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Sample records for pcv2 strains isolated

  1. Detection of PCV2e strains in Southeast China

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    Jiankui Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 has been prevalent in swine herds in China since 2002, causing severe economic loss to the pig industry. The number of live pigs in southeast China is > 20 million. Since information on the genetic variation of PCV2 in the Fujian province is limited, the objective of the present work was to investigate the epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of PCV2 in southeast China from 2013 to 2017. Of the 685 samples collected from 90 different swine herds from 2013 to 2017, 356 samples from 84 different swine herds were positive for PCV2. PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2d, and PCV2e co-existed in the Fujian province, with PCV2d being the predominant circulating strain in swineherds and PCV2e being reported for the first time in China. Strikingly, PCV2-FJ-water DNA comes from contaminated river water and not infected animals. Sequence comparison among all isolates indicated that 95 isolates shared approximately 78.7%–100% nucleotide identity and 74.5%–100% amino acid identity for open reading frame 2 (ORF2. Amino acid alignment showed that the Cap protein of PCV2e differed markedly from those of PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, and PCV2d. These results indicated that various PCV2 genotypes exist in China, and that PCV2 is continuously evolving, leading to rapid emergence of new variant stains.

  2. First construction of infectious clone for newly emerging mutation porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) followed by comparison with PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes in biological characteristics in vitro.

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    Guo, Long J; Lu, Yue H; Huang, Li P; Wei, Yan W; Wu, Hong L; Liu, Chang M

    2011-06-10

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a serious economic problem in the swine industry. Different genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) of the virus are present in the clinical cases in China, and it is necessary to elucidate the pathogenic difference among different genotypes of PCV2. In this study, four strains of different genotypes were isolated, two were ordinary strains and another two were mutation strains, which there are one and two amino acids elongation in the capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2, respectively. Representative strains of different genotypes of the virus were constructed by infectious molecular clone and biological characterization of the rescued viruses were identified in vitro. Four PCV2 isolates (PCV2a/CL, PCV2b/YJ, PCV2b/JF and PCV2d/BDH) of different genotypes were isolated from the clinical cases of PMWS in China. Four infectious clones of PCV2 were constructed and the rescued viruses were harvested after transfection into PK15 cells. The rescued viruses were verified by nucleotide sequence analysis, morphology of the viruses and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The rescued viruses propagated stably after consecutive incubation for more than ten passages, and virus propagation reached its peak 72h post infection (PI), and the virus titers were up to 10⁵·⁷ TCID₅₀/ml. By using neutralizing 1D2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) of PCV2, the antigen capture ELISA showed that only the PCV2a/rCL and PCV2b/rJF strains has immunoreactivity with the 1D2 mAb, however, another two rescued strains (PCV2b/rYJ and PCV2d/rBDH) do not, which indicated the antigenic difference among the rescued viruses of different genotypes. In addition, here is the first report of obtaining the newly emerging PCV2 with mutation in vitro by infectious molecular clone technology. Conclusions drawn from this study show that PCV2 has prevailing differences in genomic and ORF2 gene length and antigen

  3. First construction of infectious clone for newly emerging mutation porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 followed by comparison with PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes in biological characteristics in vitro

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    Wu Hong L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, is a serious economic problem in the swine industry. Different genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d of the virus are present in the clinical cases in China, and it is necessary to elucidate the pathogenic difference among different genotypes of PCV2. In this study, four strains of different genotypes were isolated, two were ordinary strains and another two were mutation strains, which there are one and two amino acids elongation in the capsid protein (Cap of PCV2, respectively. Representative strains of different genotypes of the virus were constructed by infectious molecular clone and biological characterization of the rescued viruses were identified in vitro. Results Four PCV2 isolates (PCV2a/CL, PCV2b/YJ, PCV2b/JF and PCV2d/BDH of different genotypes were isolated from the clinical cases of PMWS in China. Four infectious clones of PCV2 were constructed and the rescued viruses were harvested after transfection into PK15 cells. The rescued viruses were verified by nucleotide sequence analysis, morphology of the viruses and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA. The rescued viruses propagated stably after consecutive incubation for more than ten passages, and virus propagation reached its peak 72h post infection (PI, and the virus titers were up to 105.7 TCID50/ml. By using neutralizing 1D2 monoclonal antibody (mAb of PCV2, the antigen capture ELISA showed that only the PCV2a/rCL and PCV2b/rJF strains has immunoreactivity with the 1D2 mAb, however, another two rescued strains (PCV2b/rYJ and PCV2d/rBDH do not, which indicated the antigenic difference among the rescued viruses of different genotypes. In addition, here is the first report of obtaining the newly emerging PCV2 with mutation in vitro by infectious molecular clone technology. Conclusions Conclusions drawn from this study show that PCV2 has prevailing differences

  4. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Serbia.

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    Savic, Bozidar; Milicevic, Vesna; Jakic-Dimic, Dobrila; Bojkovski, Jovan; Prodanovic, Radisa; Kureljusic, Branislav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Savic, Borivoje

    2012-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). To characterize and determine the genetic diversity of PCV2 in the porcine population of Serbia, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of PCV2 collected from the tissues of pigs that either had died as a result of PMWS or did not exhibit disease symptoms were analyzed. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed considerable diversity among PCV2 ORF2 sequences and the existence of two main PCV2 genotypes, PCV2b and PCV2a, with at least three clusters, 1A/B, 1C and 2D. In order to provide further proof that the 1C strain is circulating in the porcine population, the whole viral genome of one PCV2 isolate was sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis using the entire viral genome sequences confirmed that there was a PMWS-associated 1C strain emerging in Serbia. Our analysis also showed that PCV2b is dominant in the porcine population, and that it is exclusively associated with PMWS occurrences in the country. These data constitute a useful basis for further epidemiological studies regarding the heterogeneity of PCV2 strains on the European continent.

  5. A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection.

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    Opriessnig, Tanja; O'Neill, Kevin; Gerber, Priscilla F; de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Gimenéz-Lirola, Luis G; Beach, Nathan M; Zhou, Lei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G

    2013-01-07

    The predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (PCV) in the pig population today is PCV2b yet PCV2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of PCV2a- and PCV2b-based vaccines to control PCV2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the U.S. field situation. Sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. Sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV1-2a vaccine based on genotype 2a and another 16 pigs with a chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine based on genotype 2b. Challenge was done 28 days post vaccination (dpv) using PCV2b (or a combination of PCV2a and PCV2b), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) to mimic what commonly occurs in the field. The experiment was terminated 21 days post challenge (dpc) or 49dpv. Pigs vaccinated with the chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine had significantly higher levels of PCV1-2b viremia and shedding of the PCV1-2b vaccine virus in feces and nasal secretions but also a more robust humoral immune response as evidenced by significantly higher ELISA S/P ratios compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Regardless of challenge, the PCV1-2b vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence and amount of PCV2 viremia compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Interestingly, in the non-vaccinated pigs concurrent PCV2a infection resulted in clinical disease and increased macroscopic lung lesions compared to pigs challenged with PCV2b alone, further supporting the idea that concurrent PCV2a/PCV2b infection is necessary for optimal PCV2 replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen

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    Sarli Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Results Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls. Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100 at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. Conclusions PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection.

  7. Reduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 viremia by a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity after experimental PCV2 challenge

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    Seo Hwi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to elucidate the humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms by which a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine reduces the PCV2 viremia. Forty PCV2 seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (T01, vaccinated non-challenged (T02, non-vaccinated challenged (T03, and non-vaccinated non-challenged (T04 animals. The pigs in groups T01 and T02 were immunized with a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine (Fostera™ PCV; Pfizer Animal Health administered as a 2.0 ml dose at 21 days of age. At 35 days of age (0 days post-challenge, the pigs in groups T01 and T03 were inoculated intranasally with 2 ml each of PCV2b. Results A reduction of PCV2 viremia coincided with the appearance of both PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA and interferon-γ-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SCs in the vaccinated animals. However, the presence of anti-PCV2 IgG antibodies did not correlate with the reduction of PCV2 viremia. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that the numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased in vaccinated animals but the numbers of CD4+ cells decreased transiently in non-vaccinated animals. The observation of a delayed type hypersensitivity response in only the vaccinated animals also supports a CD4+ cell-associated protective cellular immune response induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine. Conclusions The induction of PCV2-specific NA and IFN-γ-SCs, and CD4+ cells by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine is the important protective immune response leading to reduction of the PCV2 viremia and control of the PCV2 infection. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of protective humoral and cellular immunity induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine and its effect on reduction of PCV2 viremia by vaccination.

  8. Påvisning af PCV2

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    Neumann, Katrine; Buse, Katja Strøm; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2018-01-01

    Mængden af PCV2-virus i poolede serumprøver kan anvendes til at finde grise med meget PCV2-virus, hvorimod mængden af PCV2-virus i spyt og fæces er velegnede til at vurdere tilstedeværelsen af eller tidspunktet for en begyndende PCV2-infektion...

  9. Påvisning af PCV2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Katrine; Buse, Katja Strøm; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Mængden af PCV2-virus i poolede serumprøver kan anvendes til at finde grise med meget PCV2-virus, hvorimod mængden af PCV2-virus i spyt og fæces er velegnede til at vurdere tilstedeværelsen af eller tidspunktet for en begyndende PCV2-infektion...

  10. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...

  11. Verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by PCV2 on commercial swine farms.

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    Pinheiro, Albanno Leonard Braz Campos; Bulos, Luiz Henrique Silva; Onofre, Thiago Souza; de Paula Gabardo, Michelle; de Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2013-06-01

    The porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Few studies have been done regarding PCV2 infection in other species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PCV2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in Brazil. Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated PCV2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. Viral DNA was detected in tissues by nested PCR assay. Partial sequences of PCV2 genomes detected in the rodents had strong identity with gene sequences of PCV2 isolates from pigs. These results show that the studied peridomestic rodent species can be naturally infected by PCV2. However, further studies are needed to confirm PCV2 transmission from rodents to pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomized controlled study on the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine against enzootic pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) and porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity in pigs.

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    Tassis, Panagiotis D; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tzika, Eleni D

    2017-04-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) has been suggested as a significant immediate defence factor for newborn piglets and may interfere with piglet's vaccination-induced immunity. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine (consisting of PCV2 subunits and inactivated M. hyo strain J), against PCV2 and M. hyo natural infection [Porcilis ® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands)], in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity (antibody titre averaged 11.08 log 2 ), under field conditions. The study was performed according to a controlled, randomized and blinded design in a Greek swine unit with Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and subclinical PCV2 infection. In total, 600 healthy three-week-old suckling piglets were allocated randomly, either to treatment (vaccinated with the test product) or control group (injected with sterile buffered saline). Vaccination significantly reduced the severity of lung lesions at slaughter (lesions of cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation) (P pigs. Furthermore, 25 g higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) was observed during the finishing phase (P < 0.001) and 18 g greater ADWG overall (P < 0.001). Results of LLS, PCV2 viremia and ADWG support the test product's efficacy in the face of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity.

  13. Oral application of freeze-dried yeast particles expressing the PCV2b Cap protein on their surface induce protection to subsequent PCV2b challenge in vivo.

