest because the children are up to 10 times more sensitive to radiation than adults, the late somatic and genetic effects of radiation. The exposure and risk associated with ionizing radiation in CT is best characterized by the absorbed dose to each organ. Thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF: Mg, Ti are best suited for this purpose due to its characteristics such as high sensitivity, small size and its equivalence with the tissue. The results of dose measurements -in vivo- to the three types of CT studies (skull, thorax and abdomen) are presented. These results indicate that lower doses were obtained in skull study, while the highest was one of abdomen. (Author)

  12. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV bw ) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV bw , background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake

  13. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Shulkin, Barry L. [Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  14. Dosimetric study in chest computed tomography scans of adult and pediatric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namen A, W.; Prata M, A.; Guedes, G.

    2016-10-01

    The computed tomography scan is a radiological technique that permits an evaluation of the patient internal structures. In the last ten years, this technique has had a high growth due to clinical cases of medical emergencies, cancer and pediatric trauma. Widespread of this technique has a significant increase in the patient dose. The risk associated with the radiological examination can be considered very low compared to the natural risk. However, any additional risk, no matter how small, is unacceptable if it does not benefit the patient. To be aware of the dose distribution is important when the objective is to vary the acquisition parameters aiming a dose reduction. The aim os this study is develop a pediatric chest phantom to evaluate the dose variation in CT scans. In this work, a cylindrical adult chest phantom made in polymethyl methacrylate was used and a second chest phantom was developed, based on dimensions of in eight year old patient in oblong shape. The two simulators have 5 openings, one is central and four are peripheral lagged by 90 degrees Celsius, which allow positioning a pencil chamber aiming and observation of the dose in 5 regions. In a GE CT scanner, Discovery model and 64 channels, the central slice of both simulators were irradiated successively to obtain dose measurements using a pencil chamber. The irradiation of the central slice was conducted using the service protocol. The registered dose values showed that the pediatric phantom had higher doses especially in the anterior, posterior and central regions. The results also enabled a comparison among the index dose values obtained from the measurements with the pencil chamber. (Author)

  15. Dosimetric study in chest computed tomography scans of adult and pediatric phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namen A, W.; Prata M, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Guedes, G., E-mail: wadia.namen@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, Centro de Engenharia Biomedica, Av. Amazonas 5253, 30421-169 Nova Suica, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The computed tomography scan is a radiological technique that permits an evaluation of the patient internal structures. In the last ten years, this technique has had a high growth due to clinical cases of medical emergencies, cancer and pediatric trauma. Widespread of this technique has a significant increase in the patient dose. The risk associated with the radiological examination can be considered very low compared to the natural risk. However, any additional risk, no matter how small, is unacceptable if it does not benefit the patient. To be aware of the dose distribution is important when the objective is to vary the acquisition parameters aiming a dose reduction. The aim os this study is develop a pediatric chest phantom to evaluate the dose variation in CT scans. In this work, a cylindrical adult chest phantom made in polymethyl methacrylate was used and a second chest phantom was developed, based on dimensions of in eight year old patient in oblong shape. The two simulators have 5 openings, one is central and four are peripheral lagged by 90 degrees Celsius, which allow positioning a pencil chamber aiming and observation of the dose in 5 regions. In a GE CT scanner, Discovery model and 64 channels, the central slice of both simulators were irradiated successively to obtain dose measurements using a pencil chamber. The irradiation of the central slice was conducted using the service protocol. The registered dose values showed that the pediatric phantom had higher doses especially in the anterior, posterior and central regions. The results also enabled a comparison among the index dose values obtained from the measurements with the pencil chamber. (Author)

  16. Limiting chest computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jamie; Isani, Mubina; Bowling, Jordan; Zagory, Jessica; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Gayer, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (chest CT) is overused in blunt pediatric thoracic trauma. Chest CT adds to the diagnosis of thoracic injury but rarely changes patient management. We sought to identify a subset of blunt pediatric trauma patients who would benefit from a screening chest CT based on their admission chest x-ray (CXR) findings. We hypothesize that limiting chest CT to patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette identifies intrathoracic vascular injuries not otherwise seen on CXR. All blunt trauma activations that underwent an admission CXR at our Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a chest CT were evaluated for added diagnoses and change in management after CT. An admission CXR was performed in 1,035 patients. One hundred thirty-nine patients had a CT, and the diagnosis of intra-thoracic injury was added in 42% of patients. Chest CT significantly increased the diagnosis of contusion or atelectasis (30.3% vs 60.4%; p pneumothorax (7.2% vs 18.7%; p chest CT. Chest CT changed the management of only 4 patients (2.9%). Two patients underwent further radiologic evaluation that was negative for injury, one had a chest tube placed for an occult pneumothorax before exploratory laparotomy, and one patient had a thoracotomy for repair of aortic injury. Chest CT for select patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR would have decreased CT scans by 80% yet still identified patients with an intrathoracic vascular injury. The use of chest CT should be limited to the identification of intrathoracic vascular injuries in the setting of an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR. Therapeutic study, level IV; diagnostic study, level III.

  17. Organ doses for reference pediatric and adolescent patients undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an organ dose database for pediatric and adolescent reference individuals undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations by using Monte Carlo simulation. The data will permit rapid estimates of organ and effective doses for patients of different age, gender, examination type, and CT scanner model. Methods: The Monte Carlo simulation model of a Siemens Sensation 16 CT scanner previously published was employed as a base CT scanner model. A set of absorbed doses for 33 organs/tissues normalized to the product of 100 mAs and CTDI vol (mGy/100 mAs mGy) was established by coupling the CT scanner model with age-dependent reference pediatric hybrid phantoms. A series of single axial scans from the top of head to the feet of the phantoms was performed at a slice thickness of 10 mm, and at tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. Using the established CTDI vol - and 100 mAs-normalized dose matrix, organ doses for different pediatric phantoms undergoing head, chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) scans with the Siemens Sensation 16 scanner were estimated and analyzed. The results were then compared with the values obtained from three independent published methods: CT-Expo software, organ dose for abdominal CT scan derived empirically from patient abdominal circumference, and effective dose per dose-length product (DLP). Results: Organ and effective doses were calculated and normalized to 100 mAs and CTDI vol for different CT examinations. At the same technical setting, dose to the organs, which were entirely included in the CT beam coverage, were higher by from 40 to 80% for newborn phantoms compared to those of 15-year phantoms. An increase of tube potential from 80 to 120 kVp resulted in 2.5-2.9-fold greater brain dose for head scans. The results from this study were compared with three different published studies and/or techniques. First, organ doses were compared to those given by CT-Expo which revealed dose differences up to

  18. Reduced-dose C-arm computed tomography applications at a pediatric institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acord, Michael; Shellikeri, Sphoorti; Vatsky, Seth; Srinivasan, Abhay; Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.; Cahill, Anne Marie [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Reduced-dose C-arm computed tomography (CT) uses flat-panel detectors to acquire real-time 3-D images in the interventional radiology suite to assist with anatomical localization and procedure planning. To describe dose-reduction techniques for C-arm CT at a pediatric institution and to provide guidance for implementation. We conducted a 5-year retrospective study on procedures using an institution-specific reduced-dose protocol: 5 or 8 s Dyna Rotation, 248/396 projection images/acquisition and 0.1-0.17 μGy/projection dose at the detector with 0.3/0.6/0.9-mm copper (Cu) filtration. We categorized cases by procedure type and average patient age and calculated C-arm CT and total dose area product (DAP). Two hundred twenty-two C-arm CT-guided procedures were performed with a dose-reduction protocol. The most common procedures were temporomandibular and sacroiliac joint injections (48.6%) and sclerotherapy (34.2%). C-arm CT was utilized in cases of difficult percutaneous access in less common applications such as cecostomy and gastrostomy placement, foreign body retrieval and thoracentesis. C-arm CT accounted for between 9.9% and 80.7% of the total procedural DAP. Dose-reducing techniques can preserve image quality for intervention while reducing radiation exposure to the child. This technology has multiple applications within pediatric interventional radiology and can be considered as an adjunctive imaging tool in a variety of procedures, particularly when percutaneous access is challenging despite routine fluoroscopic or ultrasound guidance. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric Phantom Dosimetry of Kodak 9000 Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Juan F; Booe, Megan R; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Ehrlich, Ygal; Ludlow, John B; Johnson, Brandon

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiation dose of the Kodak 9000 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) device for different anatomical areas using a pediatric phantom. Absorbed doses resulting from maxillary and mandibular region three by five cm CBCT volumes of an anthropomorphic 10-year-old child phantom were acquired using optical stimulated dosimetry. Equivalent doses were calculated for radiosensitive tissues in the head and neck area, and effective dose for maxillary and mandibular examinations were calculated following the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Of the mandibular scans, the salivary glands had the highest equivalent dose (1,598 microsieverts [μSv]), followed by oral mucosa (1,263 μSv), extrathoracic airway (pharynx, larynx, and trachea; 859 μSv), and thyroid gland (578 μSv). For the maxilla, the salivary glands had the highest equivalent dose (1,847 μSv), followed closely by oral mucosa (1,673 μSv), followed by the extrathoracic airway (pharynx, larynx, and trachea; 1,011 μSv) and lens of the eye (202 μSv). Compared to previous research of the Kodak 9000, completed with the adult phantom, a child receives one to three times more radiation for mandibular scans and two to 10 times more radiation for maxillary scans.

  20. Estimation of effective doses in pediatric X-ray computed tomography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Hideki; Takahashi, Midori; Kudou, Kazuya; Mariya, Yasushi; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2017-11-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. In Japan, the number of facilities that own diagnostic CT equipment, the number of CT examinations and the number of CT scanners increased by ~1.4-fold between 2005 and 2011. CT operators (medical radiological technologists, medical physicists and physicians) must understand the effective doses for examinations at their own institutions and carefully approach each examination. In addition, the patients undergoing the examination (as well as his/her family) must understand the effective dose of each examination in the context of the cumulative dose. In the present study, the numbers of pediatric patients (aged 0-5 years) and total patients who underwent CT at Hirosaki University Hospital (Hirosaki, Japan) between January 2011 and December 2013 were surveyed, and effective doses administered to children aged 0, 1 and 5 years were evaluated. Age- and region-specific conversion factors and dose-length products obtained from the CT scanner were used to estimate the effective doses. The numbers of CT examinations performed in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 16,662, 17,491 and 17,649, respectively, of which 613 (1.2%) of the overall total involved children aged 0-5 years. The estimated effective doses per examination to children aged 0, 1 and 5 years were 6.3±4.8, 4.9±3.8 and 2.7±3.0 mSv, respectively. This large variation was attributed to several factors associated with scan methods and ranges in actual setting. In conclusion, the requirement for individual patient prospective exposure management systems and estimations of low-dose radiation exposure should be considered in light of the harmful effects of exposure.

  1. High-pitch spiral computed tomography: effect on image quality and radiation dose in pediatric chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lell, Michael M; May, Matthias; Deak, Paul; Alibek, Sedat; Kuefner, Michael; Kuettner, Axel; Köhler, Henrik; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Radkow, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    computed tomography (CT) is considered the method of choice in thoracic imaging for a variety of indications. Sedation is usually necessary to enable CT and to avoid deterioration of image quality because of patient movement in small children. We evaluated a new, subsecond high-pitch scan mode (HPM), which obviates the need of sedation and to hold the breath. a total of 60 patients were included in this study. 30 patients (mean age, 14 ± 17 month; range, 0-55 month) were examined with a dual source CT system in an HPM. Scan parameters were as follows: pitch = 3.0, 128 × 0.6 mm slice acquisition, 0.28 seconds gantry rotation time, ref. mAs adapted to the body weight (50-100 mAs) at 80 kV. Images were reconstructed with a slice thickness of 0.75 mm. None of the children was sedated for the CT examination and no breathing instructions were given. Image quality was assessed focusing on motion artifacts and delineation of the vascular structures and lung parenchyma. Thirty patients (mean age, 15 ± 17 month; range, 0-55 month) were examined under sedation on 2 different CT systems (10-slice CT, n = 18; 64-slice CT, n = 13 patients) in conventional pitch mode (CPM). Dose values were calculated from the dose length product provided in the patient protocol/dose reports, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess dose distribution for CPM and HPM. all scans were performed without complications. Image quality was superior with HPM, because of a significant reduction in motion artifacts, as compared to CPM with 10- and 64-slice CT. In the control group, artifacts were encountered at the level of the diaphragm (n = 30; 100%), the borders of the heart (n = 30; 100%), and the ribs (n = 20; 67%) and spine (n = 6; 20%), whereas motion artifacts were detected in the HPM-group only in 6 patients in the lung parenchyma next to the diaphragm or the heart (P detector width and pitch-value. high-pitch chest CT is a robust method to provide highest image quality making sedation

  2. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.; Davis, J.; Morgan, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-sectional images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography. This review article presents a brief historical perspective on CT, its current status and the underlying physics. The mathematical fundamentals of computed tomography are developed for the simplest transmission CT modality. A description of CT scanner instrumentation is provided with an emphasis on radiation sources and systems. Examples of CT images are shown indicating the range of materials that can be scanned and the spatial and contrast resolutions that may be achieved. Attention is also given to the occurrence, interpretation and minimisation of various image artefacts that may arise. A final brief section is devoted to the principles and potential of a range of more recently developed tomographic modalities including diffraction CT, positron emission CT and seismic tomography. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  3. Patient dose management practice in computed tomography with special emphasis to pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Wali, Kh.

    2010-12-01

    As per UNSCEAR 2000, CT contributes over 34% of collective dose from diagnostic X-Ray examinations in the world. The radiation dose in CT particular importance for children, it is very well known that children are more sensitive and likely to get radiation induced cancer than adults. This paper discusses the radiation dose of patients (adults and children) in Computed Tomography in syria ( 30 CT units form 6 different manufacturers). The radiation dose measurements has covered computed tomography dose index, dose length product and effective dose. The result of this study indicating, that most computed tomography dose index and dose length product values recorded were below dose reference levels, only for high resolution chest protocol, the dose length product results were higher than that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (author)

  4. Characteristics of the technical parameters in the realization of computed tomography studies in pediatric patients in Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, Gustavo; Romero, Javier; Rivero, Oscar; Sosa, Daniel; Patarroyo, Edith

    2005-01-01

    The use of Computed Tomography (CT) examinations for the diagnosis of common pathologies in pediatric patients has increase. This implies an increase in the radiation doses that pediatric patients received, therefore increasing the risk of secondary mortality due to cancer throughout life. In recent papers, the recommended radiation doses for pediatric patients in agreement with the concept ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) has settled down. This study evaluates the CT technical parameters of pediatric examinations in Bogota city, and review if they have been fitted with parameters recommended according to age and body weight. Materials and methods: A non-probabilistic sampling of 46 scanning tests were applied to children in six different institutions in Bogota; the technical parameters of kv and second mAs were checked of studies in abdomen, thorax and skeletal muscle system. Results: It was found that the technical parameters used in TC in children are higher of the recommended; the group of 4-year-old is the most affected by dos e of unnecessary radiation. Discussion and conclusions: The information from the protection of the radiation must be spread to the whole radiology personnel of the institutions that fulfill scanning tests of pediatric patients. ar zones that influences the wetland

  5. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has matured into a reliable and prominent tool for study of the muscoloskeletal system. When it was introduced in 1973, it was unique in many ways and posed a challenge to interpretation. It is in these unique features, however, that its advantages lie in comparison with conventional techniques. These advantages will be described in a spectrum of important applications in orthopedics and rheumatology

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  7. Illustrated computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides the following information: basic aspects of computed tomography; atlas of computed tomography of the normal adult; clinical application of computed tomography; and radiotherapy planning and computed tomography

  8. Attainment of dosimetric pediatrics grandeur to computed tomography examinations of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jormada, Tiago S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, 10% of all computerized tomography exams (CT) are made in pediatric patients. In developed countries, the practice of obtaining the dosimetric quantities (weighted index dose C w , index air kerma volumetric C vol product kerma-length P KL , CT ) and effective dose (E) in pediatric CT scans is common. In Brazil, data like these are practically nonexistent. The goal of this work is to obtain the dosimetric quantities and the dose effective in pediatric CT scans, and study its application in the optimization process. The study took place in a thermographs' Toshiba Asteion Single-Slice and a GE Brightsped's multi-slice where measurements were made with type pencil ionization chamber and a trunk's phantom of PMMA with diameter of 16 cm. In single-slice CT scanner, the results obtained for the C vol , P KL , CT and E were 18.73 mGy, 15.61 mGy and 6.87 mSv mGy.cm 343.51, respectively, whereas in multi-slice CT scanner the results were 18.81 mGy, 20.07 mGy, 441.64 mGy.cm and 8,83 mSv. There was no significant difference between the values of C w obtained already in the values of the Cvol, P KL , CT and E dose the differences between the results were quite significant. Comparing the C w and P KL , CT and with the values recommended by UCRP 87 (25 mGy for C vol and 360 mGy.cm for P KL , CT in pediatric CT scans of the abdomen), the two scanners were below reference levels for C w and not require an start on process of optimization. (author)

  9. Optimization on the dose versus noise in the image on protocols for computed tomography of pediatric head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Yves, Thalis L.A.; Travassos, Paulo Cesar B.; Goncalves, Elicardo A.S.; Mecca A, Fernando; Silveira, Thiago B.