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    Patterson, Robert; Eley, Thomas; Browne, Christopher; Martineau, Henny M; Werling, Dirk

    2015-11-17

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is now endemic in every major pig producing country, causing PCV-associated disease (PCVAD), linked with large scale economic losses. Current vaccination strategies are based on the capsid protein of the virus and are reasonably successful in preventing PCVAD but fail to induce sterile immunity. Additionally, vaccinating whole herds is expensive and time consuming. In the present study a "proof of concept" vaccine trial was employed to test the effectiveness of powdered freeze-dried recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast stably expressing the capsid protein of PCV2b on its surface as an orally applied vaccine. PCV2-free pigs were given 3 doses of vaccine or left un-vaccinated before challenge with a defined PCV2b strain. Rectal temperatures were measured and serum and faeces samples were collected weekly. At the end of the study, pigs were euthanized, tissue samples taken and tested for PCV2b load by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The peak of viraemia in sera and faeces of unvaccinated pigs was higher than that of vaccinated pigs. Additionally more sIgA was found in faeces of vaccinated pigs than unvaccinated. Vaccination was associated with lower serum concentrations of TNFα and IL-1β but higher concentrations of IFNα and IFNγ in comparison to the unvaccinated animals. At the end of the trial, a higher viral load was found in several lymphatic tissues and the ileum of unvaccinated pigs in comparison to vaccinated pigs. The difference between groups was especially apparent in the ileum. The results presented here demonstrate a possible use for recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing viral proteins as an oral vaccine against PCV2. A powdered freeze-dried recombinant S. cerevisiae used as an oral vaccine could be mixed with feed and may offer a cheap and less labour intensive alternative to inoculation with the additional advantage that no cooling chain would be required for vaccine transport and storage. Copyright © 2015 The

  14. Exploratory field study on the effect of Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) sow vaccination on serological, virological and reproductive parameters in a PCV2 subclinically infected sow herd.

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    Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina

    2018-04-16

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one. Blood samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 DNA load and antibodies. At farrowing, main reproductive parameters and piglet vitality index were registered. In addition, in those litters with more than three mummified or stillborn piglets, microscopic examination and PCV2 antigen detection in foetal myocardium was done. Vaccinated sows showed significantly higher antibody levels compared to the non-vaccinated counterparts. PCV2 DNA was only detected at farrowing in 2 (4.2%) non-vaccinated sows. Vaccinated sows had 1.3 more live-born piglets per litter at the second cycle than non-vaccinated counterparts. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher (+ 12.7%) vitality score than the ones born from non-vaccinated sows. No PCV2 compatible lesions neither PCV2 antigen were detected in the tested foetal hearts. The present study represents a first attempt to demonstrate that PCV2 sow vaccination may have a positive influence on prolificacy and vitality of the offspring in a subclinical infected breeding herd. However, since reproductive outcomes at farm level may be affected by a number of factors, further studies would be needed to confirm this association.

  15. Porcine circovirus 2 in the North Eastern region of India: Disease prevalence and genetic variation among the isolates from areas of intensive pig rearing.

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    Mukherjee, Priyanka; Karam, Amarjit; Barkalita, Luit; Borah, Prabodh; Chakraborty, Amit Kr; Das, Samir; Puro, Kekungo; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Ghatak, Sandeep; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Laha, Ram Gopal; Sen, Arnab; Sharma, Indu

    2018-06-01

    Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) is considered as a major threat to the piggery sector in India. To ascertain the epidemiological status and infection level of PCV2, a pilot study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of PCV2 in swine population by ELISA and PCR in the interior and border areas of Meghalaya which includes the area where accessibility and medical aid is a rare phenomenon. A total of 249 serum samples were collected from October 2014 to February 2016 from three divisions of Meghalaya: Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills Divisions. The mean positivity of PCV-2 antibodies in suspected sera was 83.93% whereas 62.25% of the suspected samples respectively were found to contain PCV2 as detected by PCR. Additional 190 tissue samples were collected during necropsy from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals following reported outbreak in this region, which indicated a mean positivity of 18.94% (36/190); out of which 13 samples were subjected to sequencing to find out the genetic diversity of PCV2 amongst the field isolates. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 isolates based on cap gene depicted genetic diversity among the strains in pig population of Meghalaya as the isolates belonged to PCV2a, PCV2b-1c and PCV2d genotypes; identification of the PCV2d genotype is probably the first report from Meghalaya. Four isolates forming an outlier group in the phylogenetic tree were arising out of natural inter-genotypic recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b. PCV2 being immunosuppressive in nature impairs the host immune response increasing the susceptibility to other co-infections leading to disease severity and high mortality in pig population. This baseline data gives a brief epidemiological status of PCV2 infection and circulating PCV2 genotype in this region which will be useful in the formulation of control and eradication programs in remotes areas of Meghalaya where accessibility is less and vaccination is a rare practice. Copyright

  16. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

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    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation, Genome Phylogenetic Analysis and In vitro Rescue of a Newly Emerging Porcine Circovirus Type 2

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    Weijuan Zhu and Xiaofeng Ren*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is the major causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Infection by PCV2 may cause heavy losses in pig industry. In this study, we report the isolation of a newly emerging PCV2 from northeastern China. The complete genome of the PCV2 isolate named PCV2-LJR contains 1766 nucleotides and was compared with reference sequences published in GenBank followed by topology analysis of the resulting phylogenetic tree. The data indicated that the prevalent PCV2 isolates in the northeastern China had close relationship, although various genotypes of PCV2 existed. In addition, by gene recombination and transfection techniques, the PCV2 infectious clone was achieved and was able to rescue virus in vitro determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The obtained biological materials may be used for biological characterization of PCV2.

  18. A live-attenuated and an inactivated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccine are both effective at inducing a humoral immune response and reducing PCV2 viremia and intrauterine infection in female swine of breeding age.

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    Hemann, Michelle; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of the unvaccinated sows were viremic. Four of the 35 dams became pregnant: a negative control, a positive control, a 2-VAC-PCV2 sow, and a 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 sow. The PCV2 DNA was detected in 100%, 67%, and 29% of the fetuses obtained from the positive control, inactivated vaccinated, or live-attenuated vaccinated dams, respectively. The PCV2 antigen in hearts was only detectable in the positive control litter (23% of the fetuses). The PCV1-2 DNA was detected in 29% of the fetuses in the litter from the 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 dam. Under the conditions of this pilot study, both vaccines protected against PCV2 viremia in breeding age animals; however, vertical transmission was not prevented.

  19. Efficacy and safety of a new intradermal PCV2 vaccine in pigs

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    M. Sno

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with Porcilis® PCV ID resulted in small transient local reactions in a high percentage of the vaccinated animals with no temperature increase. In both the onset of immunity and duration of immunity challenge studies with PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae, significant reduction of the PCV2 load in lymphoid tissue, lungs, serum and fecal swabs and M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions were observed. In two field trials on two different farms where both PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae were present, vaccination with Porcilis® PCV ID and/or Porcilis® M Hyo ID ONCE of 3 week old piglets resulted in a significant reduction of PCV2 viraemia, mortality and lung lesion scores at slaughter. In addition, a significant positive effect on average daily weight gain (between 44 and 59 g/day in the finishing phase was observed. The results support that this new intradermal vaccine is safe and efficacious against PCV2 and may be used concurrently with Porcilis® M Hyo ID ONCE.

  20. Isolation and purification of Gallid herpesvirus 2 strains currently distributed in Japan.

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    Machida, Yuka; Murata, Shiro; Matsuyama-Kato, Ayumi; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Taneno, Akira; Sakai, Eishi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-20

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek's disease, MD). Although MD is controlled through vaccination efforts, field isolates of GaHV-2 have increased in virulence worldwide and even cause MD in vaccinated chickens. GaHV-2 strains are classified into four categories (mild, virulent, very virulent and very virulent +) based on the virulence exhibited in experimental infection in unvaccinated or MD-vaccinated susceptible chickens. Although MD cases are sporadically reported in Japan, the recent field strains of GaHV-2 in Japan have not been characterized. During isolation of recent field strains by using primary chicken kidney cell cultures, a method classically used for GaHV-2 isolation, vaccine strains were simultaneously isolated. Therefore, it is necessary to separate vaccine strains to characterize the virulence and pathogenicity of the GaHV-2 strains currently distributed in Japan. In this study, we prepared cell suspensions from the spleens of MD-symptomatic chickens, inoculated day-old-chicks and isolated GaHV-2 strains by primary chicken kidney cell cultures at 2-3 weeks post inoculation. The isolated strains were passaged several times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells, and PCR analysis revealed that the isolated strains were not contaminated with vaccine strains. Moreover, the contaminant vaccine strains were completely removed by the purification of plaques observed in chicken kidney cells. These procedures are necessary to isolate GaHV-2 field strains from vaccine strains in order to carry out future studies to characterize these strains and glean insights into GaHV-2 virulence and pathogenicity.

  1. Comparison of two quantitative PCR techniques for porcine circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) nucleic acid in field samples

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    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Sibila, M.

    Porcine circovirus type 2 /PCV2) is considered the essential infectious agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a global swine disease of devastating economic and animal welfare impact. Most pigs become infected with PCV2 during their life, but only a proportion of them develop...... PMWS (1). PMWS is associated with a high PCV2 load, and a general threshold of 10 7 copies of PCV2 per ml serum has been suggested for PMWS diagnosis (2,3). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two different real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for PCV...

  2. Immunisation against PCV2 structural protein by DNA vaccination of mice

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    Kamstrup, Søren; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Frimann, Tine

    2004-01-01

    the capsid protein of PCV2 was cloned in a DNA vaccination plasmid and expression of capsid protein was demonstrated in vitro. Mice were gene gun vaccinated three timesand all mice responded serologically by raising antibodies against PCV2. The results suggest, that DNA based vaccination might offer...

  3. Molecular study of Porcine Circovirus type 2 in wild boars and domestic pigs in Uruguay from 2010 to 2014: Predominance of recombinant circulating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Porley, Dario; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Cabrera, Karina; Lozano, Alejandra; Arbiza, Juan

    2017-12-30

    Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed pathogen and one of the most economically relevant swine infections. Four genotypes have been recognized and it is well known that PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d have a global distribution. However, the information about recombinant strains circulation and their influence in driving PCV2 evolution is a poorly studied area. In Uruguay, PCV2 associated symptoms began to be frequently observed in pigs from different farms since 2010. The main purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in nationwide swine herds and free-living wild boars during the period 2010-2014, providing an extensive viral sequence dataset. Surprisingly, the findings revealed a predominance of recombinant strains circulation, evidencing for the first time in the field that PCV2 recombination can lead to the emergence of strains able to compete and potentially displace parental ones. In addition, the circulation of the genotypes PCV2d (29%), PCV2b (10.5%) and PCV2a (7.9%) were also observed. Since 2013, a high circulation of PCV2d was identified in the country and probably reflected the recent global scenario of the emergence of this genotype. In addition, fluctuations in the frequency of PCV2 infection in the period evaluated may suggest a limitation of biosecurity strategies implemented in Uruguay for the disease control, including the instability of vaccination practices. On the other hand, the sustained PCV2 infection observed in wild boar population and the similarity among circulating viral strains from these animals and domestic pigs, suggested that wild animals could serve as permanent reservoir of the disease. Altogether, this work put forward that many factors play a role in PCV2 heterogeneity including rapid viral spread and evolution, recombination, wide movement within national boundaries and multiples introduction events resulting of international trade. Continuous monitoring of viral

  4. Molekulargenetische Studie zur Verbreitung und Interaktion von PCV-2 bei Haus- und Wildschweinen

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnert, Bastian Balthasar Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Wild- und Hausschweingewebeproben aus den Jahren 2005 bis 2008 mittels nested PCR auf das Vorkommen von PCV-2 untersucht und die positiv getesteten Proben mittels Realtime PCR quantifiziert. Zusätzlich wurden die Proben im Institut für Pathologie der Justus-Liebig-Universität histologisch und immunhistologisch untersucht (Dissertation Hohloch). Ziel war es das Vorkommen von PCV-2 und die Häufigkeit von PCV-2 assoziierter Erkankungen bei Haus- und Wilds...

  5. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: ... cochlear implants. Why Are the PCV and PPSV Vaccines Recommended? Children younger than 2 years old, adults ...

  6. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J

    2011-08-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.

  7. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745

  8. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Papatsiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS. About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES.

  9. Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina

    2016-12-03

    This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping. Percentage of PCV2-DNA positive sera mainly raised by 10 weeks of age, being maximum at 14 weeks of age, and then started to decrease at 18 and 25 weeks of age. Specifically, PCV2 vaccination at 3 or 6 weeks of age yielded similar results, since they produced an earlier seroconversion and reduced, at different sampling points, the proportion of viremic animals in comparison to the unvaccinated group. In contrast, PCV2 vaccination at 10 weeks of age only achieved such reduction at 25 weeks of age; in this case, vaccination coincided with the increase of the percentage of viremic pigs in the population. Both serological techniques used in sera and OF offered similar results with a high and statistically significant correlation. In contrast, a higher percentage of PCV2 DNA positivity was detected in OF in comparison with sera. In conclusion, under the present study conditions, the optimal time for PCV2 piglet vaccination was at either 3 or 6 weeks of age.