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to establish protocols optimized for computed tomography of pediatric skull, to the Picker Q2000 tomography of the Instituto Nacional de Cancer, through the analysis of dose x noise on the image with the variation of values of mAs and kVp. We used a water phantom to measure the noise, a pencil type ionization chamber to measure the dose in the air and the Alderson Randon phantom for check the quality of the image. We found values of mAs and kVp that reduce the skin dose of the original protocol used in 35.9%, maintaining the same image quality at a safe diagnosis. (author)

  10. Computed tomography is not justified in every pediatric blunt trauma patient with a suspicious mechanism of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Yehuda; Zoarets, Itai; Stepansky, Albert; Kozer, Eran; Shapira, Zahar; Klin, Baruch; Halevy, Ariel; Jeroukhimov, Igor

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become an important tool for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal and chest injuries in patients with blunt trauma. The role of CT in conscious asymptomatic patients with a suspicious mechanism of injury remains controversial. This controversy intensifies in the management of pediatric blunt trauma patients, who are much more susceptible to radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of abdominal and chest CT imaging in asymptomatic pediatric patients with a suspicious mechanism of injury. Forty-two pediatric patients up to 15 years old were prospectively enrolled. All patients presented with a suspicious mechanism of blunt trauma and multisystem injury. They were neurologically intact and had no signs of injury to the abdomen or chest. Patients underwent CT imaging of the chest and abdomen as part of the initial evaluation. Thirty-one patients (74%) had a normal CT scan. Two patients of 11 with an abnormal CT scan required a change in management and were referred for observation in the Intensive Care Unit. None of the patients required surgical intervention. The routine use of CT in asymptomatic pediatric patients with a suspicious mechanism of blunt trauma injury is not justified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  13. The utility of computed tomography as a screening tool for the evaluation of pediatric blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Kumar, Rajiv; Koontz, Nicholas A; Scherer, L R; Applegate, Kimberly E

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing concern that computed tomography (CT) is being unnecessarily overused for the evaluation of pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze the trends and utility of chest CT use compared with chest X-ray (CXR) for the evaluation of children with blunt chest trauma. A 4-year retrospective review was performed for pediatric patients who underwent chest CT within 24 hours of sustaining blunt trauma at a Level-I trauma center. Trends in the use of CT and CXR were documented, and results of radiology reports were analyzed and compared with clinical outcomes. Three hundred thirty-three children, mean age 11 years, had chest CTs, increasing from 5.5% in 2001-2002 to 10.5% in 2004-2005 (p tool to analyze which patients may require CT evaluation. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to develop guidelines that standardize the use of CT and thereby decreases unnecessary radiation exposure to pediatric patients.

  14. Use of 99mTc-sestamibi Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography / X-ray Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Hybrid Oncocytic / Chromophobe Tumor in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassi, Nima; Gorin, Michael A; Purysko, Andrei S; Rowe, Steven P; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad E; Campbell, Steven C; Rhee, Audrey

    2018-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of solid renal neoplasms in adolescence includes aggressive malignancy and indolent oncocytic tumors, which are typically indistinguishable using conventional imaging. We report the use of 99m Tc-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography / x-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in characterizing enhancing renal neoplasms in a pediatric patient. Genetic testing suggested a hereditary syndrome associated with aggressive malignancy, whereas renal mass biopsy suggested an oncocytic tumor. 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT indicated probable oncocytomas or hybrid oncocytic / chomophobe tumors. Enucleative resection was performed with final pathology demonstrating hybrid oncocytic / chomophobe tumors. This case highlights the potential utility of 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT in characterizing indeterminate enhancing renal neoplasm in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pediatric computed tomography practice in Japanese university hospitals from 2008–2010: did it differ from German practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Koji; Krille, Lucian; Dreger, Steffen; Hoenig, Lars; Merzenich, Hiltrud; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Uetani, Masataka; Mildenberger, Peter; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi; Zeeb, Hajo; Kudo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an essential tool in modern medicine and is frequently used to diagnose a wide range of conditions, particularly in industrial countries, such as Japan and Germany. However, markedly higher doses of ionizing radiation are delivered during CT imaging than during conventional X-ray examinations. To assess pediatric CT practice patterns, data from three university hospital databases (two in Japan and one in Germany) were analyzed. Anonymized data for patients aged 0 to 14 years who had undergone CT examinations between 2008 and 2010 were extracted. To assess CT practice, an interdisciplinary classification scheme for CT indications, which incorporated the most common examination types and radiosensitive tissues, was developed. The frequency of CT examinations was determined according to sex, age at examination, and indications. A total of 5182 CT examinations were performed in 2955 children. Overall, the frequency of CT examinations at the Japanese university hospitals did not differ significantly from that at the German hospital. However, differences were detected in the age distribution of the patients who underwent CT examinations (the proportion of patients <5 years of age was significantly higher in Japan than in Germany) and in the indications for CT. Substantial practice differences regarding the use of CT in pediatric health care were detected between the three hospitals. The results of this study point towards a need for approaches such as clinical guidelines to reduce unwarranted medical radiation exposures, particularly abdominal and head CT, in the Japanese health system.

  16. Quantitative analysis of computed tomography images and early detection of cerebral edema for pediatric traumatic brain injury patients: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hakseung; Kim, Gwang-dong; Yoon, Byung C; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Byung-Jo; Choi, Young Hun; Czosnyka, Marek; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2014-10-22

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether the distribution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) values across the intracranial area in computed tomography (CT) images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for determining the severity of cerebral edema in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. CT images, medical records and radiology reports on 70 pediatric patients were collected. Based on radiology reports and the Marshall classification, the patients were grouped as mild edema patients (n=37) or severe edema patients (n=33). Automated quantitative analysis using unenhanced CT images was applied to eliminate artifacts and identify the difference in HU value distribution across the intracranial area between these groups. The proportion of pixels with HU=17 to 24 was highly correlated with the existence of severe cerebral edema (P<0.01). This proportion was also able to differentiate patients who developed delayed cerebral edema from mild TBI patients. A significant difference between deceased patients and surviving patients in terms of the HU distribution came from the proportion of pixels with HU=19 to HU=23 (P<0.01). The proportion of pixels with an HU value of 17 to 24 in the entire cerebral area of a non-enhanced CT image can be an effective basis for evaluating the severity of cerebral edema. Based on this result, we propose a novel approach for the early detection of severe cerebral edema.

  17. Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Cuellar, Jorge; Zamora, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of spondylolysis reported from radiograph-based studies has been questioned in recent computed tomography (CT)-based studies in adults; however, no new data are available in pediatric patients. Spina bifida occulta (SBO), which has been associated to spondylolysis, may be increasing its prevalence, according to recent studies in adults in the last decades, but without new data in pediatric patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of spondylolysis and SBO in pediatric patients using abdomen and pelvis CT as a screening tool. We studied 228 patients 4-15 years old (107 males), who were evaluated with abdomen and pelvis CT scans for reasons not related to the spine. The entire lumbo-sacral spine was evaluated to detect the presence of spondylolysis and SBO. We compared the prevalence of spondylolysis in patients with and without SBO. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and sex as independent predictors of spondylolysis and SBO. The prevalence of spondylolysis was 3.5 % (1.1-5.9 %); 2/8 patients presented with olisthesis, both with grade I slip. The prevalence of SBO was 41.2 % (34.8-59.2 %) (94 patients). Spondylolysis was not more frequent in patients with SBO than in patients without SBO. Male sex and decreasing age independently predicted the presence of SBO, but not of spondylolysis. We observed a 3.5 % prevalence of spondylolysis and a 41.2 % prevalence of SBO. SBO was significantly more frequent in males and younger patients.

  18. Computed tomography localization of the appendix in the pediatric population relative to the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, John; Kopelman, Tammy R. [Maricopa Integrated Health System, Maricopa Medical Center Department of Surgery, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Roh, Albert T.; Matz, Samantha L.; Gridley, Daniel G.; Connell, Mary J. [Maricopa Integrated Health System, Maricopa Medical Center Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Petterson, Matthew B. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis. The most superior aspect of the appendix with respect to vertebral bodies was recorded. Age, gender and diagnosis (negative, acute appendicitis or alternative diagnosis) were noted. The appendix was visualized in 190 of 212 subjects (89.6%). Overall, all visualized appendixes were located at or below the level of L1. Sixty-three of the subjects (29.7%) were diagnosed with acute appendicitis via CT imaging. All appendixes in patients with acute appendicitis were located at or below the level of the L3 vertebral body, predominating at the level of L5. Six subjects (3.1%) received alternative diagnoses, including pneumonia, pyelonephritis, small bowel obstruction and infected urachal cyst. There were no differences in appendix location with regard to diagnosis, gender, or age (P=0.664, 0.748 and 0.705, respectively). CT field of view may be decreased to the level of L1 or L3 superiorly, decreasing radiation dose without affecting the rate of appendix visualization. (orig.)

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  20. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: challenges facing new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, E.; Padilla, M.; Dibarboure, L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, C VOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  1. Radiation dose optimization in pediatric temporal bone computed tomography: influence of tube tension on image contrast and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Claude Bertrand; Zubler, Christoph; Weisstanner, Christian; Stieger, Christof; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of tube tension reduction on image contrast and image quality in pediatric temporal bone computed tomography (CT). Seven lamb heads with infant-equivalent sizes were scanned repeatedly, using four tube tensions from 140 to 80 kV while the CT-Dose Index (CTDI) was held constant. Scanning was repeated with four CTDI values from 30 to 3 mGy. Image contrast was calculated for the middle ear as the Hounsfield unit (HU) difference between bone and air and for the inner ear as the HU difference between bone and fluid. The influence of tube tension on high-contrast detail delineation was evaluated using a phantom. The subjective image quality of eight middle and inner ear structures was assessed using a 4-point scale (scores 1-2 = insufficient; scores 3-4 = sufficient). Middle and inner ear contrast showed a near linear increase with tube tension reduction (r = -0.94/-0.88) and was highest at 80 kV. Tube tension had no influence on spatial resolution. Subjective image quality analysis showed significantly better scoring at lower tube tensions, with highest image quality at 80 kV. However, image quality improvement was most relevant for low-dose scans. Image contrast in the temporal bone is significantly higher at low tube tensions, leading to a better subjective image quality. Highest contrast and best quality were found at 80 kV. This image quality improvement might be utilized to further reduce the radiation dose in pediatric low-dose CT protocols.

  2. Radiation dose optimization in pediatric temporal bone computed tomography: influence of tube tension on image contrast and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauer, Claude Bertrand; Zubler, Christoph; Weisstanner, Christian; Stieger, Christof; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of tube tension reduction on image contrast and image quality in pediatric temporal bone computed tomography (CT). Seven lamb heads with infant-equivalent sizes were scanned repeatedly, using four tube tensions from 140 to 80 kV while the CT-Dose Index (CTDI) was held constant. Scanning was repeated with four CTDI values from 30 to 3 mGy. Image contrast was calculated for the middle ear as the Hounsfield unit (HU) difference between bone and air and for the inner ear as the HU difference between bone and fluid. The influence of tube tension on high-contrast detail delineation was evaluated using a phantom. The subjective image quality of eight middle and inner ear structures was assessed using a 4-point scale (scores 1-2 = insufficient; scores 3-4 = sufficient). Middle and inner ear contrast showed a near linear increase with tube tension reduction (r = -0.94/-0.88) and was highest at 80 kV. Tube tension had no influence on spatial resolution. Subjective image quality analysis showed significantly better scoring at lower tube tensions, with highest image quality at 80 kV. However, image quality improvement was most relevant for low-dose scans. Image contrast in the temporal bone is significantly higher at low tube tensions, leading to a better subjective image quality. Highest contrast and best quality were found at 80 kV. This image quality improvement might be utilized to further reduce the radiation dose in pediatric low-dose CT protocols. (orig.)

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  4. What is Computed Tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging What is Computed Tomography? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Chest X ray Image back to top Computed Tomography (CT) Although also based on the variable absorption ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  6. Normal ventricular size and changes with age in pediatric groups on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Yoshitaka; Nose, Tadao; Enomoto, Takao; Maki, Yutaka

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine the normal value of the ventricular size on CT, snd analyze its changes with age in normal pediatric group. Materials and Methods: We searched through our 240 normal pediatric CT film files, aged 4 months to 14 years. Scans were performed on Hitachi CT-II scanner, using 10 mm collimation. Results: 1. The width of the third ventricle showed the same value in all pediatric groups, the mean value of its being 4.8 mm (SD 1.3 mm). 2. Bicaudate cerebroventricular indexes of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles (interecarlate distance/transverse diameter of the brain x100) were 15.3 in infants under one year, 13.8 in the age of one year and 12.7 in the children over two years. The indexes were almost the same in old age group over the age of three years. 3. The upper limit of the normal inverse cella media index (minium width of cella media/transverse diameter of the brain x100) was 31. Therefore the cases with the index above this range can be diagnosed as hydrocephalic. 4. The shape of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles was Y-shaped in infants under one year. II-shaped (paralied shaped) in the age of 1 - 12 years, and again it was Y-shaped in the group over 12 years. 5. In the age group under one year, the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles were visualized in about 60% cases, while the figure decreased to 20% in the older group. (author)

  7. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on computed tomographic (CT) scanning which has improved computer-assisted imaging modalities for radiologic diagnosis. The advantage of this modality is its ability to image thin cross-sectional planes of the body, thus uncovering density information in three dimensions without tissue superposition problems. Because this enables vastly superior imaging of soft tissues in the brain and body, CT scanning was immediately successful and continues to grow in importance as improvements are made in speed, resolution, and cost efficiency. CT scanners are used for general purposes, and the more advanced machines are generally preferred in large hospitals, where volume and variety of usage justifies the cost. For imaging in the abdomen, a scanner with a rapid speed is preferred because peristalsis, involuntary motion of the diaphram, and even cardiac motion are present and can significantly degrade image quality. When contrast media is used in imaging to demonstrate scanner, immediate review of images, and multiformat hardcopy production. A second console is reserved for the radiologist to read images and perform the several types of image analysis that are available. Since CT images contain quantitative information in terms of density values and contours of organs, quantitation of volumes, areas, and masses is possible. This is accomplished with region-of- interest methods, which involve the electronic outlining of the selected region of the television display monitor with a trackball-controlled cursor. In addition, various image- processing options, such as edge enhancement (for viewing fine details of edges) or smoothing filters (for enhancing the detectability of low-contrast lesions) are useful tools

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  9. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  10. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin; Han, Junhee

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  11. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Junhee [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Division of Biostatistics, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  12. Pediatric 320-row cardiac computed tomography using electrocardiogram-gated model-based full iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirota, Go; Maeda, Eriko; Namiki, Yoko; Bari, Razibul; Abe, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji [The University of Tokyo Hospital, Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Torigoe, Rumiko [Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Full iterative reconstruction algorithm is available, but its diagnostic quality in pediatric cardiac CT is unknown. To compare the imaging quality of two algorithms, full and hybrid iterative reconstruction, in pediatric cardiac CT. We included 49 children with congenital cardiac anomalies who underwent cardiac CT. We compared quality of images reconstructed using the two algorithms (full and hybrid iterative reconstruction) based on a 3-point scale for the delineation of the following anatomical structures: atrial septum, ventricular septum, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, aortic arch including the patent ductus arteriosus, descending aorta, right coronary artery and left main trunk. We evaluated beam-hardening artifacts from contrast-enhancement material using a 3-point scale, and we evaluated the overall image quality using a 5-point scale. We also compared image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the algorithms. The overall image quality was significantly higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction (3.67±0.79 vs. 3.31±0.89, P=0.0072). The evaluation scores for most of the gross structures were higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction. There was no significant difference between full and hybrid iterative reconstruction for the presence of beam-hardening artifacts. Image noise was significantly lower in full iterative reconstruction, while signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in full iterative reconstruction. The diagnostic quality was superior in images with cardiac CT reconstructed with electrocardiogram-gated full iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  13. Pediatric 320-row cardiac computed tomography using electrocardiogram-gated model-based full iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirota, Go; Maeda, Eriko; Namiki, Yoko; Bari, Razibul; Abe, Osamu; Ino, Kenji; Torigoe, Rumiko

    2017-01-01

    Full iterative reconstruction algorithm is available, but its diagnostic quality in pediatric cardiac CT is unknown. To compare the imaging quality of two algorithms, full and hybrid iterative reconstruction, in pediatric cardiac CT. We included 49 children with congenital cardiac anomalies who underwent cardiac CT. We compared quality of images reconstructed using the two algorithms (full and hybrid iterative reconstruction) based on a 3-point scale for the delineation of the following anatomical structures: atrial septum, ventricular septum, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, aortic arch including the patent ductus arteriosus, descending aorta, right coronary artery and left main trunk. We evaluated beam-hardening artifacts from contrast-enhancement material using a 3-point scale, and we evaluated the overall image quality using a 5-point scale. We also compared image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the algorithms. The overall image quality was significantly higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction (3.67±0.79 vs. 3.31±0.89, P=0.0072). The evaluation scores for most of the gross structures were higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction. There was no significant difference between full and hybrid iterative reconstruction for the presence of beam-hardening artifacts. Image noise was significantly lower in full iterative reconstruction, while signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in full iterative reconstruction. The diagnostic quality was superior in images with cardiac CT reconstructed with electrocardiogram-gated full iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  14. Development and application of a pediatric head phantom for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney

    2016-01-01

    To determine the exposure levels and the absorbed dose in patients undergoing CT scans, is necessary to calculate the CT dose index in measurements with a PMMA or water phantom. The phantom must be enough to simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of a human body or parts in a radiation field. The CT specific quantities : CT air kerma index (Ca,100) , weighted CT air kerma index (CW ), a total volume CT air kerma index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product (PKL) must be determined and compared to literature reference levels. In this work a head pediatric phantom was developed, considering that the Brazilian published Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) are based on adult phantom measurements. This developed phantom shows a construction innovation using materials to simulate the skullcap, cortical bone (aluminum) and cancellous bone (PVC), and it was filled with distilled water. The phantom dimension follows the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Radiation Units for children from 0 to 5 years old head size: diameter of 160 mm and height of 155 mm. The skullcap has 4 mm of thickness and 111.9 mm of internal diameter. In order to evaluate its behavior, tests were carried out in calibration laboratories and in clinical beams. The results showed attenuation up to 23% when different materials are used as skullcap, demonstrating that the DRLs adopted could be overestimating the dose received by pediatric patients. It is observed that the dose received by CT skull scans presents different distribution, due to the skullcap partially attenuation and/or backscattering which is not considered when the PMMA phantom is used.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of organ-specific dose reduction on image quality in pediatric chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Johannes; Kroepil, Patric; Klee, Dirk; Heusch, Philipp; Schimmoeller, Lars; Schaper, Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Lanzman, Rotem S.

    2014-01-01

    Organ-specific dose reduction significantly reduces the radiation exposure of radiosensitive organs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a novel organ-specific dose reduction algorithm on image quality of pediatric chest CT. We included 28 children (mean age 10.9 ± 4.8 years, range 3-18 years) who had contrast-enhanced chest CT on a 128-row scanner. CT was performed at 100 kV using automated tube current modulation and a novel organ-specific dose-reduction algorithm (XCare trademark; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany). Seven children had a previous chest CT performed on a 64-row scanner at 100 kV without organ-specific dose reduction. Subjective image quality was assessed using a five-point scale (1-not diagnostic; 5-excellent). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were assessed in the descending aorta. Overall mean subjective image quality was 4.1 ± 0.6. In the subgroup of the seven children examined both with and without organ-specific dose reduction, subjective image quality was comparable (score 4.4 ± 0.5 with organ-specific dose reduction vs. 4.4 ± 0.7 without it; P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio with organ-specific dose reduction (38.3 ± 10.1 and 28.5 ± 8.7, respectively) and without the reduction (35.5 ± 8.5 and 26.5 ± 7.8, respectively) (P > 0.05). Volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and size-specific dose estimates did not differ significantly between acquisitions with the organ-specific dose reduction (1.7 ± 0.8 mGy) and without the reduction (1.7 ± 0.8 mGy) (P > 0.05). Organ-specific dose reduction does not have an impact on image quality of pediatric chest CT and can therefore be used in clinical practice to reduce radiation dose of radiosensitive organs such as breast and thyroid gland. (orig.)

  16. First experiences of application of computer tomography (CT) in pediatric neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, I.; Deak, Gy.; Paraicz, E.

    1980-01-01

    79 children were examined by the first Hungarian CT equipment (Medicor-CGR Densitome connected to a PDP 11/55 computer). The advantages of the method in the diagnosis of malformations, perinatal injuries, hydrocephalus, skull injuries and cerebral tumours are demonstrated. The problems arising from the application of instruments requiring long examination time are discussed. (L.E.)

  17. First experiences of application of computer tomography (CT) in pediatric neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, I; Deak, Gy; Paraicz, E [Orszagos Idegsebeszeti Tudomanyos Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-01-01

    79 children were examined by the first Hungarian CT equipment (Medicor-CGR Densitome connected to a PDP 11/55 computer). The advantages of the method in the diagnosis of malformations, perinatal injuries, hydrocephalus, skull injuries and cerebral tumours are demonstrated. The problems arising from the application of instruments requiring long examination time are discussed.

  18. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography is regarded by many as a complicated union of sophisticated x-ray equipment and computer technology. This book overcomes these complexities. The rigid technicalities of the machinery and the clinical aspects of computed tomography are discussed including the preparation of patients, both physically and mentally, for scanning. Furthermore, the author also explains how to set up and run a computed tomography department, including advice on how the room should be designed

  19. Pediatric computed tomography dose of head and chest exams: a bibliography revision; Dose em exames de cranio e torax de tomografia computadorizada pediatrica: uma revisao bibliografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Capaverde, Alexandre S.; Vanni, Stefania; Mazzola, Carolina F.S.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da, E-mail: barbara.friedrich@acad.pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The Computed Tomography (CT) imaging diagnosis it is responsible for over 34% of the radiation dose given to society, only in Brazil there is around 3833 CT equipment. There are two dose index in CT, the CTDI{sub vol} and DLP that represents the Computed Tomography dose index and the product of the CTDI{sub vol} by the length of irradiation. This paper has as objective describe the values of CTDI{sub vol} e DLP for pediatric exams of chest and head. This is an exploratory study of bibliography revision on the PubMed data base using the index terms with the following crossing: Computed Tomography AND Reference Levels AND Dose. The search was limited by published studies on the last 5 years with patients among 0 and 15 years, in English or Portuguese. Besides that, were included references guides suggest by scientific and governmental organizations on the last 5 years. The data analysis was made using the four readings of Gil: exploratory, selective, analytic and interpretative. By the Exploratory Reading were located 23 articles. On the Selective Reading were excluded 4 articles and on the Analytic Reading 9 articles. The Interpretative Reading was made using 7 publications. Regarding the references guides were includes 3 guides. The Portaria MS453/98 was included for being the only national publication. All data were characterized between practical levels and reference levels. The conclusion is that there is no consensus between the reference levels for the selected articles, for pediatric exams. Besides that, the national legislation do not have reference levels for pediatric CT. (author)

  20. Personalized Assessment of kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography Doses in Image-guided Radiotherapy of Pediatric Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yibao [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yan Yulong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Bao Shanglian [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative method for the estimation of kV cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) doses in pediatric patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two children were retrospectively analyzed in subgroups of different scanned regions: one group in the head-and-neck and the other group in the pelvis. Critical structures in planning CT images were delineated on an Eclipse treatment planning system before being converted into CT phantoms for Monte Carlo simulations. A benchmarked EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions of kVCBCT scans with full-fan high-quality head or half-fan pelvis protocols predefined by the manufacturer. Based on planning CT images and structures exported in DICOM RT format, occipital-frontal circumferences (OFC) were calculated for head-and-neck patients using DICOMan software. Similarly, hip circumferences (HIP) were acquired for the pelvic group. Correlations between mean organ doses and age, weight, OFC, and HIP values were analyzed with SigmaPlot software suite, where regression performances were analyzed with relative dose differences (RDD) and coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: kVCBCT-contributed mean doses to all critical structures decreased monotonically with studied parameters, with a steeper decrease in the pelvis than in the head. Empirical functions have been developed for a dose estimation of the major organs at risk in the head and pelvis, respectively. If evaluated with physical parameters other than age, a mean RDD of up to 7.9% was observed for all the structures in our population of 42 patients. Conclusions: kVCBCT doses are highly correlated with patient size. According to this study, weight can be used as a primary index for dose assessment in both head and pelvis scans, while OFC and HIP may serve as secondary indices for dose estimation in corresponding regions. With the proposed empirical functions, it is possible

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  2. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Gullberg, G.T.; Huesman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the methods of computer assisted tomography for determination of the three-dimensional distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the human body. The major applications of emission computed tomography are in biological research and medical diagnostic procedures. The objectives of these procedures are to make quantitative measurements of in vivo biochemical and hemodynamic functions

  3. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saravanakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP. Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB, India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry.

  4. Computer tomography in otolaryngology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of design and the action of computer tomography which was applied also for the diagnosis of nose, ear and throat diseases are discussed. Computer tomography makes possible visualization of the structures of the nose, nasal sinuses and facial skeleton in transverse and eoronal planes. The method enables an accurate evaluation of the position and size of neoplasms in these regions and differentiation of inflammatory exudates against malignant masses. In otology computer tomography is used particularly in the diagnosis of pontocerebellar angle tumours and otogenic brain abscesses. Computer tomography of the larynx and pharynx provides new diagnostic data owing to the possibility of obtaining transverse sections and visualization of cartilage. Computer tomograms of some cases are presented. (author)

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...

  14. Simultaneous whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-03-28

    To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was significantly lower than

  15. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was

  16. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use.

  17. Radiation dose management for pediatric cardiac computed tomography: a report from the Image Gently 'Have-A-Heart' campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K; McKenney, Sarah E; Hill, Kevin D; Chelliah, Anjali; Einstein, Andrew J; Han, B Kelly; Robinson, Joshua D; Sammet, Christina L; Slesnick, Timothy C; Frush, Donald P

    2018-01-01

    Children with congenital or acquired heart disease can be exposed to relatively high lifetime cumulative doses of ionizing radiation from necessary medical imaging procedures including radiography, fluoroscopic procedures including diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations, electrophysiology examinations, cardiac computed tomography (CT) studies, and nuclear cardiology examinations. Despite the clinical necessity of these imaging studies, the related ionizing radiation exposure could pose an increased lifetime attributable cancer risk. The Image Gently "Have-A-Heart" campaign is promoting the appropriate use of medical imaging studies in children with congenital or acquired heart disease while minimizing radiation exposure. The focus of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of radiation dose management and CT performance in children with congenital or acquired heart disease.

  18. Computed tomography for imaging of pediatric congenital heart disease; Die Computertomographie bei der Bildgebung von Kindern mit kongenitalen Herzvitien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser-Gallion, N.; Stinn, B.; Wildermuth, S.; Leschka, S. [Kantonsspital St.Gallen, Universitaet Zuerich, Institut fuer Radiologie, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Diagnostisch und Interventionelle Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Lell, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany); Goo, H.W. [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paul, J.F. [Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Radiology Unit, Plessis Robinson (France)

    2011-01-15

    Congenital heart diseases are the most common congenital abnormalities of development. In general, echocardiography and cardiac catheter angiography are considered the gold standard for the evaluation of congenital heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has become an important supplementary imaging modality because of its ability to provide an accurate morphological and functional evaluation. The role of cardiac computed tomography in the imaging of patients with congenital heart disease is becoming increasingly more important due to the development of low radiation dose protocols and improvements in the spatial and temporal resolution. In the preoperative depiction and follow-up after surgical repair of congenital heart diseases, cardiac computed tomography provides detailed information of the heart, the venous and arterial pulmonary circulation as well as systemic arteries. This article reviews the technical aspects of cardiac CT and the modification of examination protocols according to the expected pathology and patient age. The potentials and limitations of the various radiation dose reduction strategies are outlined. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale Herzfehler sind die haeufigsten kongenitalen Fehlbildungen. Echokardiographie und Katheterangiographie gelten allgemein als Goldstandard zur Abklaerung angeborener Herzerkrankungen. Die Magnetresonanztomographie ist aufgrund ihrer Faehigkeit, Herzvitien morphologisch und funktionell zu charakterisieren, als ein wichtiges ergaenzendes Verfahren anzusehen. Durch mehr und mehr dosissparende Untersuchungsprotokolle der neuesten Geraetegenerationen und eine gleichzeitig bessere zeitliche und raeumliche Aufloesung findet die Computertomographie zunehmend Eingang in die Abklaerung kongenitaler Herzfehler. In der praeoperativen Planung und der postoperativen Kontrolle erlaubt sie eine uebersichtliche Darstellung komplexer Fehlbildung nicht nur des Herzens, sondern auch der pulmonalvenoesen und -arteriellen

  19. Assessment of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Associated with Multiple Malformations in Pediatric Patients Using Retrospective ECG-Gated Dual-Source Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Shi

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of retrospective electrocardiographically (ECG-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT for the assessment of double outlet right ventricle (DORV and associated multiple malformations in pediatric patients.Forty-seven patients <10 years of age with DORV underwent retrospective ECG-gated DSCT. The location of the ventricular septal defect (VSD, alignment of the two great arteries, and associated malformations were assessed. The feasibility of retrospective ECG-gated DSCT in pediatric patients was assessed, the image quality of DSCT and the agreement of the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE were evaluated, the diagnostic accuracies of DSCT and TTE were referred to surgical results, and the effective doses were calculated.Apart from DORV, 109 associated malformations were confirmed postoperatively. There was excellent agreement (κ = 0.90 for the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and TTE. However, DSCT was superior to TTE in demonstrating paracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, coronary artery anomalies: 100% vs. 80.00%, anomalies of great vessels: 100% vs. 88.57%, separate thoracic and abdominal anomalies: 100% vs. 76.92%, respectively. Combined with TTE, DSCT can achieve excellent diagnostic performance in intracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, 91.30% vs. 100%. The mean image quality score was 3.70 ± 0.46 (κ = 0.76. The estimated mean effective dose was < 1 mSv (0.88 ± 0.34 mSv.Retrospective ECG-gated DSCT is a better diagnostic tool than TTE for pediatric patients with complex congenital heart disease such as DORV. Combined with TTE, it may reduce or even obviate the use of invasive cardiac catheterization, and thus expose the patients to a much lower radiation dose.

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  2. Computed tomography in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Jend, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    This volume offers a critical review and assessment of new avenues opened up by computed tomography in traumatology. Over 200 illustrations, including numerous CT scans, aid the physician engaged emergency care and postoperative treatment of accident victims. Technical prerequisites, special techniques of investigation, pathomorphology of organ changes conditioned by trauma, diagnostic leading symptoms and signs, and diagnostics of iatrogenic injuries and lesions are presented

  3. Computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, T.W.; Blake, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to computed tomography and is particularly concerned with determining the CT numbers of zones of interest in an image displayed on a cathode ray tube which zones lie in the so-called level or center of the gray scale window. (author)

  4. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  7. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  8. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    1985-06-01

    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  9. The impact of pediatric-specific dose modulation curves on radiation dose and image quality in head computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joana; Paulo, Graciano [Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, ESTESC, DMIR, Coimbra (Portugal); Foley, Shane; Rainford, Louise [University College Dublin, School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science Centre, Dublin 4 (Ireland); McEntee, Mark F. [The University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cumberland Campus, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    The volume of CT examinations has increased with resultant increases in collective dose values over the last decade. To analyze the impact of the tube current and voltage modulation for dose values and image quality of pediatric head CT examinations. Head CT examinations were performed on anthropomorphic phantoms and four pediatric age categories before and after the introduction of dedicated pediatric curves for tube voltage and current modulation. Local diagnostic reference levels were calculated. Visual grading characteristic image quality evaluation was performed by four pediatric neuroradiologists and image noise comparisons were performed. Pediatric-specific modulation curves demonstrated a 49% decrease in mean radiation dose for phantom examinations. The local diagnostic reference levels (CTDIvol) for clinical examinations decreased by 52%, 41%, 46% and 40% for newborn, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old patients, respectively. Visual grading characteristic image quality was maintained for the majority of age categorizations (area under the curve = 0.5) and image noise measurements did not change (P = 0.693). Pediatric-specific dose modulation curves resulted in an overall mean dose reduction of 45% with no significant differences in subjective or objective image quality findings. (orig.)

  10. The impact of pediatric-specific dose modulation curves on radiation dose and image quality in head computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joana; Paulo, Graciano; Foley, Shane; Rainford, Louise; McEntee, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of CT examinations has increased with resultant increases in collective dose values over the last decade. To analyze the impact of the tube current and voltage modulation for dose values and image quality of pediatric head CT examinations. Head CT examinations were performed on anthropomorphic phantoms and four pediatric age categories before and after the introduction of dedicated pediatric curves for tube voltage and current modulation. Local diagnostic reference levels were calculated. Visual grading characteristic image quality evaluation was performed by four pediatric neuroradiologists and image noise comparisons were performed. Pediatric-specific modulation curves demonstrated a 49% decrease in mean radiation dose for phantom examinations. The local diagnostic reference levels (CTDIvol) for clinical examinations decreased by 52%, 41%, 46% and 40% for newborn, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old patients, respectively. Visual grading characteristic image quality was maintained for the majority of age categorizations (area under the curve = 0.5) and image noise measurements did not change (P = 0.693). Pediatric-specific dose modulation curves resulted in an overall mean dose reduction of 45% with no significant differences in subjective or objective image quality findings. (orig.)

  11. Pediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasheed, Shabana; Teo, Harvey James Eu Leong; Littooij, Annemieke Simone

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of pediatric patients involves many diverse modalities, including radiography, ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic and angiographic studies. It is therefore important to be aware of potential pitfalls that may be related to these modalities

  12. Flat detector computed tomography in diagnostic and interventional pediatric cardiology; Flachdetektor-Computertomografie in der diagnostischen und interventionellen Kinderkardiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moesler, J.; Dittrich, S.; Gloeckler, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Pediatric Cardiology; Rompel, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Radiology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In this study the use of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT) in the catheterization of patients with congenital heart disease was evaluated. Application reports were created for various issues based on the achieved image quality in diverse anatomical regions. Materials and Methods: FD-CT was applied in 176 cases during catheterization between January 2010 and April 2012. A five-point Likert scale ('essential' to 'misleading') was used to evaluate image quality. All cases were analyzed retrospectively and application reports for the visualization of the aorta, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, semilunar valves, cavopulmonary connections and atrial baffles were generated. Contrast dye consumption and radiation dose were evaluated. Results: During the observation period FD-CT was applied in all 176 cases. The mean patient age was 7.0 years (0.01 - 42.53 years). The clinical value of FD-CT was rated superior to conventional angiography in 96.6 % of the cases and was never rated as 'misleading'. FD-CT was rated 'essential' in 3.4 % of all cases, 'very useful' in 77.3 % of all cases, 'useful' in 15.9 % of all cases and 'not useful' in 3.4 % of all cases. The mean dose-area product was 99 {mu}Gym{sup 2} (19.3 - 1276.6 {mu}Gym{sup 2}), and the used contrast dye was 1.76 ml/kg (0.9 - 5 ml/kg). Application reports for the visualization of different anatomical regions are demonstrated. Conclusion: FD-CT is a new and auxiliary procedure in diagnostic and interventional catheterization of patients with congenital heart disease. Particularly extracardiac structures can be displayed in three-dimensional high resolution and be used for diagnosis, surgical planning and 3 D navigation. (orig.)

  13. High-pitch computed tomography of the lung in pediatric patients. An intraindividual comparison of image quality and radiation dose to conventional 64-MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiflikas, I.; Thomas, C.; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D.; Schaefer, J.F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Seitz, G.; Warmann, S. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Pediatric Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of typical artifacts in low-dose pediatric lung examinations using high-pitch computed tomography (HPCT) compared to MDCT, and to estimate the effective radiation dose (E{sub eff}). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval for this retrospective study was obtained. 35 patients (17 boys, 18 girls; mean age 112 ± 69 months) were included and underwent MDCT and follow-up scan by HPCT or vice versa (mean follow-up time 87 days), using the same tube voltage and current. The total artifact score (0-8) was defined as the sum of artifacts arising from movement, breathing or pulsation of the heart or pulmonary vessels (0 - no; 1 - moderate; 2 - severe artifacts). E{sub eff} was estimated according to the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Multislice Computed Tomography. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences between the patient groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation of ordinal variables. Results: The scan time was significantly lower for HPCT compared to MDCT (0.72 ± 0.13 s vs. 3.65 ± 0.81s; p < 0.0001). In 28 of 35 (80 %) HPCT examinations no artifacts were visible, whereas in MDCT artifacts occurred in all examinations. The frequency of pulsation artifacts and breathing artifacts was higher in MDCT compared to HPCT (100% vs. 17% and 31% vs. 6%). The total artifact score significantly correlated with the patient's age in MDCT (r=-0.42; p=0.01), but not in HPCT (r=-0.32; p=0.07). The estimated E{sub eff} was significantly lower in HPCT than in MDCT (1.29±0.31 vs. 1.47±0.37 mSv; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our study indicates that the use of HPCT has advantages for pediatric lung imaging with a reduction of breathing and pulsation artifacts. Moreover, the estimated E{sub eff} was lower. In addition, examinations can be performed without sedation or breath-hold without losing image quality. (orig.)