  10. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the genomes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 circulating in the area of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, A D; Grebennikova, T V; Iuzhakov, A G; Aliper, T I; Nepoklonov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of the genomes of the virus of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (VPRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) circulating in the area of the Russian Federation was discussed. The results of this work showed the circulation of the strains of the European genotype VPRRS similar to those found in France and Denmark from 1998 to 2001. The homology of the fragment of one of the genes between the Russian isolates and the vaccine strain Porcilis PRRS (Intervet) was found. It requires further study. The strains representing the North American genotype VPRRS were not found. The PCV-2 genomes fall into three separate goups. One (genotype 2b) is formed by isolates in Malaysia, Brazil, Switzerland, China, Slovakia, UK, USA, isolated during the period from 2004 to the present time. The second group consists of sequences of the viruses isolated in 2000-2012 in Canada, the U.S., China, and South Korea (genotype 2a). The third group is formed by highly pathogenic isolates in 2013 from China (highly pathogenic genotype 2c). The circulation of all three known genotypes of PCV-2: 2a, 2b, and 2c in Russian Federation was demonstrated.

  11. Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in Brazil before and after ten-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Silvia R; Passadore, Lilian F; Takagi, Elizabeth H; Fujii, Cristiane M; Yoshioka, Cristina R M; Gilio, Alfredo E; Martinez, Marina B

    2013-12-09

    The ten-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the national immunization program for childhood vaccination schedules by the Brazilian Health Public Service in March 2010. The aim of this study was to compare Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and potential coverage before (January 2006-June 2010) and after (July 2010-September 2012) PCV10 introduction. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), patient demographics, and disease characteristics were recorded. This study was conducted at the University Hospital of Sao Paulo University in Brazil from January 2006 to September 2012. Serotyping was performed using multiplex PCR typing, and antimicrobial sensitivity by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 259 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients with IPD. The ages of the patients ranged from 3 months to 95 years old. The strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, and blood. The incidence of IPD among patients at HU-USP changed after the introduction of PCV10. The overall incidence of IPD was 3.42 cases per 1000 admissions in the vaccine pre- implementation period and of 2.99 cases per 1000 admissions in the vaccine post-implementation period. The incidence of IPD among children<2 y.o. attended at HU-USP changed significantly after the introduction of PCV10, from 20.30 to 3.97 of incidence. The incidence of PCV10- serotypes decrease from 16.47 to 0.44 in the same age, before and after PC10 implementation, respectively. Moreover, it was possible to realize the sensitivity to penicillin among isolates increased significantly in the post-vaccine period. Data from this study suggest that PCV10 contributed to decrease with PID rate among children less than 2 y.o. The resistance rate among pneumococcal isolates also could be observed since serotypes with greater resistance to beta lactam antibiotics were not easily isolated after vaccination

  12. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    previously isolated PCVs. A rapid and convenient PCR-based test was developed and used for the genotyping of these PCV isolates. These PCV isolates were found to be antigenically and genomically similar to previously reported isolates of PCV from pigs with wasting disease (PCV2), but distinct from......A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...... the isolate of PCV from continuous PK/15 cell cultures (PCV1)....

  13. The Positive Correlation of the Enhanced Immune Response to PCV2 Subunit Vaccine by Conjugation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide with the Deacetylation Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiang; Cheng, Gong; Jia, Peiyuan; Jiao, Siming; Feng, Cui; Hu, Tao; Liu, Hongtao; Du, Yuguang

    2017-07-26

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals. The results indicate that, as compared to the PCV2 group, COS-PCV2 conjugates remarkably enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 by promoting lymphocyte proliferation and initiating a mixed T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 2 (Th2) response, including raised levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Noticeably, with the increasing deacetylation degree, the stronger immune responses to PCV2 were observed in the groups with COS-PCV2 vaccination. In comparison with NACOS (chitin oligosaccharides)-PCV2 and LCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with low deacetylation degree)-PCV2, HCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with high deacetylation degree)-PCV2 showed the highest adjuvant effect, even comparable to that of PCV2/ISA206 (a commercialized adjuvant) group. In summary, COS conjugation might be a viable strategy to enhance the immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine, and the adjuvant effect was positively correlated with the deacetylation degree of COS.

  14. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Sharma*,; Jyotsana Pandit; Ruchika Sharma and; Poonam Shirkot

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organopho...

  15. Dynamics of Severe and Non-Severe Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Young Children in Israel Following PCV7/PCV13 Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Daniel; Dagan, Ron; Barkai, Galia; Averbuch, Diana; Guri, Alex; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Ben-Shimol, Shalom

    2018-05-10

    The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) resulted in a substantial reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. However, impact on non-severe IPD (mostly occult bacteremia) has not yet been fully elucidated.We assessed severe and non-severe IPD (SIPD and NSIPD, respectively) rate dynamics in children <5 years in Israel before and after PCV7/PCV13 implementation. A prospective, population-based, nationwide surveillance. All IPD episodes recorded from 1999 through 2015, were included. NSIPD was defined as IPD episodes without meningitis, pneumonia or mastoiditis in a child with a favorable outcome (not-hospitalized or hospitalized in a non-intensive care unit <5 days, without mortality). Three sub-periods were defined: pre-PCV (1999-2008), PCV7 (2010-2011) and PCV13 (2013-2015). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Overall, 4,457 IPD episodes were identified; 3,398 (76.2%) SIPD, 1,022 (22.9%) NSIPD and 37 (0.8%) unknown. In 90% of NSIPD episodes, no focus was identified.In the PCV7 period, NSIPD rates significantly declined by 52%, while SIPD rates declined less prominently by 24%. Following PCV13 introduction, compared with the PCV7 period, NSIPD rates declined non-significantly by 17% while SIPD rates declined significantly further by an additional 53%. These trends resulted in overall reductions (comparing PCV13 and pre-PCV periods) of NSIPD and SIPD of 60% (IRR=0.4; 0.32-0.51) and 64% (IRR=0.36; 0.32-0.42), respectively. Following PCV7/PCV13 introduction, SIPD and NSIPD rates substantially declined, with differences in rate-dynamics, alluding to differences in serotype distribution between the two groups. Future surveillance is warranted when considering modification in treatment protocols for suspected occult bacteremia/NSIPD cases.

  16. Influence of the inclusion of spray-dried animal plasma in weanling pigs’ diet on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pacheco Monferdini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O plasma sanguíneo em pó (PSP, produto natural de indústria frigorífica, tem mostrado efeitos benéficos sobre o crescimento e desempenho de leitões desmamados precocemente. Atualmente, embora o circovírus suíno 2 (PCV2 tenha grande importância para a suinocultura, não há informações sobre o impacto do uso de PSP e a resposta imune ao PCV2 em infecções naturais. Este trabalho avaliou diferentes níveis de inclusão de PSP em dietas de leitões e as cargas virais de PCV2 correspondentes. Quatro níveis de inclusão de PSP foram testados em dois períodos consecutivos: 0, 2, 4 ou 6% durante o período 1 (14 aos 28 dias de idade e 1, 2 ou 3% de PSP durante o período 2 (29 a 42 dias de idade. No período 3 (42 aos 56 dias de idade, todos os leitões foram alimentados com dieta isenta de PSP. Amostras de soro foram coletadas semanalmente e testadas para anticorpos anti-PCV2 e carga de DNA de PCV2. As concentrações de 6% e 3% de PSP fornecidas nas rações durante o período 1 e 2, respectivamente, influenciaram na carga viral de PCV2 de suínos naturalmente infectados.

  17. Betydningen af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus for daglig tilvækst hos slagtesvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Mai Britt Friis; Dahl, Jan

    Resultaterne af denne undersøgelse viser at: - Grise med store mængder Lawsonia i gødningen (≥106/gram gødning) har større risiko (OR=5,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med synlige tarmforandringer har større risiko (OR=13,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med...... diarré har større risiko (OR=10,1) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. Derimod kunne der ikke påvises nogen sammenhæng mellem mængden af PCV2 virus, antistoffer mod PCV2 virus eller påvisning af PCV2 virus ved immunhistokemi i tarmlymfeknude og tilvæksten hos grise. Undersøgelsen er gennemført i 5...... virus og Lawsonia på DTU-Veterinærinstitutet. For hver gris blev den maksimalt målte værdi af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus mængde i gødning og antistoffer mod de to sygdomme brugt som forklarende variabel. Sammenhængen til hurtigt/langsomt voksende grise for de maksimalt målte værdier blev undersøgt ved...

  18. Patologie da Porcine Circovirus tipo 2 (PCV2) nel suino

    OpenAIRE

    Fusaro, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The main work involved the PMWS (Post-weaning multisystemic Wasting Syndrome), caused by PCV-2 (Porcine Circovirus type 2) that involved post-weaned pigs. Merial Italy has funded a study activity in which groups of 3-5 animals were sampled for lungs, tracheo-bronchial and superficial inguinal lymph nodes, ileum and tonsils. The protocol applied can be identified as a more diagnostic potential on the individual than on the group. PNP. Another investigation has been conducted to study prolif...

  19. Expresión génica de la interleucinas 4, 5 y 13 en el cerdo tras la vacunación frente a circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV2).

    OpenAIRE

    Quereda Torres, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    El circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV2) genera en el ganado porcino diversas enfermedades que se conocen con el nombre de enfermedades asociadas a PCV2 (EACP). Dentro de estas EACP encontramos la infección sistémica (donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados en el pasado como PMWS), neumonías asociadas a PCV2, enteritis asociadas a PCV2, PDNS asociado a PCV2 y fallo reproductivo asociado a PCV2. La infección sistémica provoca graves consecuencias sanitarias que llevan a pérdidas económicas impor...

  20. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine p...

  1. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2 vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 mol·L−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mL·min−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants.

  2. Characterisation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Cambodian Children between 2007 - 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Giess, Adam; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Kumar, Varun; Nhoung, Pheakdey; Bousfield, Rachel; Turner, Paul; Stoesser, Nicole; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in Cambodia in January 2015. There are limited data concerning the common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Knowledge of the circulating pneumococcal serotypes is important to monitor epidemiological changes before and after vaccine implementation. All episodes of IPD defined by the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other sterile site in Cambodian children admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Northwestern Cambodia, between 1st January 2007 and 1st July 2012 were retrospectively studied. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that could be retrieved underwent phenotypic typing and whole genome sequencing. There were 90 Cambodian children hospitalized with IPD with a median (IQR) age of 2.3 years (0.9-6.2). The case fatality was 15.6% (95% CI 8-23). Of 50 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates available for further testing, 46% were penicillin non-susceptible and 8% were ceftriaxone non-susceptible, 78% were cotrimoxazole resistant, 30% were erythromycin resistant and 30% chloramphenicol resistant. There were no significant changes in resistance levels over the five-year period. The most common serotypes were 1 (11/50; 22%), 23F (8/50; 16%), 14 (6/50; 12%), 5 (5/50; 10%) and 19A (3/50; 6%). Coverage by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 was 44%, 76% and 92% respectively. We identified novel multilocus sequence types and resistotypes using whole genome sequencing. This study suggests IPD is an important disease in Cambodian children and can have a significant mortality. PCV13 coverage of the serotypes determined in studied strains was high and consistent with another recent study. The phenotypic resistance patterns observed were similar to other regional studies. The use of whole genome sequencing in the present study provides additional typing and resistance information together with the description of novel sequence types and resistotypes.