  14. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleijns, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors.

  15. Computed Tomography Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  16. Mathematics of Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, William Grant

    A review of the applications of the Radon transform is presented, with emphasis on emission computed tomography and transmission computed tomography. The theory of the 2D and 3D Radon transforms, and the effects of attenuation for emission computed tomography are presented. The algebraic iterative methods, their importance and limitations are reviewed. Analytic solutions of the 2D problem the convolution and frequency filtering methods based on linear shift invariant theory, and the solution of the circular harmonic decomposition by integral transform theory--are reviewed. The relation between the invisible kernels, the inverse circular harmonic transform, and the consistency conditions are demonstrated. The discussion and review are extended to the 3D problem-convolution, frequency filtering, spherical harmonic transform solutions, and consistency conditions. The Cormack algorithm based on reconstruction with Zernike polynomials is reviewed. An analogous algorithm and set of reconstruction polynomials is developed for the spherical harmonic transform. The relations between the consistency conditions, boundary conditions and orthogonal basis functions for the 2D projection harmonics are delineated and extended to the 3D case. The equivalence of the inverse circular harmonic transform, the inverse Radon transform, and the inverse Cormack transform is presented. The use of the number of nodes of a projection harmonic as a filter is discussed. Numerical methods for the efficient implementation of angular harmonic algorithms based on orthogonal functions and stable recursion are presented. The derivation of a lower bound for the signal-to-noise ratio of the Cormack algorithm is derived.

  17. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; Peterson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented especially of the ball bearing races used in the rotation. (U.K.)

  18. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.T.; Hein, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  19. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cademartiri (Filippo)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield

  20. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, Joao Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel, E-mail: paulotognifilho@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. of Diagnostico por Imagem; Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radiologia

    2017-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. (author)

  1. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, Joao Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. (author)

  2. Optimization of the dose versus noise in the image on protocols for computed tomography of pediatric head;Otimizacao da relacao dose versus ruido na imagem em protocolos de tomografia computadorizada de cranio pediatrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, T.L.A.; Travassos, P.C.; Goncalves, E.A.S.; Mecca, F.A.; Silveira, T.B. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This article aims to establish protocols optimized for computed tomography of pediatric skull, to the Picker Q 2000 tomography of the Instituto Nacional de Cancer, through the analysis of dose x noise on the image with the variation of values of m As and k Vp. We used a water phantom to measure the noise, a pencil type ionization chamber to measure the dose in the air and the Alderson Randon phantom for check the quality of the image. We found values of m As and k Vp that reduce the skin dose of the original protocol used in 35.9%, maintaining the same image quality at a safe diagnosis. (author)

  3. Computed tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhashi, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  4. Method for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    1980-01-01

    In transversal computer tomography apparatus, in which the positioning zone in which the patient can be positioned is larger than the scanning zone in which a body slice can be scanned, reconstruction errors are liable to occur. These errors are caused by incomplete irradiation of the body during examination. They become manifest not only as an incorrect image of the area not irradiated, but also have an adverse effect on the image of the other, completely irradiated areas. The invention enables reduction of these errors

  5. Dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzia, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount of computed tomography (CT) studies that are performed each year in the world is growing exponentially mainly due to the incorporation of multislice CT that allows studies in a few seconds. But, despite the benefit received by patients with the diagnosis, radiation dose is a concern in the professional community and it has be reduced as much as reasonably possible. This article describes the main dosimetric CT units used in order to work with this practice easily, using the values that provide modern equipment and internationally known reference levels. (authors) [es

  6. Mesenteric panniculitis: computed tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Alves, Jose Ricardo Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Pinheiro, Ricardo Andrade; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Noro, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is an inflammatory process that represents the second stage of a rare progressive disease involving the adipose tissue of the mesentery. Imaging methods used in the diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis include barium studies, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography is important for both, diagnosis and evaluation of the extension of the disease and treatment monitoring. Computed tomography findings may vary according to the stage of the disease and the amount of inflammatory material or fibrosis. There is also good correlation between the computed tomography and anatomical pathology findings. The authors studied 10 patients with mesenteric panniculitis submitted to computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in one patient. In all patients, computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the mesentery with density of fat, interspersed with areas of soft tissue density and dilated vessels. (author)

  7. The neutron computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, G.; Krata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of computer tomography (CT) was applied for neutrons instead of X-rays. The neutron radiography image of samples was scanned by microphotometer to get the transmission data. This process was so time-consuming that the number of incident angles to samples could not be increased. The transmission data was processed by FACOM computer and CT image was gained. In the experiment at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 at Tokai-mura with 18 projection angles, the resolution of paraffin in the aluminum block was less than 0.8 mm. In the experiment at Van de Graaf accelerator of Nagoya University, this same resolution was 1.2 mm because of the angle distribution of neutron beam. This experiment is the preliminary one, the facility which utilizes neutron television and video-recorder will be necessary for the next stage. (Auth.)

  8. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; O'Dell, W.R.; Brook, R.F.; Hein, P.W.; Brandt, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. A failsafe, solenoid brake is described which can lock the shaft against rotation. The gantry also contains a hoist mechanism which aids maintenance of the heavy X-ray tube and/or detector arrays. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  9. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  10. Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In the present study effective dose values normalized to computed tomography dose index measured free in air were calculated for adult, newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old patients regarding scans of the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, abdomen and pelvis, and trunk, using the energy imparted method. The effect of z overscanning on patient doses was accounted for, and normalized doses are provided for varying beam collimation, pitch and reconstruction slice width values. The contribution of overscanning depends on patient age, anatomic region imaged, acquisition and reconstruction settings. For a head scan it constitutes 15% of the adult effective dose and 24% of the effective dose to a newborn but for an abdomen scan it may be as high as 58% for a newborn and 31% for an adult. The ratios of normalized pediatric doses relative to that for adults for helical scans depend not only on age but also on acquisition and reconstruction parameters, because of variations in the relative distance between the primary beam and the radiosensitive tissues/organs of the body. Regarding scans of the trunk, pediatric doses are up to a factor of 2.5 times higher compared to adult doses (abdominal scans), whereas for scans of the head up to a factor of 1.5. Increasing the pitch value of helical scans while maintaining the same effective mAs setting, and hence noise levels, leads to an increase in patient doses which depends on age, body region, scan and reconstruction parameters. The % difference between doses at pitch 1.5 and pitch 1 is more pronounced in the abdominal region (14% increase for adults) and in young patients (31% in a newborn and 18% in a 10 year old patient) and it is minimal in head scans (4% increase in newborns and 1% in adults). If multiple body regions are to be imaged, doses to adults can be reduced by up to 15% and 36% to children by performing single long-range scans. Scanning adult patients at 100 kVp instead of 120 kVp, results in a 32% reduction in effective

  11. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  12. Positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional mycardial blood flow and substrate metabolism can be non-invasively evaluated and quantified with positron emission computed tomography (Positron-CT). Tracers of exogenous glucose utilization and fatty acid metabolism are available and have been extensively tested. Specific tracer kinetic models have been developed or are being tested so that glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be measured quantitatively by Positron-CT. Tracers of amino acid and oxygen metabolism are utilized in Positron-CT studies of the brain and development of such tracers for cardiac studies are in progress. Methods to quantify regional myocardial blood flow are also being developed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of Positron-/CT to document myocardial infarction. Experimental and clinical studies have begun to identify metabolic markers of reversibly ischemic myocardium. The potential of Positron-CT to reliably detect potentially salvageable myocardium and, hence, to identify appropriate therapeutic interventions is one of the most exciting applications of the technique

  13. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level and evaluation of image quality and radiation dose for pediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lin; Liang, Changhong; Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Meiping; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. We optimized the iteration level of iDose"4 and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups. Four series were reconstructed using FBP, and iDose"4 levels 2, 4 and 6; we evaluated subjective quality of the series using a 5-grade scale and compared the series using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. For FBP and iDose"4-optimal images, we compared contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) using a Student's t-test. We also compared diagnostic-accuracy of each group using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean scores for iDose"4 level 4 were the best in both dose groups (all P < 0.05). CNR was improved in both groups with iDose"4 level 4 as compared with FBP. Mean decrease in SSDE was 53% in the half-dose group. Diagnostic accuracy for the four datasets were in the range 92.6-96.2% (no statistical difference). iDose"4 level 4 was optimal for both the full- and half-dose groups. Protocols with iDose"4 level 4 allowed 53% reduction in SSDE without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level and evaluation of image quality and radiation dose for pediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Liang, Changhong [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Zhuang, Jian [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Meiping [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-01-15

    Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. We optimized the iteration level of iDose{sup 4} and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups. Four series were reconstructed using FBP, and iDose{sup 4} levels 2, 4 and 6; we evaluated subjective quality of the series using a 5-grade scale and compared the series using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. For FBP and iDose{sup 4}-optimal images, we compared contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) using a Student's t-test. We also compared diagnostic-accuracy of each group using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean scores for iDose{sup 4} level 4 were the best in both dose groups (all P < 0.05). CNR was improved in both groups with iDose{sup 4} level 4 as compared with FBP. Mean decrease in SSDE was 53% in the half-dose group. Diagnostic accuracy for the four datasets were in the range 92.6-96.2% (no statistical difference). iDose{sup 4} level 4 was optimal for both the full- and half-dose groups. Protocols with iDose{sup 4} level 4 allowed 53% reduction in SSDE without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  15. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0±4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22±0.09>0.87±0.22 p 1.02±0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  16. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  17. SU-E-I-86: Ultra-Low Dose Computed Tomography Attenuation Correction for Pediatric PET CT Using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S; Shulkin, B [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultra-low doses (10–35 mAs). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for eleven tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% CTDIvol (0.39/3.64; mGy) radiation dose from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUVbw) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation organ dose, as derived from patient exam size specific dose estimate (SSDE), was converted to effective dose using the standard ICRP report 103 method. Effective dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative patient population dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the non-dose reduced CTAC image down to 90% dose reduction. No change in SUVbw, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols reconstructed with ASiR and down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62%–86% (3.2/8.3−0.9/6.2; mSv). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from pre dose-reduced patient images. Conclusion: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CTAC dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for co

  18. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction: comparative image quality and radiation dose with a pediatric computed tomography phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One; Ha, Seongmin

    2016-01-01

    CT of pediatric phantoms can provide useful guidance to the optimization of knowledge-based iterative reconstruction CT. To compare radiation dose and image quality of CT images obtained at different radiation doses reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction, hybrid iterative reconstruction and filtered back-projection. We scanned a 5-year anthropomorphic phantom at seven levels of radiation. We then reconstructed CT data with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (iterative model reconstruction [IMR] levels 1, 2 and 3; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose 4 , levels 3 and 7; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA) and filtered back-projection. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. We evaluated low-contrast resolutions and detectability by low-contrast targets and subjective and objective spatial resolutions by the line pairs and wire. With radiation at 100 peak kVp and 100 mAs (3.64 mSv), the relative doses ranged from 5% (0.19 mSv) to 150% (5.46 mSv). Lower noise and higher signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise and objective spatial resolution were generally achieved in ascending order of filtered back-projection, iDose 4 levels 3 and 7, and IMR levels 1, 2 and 3, at all radiation dose levels. Compared with filtered back-projection at 100% dose, similar noise levels were obtained on IMR level 2 images at 24% dose and iDose 4 level 3 images at 50% dose, respectively. Regarding low-contrast resolution, low-contrast detectability and objective spatial resolution, IMR level 2 images at 24% dose showed comparable image quality with filtered back-projection at 100% dose. Subjective spatial resolution was not greatly affected by reconstruction algorithm. Reduced-dose IMR obtained at 0.92 mSv (24%) showed similar image quality to routine-dose filtered back-projection obtained at 3.64 mSv (100%), and half-dose iDose 4 obtained at 1.81 mSv. (orig.)

  19. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction: comparative image quality and radiation dose with a pediatric computed tomography phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One

    2016-03-01

    CT of pediatric phantoms can provide useful guidance to the optimization of knowledge-based iterative reconstruction CT. To compare radiation dose and image quality of CT images obtained at different radiation doses reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction, hybrid iterative reconstruction and filtered back-projection. We scanned a 5-year anthropomorphic phantom at seven levels of radiation. We then reconstructed CT data with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (iterative model reconstruction [IMR] levels 1, 2 and 3; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose(4), levels 3 and 7; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA) and filtered back-projection. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. We evaluated low-contrast resolutions and detectability by low-contrast targets and subjective and objective spatial resolutions by the line pairs and wire. With radiation at 100 peak kVp and 100 mAs (3.64 mSv), the relative doses ranged from 5% (0.19 mSv) to 150% (5.46 mSv). Lower noise and higher signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise and objective spatial resolution were generally achieved in ascending order of filtered back-projection, iDose(4) levels 3 and 7, and IMR levels 1, 2 and 3, at all radiation dose levels. Compared with filtered back-projection at 100% dose, similar noise levels were obtained on IMR level 2 images at 24% dose and iDose(4) level 3 images at 50% dose, respectively. Regarding low-contrast resolution, low-contrast detectability and objective spatial resolution, IMR level 2 images at 24% dose showed comparable image quality with filtered back-projection at 100% dose. Subjective spatial resolution was not greatly affected by reconstruction algorithm. Reduced-dose IMR obtained at 0.92 mSv (24%) showed similar image quality to routine-dose filtered back-projection obtained at 3.64 mSv (100%), and half-dose iDose(4) obtained at 1.81 mSv.

  20. Computer tomography of the neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliequist, B; Forssell, A

    1976-07-01

    The experience with computer tomography of the neurocranium in 300 patients submitted for computer tomography of the brain is reported. The more appropriate projections which may be obtained with the second generation of scanners in combination with an elaborated reconstruction technique seem to constitute a replacement of conventional skull films.

  1. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...... that compares the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector row computed tomography with that of coronary angiography Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/6...

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of adult and pediatric computed tomography exams: Validation studies of organ doses with physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Daniel J.; Lee, Choonsik; Tien, Christopher; Fisher, Ryan; Hoerner, Matthew R.; Hintenlang, David; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo source model of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT scanner using organ doses measured in physical anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: The x-ray output of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX version 2.6. The resulting source model was able to perform various simulated axial and helical computed tomographic (CT) scans of varying scan parameters, including beam energy, filtration, pitch, and beam collimation. Two custom-built anthropomorphic phantoms were used to take dose measurements on the CT scanner: an adult male and a 9-month-old. The adult male is a physical replica of University of Florida reference adult male hybrid computational phantom, while the 9-month-old is a replica of University of Florida Series B 9-month-old voxel computational phantom. Each phantom underwent a series of axial and helical CT scans, during which organ doses were measured using fiber-optic coupled plastic scintillator dosimeters developed at University of Florida. The physical setup was reproduced and simulated in MCNPX using the CT source model and the computational phantoms upon which the anthropomorphic phantoms were constructed. Average organ doses were then calculated based upon these MCNPX results. Results: For all CT scans, good agreement was seen between measured and simulated organ doses. For the adult male, the percent differences were within 16% for axial scans, and within 18% for helical scans. For the 9-month-old, the percent differences were all within 15% for both the axial and helical scans. These results are comparable to previously published validation studies using GE scanners and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms. Conclusions: Overall results of this study show that the Monte Carlo source model can be used to accurately and reliably calculate organ doses for patients undergoing a variety of axial or helical CT

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  4. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  5. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... wear during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images ... and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... wear during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images ... and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Magnetic Resonance ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the face and surrounding the nasal cavity , a system of air channels connecting the nose with the ... speak with you through a built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... there are special circumstances. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the ... built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed in the room but will ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... there are special circumstances. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the ... built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed in the room but will ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  15. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is rare in children, and almost always mild, and radiology departments are ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... obtain CT images. It is known that high levels of radiation may cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is debatable ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after trauma. Tell your ... is typically used to diagnose causes of abdominal pain, evaluate for injury after trauma, diagnose and stage ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... her during the imaging process. The technologist will leave the room to perform the CT scan. However, ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... need to expel the liquid in the rare situation where the contrast material is given by enema. ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of important organs in the abdomen including the liver, kidney and spleen. CT is sometimes used to: ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... may find the taste mildly unpleasant even if mixed with soda or juice; however, most patients can ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... well-suited for visualizing diseases or injury of important organs in the abdomen including the liver, kidney ... report any discomfort during positioning because it is important to keep very still during the exam. Once ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... for a few minutes. Occasionally, a patient will develop itching and hives, which can be relieved with medication, if necessary. If your child becomes light-headed or experiences difficulty breathing, you ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... trauma to blood vessels or lung CT is well-suited for visualizing diseases or injury of important ... detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... during the procedure. Metal objects including jewelry, eyeglasses, hearing aids, non-permanent retainers and hairpins may affect ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

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    Full Text Available ... speak with your child at all times. A parent may be allowed in the room but will ... and send an official report to your primary care physician or physician who referred you for the ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. A moveable ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost- ... to protect the welfare of your child, including close monitoring. Because children are more sensitive to radiation, ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... you and/or your child remember to tell health care providers in the future. If the contrast ... that will provide the needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See ... with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT is well-suited for visualizing diseases or injury of important organs in the abdomen including the liver, kidney and spleen. CT is sometimes used to: diagnose appendicitis detect ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. There ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... and blood vessels. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after ... uses of the procedure? CT is used to help diagnose a wide range of conditions due to ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... waves that can be directed at the body. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. ... based on the reason for the exam, the body area being examined, and the child's size. Radiologists generally attempt to use the lowest radiation ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... may cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is debatable but because it is possible, every effort is made to limit the amount of radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... food or drink beforehand, especially if sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who ... several hours beforehand, especially if a sedative or anesthesia will be used in the exam. With sedation ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. Unlike conventional x-rays, CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... you and/or your child remember to tell health care providers in the future. If the contrast material is swallowed, your child may find the taste mildly unpleasant even if mixed with soda or juice; however, most patients can easily tolerate the oral contrast. Your child can expect to experience a ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is known that high levels of radiation may cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is debatable but because it is possible, every ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... remember to tell health care providers in the future. If the contrast material is swallowed, your child ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ... necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... for the chest x-ray, CT is the most commonly used imaging procedure for evaluating the chest. ... scanning, especially if the chest is being scanned. Most children older than six years are able to ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be given to your child for the CT examination. top of page What ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner revolves around him/her during the imaging process. The technologist will leave the room to perform ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... unlike MRI. CT imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the doctor and technologist prior to the exam so that appropriate preparation can be made. Also inform ... the examination table is moving through the scanner, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the scan although they may need coaching and practice. Younger children may not be able to hold ... can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. CT imaging ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation, like light or radio waves that can be directed at ... with medication, if necessary. If your child becomes light-headed or experiences difficulty breathing, you should notify ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... medications and allergies. Inform your doctor and the technologist prior to the exam if your child has ... exam. This can be discussed with the CT technologist, the specialist who will be performing the CT ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," allow thinner slices to be obtained, resulting in more detail of the body, in a shorter period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of the body in just a few seconds. Such speed is beneficial for ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of the body, in a shorter period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of the body in just a few seconds. Such speed is beneficial for ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... degrees. In a conventional x-ray exam, a small burst of radiation passes through the body, recording ... material is used to enhance visibility in the area of the body being studied. top of page ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children is faster than the older ... clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI or ultrasound which might give ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... areas of the body that sometimes are as good as or better than those obtained by CT ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a ... reducing the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible ...