  3. Characterisation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Cambodian Children between 2007 - 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available The 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13 was introduced in Cambodia in January 2015. There are limited data concerning the common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. Knowledge of the circulating pneumococcal serotypes is important to monitor epidemiological changes before and after vaccine implementation.All episodes of IPD defined by the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other sterile site in Cambodian children admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Northwestern Cambodia, between 1st January 2007 and 1st July 2012 were retrospectively studied. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that could be retrieved underwent phenotypic typing and whole genome sequencing.There were 90 Cambodian children hospitalized with IPD with a median (IQR age of 2.3 years (0.9-6.2. The case fatality was 15.6% (95% CI 8-23. Of 50 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates available for further testing, 46% were penicillin non-susceptible and 8% were ceftriaxone non-susceptible, 78% were cotrimoxazole resistant, 30% were erythromycin resistant and 30% chloramphenicol resistant. There were no significant changes in resistance levels over the five-year period. The most common serotypes were 1 (11/50; 22%, 23F (8/50; 16%, 14 (6/50; 12%, 5 (5/50; 10% and 19A (3/50; 6%. Coverage by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 was 44%, 76% and 92% respectively. We identified novel multilocus sequence types and resistotypes using whole genome sequencing.This study suggests IPD is an important disease in Cambodian children and can have a significant mortality. PCV13 coverage of the serotypes determined in studied strains was high and consistent with another recent study. The phenotypic resistance patterns observed were similar to other regional studies. The use of whole genome sequencing in the present study provides additional typing and resistance information together with the description of novel sequence types and resistotypes.

  4. Emerging, Non-PCV13 Serotypes 11A and 35B of Streptococcus pneumoniae Show High Potential for Biofilm Formation In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Domenech

    Full Text Available Since the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PCV7 and PCV13 in children became widespread, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD has dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, there has been a rise in incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae non-vaccine serotypes (NVT colonising the human nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal colonisation, an essential step in the development of S. pneumoniae-induced IPD, is associated with biofilm formation. Although the capsule is the main pneumococcal virulence factor, the formation of pneumococcal biofilms might, in fact, be limited by the presence of capsular polysaccharide (CPS.We used clinical isolates of 16 emerging, non-PCV13 serotypes as well as isogenic transformants of the same serotypes. The biofilm formation capacity of isogenic transformants expressing CPSs from NVT was evaluated in vitro to ascertain whether this trait can be used to predict the emergence of NVT. Fourteen out of 16 NVT analysed were not good biofilm formers, presumably because of the presence of CPS. In contrast, serotypes 11A and 35B formed ≥45% of the biofilm produced by the non-encapsulated M11 strain.This study suggest that emerging, NVT serotypes 11A and 35B deserve a close surveillance.

  5. Sequence-based comparative study of classical swine fever virus genogroup 2.2 isolate with pestivirus reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Saxena, Arpit; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim to compare and establish the genetic relatedness between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genogroup 2.2 isolate and pestivirus reference strains. The available complete genome sequences of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 strain and other pestivirus reference strains were retrieved from GenBank. The complete genome sequence, complete open reading frame, 5' and 3' non-coding region (NCR) sequences were analyzed and compared with reference pestiviruses strains. Clustal W model in MegAlign program of Lasergene 6.0 software was used for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA 6.06 software package. The complete genome sequence alignment of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate and reference pestivirus strains showed 58.9-72% identities at the nucleotide level and 50.3-76.9% at amino acid level. Sequence homology of 5' and 3' NCRs was found to be 64.1-82.3% and 22.9-71.4%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, overall tree topology was found similar irrespective of sequences used in this study; however, whole genome phylogeny of pestivirus formed two main clusters, which further distinguished into the monophyletic clade of each pestivirus species. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate placed with the CSFV Eystrup strain in the same clade with close proximity to border disease virus and Aydin strains. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 exhibited the analogous genomic organization to those of all reference pestivirus strains. Based on sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate showed close homology to Aydin/04-TR virus and distantly related to Bungowannah virus.

  6. Efficacy of a new bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Fostera™ PCV MH) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new bivalent vaccine (Fostera™ PCV MH, Zoetis) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in growing pigs under experimental conditions. A total of 80 pigs were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 pigs per group). The pigs were administered the bivalent vaccine intramuscularly as a 2.0 mL dose at 21 days of age based on the manufacturer's instructions. Three weeks after vaccination, the pigs were inoculated with either PCV2 (intranasal route) or M. hyopneumoniae (intratracheal route) or both. Regardless of the type of inoculation, vaccinated pigs after challenge exhibited effective reduction of clinical signs, PCV2 viremia levels and mycoplasma nasal shedding, and lung and lymphoid lesion when compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccinated challenged pigs had significantly higher (Phyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. This study demonstrates that the bivalent vaccine is able to protect pigs against either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae infection or both based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel native Bacillus thuringiensis strain BRC-HZM2 capable of degrading chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songqing; Peng, Yan; Huang, Zhangmin; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Ivan, Gelbič; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan

    2015-03-01

    Studies were carried out to isolate chlorpyrifos degrading Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from chlorpyrifos-contaminated samples. Six Bt strains (isolation rate 2.7%) were isolated by modified sodium acetate antibiotic heat treatment, and one novel strain (BRC-HZM2) was selected for further analysis. Phenotype and phylogeny analysis of this strain was conducted on the basis of biochemical reactions, antibiotic sensitivity, 16s rRNA genes, plasmid profile, insecticidal crystal protein profiles, and PCR-RFLP for cry and cyt genes. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in liquid culture was estimated during 48 h of incubation for the isolate BRC-HZM2. More than 50% of the initial chlorpyrifos concentration degraded within 12 h, 88.9% after 48 h. These results highlight the potential of the Bt strain for biological control and the bioremediation of environments contaminated with chlorpyrifos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterisation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Cambodian Children between 2007 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, Adam; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Kumar, Varun; Nhoung, Pheakdey; Bousfield, Rachel; Turner, Paul; Stoesser, Nicole; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in Cambodia in January 2015. There are limited data concerning the common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Knowledge of the circulating pneumococcal serotypes is important to monitor epidemiological changes before and after vaccine implementation. Methods All episodes of IPD defined by the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other sterile site in Cambodian children admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Northwestern Cambodia, between 1st January 2007 and 1st July 2012 were retrospectively studied. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that could be retrieved underwent phenotypic typing and whole genome sequencing. Results There were 90 Cambodian children hospitalized with IPD with a median (IQR) age of 2.3 years (0.9–6.2). The case fatality was 15.6% (95% CI 8–23). Of 50 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates available for further testing, 46% were penicillin non-susceptible and 8% were ceftriaxone non-susceptible, 78% were cotrimoxazole resistant, 30% were erythromycin resistant and 30% chloramphenicol resistant. There were no significant changes in resistance levels over the five-year period. The most common serotypes were 1 (11/50; 22%), 23F (8/50; 16%), 14 (6/50; 12%), 5 (5/50; 10%) and 19A (3/50; 6%). Coverage by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 was 44%, 76% and 92% respectively. We identified novel multilocus sequence types and resistotypes using whole genome sequencing. Conclusions This study suggests IPD is an important disease in Cambodian children and can have a significant mortality. PCV13 coverage of the serotypes determined in studied strains was high and consistent with another recent study. The phenotypic resistance patterns observed were similar to other regional studies. The use of whole genome sequencing in the present study provides additional typing and resistance information together with the description of novel

  9. A live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine based on subtype 2b is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with PPV and PRRSV and is efficacious in a triple challenge co-infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new live-attenuated chimeric PCV1/2b vaccine. Forty-six, 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups (Negative controls, positive controls, Vac-0, Vac-0-PCV2, Contact-PCV2, Vac-28-PCV2). All pigs we...

  10. Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 in pigs imported from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, Gayathri; Lin, Yueh-Nuo; Soh, Moi-Lien; Lim, Elizabeth Ai-Sim; Lim, Chee-Wee; Tan, Boon-Huan

    2008-11-25

    We have detected the presence of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 in Indonesian pigs imported to Singapore for food consumption. A total of three viral isolates were identified, and to genetically characterise them further, their full genomes were sequenced. Each genome showed a typical organization of PCV type 2, with the three isolates sharing similar genome lengths of 1767 nucleotide (nt) at high nt identities of 99.8-100%, further indicating that the viral isolates were quite homogeneous. Sequence analysis further revealed that the ORF2 genes contain the nt sequence CCCCGC (from nt position 262 to 267) that was previously reported to be associated with PCV type 2, group 1C. The phylogenetic tree was constructed for the ORF2 genes, and the PCV type 2 isolates distributed into two distinctive groups. The Indonesian PCV type 2 clustered tightly with one China isolate, accession number AY035820, as a sub-cluster in group 1C. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses both confirmed that the three Indonesian PCV type 2 isolates belong to group 1C, and that the genetic changes for the three Indonesian isolates were very stable, possibly due to the low-scale evolution.

  11. Overexpression of pig selenoprotein S blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Yu; Xue, Hongxia; Huang, Da; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Tian; Huang, Kehe

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. PMID:26943035

  12. Transmission of different variants of PCV2 and viral dynamics in a research facility with pigs mingled from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Kitt; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) has been identified in most swine-producing countries worldwide. The disease has resulted in significant health challenges and economic damage to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to determine horizontal transmission of porcine...... the aisle and pens in other compartments). By DNA sequence analysis, eight variants of genotype PCV-2b were identified in the research facility. From the spread of these PCV2-variants it was concluded that PCV2 primarily infects through close contact and nose-to-nose contact. PCV2 genome sequences were...... obtained from selected pigs at arrival to the research facility and again when the same pigs developed PMWS. This analysis showed that pigs from PMWS-affected herds developed PMWS caused by the same variant of PCV2 as they carried when entering the research facility. In contrast, pigs from non...

  13. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010 in a region of northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alonso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5% in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%, the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214 Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%, 3 (n=92, 11.2% and 19F (n=74, 9%. Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001 to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010. Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326 in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492 in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and

  14. Sequence analysis of the first C2 subgenogroup strain of enterovirus 71 isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Young Sil; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Jung Sik; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, June-Woo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with severe neurological complications, which may lead to death in children. Large outbreaks caused by EV71 have frequently occurred in Asia-Pacific region. In Korea, the outbreaks have been caused by EV71 subgenogroups C3, and C4. Only genogroup C, especially subgenogroup C1, C3, C4, and C5, has been detected by the national enterovirus surveillance system in Korea. This study reports the first isolation of EV71 A1451 strain, which belongs to subgenogroup C2. EV71 was isolated from a Korean patient with meningoencephalitis. Complete genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of the strain. Comparative genome analysis of the A1451 strain indicated that this novel C2 strain is associated with the Taiwan strains, which are recombinant virus combined with subgenogroup C2 and B3. Because the subgenogroup B3 was not previously detected in Korea, the A1451 strain is regarded as an imported recombinant virus. Periodic surveillance of EV71 is required to control the spread of this disease and its introduction from overseas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  16. Isolation and characterization of Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, S; Chamkha, M; Sayadi, S

    2009-09-01

    To isolate and characterize an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions, from a Tunisian off-shore oil field. Production water collected from 'Sercina' petroleum reservoir, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia, was used for the screening of halotolerant or halophilic bacteria able to degrade crude oil. Bacterial strain C2SS100 was isolated after enrichment on crude oil, in the presence of 100 g l(-1) NaCl and at 37 degrees C. This strain was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, oxidase + and catalase +. Phenotypic characters and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate C2SS100 showed that it was related to members of the Halomonas genus. The degradation of several compounds present in crude oil was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. The use of refined petroleum products such as diesel fuel and lubricating oil as sole carbon source, under the same conditions of temperature and salinity, showed that significant amounts of these heterogenic compounds could be degraded. Strain C2SS100 was able to degrade hexadecane (C16). During growth on hexadecane, cells surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying activity increased indicating the production of biosurfactant by strain C2SS100. A halotolerant bacterial strain Halomonas sp. C2SS100 was isolated from production water of an oil field, after enrichment on crude oil. This strain is able to degrade hydrocarbons efficiently. The mode of hydrocarbon uptake is realized by the production of a biosurfactant which enhances the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The biodegradation potential of the Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100 gives it an advantage for possibly application on bioremediation of water, hydrocarbon-contaminated sites under high-salinity level.

  17. Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Removal by Q Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Hua; Ho, Cintia; Lester, Philip; Chen, Qi; Neske, Florian; Baylis, Sally A; Blümel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered contamination of oral rotavirus vaccines led to exposure of millions of infants to porcine circovirus (PCV). PCV was not detected by conventional virus screening tests. Regulatory agencies expect exclusion of adventitious viruses from biological products. Therefore, methods for inactivation/removal of viruses have to be implemented as an additional safety barrier whenever feasible. However, inactivation or removal of PCV is difficult. PCV is highly resistant to widely used physicochemical inactivation procedures. Circoviruses such as PCV are the smallest viruses known and are not expected to be effectively removed by currently-used virus filters due to the small size of the circovirus particles. Anion exchange chromatography such as Q Sepharose® Fast Flow (QSFF) has been shown to effectively remove a range of viruses including parvoviruses. In this study, we investigated PCV1 removal by virus filtration and by QSFF chromatography. As expected, PCV1 could not be effectively removed by virus filtration. However, PCV1 could be effectively removed by QSFF as used during the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a log10 reduction value (LRV) of 4.12 was obtained. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:1464–1471, 2013 PMID:24039195

  18. The effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine circovirus type 2 replication in vitro PK-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Yuzi; Wei, Yanna; Gan, Yuan; Hua, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Maojun; Xiong, Qiyan; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is a very well-known co-factor that potentially enhances PCV2 replication and thus the development of PMWS. However, co-infection with Mhp and PCV2 in vivo under different conditions can produce divergent clinical signs and lesions. In this study, PCV2 replication could be enhanced by subsequent co-inoculation with Mhp (PCV2+Mhp) in a time and dose dependent method, but not by prior (Mhp+PCV2) or simultaneous (Mhp/PCV2) co-inoculation. Furthermore, different magnitudes of PCV2-infected cells, varying from 150% ± 14% to 351% ± 28%, were detected when co-infected with different Mhp strains. The relative percentage of PCV2-infected cells greatly decreased from 351% ± 28 to 141% ± 18 when the Mhp strain was treated with UV light for 12 h. These results offer the evidences to better understand the complex clinical syndromes in Mhp/PCV2 co-infection cases, and the occurrence of PMWS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  20. [Production of pertussis toxin by Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from patients with whooping cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, E M; Mertsalova, N U; Shinkarev, A S; Mazurova, I K; Zakharova, N S

    2011-01-01

    To assess level of pertussin toxin (PT) production by vaccine strains of Bordetella pertussis and strains isolated from patients with whooping cough. Concentration of PT in supernatants of microbial cultures of 3 vaccine strains and 25 strains of B. pertussis isolated from patients with pertussis in 2001 - 2005 was measured with enzyme immunoassay using gamma-globulin fractions of rabbit antiserum to PT as immunosorbent or included in peroxidase conjugates. Level of PT production by strains isolated from infected persons varied from 3 +/- 0.5 to 64.8 +/- 12.2 ng/MFU/ml: in 9 strains--from 3 +/- 0.5 to 9.4 +/- 2.1 ng/MFU/ml, in 7--10.5 +/- 1.8 to 18.4 +/- 2.6 ng/MFU/ml, and in 9--23.6 +/- 4.5 to 64.8 +/- 12.2 ng/MFU/ml. B. pertussis strains isolated from patients were heterogeneous on level of PT production. Difference in expression of PT between strains were as high as 20-fold. Conditionally low, moderate and high levels of PT production had 9 (36%), 7 (28%), and 9 (36%) of 25 studied strains. Three vaccine strains had levels of toxin production similar to recently isolated strains with moderate level of its production.

  1. Isolation and characterization of mutant strains of Escherichia coli altered in H2 metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Patel, P.; Sankar, P.; Shanmugam, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    A positive selection procedure is described for the isolation of hydrogenase-defective mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Mutant strains isolated by this procedure can be divided into two major classes. Class II mutants produced hydrogenase activity (determined by using a tritium-exchange assay) and formate hydrogenlyase activity but lacked the ability to reduce benzyl viologen or fumarate with H 2 as the electron donor. Class I mutants failed to produce active hydrogenase and hydrogenase-dependent activities. All the mutant strains produced detectable levels of formate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 and fumarate reductase. The mutation in class I mutants mapped near 65 min of the E. coli chromosome, whereas the mutation in class II mutants mapped between srl and cys operons (58 and 59 min, respectively) in the genome. The class II Hyd mutants can be further subdivided into two groups (hydA and hydB) based on the cotransduction characteristics with cys and srl. These results indicate that there are two hyd operons and one hup operon in the E. coli chromosome. The two hyd operons are needed for the production of active hydrogenase, and all three are essential for hydrogen-dependent growth of the cell

  2. Identification and biochemical characterization of Leishmania strains isolated in Peru, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Vargas, Franklin; Córdova, Ofelia; Barrera, Mario; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Alunda, Jose María; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Eight Leishmania promastigotes were isolated from different geographical areas: three (LP1, LP2, and LP3) from the provincial department La Libertad and the fourth (LP4) from the department of Cajamarca (northern Peru); another three (LM1, LM2, and LM3) in the province of Campeche (Mexico); and the last (LS1) from a clinical case of a dog in Madrid (Spain). The isolates were characterized by carbohydrate cell-surface residues using agglutinations with four purified lectins, by isoenzyme analysis using different isoenzymes, by analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism using four different restriction endonucleases and by the final metabolite patterns after in vitro culture. These isolates were compared with four reference strains and typified as: Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, two strains of L. (L.) infantum, and one species of L. (Viania) peruviana. According to our results and the statistical study, the Peruvian isolates represent three different strains: one would be L. (V.) peruviana, another the strain isolated in Cajamarca (LP4) and the third would include the three strains from the department of La Libertad (LP1, LP2, and LP3), these latter three isolates being phylogenetically closer to the reference strain L. (L.) donovani. Meanwhile, the three isolates from Mexico form a group with close phylogenetic relationships to each other. The isolate from Spain belongs to the species L. (L.) infantum. Thus, a close correlation was drawn between the identity of each strain and its geographical origin.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates from children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates in Chongqing, China. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 51 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae strains were from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and 32 carriage strains from healthy children from January 2010 to December 2013 at the Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Multilocus sequence typing was used to identify the sequence types (STs. Capsular serotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Drug susceptibility and resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: In this study, 11 serotypes were identified among the 83 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates tested. Prevalent serotypes were 19A (20.4%, 6A/B (20.4%, 19F (15.7%, 14 (14.5%, and 23F (10.8%. Serotype 19F was the most frequent carriage strain, and serotype 19A was the most frequent invasive strain. The ST983 was the most prevalent ST for carriage strains, and ST320 was the most prevalent ST for invasive strains. For gene analysis, psaA (99.5% and piaA (98.6% were present and much conserved in all pneumococci tested. The cps2A and pcsB genes were more frequent in invasive isolates than carriage strains. Antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal isolates to erythromycin, penicillin, meropenem, cefotaxime, and clindamycin were higher than the carriage isolates from children. Conclusion: Our epidemiological evidence shows that 19A, 6A/B, 19F, 14, and 23F remain the most prevalent serotypes, which can be targeted by PCV13. Genotypes and drug resistance varied between carriage and invasive strains. The PsaA and PiaA may be good protein vaccine candidates.

  4. Isolation and identification of a novel radio-resistant strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhidong; Mao Jun; Wang Wei; Tang Qiyong; Shi Yuhu

    2008-01-01

    A novel radio-resistant strain named RL2 was studied polyphasically, which was isolated from the soils in the Gurban-Tunggut Desert, Xinjiang. The strain is Gam-positive, sphere-shaped and pink pigmented; The DNA (G+C) contents of RL2 is 71.62mo1%; The 16S rDNA genes of RL2 and D. radiodurans type strain DSM20539 shows a high level of similarity (97.2%). According to phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it can be suggested that the strain RL2 has been identified as Deinococcus. sp and it may be a novel species. (authors)

  5. The isolation, characterization and evaluation of Frankia strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P.; Lalonde, M.; Fortin, J.A.; Chatarpaul, L.

    1984-01-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO/sub 4/) was used as the sterilizing agent to isolate the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Frankia from nodules of host plants. This treatment resulted in a pure culture collection of 250 Frankia isolates from several species of Alnus (crispa, rugosa, viridis, glutinosa, and serrulata) and from other actinorhizal species from Quebec. Frankia isolates from A. viridis and S. canadensis are reported in this document for the first time. Sugars from whole-cell hydrolysates of the organisms were analysed by gas liquid chromatography to identify strains previously screened on the basis of morphology and infectivity. This technique proved especially useful for those isolates whose morphology was atypical (ACN8, ArgN22, SCN9, and SCN10). It was demonstrated that sugar analysis (2-O-methy-D-mannose, in particular) can be important in resolving the taxonomy of Frankia. The nitrogen-fixing efficiency of some Frankia strains was evaluated by inoculating A. crispa. It was found that the efficiency of organisms was not influenced by the host from which they were first isolated. However, significant differences between some isolates of the same provenance occurred. It was also found that those strains of Frankia which do not sporulate were more effective in fixing nitrogen than those which do. It is proposed that the terms type P and type N be used to designate spore positive (Sp/sup +/) and spore negative (Sp/sup -/) Frankia strains, respectively. Further, it is recommended that sporulation type be used as a valid basis for species definition in the genus Frankia. 118 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Possible pathogenic interplay between Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila abortus and PCV-2 on a pig production farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schautteet, K; Beeckman, D S A; Delava, P; Vanrompay, D

    2010-03-13

    A concurrent outbreak of chlamydial disease in boars, sows and gilts and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in weaned piglets was investigated on a large pig production farm in Estonia. Chlamydia suis DNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from boars, sows and gilts, but also in the faeces of boars and sows. Chlamydophila abortus DNA was found in semen, and in conjunctival swabs from sows; DNA was demonstrated by microarrays. Serum samples from boars were examined using a Chlamydiaceae-specific recombinant ELISA. All 10 serum samples examined were positive (1:960 to 1:3840). Chlamydiosis was characterised by reproductive failure and conjunctivitis. Piglets were not examined for Chlamydiaceae, as eye problems were not observed. Piglets showed wasting, respiratory signs, diarrhoea, enlargement of lymph nodes and increased mortality (10 per cent). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) was detected in the lymph nodes of piglets by immunohistochemistry, and PCV-2 antibodies were demonstrated in all 10 serum samples from sows examined using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.

  7. Protective immunity conferred by porcine circovirus 2 ORF2-based DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Seydou; Cong, Yan-Long; Sun, Yi-Xue; Yang, Gui-Lian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Long; Yang, Minnan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused the swine industry significant health challenges and economic damage. Although inactivated and subunit vaccines against PMWS have been used widely, so far no DNA vaccine is available. In this study, with the aim of exploring a new route for developing a vaccine against PCV2, the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine was evaluated in mice. The pEGFP-N1 vector was used to construct a PCV2 Cap gene recombinant vaccine. To assess the immunogenicity of pEGFP-Cap, 80 BALB/c mice were immunized three times at 2 weekly intervals with pEGFP-Cap, LG-strain vaccine, pEGFP-N1 vector or PBS and then challenged with PCV2. IgG and cytokines were assessed by indirect ELISA and ELISA, respectively. Specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques were examined histopathologically. It was found that vaccination of the mice with the pEGFP-Cap induced solid protection against PCV2 infection through induction of highly specific serum IgG antibodies and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10), and a small PCV2 viral load. The mice treated with the pEGFP-Cap and LG-strain developed no histopathologically detectable lesions (HE stain) and IHC techniques revealed only a few positive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that recombinant pEGFP-Cap substantially alleviates PCV2 infection in mice and provides evidence that a DNA vaccine could be an alternative to PCV2 vaccines against PMWS. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015 Isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Li, Benqiang; Zhang, Chunling; Liu, Huili

    2016-11-10

    Two porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains, JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015, were isolated from piglets with watery diarrhea in South China. Two genomic sequences were highly homologous to the attenuated DR13 strain. Furthermore, JSLS-1/2015 contains a 24-amino-acid deletion in open reading frame 1b, which was first reported in PEDV isolates. Copyright © 2016 Tao et al.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. Copyright © 2015 dos Santos et al.