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    Full Text Available ... else to be with your child. Some imaging facilities may use general anesthesia or conscious sedation in ... Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ... your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions your child may have, and if there ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam. He or she may be given a gown to ... any medications your child is taking and if he/she has any allergies, especially to intravenous (IV) ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... page was reviewed on March 20, 2017 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... relieved with medication, if necessary. If your child becomes light-headed or experiences difficulty breathing, you should notify the technologist or nurse, as it may indicate a more severe allergic ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the exam if your child has a known allergy to contrast material. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. You may be instructed to withhold food or drink beforehand, especially if sedation or anesthesia ...

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    Full Text Available ... appropriate preparation can be made. Also inform your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions your child may have, and if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision ...

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    Full Text Available ... cancer is debatable but because it is possible, every effort is made to limit the amount of ... risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will be taken to protect the welfare ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... vessels. CT scans may be performed on newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are ... heart and blood vessels in children, even newborn infants. Except for the chest x-ray, CT is ...

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children is faster than the older CT scanners, reducing the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... fine tune" the CT settings based on the reason for the exam, the body area being examined, ...

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  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is being scanned. Most children older than six years are able to hold their breath long enough ... more severe allergic reaction. If your child experiences any kind of reaction to the intravenous contrast, it ...

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ... the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible are ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, ...

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    Full Text Available ... tissues show up in shades of gray and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... determines that the images are of high enough quality for the radiologist to read. top of page ...

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    Full Text Available ... is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning the patient on the CT examination table, usually ... encourage your child to report any discomfort during positioning because it is important to keep very still ...

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    Full Text Available ... the contrast material is swallowed, your child may find the taste mildly unpleasant even if mixed with ... 20, 2017 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No ...

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    Full Text Available ... as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces ... of imaging in these procedures in children. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

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  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... a gown. You may be instructed to withhold food or drink beforehand, especially if sedation or anesthesia ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ... best for your child. top of page Additional Information and Resources The Alliance for Radiation Safety in ...

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  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... child may have, and if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... that will provide the needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

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    Full Text Available ... reviewed on March 20, 2017 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

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    Full Text Available ... important organs in the abdomen including the liver, kidney and spleen. CT is sometimes used to: diagnose ... is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions ...

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    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation, like light or radio waves that can be directed at the body. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. In a conventional x-ray exam, a small burst of radiation passes through the body, recording an ...

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    Full Text Available ... CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT ...

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other x-ray examinations. X-rays are a form of radiation, like light or radio waves that can be directed at the body. Different body parts absorb the x- ...

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ...

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    Full Text Available ... like? The CT scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the ... of this tunnel. In the center of the machine, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray ...

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... six years are able to hold their breath long enough to complete the scan although they may ...

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    Full Text Available ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with ... not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact ...

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    Full Text Available ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A diagnosis ... 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other imaging methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide pictures of certain areas of the body that sometimes are ...

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    Full Text Available ... abdominal tumors or birth defects In the pelvic region, CT scans can help: detect cysts or tumors ... tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed procedure ...

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same ... very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

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    Full Text Available ... enhance visibility in the area of the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure ... during the scanning, especially if the chest is being scanned. Most children older than six years are ...

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    Full Text Available ... order to produce clear images. Also, shorter scan times will make it easier for children to hold their breath during critical parts of the exam. CT scanning is painless, noninvasive ...

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    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s medications and allergies. Inform your doctor and the technologist prior to the exam if your child has a known allergy to contrast material. Your child should wear loose, ...

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... patient, as the mild discomfort will not last long. When your child enters the scanner, special lights ...

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    Full Text Available ... allergies, especially to intravenous (IV) iodinated contrast (or iodine itself) or oral contrast materials. The allergy information ... serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is rare in children, and almost always mild, ...

  18. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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  1. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomogra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian S Pugmire; Alexander R Guimaraes; Ruth Lim; Alison M Friedmann; Mary Huang; David Ebb; Howard Weinstein; Onofrio A Catalano; Umar Mahmood; Ciprian Catana; Michael S Gee

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(18F-FDG)positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging(PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients.METHODS: This prospective, observational, singlecenter study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to:(1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis;(2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and(3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG PETCT examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PETMRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PETMRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient(ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard.RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years(range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions(R = 0.93). PETMRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-computed tomography(CT) reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions(780.2 + 326.6) was significantly

  2. Optimization on the dose versus noise in the image on protocols for computed tomography of pediatric head; Otimizacao da relacao dose versus ruido na imagem em protocolos de tomografia computadorizada de cranio pediatrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, Thalis L.A.; Travassos, Paulo Cesar B.; Goncalves, Elicardo A.S.; Mecca A, Fernando; Silveira, Thiago B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fmecca@inca.gov.br, e-mail: thalis09@yahoo.com.br

    2010-03-15

    This article aims to establish protocols optimized for computed tomography of pediatric skull, to the Picker Q2000 tomography of the Instituto Nacional de Cancer, through the analysis of dose x noise on the image with the variation of values of mAs and kVp. We used a water phantom to measure the noise, a pencil type ionization chamber to measure the dose in the air and the Alderson Randon phantom for check the quality of the image. We found values of mAs and kVp that reduce the skin dose of the original protocol used in 35.9%, maintaining the same image quality at a safe diagnosis. (author)

  3. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to ...

  9. Computed tomography in renal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, W.; Eisenberger, F.; Buck, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a group of 19 patients suffering from flank trauma and gross hematuria the diagnostic value of angiography was compared with that of computed tomography. The cases that underwent both tests were found to have the some diagnosis of rupture of the kidney. Typical CT-findings in kidney rupture are demonstrated. Whereas angiography presents an exact picture of the arterial system of the kidney, including its injures computed tomography reveals the extent of organ lesons by showing extra- and intrarenal hematomas. If surgery is planned angiography is still mandatory, whereby the indication is largely determined by the clinical findings. Computed tomography as a non-invasive method is equally suitable for follow-ups. (orig.) [de

  10. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  11. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99 /sup m/Tc, 201 Tl, 123 I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose sinusitis . evaluate sinuses that are filled with fluid or thickened sinus membranes . detect the presence of ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... of the Sinuses? CT is usually the first test ordered when a sinus tumor is suspected. If ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen on a photograph ...

  13. Computed tomography in hepatic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choliz, J.D.; Olaverri, F.J.L.; Casas, T.F.; Zubieta, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 50 cases of hydatid disease of the liver. It was definite in 49 cases and negative in one case. Pre- and postcontrast scans were performed. CT may reveal the exact location and extension of cysts and possible complications. However, a false-negative case was found in a hydatid cyst located in a fatty liver

  14. Computer tomography in Caisson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, F.; Csobaly, S.; Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, Budapest

    1981-01-01

    Computer tomography was performed on 20 patients with the early stages of Caisson osteoarthropathy, as well as in other patients with chronic bone infarcts. From their results the authors have formed the opinion that CT is valuable, not only in the diagnosis of early cases, but that it can provide significant information concerning the osteopathy and bone infarcts. (orig.) [de

  15. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan E-mail: hnazarog@dicle.edu.tr; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual.

  16. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual

  17. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  18. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  19. Positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Lamy, T.; Le Gouil, S.; Devillers, A.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Ansquer, C.; Cheze-le Rest, C.; Metges, J.P.; Teyton, P.; Lozach, P.; Volant, A.; Bizais, Y.; Visvikis, D.; Morel, O.; Girault, S.; Soulie, P.; Dupoiron, D.; Berthelot, C.; Lorimier, G.; Jallet, P.; Garin, E.; Prigent, F.; Lesimple, T.; Barge, M.L.; Rousseau, C.; Devillers, A.; Bernard, A.M.; Bouriel, C.; Bridji, B.; Resche, R.; Banayan, S.; Claret, M.; Ninet, J.; Janier, M.; Billotey, C.; Garin, E.; Devillers, A.; Becker, S.; Lecloirec, J.; Boucher, E.; Raoul, J.L.; Rolland, V.; Oudoux, A.; Valette, F.; Dupas, B.; Moreau, P.; Champion, L.; Anract, P.; Wartski, M.; Laurence, V.; Goldwasser, F.; Pecking, A.P.; Alberini, J.L.; Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Allal, B.; Zerdoud, S.; Gansel, M.G.; Thomas, F.; Dierrickx, L.; Delord, J.P.; Marchand, C.; Resche, I.; Mahe, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several oral communications present the interest of positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose in the detection of cancers, or for the follow up of cancers treatments in order to detect early possible relapses.PET FDG is also used to optimize the definition of target volume in order to avoid side effects and to get a better control of the illness. (N.C.)

  20. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  1. Computed tomography of the head in neurological examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckman, E.; Egg-Olofsson, O.; Raadberg, C.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 247 children from the departments of pediatrics and neurosurgery were examined with computed tomography of the head during a two year period in 1977-78. Pathological changes were demonstrated in 79 per cent. Supplementary neuro-radiological examination - angiography and encephalography - was necessary in 17 per cent. Computed tomography together with the clinical assessment frequently suffices for final diagnosis. Computed tomography greatly reduces the need for previously used neurological examinations including skull radiography. Complications may ensure because of over-sensitivity to intravenously administered contrast medium in connection with anesthesia, and the radiation dose particularly to the crystalline lens of the eye must be taken into account. Computed tomography should therefore be used only on strict indications after careful scrutiny of the case history and the status. (author)

  2. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  3. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  4. Radiation dose management for pediatric cardiac computed tomography. A report from the Image Gently 'Have-A-Heart' campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Sammet, Christina L. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); McKenney, Sarah E. [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Hill, Kevin D. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States); Chelliah, Anjali [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Einstein, Andrew J. [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Han, B.K. [Children' s Heart Clinic at The Children' s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Slesnick, Timothy C. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Frush, Donald P. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Children with congenital or acquired heart disease can be exposed to relatively high lifetime cumulative doses of ionizing radiation from necessary medical imaging procedures including radiography, fluoroscopic procedures including diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations, electrophysiology examinations, cardiac computed tomography (CT) studies, and nuclear cardiology examinations. Despite the clinical necessity of these imaging studies, the related ionizing radiation exposure could pose an increased lifetime attributable cancer risk. The Image Gently ''Have-A-Heart'' campaign is promoting the appropriate use of medical imaging studies in children with congenital or acquired heart disease while minimizing radiation exposure. The focus of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of radiation dose management and CT performance in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. (orig.)

  5. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT to Determine Supernumerary and Impacted Teeth Position in Pediatric Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nematolahi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a compound odontoma which caused delayed eruption of right maxillary central incisor in a ten year old girl is presented with clinical and radiographic findings. The patient presented with complaint of a hard painless swelling in the right anterior region of the maxilla and absence of right maxillary central incisor. After clinical examination, periapical and occlusal radiographs of the mentioned region were taken. Impacted maxillary right central incisor was seen malformed shape on the intraoral radiographs. After taking a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT a compound odontoma associated with the labial aspect of impacted maxillary right central incisor was diagnosed and then removed by simple local excision under local anesthesia. The removal of the odontoma was followed by forced eruption of the impacted central incisor. After three months the tooth returned to its original position.

  6. Radiation dose management for pediatric cardiac computed tomography. A report from the Image Gently 'Have-A-Heart' campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Sammet, Christina L.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Hill, Kevin D.; Chelliah, Anjali; Einstein, Andrew J.; Han, B.K.; Robinson, Joshua D.; Slesnick, Timothy C.; Frush, Donald P.

    2018-01-01

    Children with congenital or acquired heart disease can be exposed to relatively high lifetime cumulative doses of ionizing radiation from necessary medical imaging procedures including radiography, fluoroscopic procedures including diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations, electrophysiology examinations, cardiac computed tomography (CT) studies, and nuclear cardiology examinations. Despite the clinical necessity of these imaging studies, the related ionizing radiation exposure could pose an increased lifetime attributable cancer risk. The Image Gently ''Have-A-Heart'' campaign is promoting the appropriate use of medical imaging studies in children with congenital or acquired heart disease while minimizing radiation exposure. The focus of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of radiation dose management and CT performance in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. (orig.)

  7. Industrial applications of computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Kanglong; Qiang Yujun; Yang Fujia

    1992-01-01

    Industrial computer tomography (CT) and its application is a rapidly developing field of high technology. CT systems have been playing important roles in nondestructive testing (NDT) of products and equipment for a number of industries. Recently, the technique has advanced into the area of industrial process control, bringing even greater benefit to mankind. The basic principles and typical structure of an industrial CT system Descriptions are given of some successful CT systems for either NDT application or process control purposes

  8. Computed tomography of projectile injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, A.J.; Rutty, G.N.; Robinson, C.; Morgan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a gold standard in clinical imaging but forensic professions have been slow to embrace radiological advances. Forensic applications of CT are now exponentially expanding, replacing other imaging methods. As post-mortem cross-sectional imaging increases, radiologists will fall under increasing pressure to interpret complex forensic cases involving both living and deceased patients. This review presents a wide variety of weapon and projectile types aiding interpretation of projectile injuries both in forensic and clinical practice

  9. Computed tomography in osteoid osteoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, J.L.; Aubspin, D.; Buchon, R.; Schoenenberger, P.; Flageat, J.

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of suspected osteoid osteoma were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). The role of CT was related, as a key diagnostic tool: radionuclide imaging is helpful in directing subsequent CT scans, which allows the study of complex anatomical sites (spine) or the analysis of atypical lesions (invisible nidus, sclerosis or lytic lesions, double nidus...). CT provides the surgeon with the exact location and extent of the lesion, and thus, CT may allow a more limited surgical resection of the involved bone [fr

  10. The value of computed tomography in ''sciatica''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm-Jurkovic, H.; Hammer, B.

    1981-01-01

    13 cases of therapy-resistant lumboischialgia without herniated disk, caused in 12 cases by a tumour and in 1 case by an abscess, were examined by computed tomography of the lumbar and pelvic region. This method is indicated immediately after insufficient results of conventional X-ray methods (including tomography) and of lumbosacral radiculography. The computed tomography is indispensable also in patients with ''sciatica'' with a known malignoma. The information given by computed tomography is essential for the therapy planning. (author)

  11. Computed tomography of the ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.; Weider, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Otologists and otolaryngologists have described in detail the disorders which are unique to the ossicles. However the anatomy and spectrum of pathology and anatomy of the ossicles are not familiar to most radiologists. Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) and a systematic approach to evaluation now allow accurate identification of even subtle abnormalities of the ossicles. We present the normal anatomy, ossicular abnormalities, and indications for computed tomographic study. Because of the greater diagnostic capability of CT, the radiologist's role has increased in evaluation and treatment planning of patients with suspected ossicular abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19,2016 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  13. The history of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, J.

    1980-01-01

    New scientific discoveries are often made by the synthetising of other discoveries. Computed tomography is such an example. The three necessary elements were: 1/ the fact that certain simple crystals scintillate when exposed to X-rays, 2/ the advent of electronics and 3/ that of computers. The fact that X-rays cause crystals to scintillate was learnt very shortly after Roentgen's discovery, electronics and computers coming very much later. To put all these together and apply them to diagnostic radiology, and at the same time dismiss the concept so firmly ingrained in everyone's mind that an X-ray picture must be produced on photographic film, required a genius. (orig./VJ) [de

  14. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  15. Duodenal diverticulitis. computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Martin, S.; Garcia, J.; Dominguez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal diverticular occur very frequently among the general public. However, duodenal diverticulitis is a very uncommon clinical entity, the diagnosis of which requires radiological studies since the clinical signs cam mimic a great number of disease processes with different treatments. We present a case of duodenal diverticulitis in which the diagnosis according to ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) studies was confirmed intraoperatively. We also review the few cases of this entity reported in the literature. The CT findings are highly suggestive of duodenal diverticulitis given their similarity to those associated with diverticulitis at other sites. (Author) 5 refs,

  16. Mathematical foundations of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Keinert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Along with a review of some of the mathematical foundations of computed tomography, the article contains new results on derivation of reconstruction formulas in a general setting encompassing all standard formulas; discussion and examples of the role of the point spread function with recipes for producing suitable ones; formulas for, and examples of, the reconstruction of certain functions of the attenuation coefficient, e.g., sharpened versions of it, some of them with the property that reconstruction at a point requires only the attenuation along rays meeting a small neighborhood of the point

  17. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam

  18. Brain metastases: computed tomography assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, Victoria; Yagual, Glenda; Vinueza, Clayreth

    1998-01-01

    Intracranial metastatic tumor is relatively frequent in patients with cancer from other origin. Its location and type of metastasis varies in relation to its linage from the primary tumor. And the sequence goes from the most frequent: lung and breast cancer, melanoma, GU tract, leukemia, GI tract, head and neck tumor. Computed tomography findings are extremely varied and non specific, so there are no radiologic characteristics even from the primary tumor. We reviewed 29 TC studies in the Radiology department of ION-SOLCA, from patients with diagnosis of brain metastasis, our findings showed the great variability in the radio-diagnosis imaging. (The author)

  19. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic

  20. Whole-body computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    The vast literature on whole-body CT is presented in this bibliography which is published as a self-contained supplement to the monography entitled whole-body CT. For this documentation, the following journals have been scanned back to the year 1980: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography (JCAT), Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Roentgenstrahlen (RoeFo), Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), Der Radiologe, Neuroradiology, and American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR). The supplement includes keyword indexes that can be searched for terms indicating body organs, body regions, or certain lesions. The author index offers an additional access to the publication wanted. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Computed tomography of the heart using thallium-201 in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.; Hill, T.C.; VanPraagh, R.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) was performed in 3 pediatric patients in whom conventional scintigraphy was normal but there was a strong clinical suspicion of myocardial disease. Abnormalities in the distribution of myocardial perfusion appeared sharply delineated with ECT compared to normal conventional gamma camera scintigraphy. Single photon ECT provides a three dimensional reconstruction which results in greater enhancement since activity in overlying structures does not interfere. Its widespread use is limited only by the cost of the imaging device

  2. Dose assessment in pediatric computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilarinho, Luisa Maria Auredine Lima

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography scans, considering the high doses usually involved and the absence of any previous evaluation in Brazil. Dose values were determined for skull and abdomen examinations, for different age ranges, by using the radiographic techniques routinely used in the clinical centers investigated. Measurements were done using pencil shape ionization chambers inserted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. These were compact phantoms of different diameters were specially designed and constructed for this work, which simulate different age ranges. Comparison of results with published values showed that doses were lower than the diagnostic reference levels established to adults exams by the European Commission. Nevertheless, doses in paediatric phantoms were higher than those obtained in adult phantoms. The paediatric dose values obtained in Hospitals A and B were lower than the reference level (DRL) adopted by SHIMPTON for different age ranges. In the range 0 - 0.5 year (neonatal), the values of DLP in Hospital B were 94 por cent superior to the DRL For the 10 years old children the values of CTDI w obtained were inferior in 89 por cent for skull and 83 por cent for abdomen examinations, compared to the values published by SHRIMPTON and WALL. Our measured CTDI w values were inferior to the values presented for SHRIMPTON and HUDA, for all the age ranges and types of examinations. It was observed that the normalized dose descriptors values in children in the neonatal range were always superior to the values of doses for the adult patient. In abdomen examinations, the difference was approximately 90% for the effective dose (E) and of 57%.for CTDI w . (author)

  3. Dose determination in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.; Gonzalez, M.; Germanier, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the last years the methodologies to determine the dose in computed tomography have been revised. In this work was realized a dosimetric study about the exploration protocols used for simulation of radiotherapy treatments. The methodology described in the Report No. 111 of the American Association of Medical Physiques on a computed tomograph of two cuts was applied. A cylindrical phantom of water was used with dimensions: 30 cm of diameter and 50 cm of longitude that simulates the absorption and dispersion conditions of a mature body of size average. The doses were determined with ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimetry. The results indicate that the dose information that provides the tomograph underestimates the dose between 32 and 35%.

  4. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, I.; Antoun, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  5. Motion artifacts in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.K.

    1979-01-01

    In the year 1972, the first Computed Tomography Scanner (or CT) was introduced and caused a revolution in the field of Diagnostic Radiology. A tomogram is a cross-sectional image of a three-dimensional object obtained through non-invasive measurements. The image that is presented is very similar to what would be seen if a thin cross-sectional slice of the patient was examined. In Computed Tomography, x-rays are passed through the body of a patient in many different directions and their attenuation is detected. By using some mathematical theorems, the attenuation information can be converted into the density of the patient along the x-ray path. Combined with modern sophisticated computer signal processing technology, a cross-sectional image can be generated and displayed on a TV monitor. Usually a good CT image relies on the patient not moving during the x-ray scanning. However, for some unconscious or severely ill patients, this is very difficult to achieve. Thus, the motion during the scan causes the so-called motion artifacts which distort the displayed image and sometimes these motion artifacts make diagnosis impossible. Today, to remove or avoid motion artifacts is one of the major efforts in developing new scanner systems. In this thesis, a better understanding of the motion artifacts problem in CT scaning is gained through computer simulations, real scanner experiments and theoretical analyses. The methods by which the distorted image can be improved are simulated also. In particular, it is assumed that perfect knowledge of the patient motion is known since this represents the theoretical limit on how well the distorted image can be improved

  6. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  7. Measuring Weld Profiles By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive computer tomography system determines internal and external contours of welded objects. System makes it unnecessary to take metallurgical sections (destructive technique) or to take silicone impressions of hidden surfaces (technique that contaminates) to inspect them. Measurements of contours via tomography performed 10 times as fast as measurements via impression molds, and tomography does not contaminate inspected parts.

  8. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and

  9. An introduction to emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes salient features of the theory and an examination of practical considerations for someone who is using or introducing tomography, selecting equipment for it or wishing to develop a clinical application. Emphasis is on gamma camera tomography. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: emission computed and gamma camera tomography and the relationship to other medical imaging techniques, the tomographic reconstruction technique theory, rotating gamma camera tomography, attenuation correction and quantitative reconstruction, other single photon tomographic techniques, positron tomography, image display, clinical application of single photon and positron tomography, and commercial systems for SPECT. Substantial bibliography. (U.K.)

  10. Computed tomography of surface related radionuclide distributions ('BONN'-tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Koenig, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method called the 'BONN' tomography is described to produce planar projections of circular activity distributions using standard single photon emission computed tomography. The clinical value of the method is demonstrated for bone scans of the jaw, thorax, and pelvis. Numerical or projection-related problems are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Application of Dual-Source-Computed Tomography in Pediatric Cardiology in Children Within the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, P; Stenger, A; Dittrich, S; Cesnjevar, R; Rüffer, A; Hammon, M; Uder, M; Rompel, O; Glöckler, M

    2016-02-01

    To assess fields of application and value of dual source computed tomography (DSCT) for diagnostics and therapy in patients with congenital heart disease during their first year of life. Evaluation of image quality, surgical use and radiation exposure of 2nd and 3 rd generation DSCT. DSCT was applied in 118 cases between January 2012 and October 2014 for diagnostics of congenital heart defects. 2nd generation was used in 91 cases until April 2014 and 3 rd generation in 27 cases during the period thereafter. 3 D reconstructions of the image data were created for clinical diagnostics and planning of interventions. Image quality was assessed using a 4-point-scale. The visibility of the mammary arteries was analyzed, and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were calculated. The usefulness of 3D-reconstructions for surgical planning was rated using a 5-point-scale. Radiation exposure and contrast dye consumption were determined. All cases were analyzed retrospectively. DSCT was successfully used in 118 cases. All image data obtained were interpretable. More than 60 percent of cases did not show any artifacts. The mammary arteries were visible down to the diaphragmatic arch in more than 80 percent of cases. Diagnostic value and surgical benefit were evaluated as "useful" or as "essential" in all cases. Median radiation dose was 0.4 mSv and 0.27 mSv for the 2nd and 3 rd generation DSCT, respectively. Consumption of contrast dye was 2 ml/kg in all cases. DSCT is a modern and extremely helpful technique for diagnostics and planning of interventions in patients with complex congenital heart defects. Extracardiac vascular structures in particular can be depicted three-dimensionally at high resolution. The use of iterative reconstruction with 3 rd generation DSCT yielded image quality similar to that of 2nd generation DSCT at considerably reduced radiation exposure level compared to 2nd generation DSCT. 3 rd generation DSCT is a low

  12. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-12-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children.

  13. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children

  14. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M; Rupp, N

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  16. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  17. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions

  18. Comparing Effective Doses During Image-Guided Core Needle Biopsies with Computed Tomography Versus C-Arm Cone Beam CT Using Adult and Pediatric Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.; Cohen, D.; Bruckheimer, E.; Bachar, G. N.; Konstantinovsky, R.; Birk, E.; Atar, E.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the effective doses of needle biopsies based on dose measurements and simulations using adult and pediatric phantoms, between cone beam c-arm CT (CBCT) and CT.MethodEffective doses were calculated and compared based on measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of CT- and CBCT-guided biopsy procedures of the lungs, liver, and kidney using pediatric and adult phantoms.ResultsThe effective doses for pediatric and adult phantoms, using our standard protocols for upper, middle and lower lungs, liver, and kidney biopsies, were significantly lower under CBCT guidance than CT. The average effective dose for a 5-year old for these five biopsies was 0.36 ± 0.05 mSv with the standard CBCT exposure protocols and 2.13 ± 0.26 mSv with CT. The adult average effective dose for the five biopsies was 1.63 ± 0.22 mSv with the standard CBCT protocols and 8.22 ± 1.02 mSv using CT. The CT effective dose was higher than CBCT protocols for child and adult phantoms by 803 and 590 % for upper lung, 639 and 525 % for mid-lung, and 461 and 251 % for lower lung, respectively. Similarly, the effective dose was higher by 691 and 762 % for liver and 513 and 608 % for kidney biopsies.ConclusionsBased on measurements and simulations with pediatric and adult phantoms, radiation effective doses during image-guided needle biopsies of the lung, liver, and kidney are significantly lower with CBCT than with CT.

  19. Comparing Effective Doses During Image-Guided Core Needle Biopsies with Computed Tomography Versus C-Arm Cone Beam CT Using Adult and Pediatric Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A. [Soreq NRC, Radiation Protection Domain (Israel); Cohen, D.; Bruckheimer, E. [Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel); Bachar, G. N.; Konstantinovsky, R. [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Israel); Birk, E. [Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel); Atar, E., E-mail: elia@clalit.org.il [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Israel)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeTo compare the effective doses of needle biopsies based on dose measurements and simulations using adult and pediatric phantoms, between cone beam c-arm CT (CBCT) and CT.MethodEffective doses were calculated and compared based on measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of CT- and CBCT-guided biopsy procedures of the lungs, liver, and kidney using pediatric and adult phantoms.ResultsThe effective doses for pediatric and adult phantoms, using our standard protocols for upper, middle and lower lungs, liver, and kidney biopsies, were significantly lower under CBCT guidance than CT. The average effective dose for a 5-year old for these five biopsies was 0.36 ± 0.05 mSv with the standard CBCT exposure protocols and 2.13 ± 0.26 mSv with CT. The adult average effective dose for the five biopsies was 1.63 ± 0.22 mSv with the standard CBCT protocols and 8.22 ± 1.02 mSv using CT. The CT effective dose was higher than CBCT protocols for child and adult phantoms by 803 and 590 % for upper lung, 639 and 525 % for mid-lung, and 461 and 251 % for lower lung, respectively. Similarly, the effective dose was higher by 691 and 762 % for liver and 513 and 608 % for kidney biopsies.ConclusionsBased on measurements and simulations with pediatric and adult phantoms, radiation effective doses during image-guided needle biopsies of the lung, liver, and kidney are significantly lower with CBCT than with CT.

  20. Comparing Effective Doses During Image-Guided Core Needle Biopsies with Computed Tomography Versus C-Arm Cone Beam CT Using Adult and Pediatric Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shlomo, A; Cohen, D; Bruckheimer, E; Bachar, G N; Konstantinovsky, R; Birk, E; Atar, E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effective doses of needle biopsies based on dose measurements and simulations using adult and pediatric phantoms, between cone beam c-arm CT (CBCT) and CT. Effective doses were calculated and compared based on measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of CT- and CBCT-guided biopsy procedures of the lungs, liver, and kidney using pediatric and adult phantoms. The effective doses for pediatric and adult phantoms, using our standard protocols for upper, middle and lower lungs, liver, and kidney biopsies, were significantly lower under CBCT guidance than CT. The average effective dose for a 5-year old for these five biopsies was 0.36 ± 0.05 mSv with the standard CBCT exposure protocols and 2.13 ± 0.26 mSv with CT. The adult average effective dose for the five biopsies was 1.63 ± 0.22 mSv with the standard CBCT protocols and 8.22 ± 1.02 mSv using CT. The CT effective dose was higher than CBCT protocols for child and adult phantoms by 803 and 590% for upper lung, 639 and 525% for mid-lung, and 461 and 251% for lower lung, respectively. Similarly, the effective dose was higher by 691 and 762% for liver and 513 and 608% for kidney biopsies. Based on measurements and simulations with pediatric and adult phantoms, radiation effective doses during image-guided needle biopsies of the lung, liver, and kidney are significantly lower with CBCT than with CT.

  1. Nationwide survey of radiation exposure during pediatric computed tomography examinations and proposal of age-based diagnostic reference levels for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Yasutaka; Miyazaki, Osamu; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Shimada, Yoshiya; Akahane, Keiichi; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have not been established in Japan. To propose DRLs for CT of the head, chest and abdomen for three pediatric age groups. We sent a nationwide questionnaire by post to 339 facilities. Questions focused on pediatric CT technology, exposure parameters, CT protocols, and radiation doses for age groups <1 year, 1-5 years, and 6-10 years. For the three age groups in the 196 facilities that responded, the 75th percentile values of volume CT dose index based on a 16-cm phantom (CTDI vol 16 [mGy]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 39.1, 11.1 and 12.0, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 46.9, 14.3 and 16.7, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 67.7, 15.0 and 17.0, respectively. The corresponding dose-length products (DLP 16 [mGy·cm]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 526.1, 209.1 and 261.5, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 665.5, 296.0 and 430.8, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 847.9, 413.0 and 532.2, respectively. The majority of CTDI vol 16 and DLP 16 values for the head were higher than DRLs reported from other countries. For risk reduction, it is necessary to establish DRLs for pediatric CT in Japan. (orig.)

  2. Free-breathing high-pitch 80kVp dual-source computed tomography of the pediatric chest: Image quality, presence of motion artifacts and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-04-01

    To investigate image quality, presence of motion artifacts and effects on radiation dose of 80kVp high-pitch dual-source CT (DSCT) in combination with an advanced modeled iterative reconstruction algorithm (ADMIRE) of the pediatric chest compared to single-source CT (SSCT). The study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighty-seven consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 9.1±4.9years) received either free-breathing high-pitch (pitch 3.2) chest 192-slice DSCT (group 1, n=31) or standard-pitch (pitch 1.2) 128-slice SSCT (group 2, n=56) with breathing-instructions by random assignment. Tube settings were similar in both groups with 80 kVp and 74 ref. mAs. Images were reconstructed using FBP for both groups. Additionally, ADMIRE was used in group 1. Effective thorax diameter, image noise, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pectoralis major muscle and the thoracic aorta were calculated. Motion artifacts were measured as doubling boarders of the diaphragm and the heart. Images were rated by two blinded readers for overall image quality and presence of motion artifacts on 5-point-scales. Size specific dose estimates (SSDE, mGy) and effective dose (ED, mSv) were calculated. Age and effective thorax diameter showed no statistically significant differences in both groups. Image noise and SNR were comparable (p>0.64) for SSCT and DSCT with ADMIRE, while DSCT with FBP showed inferior results (pchest DSCT in combination with ADMIRE reduces motion artifacts and increases image quality while lowering radiation exposure in free-breathing pediatric patients without sedation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nationwide survey of radiation exposure during pediatric computed tomography examinations and proposal of age-based diagnostic reference levels for Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Yasutaka [Kanazawa University, Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro [Kanazawa University, Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ishikawa (Japan); Shimada, Yoshiya; Akahane, Keiichi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Medical Exposure Research Project, Chiba (Japan); Muramatsu, Yoshihisa [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Department of Radiology, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, Keisuke [Nagoya University, Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, Shoichi [Fujita Health University, Faculty of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have not been established in Japan. To propose DRLs for CT of the head, chest and abdomen for three pediatric age groups. We sent a nationwide questionnaire by post to 339 facilities. Questions focused on pediatric CT technology, exposure parameters, CT protocols, and radiation doses for age groups <1 year, 1-5 years, and 6-10 years. For the three age groups in the 196 facilities that responded, the 75th percentile values of volume CT dose index based on a 16-cm phantom (CTDI{sub vol} 16 [mGy]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 39.1, 11.1 and 12.0, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 46.9, 14.3 and 16.7, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 67.7, 15.0 and 17.0, respectively. The corresponding dose-length products (DLP 16 [mGy·cm]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 526.1, 209.1 and 261.5, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 665.5, 296.0 and 430.8, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 847.9, 413.0 and 532.2, respectively. The majority of CTDI{sub vol} 16 and DLP 16 values for the head were higher than DRLs reported from other countries. For risk reduction, it is necessary to establish DRLs for pediatric CT in Japan. (orig.)