  10. Evaluating the probiotic and therapeutic potentials of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (OBS2) isolated from fermented nectar of toddy palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Banoth; Rani, Ganapathiwar Swarupa; Kumar, Bhukya Kiran; Chandrasekhar, Banoth; Krishna, Kommalapati Vamsi; Devi, Tangutur Anjana; Bhima, Bhukya

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the probiotic characteristics of 15 yeast strains isolated from nectar of toddy palm. Initially, the collected samples were inoculated on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar plates and the colonies so obtained were culturally and morphologically characterized. Commercial probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii served as the control in these experiments. Of the 15 yeast strains, the isolates that were resistant to antibiotics and worked synergistically with other cultures were considered for further evaluation. Selected isolates were evaluated in vitro for tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions such as temperature, pH, bile and gastric juice. Further the yeast isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. The 2 yeast isolates with efficient probiotic properties were finally characterized by sequencing their 5.8 S rRNA and partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2. The sequences were BLAST searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, nucleic acid database for sequence similarity of organisms and phylogenetic evolutionary analysis was carried out. Based on maximum similarity of basic local alignment search tool results, organisms were characterized as Pichia kudriavzevii OBS1 (100%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae OBS2 (96%) and sequences were finally deposited in the GenBank data library. Among these two isolates, S. cerevisiae OBS2 displayed slight/moderate antioxidant and anticancer property. Hence, strain OBS2 can be utilized and explored as a potential probiotic for therapeutic applications.

  11. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  12. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from pigs in two Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...

  13. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  14. Prospective evaluation of subretinal vessel location in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and response of hemorrhagic and exudative PCV to high-dose antiangiogenic therapy (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokame, Gregg T

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) Is polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) a subretinal neovascular process, rather than a choroidal vascular anomaly? and (2) Is a higher dose of ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) more effective in treating PCV than the current dose (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) approved for treatment of age-related macular degeneration? Retrospective evaluation of PCV in 104 eyes of 86 patients was accomplished with use of indocyanine green angiography plus optical coherence tomography to localize the branching vascular network and the polyps. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with active leaking and exudation underwent a prospective open-label trial of monthly high-dose intravitreal ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL). The primary outcome was prevention of major vision loss (≤15 ETDRS letters). Secondary outcomes included adverse events, improved vision, and changes in subretinal hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, macular edema, and polypoidal complexes at 6 months. The PCV vessels were localized beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and above Bruch's membrane in 103 (99%) of 104 eyes. In the high-dose ranibizumab trial at 6 months, none of the patients lost ≥15 letters in visual acuity, and 5 (26%) of 19 gained ≥15 letters. Decreases were noted in subretinal fluid in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes, subretinal hemorrhage in 12 (100%) of 12, RPE detachment in 14 (88%) of 16, macular edema in 11 (92%) of 12, and polyps in 15 (79%) of 19 eyes. PCV vessels are a subtype of subretinal neovascularization located above Bruch's membrane and below RPE. High-dose ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) decreased exudation and hemorrhage and resulted in significant polyp regression, although branching vascular networks persisted.

  15. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, A; Kalabekov, I M; Breyta, R; Shchelkunov, I S

    2017-10-01

    Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clonal distribution of pneumococcal serotype 19F isolates from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparding, Nadja; Dayie, Nicholas Tete Kwaku Dzifa; Mills, Richael O.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal strains are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide and more than 90 different serotypes are currently known. In this project, three distinct groups of pneumococcal carriage isolates from Gh...... in Ghana in that many new clones were identified. This supports the importance of continued monitoring of pneumococcal carriage in Ghana and elsewhere when vaccines, e.g., PCV-13, have been introduced to monitor the possible future spread of antimicrobial resistant clones....

  17. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  18. Complete genome sequences and comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 5-2 isolated from fermented soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Jian; Wang, Rui; Gong, Fu-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Luo, Yi-Yong; Li, Xiao-Ran

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic and is mostly isolated from fermented foods. We sequenced the genome of L. plantarum strain 5-2, which was derived from fermented soybean isolated from Yunnan province, China. The strain was determined to contain 3114 genes. Fourteen complete insertion sequence (IS) elements were found in 5-2 chromosome. There were 24 DNA replication proteins and 76 DNA repair proteins in the 5-2 genome. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactobacillus, the 5-2 genome encodes key enzymes required for the EMP (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas) and phosphoketolase (PK) pathways. Several components of the secretion machinery are found in the 5-2 genome, which was compared with L. plantarum ST-III, JDM1 and WCFS1. Most of the specific proteins in the four genomes appeared to be related to their prophage elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probiotic Properties of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tempoyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilaf Suliman Khalil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tempoyak is a functional Malaysian food (an acid-fermented condiment which is produced from the pulp of the durian (Durio zibethinus fruit. The current study aimed to isolate and identify potential exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing Lactobacillus strains from tempoyak for potential use as probiotics. Seven isolates (DUR2, DUR4, DUR5, DUR8, DUR12, DUR18, and DUR20 out of 44 were able to produce EPS, and exhibited resistance to acid and bile salt compared to the reference strains Lactobacillus rhmnosus (ATCC53103 and L. plantarum (ATCC8014. The seven isolated strains belonged to five different species—L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. crispatus, L. reuteri, and L. pentosus—which were identified using API 50 CHL and 16S rRNA gene sequences (Polymerase chain reaction, PCR – based. The seven strains displayed different ability to produce EPS (100–850 mg/L. Isolates exhibited a high survivability to acid (pH 3.0, bile salts (0.3%, and gastrointestinal tract model (<70%. Results showed that the auto-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity ranged from 39.98% to 60.09% and 50.80% to 80.53%, respectively, whereas, the highest co-aggregation value (66.44% was observed by L. fermentum (DUR8 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates showed good inhibitory activity against tested pathogens, high antioxidant activity (32.29% to 73.36%, and good ability to reduce cholesterol (22.55% to 75.15%. Thus, the seven tested strains have value as probiotics.

  20. Fermentative hydrogen production by two novel strains of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from sea buried crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghearachchi, H.S.; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Singh, Sneha; Mandal, Ajay K.; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resource Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003 (India); Aginihotri, Anil [Corporate HSF, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, New Delhi (India)

    2009-09-15

    Present study investigated fermentative hydrogen production of two novel isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from oil water mixtures. The two isolates were identified as novel strains of E. aerogenes based on 16S rRNA gene. The batch fermentations of two strains from glucose and xylose were carried out using economical culture medium under various conditions such as temperature, initial pH, NaCl, Ni{sup +}/Fe{sup ++}, substrate concentrations for enhanced fermentation process. Both the strains favoured wide range of pH (6.5-8.0) at 37 C for optimum production (2.20-2.23 mol H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), which occurred through acetate/butyrate pathway. At 55 C, both strains favoured 6.0-6.5 and acetate type fermentation was predominant in HT 34. Hydrogen production by HT 34 from xylose was highly pH dependant and optimum production was at pH 6.5 (circa 1.98 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose) through acetate pathway. The efficiency of the strain HGN-2 at pH 6.5 was 1.92-1.94 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose, and displayed both acetate and butyrate pathways. At 55 C, very low hydrogen production was detected (less than 0.5 m mol/mol-xylose). (author)

  1. Postmating Reproductive isolation between strains of Drosophila willistoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiros, Xian B; Park, Ronni; Clifton, Bryan; Grewal, Gurman; Khizar, Amina K; Markow, Therese A; Ranz, José M; Civetta, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Speciation can occur through the presence of reproductive isolation barriers that impede mating, restrict cross-fertilization, or render inviable/sterile hybrid progeny. The D. willistoni subgroup is ideally suited for studies of speciation, with examples of both allopatry and sympatry, a range of isolation barriers, and the availability of one species complete genome sequence to facilitate genetic studies of divergence. D. w. willistoni has the largest geographic distribution among members of the Drosophila willistoni subgroup, spanning from Argentina to the southern United States, including the Caribbean islands. A subspecies of D. w. willistoni, D. w. quechua, is geographically separated by the Andes mountain range and has evolved unidirectional sterility, in that only male offspring of D. w. quechua females × D. w. willistoni males are sterile. Whether D. w. willistoni flies residing east of the Andes belong to one or more D. willistoni subspecies remains unresolved. Here we perform fecundity assays and show that F1 hybrid males produced from crosses between different strains found in Central America, North America, and northern Caribbean islands are reproductively isolated from South American and southern Caribbean island strains as a result of unidirectional hybrid male sterility. Our results show the existence of a reproductive isolation barrier between the northern and southern strains and suggest a subdivision of the previously identified D. willistoni willistoni species into 2 new subspecies.

  2. Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

    1997-11-01

    Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections.

  3. Research on the Phenotypic Characterization of Mrsa Strains Isolated from Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Maria BUCUR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: chromogen, methicillin, MRSA, resistance Introduction: Currently, both in staphylococci isolated from animals with different diseases, as well as in humans, the MRSA strains (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus are monitored, as the methicillin resistance is associated with the resistance to other antibiotic groups. Methicillin resistance is encoded by mec staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes (SCCmec, which are islands of resistance. These strains can be identified by molecular biology tests and tests that reveal several phenotypic characteristics. The research was made in order to characterize and identify phenotypically the MRSA staphylococci strains isolated from animals. Materials and Methods: Researches were made on 240 coagulase positive and coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. Mannitol fermentation was tested on Champan medium, free coagulase was revealed on Baird-Parker medium and to identify S. aureus subsp. aureus was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic Staph. Methicillin-resistant strains were detected by disc diffusion method, using biodiscs with methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Also, to identify the MRSA strains, was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic MRSA. Results: The isolates were positive to mannitol and produced complete haemolysis or were unhaemolytic. A total of 44 strains produced free coagulase on Baird-Parker medium, considered coagulase positive strains, while 196 were coagulase negative strains. The isolates conducted differently to methicillin: 22,08% of strains were resistant, 51,25% of strains were susceptible and 26,66% had intermediate resistance, while the resistant strains to oxacillin were 42,91%. The increased frequency of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci and, particularly, MRSA strains, determined using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, which is more reliable than methicillin and oxacillin. On the MRSA chromogenic medium, the methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF Haemophilus influenzae STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH INVASIVE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kostyanev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 H. influenzae strains were collected between 1994 and 2009 from all aged patient groups. The strains were isolated from patients with invasive and community-acquired respiratory tract infections. All strains were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by a coagglutination test and by molecular PCR capsular genotyping. Beta-lactamase production was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test with nitrocephin as substrate. Most of the isolated H. influenzae strains were from children under 5 years of age (57.7%. Overall, 61 strains belonged to serotype b (34.9% by the means of PCR capsular typing, 1 strain was type f, and 113 isolates (64.6% were non-typeable (non-encapsulated H. influenzae. Among the infants and children with meningitis or other invasive infections, aged 2 month to 5 years, all strains, except one, were serotype b. In respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and people with chronic pulmonary diseases - exacerbations of COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis the most common - 96.5% were non-typeable strains in both groups children and adults. Overall, the prevalence of beta-lactamase production was 19.4%. But, it was much higher for invasive strains from CSF isolates - 37.7%, 25% in blood samples, and 37.5% in otitis media causative strains. Beta-lactamase production was less frequent in respiratory tract isolates - in sputum 13.3% and in URT samples - 2.3%. The rate of beta-lactamase production in CSF isolates has not changed for the last 10 years.PCR capsular genotyping method has to be performed for all non-b-type strains. The implementation of Hib vaccine in our country will be accompanied by a reduction in invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b in children, but it is not useful in preventing infections caused by non-typeable H. influenzae strains.

  5. Leakage evaluation in the PCV (Primary Containment Vessel) using chemical and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Keeping the reliability of nuclear power plant operation, the primary coolant leakage in the PCV is strictly restricted by the Technical Specifications. It is very important to detect an indication of leakage and estimate the source of leakage to provide countermeasures. Usually the indication of leakage will be detected by increase of drain flow in the PCV sump. There are some possibilities of leakage sources in the PCV, such as reactor water, main steam, condensate, feedwater and closed cooling water. The leakage source contain different chemical and radiochemical species. This means that the leakage source can be presumed and detected by using chemical information from the PCV atmosphere and sump water. To detect the leakage indication and the source quickly and exactly, the PCV Leakage Detection Expert System has been developed. This paper describes how to evaluate the leakage indication and source in the PCV by using chemical and radiochemical data. (author)

  6. Characterization of a newly isolated highly effective 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol degrading strain Cupriavidus pauculus P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Hongming; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Ke; Gu, Tao; Ni, Haiyan; Hong, Qing; Li, Shunpeng

    2012-09-01

    A bacterial strain P2 capable of degrading 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it belonged to the genus of Cupriavidus, because it showed the highest sequence similarity to Cupriavidus pauculus LMG 3413(T) (99.7 %) and DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain P2 and C. pauculus LMG 3413(T) was 76.8 %. In combination with morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, strain P2 was identified as C. pauculus. It could use TCP as the sole carbon source and energy source for its growth. It showed a high average degradation rate of 10 mg/L h in mineral salt medium amended with TCP (50-800 mg/L). During TCP degradation, chloridion was released into the medium in two obvious discontinuous stages. Along with this, two colorful metabolites were produced. Finally, the molarity of the total released chloridion was three times that of the initial TCP in the medium. This is the first report of TCP-degrading strain from the genus of Cupriavidus and the detection of two colorful metabolites during TCP degradation. Strain P2 might be a promising candidate for its application in the bioremediation of TCP-polluted environments.

  7. Genetic relatedness of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated in south Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Kaisar A; Khajanchi, Bijay K; Islam, M Aminul; Dutta, Dilip K; Islam, Zhahirul; Safa, Ashrafus; Khan, G Y; Alam, Khorshed; Hossain, M A; Malla, Sarala; Niyogi, S K; Rahman, Mustafizur; Watanabe, Haruo; Nair, G Balakrish; Sack, David A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relationships of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated from south Asia, and S. dysenteriae 1 strains associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994. The antimicrobial susceptibilities were examined by NCCLS methods. Molecular epidemiological characterization was performed by plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and mutation analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA by sequencing. Plasmid patterns of the current ciprofloxacin-resistant strains from India, Nepal and Bangladesh were very similar to those of the 1978, 1984 and 1994 epidemic isolates of S. dysenteriae 1, except for the presence of a new plasmid of approximately 2.6 MDa, which was found in one recent ciprofloxacin-resistant strain isolated in Bangladesh. PFGE analysis showed that the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in Bangladesh, India and Nepal belonged to a PFGE type (type A), which was possibly related to that of the 1984 and 1994 clone of S. dysenteriae 1, but different from 1978 epidemic strains. The current ciprofloxacin-resistant strains belong to five subtypes (A3-A7), all of which were found in India, but in Bangladesh and Nepal, only A3 existed. Mutation analysis of the QRDR of gyrA revealed that amino acid substitutions at positions 83 and 87 of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in Bangladesh were similar to those of the strains isolated in Nepal, but different (at position 87) from ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in India. PFGE and mutation analysis of gyrA showed differences between the current ciprofloxacin-resistant S. dysenteriae 1 strains isolated in south Asia and those associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994.

  8. Opciones vacunales contra los virus patógenos de porcinos PRRS y PCV2, un binomio frecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cajero-Juárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, el síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS, por sus siglas en inglés y las enfermedades asociadas al circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV2, por sus siglas en inglés, representan una gran preocupación para la industria porcícola, debido a la afectación de los índices productivos. En consecuencia, su presencia va acompañada de cuantiosas pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, en la mayoría de los centros de producción, se utilizan vacunas clásicas, es decir, elaboradas a partir del virus completo viable ó atenuado. En relación al PCV2, se dispone de pocas vacunas de nueva generación, referidas como aquellas obtenidas a través de la tecnología del ADN recombinante, mientras que, únicamente vacunas clásicas están disponibles contra el virus PRRSV. En este manuscrito, revisamos la naturaleza de los virus PRRSV y PCV2, así también, resaltamos la importancia económica, de acuerdo a los datos de prevalencia nacional e internacional. Además, se incluyen datos de nuevas opciones vacunales, en relación con las vacunas comerciales que, en algunos casos, se ha documentado una baja protección contra cepas heterólogas y cepas de reciente aparición. Por un lado, la investigación en vacunas de nueva generación, ha tenido buena aceptación, debido a la posibilidad de seleccionar la información genética del virus para estimular la respuesta inmune protectora del hospedero y, por otro, porque se acelera el desarrollo de vacunas, e incluso, es posible evitar las infecciones de las cuales es responsable el virus vacunal.

  9. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Various Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golnari Maranni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prevalence extension of antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns about control of infections especially nosocomial infections. Many attempts have been done to replace antibiotics or limit their use. The use of antimicrobial agents produced by bacteria as antibiotic replacement has been promising in recent years. The goal of this study was to isolate Bacillus strains and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Bacillus strains were isolated from various resources and identified by 16S rDNA PCR method. Then, the phylogenetic tree of the isolates was constructed and antimicrobial activity of the isolates was investigated against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains using spotting and well diffusion methods. Results: Eight Bacillus strains were isolated from 15 different samples. Based on the molecular identification, the isolates were identified as B.pumilus, B.coagulans, B.licheniformis, B.endophitycus and B.amiloliquefaciens. The results showed that isolates have antimicrobial activity against meticilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant enterococci, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: In this study, isolated Bacillus strains produced antimicrobial agents against pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains and inhibited their growth.

  10. Shewanella strain isolated from black powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia T.S.; Contador, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C.; Galvao, Mariana M. [National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Black powder is a term frequently used to refer to residues formed by various types of iron sulfides mixed with contaminants eventually present in the natural gas flow. According to some researchers, the occurrence of black powder in gas pipelines, besides its chemical corrosion origin, can be directly related to the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) metabolism in this environment. A black powder sample was inoculated in a Post gate E medium modified with the addition of thioglycolate. The resulting positive culture was kept in the laboratory for four years until its use. A dilution technique was then performed aiming to isolate an SRB strain. The bacterial strain isolated and identified through DNA sequencing was not an SRB but rather a Shewanella sp. Compared to the sulfate-reducing bacteria group-traditionally considered the foremost responsible for microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) - Shewanella is a facultative anaerobe and has a versatile metabolism. Shewanella is able to reduce ferric iron and sulfite, oxidize hydrogen gas, and produce hydrogen sulfide; therefore, these bacteria can be responsible for MIC and pit formation. The isolated Shewanella was used in a corrosion experiment, and the corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, identifying iron sulfides, iron oxides, and sulfur. Our results indicate that the strain isolated, S. putrefaciens, plays a key role in corrosion problems in gas pipelines. (author)

  11. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional yogurt and milk against Shigella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mirzaei, Elnaze; Lashani, Elahe; Davoodabadi, Abolfazl

    2018-01-01

    Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are normal flora of the mouth, intestines and the female genital tract. They are also frequently found in meat, vegetables, and dairy products. Most of probiotic bacteria belong to the LAB group. Some probiotic LAB are useful in prevention and treatment of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from traditional yogurt and milk against Shigella strains. Materials and methods: Forty LAB strains were isolated from traditional yogurt and milk. The antimicrobial activity of LAB against Shigella strains (eight S. flexneri , four S. sonnei ) was examined using the agar-well diffusion assay. LAB strains with antimicrobial effect against all Shigella strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Six LAB strains inhibited the growth of all 12 Shigella strains. Lb. paracasei Y1-3, Lb. paracasei Y8-1 and Lb. fermentum Y2-2 were isolated from yogurt. Lb. paracasei M18-1, Lb. parelimentarius M4-3 and Lb. plantarum M19-1 were isolated from milk. Conclusion: This study showed that Lactobacillus strains with good inhibitory activity against S. flexneri and S. sonnei could be isolated from traditional yogurt and milk.

  13. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type...

  14. [Isolation and identification of the temperate bacteriophage from isolated strains of Streptococcus suis serotype 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuling; Lu, Chengping; Fan, Hongjie

    2008-04-01

    A PCR assay was developed to study the distributional characteristics of phage integrase gene in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). A 323bp distinct DNA target can be amplified in 25 strains of virulent SS2, while can not be amplified in avirulent strain T15, 5 strains of other serotypes (SS1, SS7, SS9) and strains of group C Streptococcus strains from pigs, which suggested that the phage integrase gene may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2 and can be consider as a detection factor of the virulent gene of SS2. The sequencing and restriction endonuclease analysis of the PCR products were also done. Comparisons between the sequences of phage integrase gene with that of SS2 strain, showed a high homology with SS2 China strains 98HAH33, 05ZYH33 and North American strain 89-1591. Complete cell lysis was observed with SS2 virulent strains but not with avirulent strain T15 after the induction by mitomycin C. Electron microscopy analysis of the lysate from SS2 virulent strains HA9801 and ZY05719 revealed the presence of phage particles. The induced phage, named SS2-HA and SS2-ZY, both have a small isometric nucleocapsid approximately 50 nm in diameter and have no tail and is therefore a member of the Tectiviridae family. The phage integrase gene sequence of phage SS2-HA and SS2-ZY shared high homologue identities with virulent SS2 strains, which suggested that the phage integrase gene of SS2 has high specify. The temperate phage and phage integrase gene can only detected from SS2 virulent strains but not from avirulent strain, and the detection of phage integrase gene was related to the virulence-associate factors of SS2, such as the muramidase-released protein gene (mrp), which suggested that the temperate phage of SS2 may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2.

  15. Probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus strains isolated from food and of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Dhanani, Akhilesh S; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2010-06-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from various sources were identified on the basis of 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic region amplification and subsequent sequencing of the smaller intergenic region. An in vitro analysis of probiotic properties including binding, ability to tolerate different concentrations of bile, survival in acidic buffer and antimicrobial activity of four different isolates and two standard strains (Lactobacillus plantarum American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 8014 and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG)) was carried out. The ability of each isolate to stimulate Caco-2 cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and THP-1 cells resulting in immunomodulation of these cells was analysed. Isolates L. rhamnosus CS25 and L. delbrueckii M and standard strain ATCC 8014 showed broad antimicrobial activity, and isolates CS25 (percentage of survival 6.9 % at pH 2.5, 5.1 % at pH 2.0) and L. plantarum CS23 (5.7 % at pH 2.5, 4.9 % at pH 2.0) have shown good tolerance to acidic pH. Isolate CS23 showed a good survival (14 %) after 2 h incubation in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing 3 % bile salts. Isolates CS23, CS25 and L. fermentum ASt1 could stimulate Caco-2 cells, human PBMC and THP-1 cells for a strong and varied immunomodulatory response in these cells. Though LGG showed poor antimicrobial activity as well as bile and acid tolerance, it was found to be the best binding strain tested. Child faecal isolate CS23 from the present study showed high binding ability (seventeen bacteria/Caco-2), high tolerance to acidic pH and bile salts and significant immunomodulation; therefore it is a good potential probiotic candidate.