  4. Radiological protection in computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has sustained interest in radiological protection in computed tomography (CT), and ICRP Publications 87 and 102 focused on the management of patient doses in CT and multi-detector CT (MDCT) respectively. ICRP forecasted and 'sounded the alarm' on increasing patient doses in CT, and recommended actions for manufacturers and users. One of the approaches was that safety is best achieved when it is built into the machine, rather than left as a matter of choice for users. In view of upcoming challenges posed by newer systems that use cone beam geometry for CT (CBCT), and their widened usage, often by untrained users, a new ICRP task group has been working on radiological protection issues in CBCT. Some of the issues identified by the task group are: lack of standardisation of dosimetry in CBCT; the false belief within the medical and dental community that CBCT is a 'light', low-dose CT whereas mobile CBCT units and newer applications, particularly C-arm CT in interventional procedures, involve higher doses; lack of training in radiological protection among clinical users; and lack of dose information and tracking in many applications. This paper provides a summary of approaches used in CT and MDCT, and preliminary information regarding work just published for radiological protection in CBCT. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.D.; Ritman, E.L.; Robb, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  6. Free-breathing high-pitch 80 kVp dual-source computed tomography of the pediatric chest: Image quality, presence of motion artifacts and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: bbodelle@googlemail.com; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: To investigate image quality, presence of motion artifacts and effects on radiation dose of 80 kVp high-pitch dual-source CT (DSCT) in combination with an advanced modeled iterative reconstruction algorithm (ADMIRE) of the pediatric chest compared to single-source CT (SSCT). Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighty-seven consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 9.1 ± 4.9 years) received either free-breathing high-pitch (pitch 3.2) chest 192-slice DSCT (group 1, n = 31) or standard-pitch (pitch 1.2) 128-slice SSCT (group 2, n = 56) with breathing-instructions by random assignment. Tube settings were similar in both groups with 80 kVp and 74 ref. mAs. Images were reconstructed using FBP for both groups. Additionally, ADMIRE was used in group 1. Effective thorax diameter, image noise, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pectoralis major muscle and the thoracic aorta were calculated. Motion artifacts were measured as doubling boarders of the diaphragm and the heart. Images were rated by two blinded readers for overall image quality and presence of motion artifacts on 5-point-scales. Size specific dose estimates (SSDE, mGy) and effective dose (ED, mSv) were calculated. Results: Age and effective thorax diameter showed no statistically significant differences in both groups. Image noise and SNR were comparable (p > 0.64) for SSCT and DSCT with ADMIRE, while DSCT with FBP showed inferior results (p < 0.01). Motion artifacts were reduced significantly (p = 0.001) with DSCT. DSCT with ADMIRE showed the highest overall IQ (p < 0.0001). Radiation dose was lower for DSCT compared to SSCT (median SSDE: 0.82 mGy vs. 0.92 mGy, p < 0.02; median ED: 0.4 mSv vs. 0.48 mSv, p = 0.02). Conclusions: High-pitch 80 kVp chest DSCT in combination with ADMIRE reduces motion artifacts and increases image quality while lowering radiation exposure in free-breathing pediatric patients without sedation.

  7. Free-breathing high-pitch 80 kVp dual-source computed tomography of the pediatric chest: Image quality, presence of motion artifacts and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate image quality, presence of motion artifacts and effects on radiation dose of 80 kVp high-pitch dual-source CT (DSCT) in combination with an advanced modeled iterative reconstruction algorithm (ADMIRE) of the pediatric chest compared to single-source CT (SSCT). Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighty-seven consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 9.1 ± 4.9 years) received either free-breathing high-pitch (pitch 3.2) chest 192-slice DSCT (group 1, n = 31) or standard-pitch (pitch 1.2) 128-slice SSCT (group 2, n = 56) with breathing-instructions by random assignment. Tube settings were similar in both groups with 80 kVp and 74 ref. mAs. Images were reconstructed using FBP for both groups. Additionally, ADMIRE was used in group 1. Effective thorax diameter, image noise, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pectoralis major muscle and the thoracic aorta were calculated. Motion artifacts were measured as doubling boarders of the diaphragm and the heart. Images were rated by two blinded readers for overall image quality and presence of motion artifacts on 5-point-scales. Size specific dose estimates (SSDE, mGy) and effective dose (ED, mSv) were calculated. Results: Age and effective thorax diameter showed no statistically significant differences in both groups. Image noise and SNR were comparable (p > 0.64) for SSCT and DSCT with ADMIRE, while DSCT with FBP showed inferior results (p < 0.01). Motion artifacts were reduced significantly (p = 0.001) with DSCT. DSCT with ADMIRE showed the highest overall IQ (p < 0.0001). Radiation dose was lower for DSCT compared to SSCT (median SSDE: 0.82 mGy vs. 0.92 mGy, p < 0.02; median ED: 0.4 mSv vs. 0.48 mSv, p = 0.02). Conclusions: High-pitch 80 kVp chest DSCT in combination with ADMIRE reduces motion artifacts and increases image quality while lowering radiation exposure in free-breathing pediatric patients without sedation.

  8. Development and application of a pediatric head phantom for dosimetry in computed tomography; Desenvolvimento e aplicacao de um simulador pediatrico craniano para dosimetria em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney

    2016-11-01

    To determine the exposure levels and the absorbed dose in patients undergoing CT scans, is necessary to calculate the CT dose index in measurements with a PMMA or water phantom. The phantom must be enough to simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of a human body or parts in a radiation field. The CT specific quantities : CT air kerma index (Ca,100) , weighted CT air kerma index (CW ), a total volume CT air kerma index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product (PKL) must be determined and compared to literature reference levels. In this work a head pediatric phantom was developed, considering that the Brazilian published Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) are based on adult phantom measurements. This developed phantom shows a construction innovation using materials to simulate the skullcap, cortical bone (aluminum) and cancellous bone (PVC), and it was filled with distilled water. The phantom dimension follows the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Radiation Units for children from 0 to 5 years old head size: diameter of 160 mm and height of 155 mm. The skullcap has 4 mm of thickness and 111.9 mm of internal diameter. In order to evaluate its behavior, tests were carried out in calibration laboratories and in clinical beams. The results showed attenuation up to 23% when different materials are used as skullcap, demonstrating that the DRLs adopted could be overestimating the dose received by pediatric patients. It is observed that the dose received by CT skull scans presents different distribution, due to the skullcap partially attenuation and/or backscattering which is not considered when the PMMA phantom is used.

  9. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Hek; Lee, Joong Suk; Chun, Beung He; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst

  10. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  12. X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A

    2006-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  13. Computed tomography of epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Mana; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) of epileptic children, especially in the area of the temporal horn. The subjects were 242 epileptic children excluding those with encephalitis, brain tumor, neurocutaneous syndromes, degenerative disease, hydrocephalus etc. The control subjects were 195 children without any neurological disease and symptoms. CT scan were taken with a TCT-60A whole body scanner, and 14 check points were evaluated excluding the temporal horn. 195 epileptic children (N-group) and all control children were normal at 14 check points. Next, the areas of the temporal horns and adjoining hemispheres of the epileptic children (N-group) and control children were examined with Muto-Tablet-Desitizer. The temporal horn ratio ((area of temporal horn/area of ipsilateral hemisphere) x 100) was greater in younger children of the control group, and it was higher in epileptic than in control children. Enlargement of the temporal horn was seen in 1 % of the controls and in 35 % of the 125 epileptic children with normal measurements at 14 points on CT scans (p < 0.01). The frequency of enlargement of temporal horns was not variable among different epileptic types. In the epileptic children with normal CT scans except for enlargement of temporal horns behavioral disturbances were 6 boys and 5 had enlarged temporal horns (bilateral 1 case, left side 1 case, right side 3 cases). (author)

  14. Computed Tomography of Interacerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the nematoma, associated cerebral edema, ventricular deformity and displacement, and hydrocephalus are all readily assessed. Aside from head trauma, the principal cause of intracerebral hematoma is hypertensive vascular disease. Although hematomas from various causes may present similar CT appearances frequently the correct etiology may be suggested by consideration of patient's age, clinical history, and the location of the hematoma. The analytical study was performed in 180 cases of intracerebral hemorrhages by CT from October 1981 to January 1983. The results were as follows; 1. The most prevalent age group was 6th decade (37.2%). Male was prevalent to female at the ration of 1.6 to 1. 2. The most common symptom and sign was mental disturbance (48.7%), motor weakness (23%), headache (10.6%), nausea and vomiting (9.8%). 3. The causes of hemorrhage were hypertension (53.9%), head trauma (30.6%), aneurysm (6.1%) and A-V malformation (7.2%). 4. The frequent locations of hemorrhage were basal ganglia and thalamus (40.4%), lobes (35%), ventricles (21.8%). 5. The distribution of hemorrhage was intracerebral hemorrhage (65.6%), intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (30.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (4.4%).

  15. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, D.; Dafni, E.; Levene, S.; Malamud, G.; Shapiro, O.; Shechter, G.; Zahavi, O.

    1999-01-01

    Computerized Tomography. has become, during the past few years, one of the mostly used apparatus in X-ray diagnosis. Its clinical applications has penetrated to various fields, like operational guidance, cardiac imaging, computer aided surgery etc. The first second-generation CT scanners consisted of a rotate-rotate system detectors array and an X-ray tube. These scanners were capable of acquiring individual single slices, the duration of each being several seconds. The slow scanning rate, and the then poor computers power, limited the application range of these scanners, to relatively stable organs, short body coverage at given resolutions. Further drawbacks of these machines were weak X-ray sources and low efficiency gas detectors. In the late 80's the first helical scanners were introduced by Siemens. Based on a continuous patient couch movement during gantry rotation, much faster scans could be obtained, increasing significantly the volume coverage at a given time. In 1992 the first dual-slice scanners, equipped with high efficiency solid state detectors were introduced by Elscint. The acquisition of data simultaneously from two detector arrays doubled the efficiency of the scan. Faster computers and stronger X-ray sources further improved the performance, allowing for a new range of clinical applications. Yet, the need for even faster machines and bigger volume coverage led to further R and D efforts by the leading CT manufacturers. In order to accomplish the most demanding clinical needs, innovative 2 dimensional 4-rows solid-state detector arrays were developed, together with faster rotating machines and bigger X-ray tubes, all demanding extremely accurate and robust mechanical constructions. Parallel, multi-processor custom computers were made, in order to allow the on-line reconstruction of the growing amounts of raw data. Four-slice helical scanners, rotating at 0.5 sec per cycle are being tested nowadays in several clinics all over the world. This talk

  16. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  17. Computed tomography of the facial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

  18. Computed tomography of head: impact of the use of automatic exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Giordana Salvi de Souza; Froner, Ana Paula Pastre; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2017-01-01

    The use of dose reduction systems in computed tomography is particularly important for pediatric patients, who have a high radiosensitivity, since they are in the growing phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Siemens AEC Care Dose system use on dose estimation in head computed tomography scans in pediatric patients. A retrospective study was conducted with 199 computed tomography head scans of pediatric patients, divided in different age groups, on a 16-channel Siemens Emotion scanner. It was possible to observe, for all age groups, that the use of AEC Care Dose system, not only reduced CTDI vol , but also the interquartile range, reducing the total dose in the investigated population. Concluding, AEC Care Dose system models the tube current according to the patient's dimensions, reducing individual and collective dose without affecting the diagnostic quality . (author)

  19. Aerosolized intranasal midazolam for safe and effective sedation for quality computed tomography imaging in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Robinson, Fay; Mason, Keira P

    2013-10-01

    This pilot study introduces the aerosolized route for midazolam as an option for infant and pediatric sedation for computed tomography imaging. This technique produced predictable and effective sedation for quality computed tomography imaging studies with minimal artifact and no significant adverse events. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Januzis, Natalie; Nguyen, Giao; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Frush, Donald P; Hoang, Jenny K; Lowry, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to measure the dose to the brain using clinical protocols at our institution, and (b) to develop a scanner-independent dosimetry method to estimate brain dose. Radiation dose was measured with a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and MOSFET detectors. Six current neuroradiology protocols were used: brain, sinuses, facial bones, orbits, temporal bones, and craniofacial areas. Two different CT vendor scanners (scanner A and B) were used. Partial volume correction factors (PVCFs) were determined for the brain to account for differences between point doses measured by the MOSFETs and average organ dose. The CTDI vol and DLP for each protocol were recorded. The dose to the brain (mGy) for scanners A and B was 10.7 and 10.0 for the brain protocol, 7.8 and 3.2 for the sinus, 10.2 and 8.6 for the facial bones, 7.4 and 4.7 for the orbits and 1.6 and 1.9 for the temporal bones, respectively. On scanner A, the craniofacial protocol included a standard and high dose option; the dose measured for these exams was 3.9 and 16.9 mGy, respectively. There was only one craniofacial protocol on scanner B; the brain dose measured on this exam was 4.8 mGy. A linear correlation was found between DLP and brain dose with the conversion factors: 0.049 (R 2 = 0.87), 0.046 (R 2 = 0.89) for scanner A and B, and 0.048 (R 2 = 0.89) for both scanners. The range of dose observed was between 1.8 and 16.9 mGy per scan. This suggests that brain dose estimates may be made from DLP. (paper)

  1. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  2. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1987-01-01

    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos

  3. Computed tomography of cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Deuk; Moon, Yang In; Lim, Se Hwan; Lee, Cheorl Woo; Kim, Byung Chan; Won, Jong Jin

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an accurate and noninvasive method in the evaluation of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) for detection of nature, location, extension and associated changes. Retrospective analysis was done in 402 patients of clinically suspected CVA who were performed CT in our hospital from December 1985 to December 1987. The results were as follows; 1. The analysis of CT findings in 402 patients showed 321 cases of CVA, 79 cases of normal findings, and 2 cases of brain tumors. 2. Among 321 cases of CVA, intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in 158 cases, cerebral infarction in 126 cases, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 37 cases. 3. The common sites of cerebral hemorrhage were basal ganglia in 99 cases, especially putamen, thalamus in 32 cases, and cerebrum, cerebellum in 11 cases respectively. Cerebral infarction was found chiefly at the areas distributed by the middle cerebral artery: cerebral lobe 55 cases and basal ganglia 51 cases. The aneurysm was the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and its common site was posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery areas. 4. The common shape of cerebral infarction was oval in basal ganglia and wedged in the cerebral lobes. The contrast enhancement of the cerebral infarction was observed in 10% of cases between the 3rd days and 2nd weeks after onset, and was usually gyral patients (77.7%). 5. The aneurysm was noted as enhancing nodule on contrast CT in all 14 cases. In conclusion, the most common cause of CVA is intracerebral hemorrhage in Iri, Korea. High resolution contrast enhanced CT can be used in the diagnosis of the ruptured cerebral aneurysm without the aid of cerebral angiography

  4. Computed tomography of cerebrovascular accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Deuk; Moon, Yang In; Lim, Se Hwan; Lee, Cheorl Woo; Kim, Byung Chan; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iri (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is an accurate and noninvasive method in the evaluation of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) for detection of nature, location, extension and associated changes. Retrospective analysis was done in 402 patients of clinically suspected CVA who were performed CT in our hospital from December 1985 to December 1987. The results were as follows; 1. The analysis of CT findings in 402 patients showed 321 cases of CVA, 79 cases of normal findings, and 2 cases of brain tumors. 2. Among 321 cases of CVA, intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in 158 cases, cerebral infarction in 126 cases, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 37 cases. 3. The common sites of cerebral hemorrhage were basal ganglia in 99 cases, especially putamen, thalamus in 32 cases, and cerebrum, cerebellum in 11 cases respectively. Cerebral infarction was found chiefly at the areas distributed by the middle cerebral artery: cerebral lobe 55 cases and basal ganglia 51 cases. The aneurysm was the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and its common site was posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery areas. 4. The common shape of cerebral infarction was oval in basal ganglia and wedged in the cerebral lobes. The contrast enhancement of the cerebral infarction was observed in 10% of cases between the 3rd days and 2nd weeks after onset, and was usually gyral patients (77.7%). 5. The aneurysm was noted as enhancing nodule on contrast CT in all 14 cases. In conclusion, the most common cause of CVA is intracerebral hemorrhage in Iri, Korea. High resolution contrast enhanced CT can be used in the diagnosis of the ruptured cerebral aneurysm without the aid of cerebral angiography.

  5. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos.

  6. Survey of computed tomography doses in head and chest protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Giordana Salvi de; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography is a clinical tool for the diagnosis of patients. However, the patient is subjected to a complex dose distribution. The aim of this study was to survey dose indicators in head and chest protocols CT scans, in terms of Dose-Length Product(DLP) and effective dose for adult and pediatric patients, comparing them with diagnostic reference levels in the literature. Patients were divided into age groups and the following image acquisition parameters were collected: age, kV, mAs, Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and DLP. The effective dose was found multiplying DLP by correction factors. The results were obtained from the third quartile and showed the importance of determining kV and mAs values for each patient depending on the studied region, age and thickness. (author)

  7. Image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Gerke, Oke; Thygesen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) technology is rapidly evolving and software solution developed to optimize image quality and/or lower radiation dose. Purpose To investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at different radiation doses in coronary CT...

  8. Evaluation of computed tomography for obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shoji; Toda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    Findings of computed tomography were reviewed in 54 cases where obstructive jaundice was suggested by liver function studies and computed tomography was done with the diagnosis subsequently confirmed by surgery. Dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct was found in 49 (91%) of the cases and the site of obstruction was determined in 44 cases (82%). The cause was shown in 28 cases (52%). By disease, the cause was correctly diagnosed with gallbladder in 40%, bile duct cancer in 46%, pancreas cancer in 71%, and choledocal cyst in 100%, but cholelithiasis was diagnosed correctly in only 17%. Further, non-calcium cholelithiasis is very difficult to diagnose by computed tomography. Computed tomography is a useful tool for diagnosis of obstructive jaundice as a noninvasive means of evaluating the patient; however, concomitand use of other diagnostic studies is essential for greater accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  9. Computed tomography and/or ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, S.; Kishikawa, T.; Huewel, N.; Kazner, E.; Grumme, T.; Lanksch, W.

    1982-01-01

    It is discussed if in intracranial tumors, especially in tumors of the posterior cranial fossa, a CT and/or a ventriculography should be practiced. We have made investigations of 134 patients, 93 of whom were children up to 14 years of age. Each case was undertaken computed tomography as well as ventriculography. The results are clearly demonstrating the superiority of computed tomography compared with ventriculography. Ventriculography is a surgical intervention stressing the patients, side-effects may occur, and sometimes serious complications are caused. Modern computed tomography is producing pictures of high quality, which are highly sufficient for neurosurgical intervention. Very rarely additional angiography has to be performed. The diagnosis of intracranial tumors can fully be established by computed tomography, whereas ventriculography is no longer necessary. (orig.) [de

  10. Ultra-high pitch chest computed tomography at 70 kVp tube voltage in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom and non-sedated pediatric patients: Initial experience with 3rd generation dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Claudia; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Neff, K Wolfgang; Weis, Meike

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing radiation dose while at the same time preserving image quality is of particular importance in pediatric chest CT. Very recently, CT imaging with a tube voltage of 70 kVp has become clinically available. However, image noise is inversely proportional to the tube voltage. We aimed to investigate radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT performed at 70 kVp in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom as well as in clinical patients. An anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, which resembles a one-year-old child in physiognomy, was scanned on the 3 rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT) system at 70 kVp and 80 kVp and a fixed ultra low tube-current of 8 mAs to solely evaluate the impact of lowering tube voltage. After the phantom measurements, 18 pediatric patients (mean 29.5 months; range 1-91 months; 21 examinations) underwent 3.2 high-pitch chest CT on the same DSCT system at 70 kVp tube voltage without any sedation. Radiation dose and presence of motion artifacts was compared to a retrospectively identified patient cohort examined at 80 kVp on a 16-slice single-source-CT (SSCT; n=15; 14/15 with sedation; mean 30.7 months; range 0-96 months; pitch=1.5) or on a 2 nd generation DSCT without any sedation (n=6; mean 32.8 months; range 4-61 months; pitch=3.2). Radiation dose in the phantom scans was reduced by approximately 40% when using a tube voltage of 70 kVp instead of 80 kVp. In the pediatric patient group examined at 70 kVp age-specific effective dose (ED; mean 0.5±0.2 mSv) was significantly lower when compared to the retrospective cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 16-slice-SSCT (mean ED: 1.0±0.3 mSv; pCT examinations showed any motion artifacts whereas 13/15 examinations of the retrospective patient cohort scanned at 80 kVp with a pitch of 1.5 showed motion artifacts. 3.2 high-pitch chest CT performed with 70 kVp significantly reduces radiation dose when compared to 80 kVp while at the same time provides good image quality without any motion artifacts

  11. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  12. Dose optimization in computed tomography: ICRP 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The doses given in the use of computed tomography scans are studied, aiming to calibrate the limits of irradiation in patients who need these tests. Furthermore, a good value of computed tomography should be guaranteed by physicians and radiologists for people not being irradiated unfairly, reducing doses and unnecessary tests. A critical evaluation by an ethics committee is suggested for cases where the test is performed for medical research without a cause [es

  13. Quantitative computed tomography evaluation of pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Buelund, Lene Elisabeth; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2009-01-01

    Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present.......Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present....

  14. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  15. Development of emission computed tomography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, E.

    1984-01-01

    Two positron emission computed tomography (PCT) devices developed in Japan are described. One is for head and the other for wholebody. The devices show fairly quantitative images with slight modifications of the existing algorithms because they were developed based on filtered back-projection. The PCT device seems to be better than the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) since it provides adequade compensation for photon attenuation in patients. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients: is computerized tomography a must?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Abdullah; Tutus, Ali; Kayan, Devrim; Yılmaz, Yakup; Bircan, Kamuran

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) cases, and discuss the results and necessity of non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) in these cases. In all, 48 pediatric patients who underwent PNL were retrospectively evaluated. Before PNL, either intravenous urography or CT was performed. In all patients, we evaluated the PNL time, scopy time with stone burden, and complications. During the PNL procedure, we switched to open surgery in two cases: in one because of renal pelvis perforation and in the other because of transcolonic access. In one patient who was scheduled to undergo PNL, we performed open surgery, primarily because we detected a retrorenal colon with CT. The stone burden in 45 patients who underwent PNL was 445 ± 225 mm(2), the PNL time was 51 ± 23 min, and the scopy time was 6.1 ± 2.7 min. We removed nephrostomy tubes 1-4 days after the procedure. In two patients, 24 h after removal of nephrostomy tubes, we inserted double J stents because of prolonged urine extravasation from the tract. In all, 34 of the 45 patients were stone-free, 5 patients had clinically insignificant stone fragments, and 6 patients had residual stones. PNL is a safe and effective method in the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney stones. Clinical experience is the most important factor in obtaining stone-free results. CT should be performed in all pediatric patients in order to prevent colon perforation.

  17. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bum Shin; Shin, Kyoung Hee; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  18. Computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ro; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Sim, Bo Sung

    1981-01-01

    Computed Tomography has become increasingly important diagnostic method as the initial examination in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage with direct detection of extravasated blood in basal cistern and cortical sulci. Furthermore, CT provides better and exact visualization of the presence, localization, extent and degree of intracerebral, intraventricular and subdural hemorrhage, infarction, hydrocephalus and rebleeding which may be associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and also could detect the causative lesions with contrast enhancement in many cases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to various causes and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Authors analysed a total of 153 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage confirmed by lumbar puncture at Seoul National University Hospital from March 1979 to April 1981, with special emphasis on CT findings. All of the cases took CT scan and 125 cases of them angiography. The results are as follows: 1. Most prevalent age group was 4th to 6th decades (78%). The ratio of male to female was 1.1: 1. 2. Of 125 cases with angiography, aneurysm was a major cause (68%). Others were arterio-venous malformation (9.6%), Moya-moya disease (4%) and unknown (18.4%). 3. Of all 153 cases with CT scan, hemorrhage was demonstrated in 98 cases (64.1%); SAH in 72 cases (47.1%), ICH in 65 cases (42.5%), IVH in 34 cases (22.2%) and SDH in 1 case (0.7%). SAH combined with ICH was a major group (34.7%) in SAH. Detection rate of SAH was 68.3% within the first 7 days and 5.8% after 7 dyas. 4. In aneurysms, SAH was detected in 60 of 85 cases (70.6%); 88.1% within the first 7 dyas and 5.6% after 7 dyas. Anterior communicating artery was the most common site of the aneurysms (40%), in which detection rate of SAH was 100% within the first 7 days. SAH was combined with ICH in 38.3%. 5. On CT, SAH of unilateral Sylvian fissure was pathognomonic for ruptured MCA

  19. Computed Tomography evaluation of maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Natraj Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The maxillofacial region, a complex anatomical structure, can be evaluated by conventional (plain films, Tomography, Multidetector Computed Tomography, Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography, Orthopantomogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The study was conducted with objective of describing various forms of maxillofacial injuries, imaging features of different types of maxillofacial fractures and the advantage of using Three- Dimensional Computed Tomography reconstructed image. Materials & Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients during April 2014 to September 2016 using Toshiba Aquilion Prime 160 slice Multi Detector Computed Tomography scanner.Results: The maxillofacial fractures were significantly higher in male population (88% than female population (12 %. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury others being physical assault and fall from height. It was most common in 31-40 years (26% and 21-30 (24% years age group. Maxillary sinus was the commonest fracture (36% followed by nasal bone and zygomatic bone (30%, mandible and orbital bones (28%. Soft tissue swelling was the commonest associated finding. Three dimensional images (3 D compared to the axial scans missed some fractures. However, the extension of the complex fracture lines and degree of displacement were more accurately assessed. Complex fractures found were Le fort (6% and naso-orbito-ethmoid (4% fractures.Conclusion: The proper evaluation of complex anatomy of the facial bones requires Multidetector Computed Tomography which offers excellent spatial resolution enabling multiplanar reformations and three dimensional reconstructions for enhanced diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning.

  20. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although the site of nosocomial sepsis in the critically ill ventilated patient is usually identifiable, it may remain occult, despite numerous investigations. The rapid results and precise anatomical location of the septic source using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in combination with computed ...

  1. Ultra-high pitch chest computed tomography at 70 kVp tube voltage in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom and non-sedated pediatric patients. Initial experience with 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, Claudia; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Neff, K. Wolfgang; Weis, Meike [Univ. Medical Center Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2016-07-01

    Minimizing radiation dose while at the same time preserving image quality is of particular importance in pediatric chest CT. Very recently, CT imaging with a tube voltage of 70 kVp has become clinically available. However, image noise is inversely proportional to the tube voltage. We aimed to investigate radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT performed at 70 kVp in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom as well as in clinical patients. An anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, which resembles a one-year-old child in physiognomy, was scanned on the 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT (DSCT) system at 70 kVp and 80 kVp and a fixed ultra low tube-current of 8 mAs to solely evaluate the impact of lowering tube voltage. After the phantom measurements, 18 pediatric patients (mean 29.5 months; range 1-91 months; 21 examinations) underwent 3.2 high-pitch chest CT on the same DSCT system at 70 kVp tube voltage without any sedation. Radiation dose and presence of motion artifacts was compared to a retrospectively identified patient cohort examined at 80 kVp on a 16-slice single-source-CT (SSCT; n = 15; 14/15 with sedation; mean 30.7 months; range 0-96 months; pitch = 1.5) or on a 2{sup nd} generation DSCT without any sedation (n = 6; mean 32.8 months; range 4-61 months; pitch = 3.2). Radiation dose in the phantom scans was reduced by approximately 40% when using a tube voltage of 70 kVp instead of 80 kVp. In the pediatric patient group examined at 70 kVp age-specific effective dose (ED; mean 0.5 ± 0.2 mSv) was significantly lower when compared to the retrospective cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 16-slice-SSCT (mean ED: 1.0 ± 0.3 mSv; p < 0.0001) and also considerably lower when compared to the cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 2{sup nd} generation DSCT (mean ED: 0.9 ± 0.5 mSv). None of the prospective, sedation-free CT examinations showed any motion artifacts whereas 13/15 examinations of the retrospective patient cohort scanned at 80 kVp with a pitch of 1

  2. Computed tomography of cartilaginous tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.; Triller, J.; Robotti, G.; Gumppenberg, S. von

    1984-01-01

    The compound tomography (CT) morphology of cartilaginous tumors and the utility of CT in their diagnostic work-up is presented on the basis of 19 cases. CT provided unique informations regarding definition of tumor extent and tumor relationship to adjacent structures particularly in the axial skeleton. CT has diminished the indications for angiography in cartilaginous tumors. (orig.) [de

  3. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  4. Cranial computed tomography in pediatric migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Cermeno, J.C.; Gobernado, J.M.; Freije, R.; Zaragoza, E.; Gimeno, A.

    1984-04-01

    Two migraine children showed low-density areas with irregular enhancement patterns on CT scans of the head after contrast infusion. Angiography was normal in both patients. These abnormalities probably were due to transient blood-brain barrier damage. This knowledge is important when excluding other disorders like vascular malformations.

  5. Indication for dental computed tomography. Case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schom, C.; Engelke, W.; Kopka, L.; Fischer, U.; Grabbe, E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on case reports, common indications for dental computed tomography are demonstrated and typical findings are analysed. From a group of 110 patients who had a reformatted computed tomography of the maxilla and mandibula, 10 typical cases were chosen as examples and are presented with a detailed description of the findings. The most important indication was the analysis of the morphology of the alveolar ridge needed in presurgical planning for osseointegrated implants as well as in special cases of postsurgical control. Apart from implantology, the method could be used in cases of mandibular cysts and bony destructions. In conclusion, dental computed tomography has become established mainly in implantology. It can provide valuable results in cases where a demonstration of the bone in all dimensions and free of overlappings and distortions is needed. (orig.) [de

  6. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  7. Computed tomography of sacro-iliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquel, A.; Laredo, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Actual technologies to explore sacro-iliac joints are conventional radiography, computed tomography , scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Standards films are sufficient, except in beginning sacro-iliac septic inflammations where the computed tomography is superior. Two problems are generally posed for the radiologist, to differentiate a septic arthritis from a rheumatic pathology An other problem in diagnosis is to make the difference between a degenerative arthropathy (which does not need a further investigation) and an infectious rheumatic pathology where more exploration is necessary. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs

  8. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... examined the content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR-CCTR. METHODS: We retrieved 2008-2012 data to examine the 1) content; 2) completeness of procedure registration using the Danish National Patient Registry as reference; 3) completeness of variable registration comparing observed vs...

  9. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E.; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD.• Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity.• CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe.• DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low-to-intermediate pretest...

  10. Physics of x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutagawa, W.M.; Huth, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Sections are included on theoretical limits of x-ray computed tomography and the relationship of these limits to human organ imaging and specific disease diagnosis; potential of x-ray computed tomography in detection of small calcified particles in early breast cancer detection; early lung cancer measurement and detection; advanced materials for ionizing radiation detection; positron system with circular ring transaxial tomographic camera; contrast mechanism of transmission scanner and algorithms; and status of design on a 200 keV scanning proton microprobe

  11. Computed tomography in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations of 7 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type were reviewed and correlated with clinical stages. The findings of CT were also compared with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There was no positive correlation between the degree of cerebral atrophy on CT and clinical stage. Cerebral atrophy seemed to be influenced by aging, ill duration, and the degree of dementia. The cerebral/cerebellar uptake ratio of RI on SPECT was significantly decreased with the progression of clinical stage. SPECT seemed to reflect the degree of dementia, irrespective of ages and ill duration. (N.K.)

  12. Nonoperative treatment of splenic trauma: usefulness of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, Vivian; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes; Drumond, Domingos Andre Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Objective: to report the results of use of conservative treatment in patients with splenic trauma and to emphasize the usefulness of computed tomography in these cases. Material and method: sixty-nine cases of pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma seen from from January 2001 to June 2004 at the level I trauma center were retrospectively studied. Forty-four of these patients were submitted to nonoperative treatment and the clinical follow-up was performed by computerized tomography. All patients had been diagnosed with splenic injury by computerized tomography.Results: the causes of the injuries were motor vehicle accident in 12 (27.2%) patients, bicycle accident in nine (20.4%) patients, and falls in 23 (52.2%) patients. Two (3.7%) patients died from associated injuries. The mean duration of hospital stay was six days. The mean age of the patients was nine years. Conclusion: conservative treatment for blunt splenic trauma is performed with the aim of reducing costs and risks for the patients, and computerized tomography should be routinely used. No posterior complications were observed in this approach. (author)

  13. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  14. Computed Tomography Study Of Complicated Bacterial Meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To monitor the structural intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis using computed tomography (CT) scan. Retrospective study of medical and radiological records of patients who underwent CT scan over a 4 year period. AUniversityTeachingHospital in a developing country. Thirty three patients with clinically and ...

  15. Computed tomography - old ideas and new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Dominik; Boas, F.E. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Several recently introduced 'new' techniques in computed tomography - iterative reconstruction, gated cardiac CT, multiple-source, and dual-energy CT - actually date back to the early days of CT. We review the historic origins and evolution of these techniques, which may provide some insight into the latest innovations in commercial CT systems. (orig.)

  16. Computed tomography in the evaluation of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, M.P.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1982-01-01

    This book is intended to be the current standard for computed tomography in the evaluation of trauma. It summarizes two years of experience at San Francisco General Hospital. The book is organized into seven chapters, covering head, maxillofacial, laryngeal, spinal, chest, abdominal, acetabular, and pelvic trauma. Extremity trauma is not discussed

  17. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  18. Computed tomography evaluation of petrous bone fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrous bone trauma is the sequel of blunt head injury and can have life threatening complications resulting in immediate mortality. Early detection and good knowledge of the Computed Tomography (CT) findings ensure prompt treatment of both fractures and complications. Objective: To document the ...

  19. Appropriateness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are an essential part of modern healthcare. Marked increases in clinical demand for these imaging modalities are straining healthcare expenditure and threatening health system sustainability. The number of CT and MRI scans requested in ...

  20. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  2. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Cha, Soon Joo; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1984-01-01

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  3. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  4. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    of technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir...

  5. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  6. Investigation of measuring strategies in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has entered the industrial world in 1980’s as a technique for non-destructive testing and has nowadays become a revolutionary tool for dimensional metrology, suitable for actual/nominal comparison and verification of geometrical and dimensional tolerances. This paper evaluates...

  7. Computed tomography in severe protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C; de Villiers, J F

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed on eight children aged 1 to 4 years with severe protein energy malnutrition. Clinical features typical of kwashiorkor were present in all the children studied. Severe cerebral atrophy or brain shrinkage according to standard radiological criteria was present in every case. The findings of this study suggest considerable cerebral insult associated with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  8. Computed tomography of the iliopsoas muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino-Murcia, M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal method for the imaging of the psoas muscle. The authors present 13 cases of patients with psoas abnormalities diagnosed by CT. The CT features of the different pathologic entities and comparison of CT with other imaging modalities are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal

  10. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto

    1982-01-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  11. Misty mesentery: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahualli, Jorge; Mendez Uriburu, Luis; Ravera, Maria L.; Cikman, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    An alteration in the density of the mesenteric adipose tissue is often the principal clue of underlying mesenteric and bowel disease. The term 'Misty Mesentery' describes the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric fat infiltrated by inflammatory cells, fluid (edema, lymph, and/or blood), tumor, and fibrosis. (author) [es

  12. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    was not used. Autopsies were performed according to the Danish government's official guidelines. PMCT and autopsy findings were interpreted independent of each other. Diagnoses, including the cause of death and histology findings, were registered in a computer database (SPSS) together with information about...

  13. Computed tomography in Alexander's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, I M; Kendall, B E

    1980-10-01

    Two cases of biopsy-proven Alexander's disease are described with computed tomographic changes which, in our experience and on survey of the literature, have not occurred in any other condition. Such changes in a child with a progressive condition consistent with Alexander's disease, strongly support the diagnosis.

  14. Computed tomography of limy bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kimoto, Masatoshi; Gunge, Nobuharu; Sano, Kaizo; Yamashita, Sachiko; Hirano, Yutaka

    1983-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of three cases of limy bile was reported. The CT findings consist of uniform high density within gallbladder, niveau formation between limy bile and noncalcified bile. Sagittal reconstruction of CT images was especially useful in the differentiation of limy bile and gallstones. (author)

  15. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T.; Osorio V, M.; Hernandez O, O.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  17. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  19. Microfocus computed tomography in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodovskiy, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in the field of high-frequency power schemes for X-ray devices allow the creation of high-resolution instruments. At the department of electronic devices and Equipment of the St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, a model of a microfocus computer tomograph was developed. Used equipment allows to receive projection data with an increase up to 100 times. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of implementing various schemes for obtaining projection data.

  20. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.