  16. Reduction in all-cause otitis media-related outpatient visits in children after PCV10 introduction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana L; Minamisava, Ruth; Bierrenbach, Ana L; Toscano, Cristiana M; Afonso, Eliane T; Morais-Neto, Otaliba L; Antunes, José L F; Cristo, Elier B; Andrade, Ana Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have reported the effect of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) on otitis media (OM) in infants. In particular, no population-based study in upper-middle income countries is available. In 2010, Brazil introduced PCV10 into its routine National Immunization Program using a 3+1 schedule. We measured the impact of PCV10 on all-cause OM in children. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted in Goiânia/Brazil considering monthly rates (per 100,000) of all-cause OM outpatient visits in children aged 2-23 months. We used case-based data from the Outpatient Visits Information System of the Unified Health System coded for ICD-10 diagnosis for the period of August/2008 to July/2015. As a comparator, we used rates of outpatient visits due to all-other causes. The relative reduction of all-cause OM and all-other causes of outpatient visits were calculated as the difference between the predicted and observed cumulative rates of the PCV10 post-vaccination period. We then subtracted the relative reduction of all-other causes of outpatient visits from all-cause OM to obtain the impact of PCV10 on OM. In total, 6,401 OM outpatient visits were recorded in 4,793 children aged 2-23 months. Of these, 922 (19.2%) children had more than one OM episode. A significant reduction in all-cause OM visits was observed (50.7%; 95%CI: 42.2-59.2%; p = 0.013), while the reduction in visits due to all-other causes was 7.7% (95% CI 0.8-14.7%; p<0.001). The impact of PCV10 on all-cause OM was thus estimated at 43.0% (95%CI 41.4-44.5). This is the first study to show significant PCV10 impact on OM outpatient visits in infants in a developing country. Our findings corroborate the available evidence from developed countries.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-2 childhood meningitis in Bangladesh: a newly recognized pneumococcal infection threat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K Saha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis in countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV targeting commonly occurring serotypes are not routinely used. However, effectiveness of PCV would be jeopardized by emergence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD caused by serotypes which are not included in PCV. Systematic hospital based surveillance in Bangladesh was established and progressively improved to determine the pathogens causing childhood sepsis and meningitis. This also provided the foundation for determining the spectrum of serotypes causing IPD. This article reports an unprecedented upsurge of serotype 2, an uncommon pneumococcal serotype, without any known intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cases with suspected IPD had blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collected from the beginning of 2001 till 2009. Pneumococcal serotypes were determined by capsular swelling of isolates or PCR of culture-negative CSF specimens. Multicenter national surveillance, expanded from 2004, identified 45,437 patients with suspected bacteremia who were blood cultured and 10,618 suspected meningitis cases who had a lumber puncture. Pneumococcus accounted for 230 culture positive cases of meningitis in children <5 years. Serotype-2 was the leading cause of pneumococcal meningitis, accounting for 20.4% (45/221; 95% CI 15%-26% of cases. Ninety eight percent (45/46 of these serotype-2 strains were isolated from meningitis cases, yielding the highest serotype-specific odds ratio for meningitis (29.6; 95% CI 3.4-256.3. The serotype-2 strains had three closely related pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. CONCLUSIONS: S. pneumoniae serotype-2 was found to possess an unusually high potential for causing meningitis and was the leading serotype-specific cause of childhood meningitis in Bangladesh over the past decade. Persisting disease occurrence or progressive spread would represent a major potential infection threat since serotype-2

  18. Isolation and Preliminary Screening of a Weissella confusa Strain from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lvchen; Ni, Xueqin; Niu, Lili; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Khalique, Abdul; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Yan; Shu, Gang; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2018-04-13

    Weissella confusa has recently received attention for its probiotic potential. Some W. confusa and Weissella cibaria strains isolated from fermented foods show favorable probiotic effects. However, the probiotic properties of W. confusa isolated from giant panda remain unreported to date. Thus, this study isolated a W. confusa strain from giant panda feces and then investigated its characteristics and probiotic properties. A lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from giant panda fecal samples. The isolated strain was screened by in vitro probiotic property tests, including in vitro antimicrobial test, antioxidant test, surface hydrophobicity, and stress resistance. On the basis of biochemical identification and 16S rDNA sequencing, the W. confusa strain was identified as BSP201703. This Weissella confusa strain can survive at pH 2 and 0.3% (w/v) concentration of bile salt environment and inhibit common intestinal pathogens. It also possesses an in vitro antioxidant capacity, a high auto-aggregation ability, and a high surface hydrophobicity. BSP201703 might serve as a probiotic to giant pandas.

  19. Inter-laboratory and inter-assay comparison on two real-time PCR techniques for quantification of PCV2 nucleic acid extracted from field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, L.; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several real-time PCR assays for quantification of PCV2 DNA (qPCR) have been described in the literature. and different in-house assays are being used by laboratories around the world. A general threshold of it copies of PCV2 per millilitre serum for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS......) diagnosis has been suggested. However, neither inter-laboratory nor inter-assay comparisons have been published so far. In the present study two different qPCR probe assays Used routinely in two laboratories were compared on DNA extracted From serum, nasal and rectal swabs. Results showed a significant...

  20. methoxyethanol by a new bacterium isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    A 2-methoxyethanol degrading bacterium was isolated from anaerobic sludge of a municipal sewage from ... Stoichiometrically, the strain utilized one mole of oxygen per one mole of 2-methoxyethanol instead of ... physiological and biochemical characterization of the .... observed with acetate and the intact resting cells.

  1. Urease-positive thermophilic strains of Campylobacter isolated from seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, A; Matsuda, M; Miyajima, M; Moore, J E; Murphy, P G

    1999-07-01

    Three strains of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC), designated A1, A2 and A3, were identified by biochemical characterization after isolation from faeces of seagulls in Northern Ireland in 1996. The biochemical characteristics of the strains were identical to those of strains described previously. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after separate digestion with ApaI and SmaI demonstrated that the respective PFGE profiles were indistinguishable. The PFGE analysis also suggested that the genomes were approximately 1810 kb in length. This is the first example of the isolation of UPTC from flying homoiothermal animals, i.e. from seagulls (Larus spp.).

  2. Serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in the south of Tunisia: A five-year study (2012–2016 of pediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ktari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in the south of Tunisia over a 5-year period in different age groups and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods: A total of 305 non-duplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected between January 2012 and December 2016 at the university hospital in Sfax, Tunisia. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion test or Etest assay. Results: Among the 305 pneumococcal isolates, 76 (24.9% were invasive and 229 (75.1% were non-invasive. The most common serotypes were 19F (20%, 14 (16.7%, 3 (9.2%, 23F (7.5%, 19A (5.9%, and 6B (5.9%. Potential immunization coverage rates for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58%, 59.3%, and 78.7%, respectively. Three-quarters (75.3% of pneumococcal isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin. The resistance rate to erythromycin was 71.4%. Only two isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Conclusions: 19F and 14 were the most prevalent serotypes in the south of Tunisia. The inclusion of a PCV in the immunization program could be useful for reducing the burden of pneumococcal diseases. The high resistance rate to penicillin and macrolides is alarming. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial to prevent the selection of multidrug-resistant pneumococci. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Antibiotic, Serotype, PCV, Tunisia

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  4. Genetic diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolates of abattoir pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Audrey; Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Hélie, Pierre; Gagnon, Carl A; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Archambault, Marie

    2014-01-31

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, is present in swine herds worldwide. However, there is little information on strains infecting herds in Canada. A total of 160 swine lungs with lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia originating from 48 different farms were recovered from two slaughterhouses and submitted for gross pathology. The pneumonic lesion scores ranged from 2% to 84%. Eighty nine percent of the lungs (143/160) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR whereas 10% (16/160) and 8.8% (14/160) were positive by PCR for M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare, respectively. By culture, only 6% of the samples were positive for M. hyopneumoniae (10/160). Among the selected M. hyopneumoniae-positive lungs (n=25), 9 lungs were co-infected with M. hyorhinis, 9 lungs with PCV2, 2 lungs with PRRSV, 12 lungs with S. suis and 10 lungs with P. multocida. MLVA and PCR-RFLP clustering of M. hyopneumoniae revealed that analyzed strains were distributed among three and five clusters respectively, regardless of severity of lesions, indicating that no cluster is associated with virulence. However, strains missing a specific MLVA locus showed significantly less severe lesions and lower numbers of bacteria. MLVA and PCR-RFLP analyses also showed a high diversity among field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae with a greater homogeneity within the same herd. Almost half of the field isolates presented less than 55% homology with selected vaccine and reference strains. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus N Strain Isolated from Guangxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.

  6. [Molecular typing of 12 Brucella strains isolated in Guizhou province in 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jingzhu; Li, Shijun; Hang, Yan; Tang, Guangpeng; Wang, Dingming; Chen, Guichun

    2015-09-01

    To identify and characterize the Brucella strains from Guizhou province in 2010-2013. A total of 12 strains of Brucella suspicious bacteria were isolated in Guizhou province from 2010 to 2013. Four strains (GZLL3, GZLL4, GZLL11 and SH2) were isolated from goat blood samples and eight strains (SH4, GZZY, GZSQ, GZZA, BR13001, BR13004, BR13005 and BR13006) were isolated from blood samples of patient 12 Brucella suspicious strains were identified and characterized using conventional methods. Brucella genus specific gene BCSP31-based PCR (BCSP31-PCR) was used to identify the genus of Brucella and IS711 insert sequence-based PCR (AMOS-PCR) was applied to identify the species of Brucella strains. Goats and patients originated Brucella strains were comparatively analysed using Pulse-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both of conventional methods and PCR identified the 12 Brucella suspicious strains as B. melitensis biotype 3. BCSP31-PCR identification results showed that a specific DNA bands (223 bp) were detected in all the 12 strains and positive control samples with no DNA band in negative samples. AMOS-PCR amplified a 731 bp-DNA bands in all the 12 strains, with 731 bp, 498 bp and 275 bp in M5, S2 and A19 strains, respectively, and no DNA band was detected in the negative control samples. PFGE analysis showed that 12 Brucella isolates from patients and goats showed consistent PFGE patterns with the digestion of restriction enzyme Xba I. The epidemic species/type of Brucella in both human and animal in Guizhou province was B. melitensis biotype 3 and goat was the main animal source of infection of brucellosis in Guizhou province.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  8. Development of a novel vaccine against canine parvovirus infection with a clinical isolate of the type 2b strain

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. Materials and Methods We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. Result...

  9. Fusidic acid resistance among staphylococci strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Deveci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitrosusceptibility of fusidic acid to clinic isolates of staphylococci.Materials and methods: The forty-one coagulase negativestaphylococci (CNS and 18 Staphylococcus aureusstrains isolated from various clinical specimens were includedin this study. Staphylococci isolates were identifiedby conventional methods such as colony morphologyonto medium, gram staining, catalase and coagulasetests. According to “Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI” criteria, antimicrobial susceptibility testingof isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusionmethod.Results: The seventy-two percent of the isolated S.aureuswere defined as methicillin sensitive-S.aureus (MSSA,28% of the isolated S.aureus were defined as methicillinresistant-S.aureus (MRSA. The difference among fusidicacid susceptibility rates of MSSA and MRSA strains wasnot statistically significant (p=0.305. The twenty-nine percentof the isolated CNS were defined as methicillin sensitive-CNS (MS-CNS, 71% of the isolated CNS were definedas methicillin resistant-CNS (MR-CNS. There wasno statistically significant difference between MS-CNSand MR-CNS strains for fusidic acid susceptibility rates(p=0.490. But the difference among fusidic acid susceptibilityrates of CNS and S.aureus strains was statisticallysignificant (p<0.001. CNS strains were found more resistancethan S.aureus strains for fusidic acid.Conclusion: In this study, the resistance rates weredetected to increase for fusidic acid along with methicillinresistance. Among CNS isolates, fusidic acid resistancerates were significantly more elevated than that forS.aureus. Fusidic acid remains as an alternative in thetreatment of infections due to staphylococci.

  10. Isolation and Identification of L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains which isolated from Potato Farms

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    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L-Asparaginase can be effectively used for the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. The rapid growth of cancer cells are needed for L-asparagine abundant storage. L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains from the potato farms of Jiroft. Materials and methods: Pectolytic Erwinia species isolated from crumbling potato in M9 medium. The desired L-asparaginase producing bacteria were isolated based on the color changes. Biochemical-microbial and the plant pathogenicity tests of these strains were also investigated with potato and geranium. The L-asparaginase production and molecular detection of these Erwinia strains were also investigated. Results: In this study, L-asparaginase producing Erwinia was isolated on the CVP and M9 mediums. The inoculation of Erwinia strains on the potato and geranium plants showed that Er8 and Er11 species have the ability to cause plant pathogenicity. Results showed that the maximum pathogenicity of Er8 and Er11 was observed after 48 and 15 h of inoculation in potato and geranium plants, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that Er8 and Er11 strains were similar to Erwinia chrysanthemi with 98% homology. Discussion and conclusion: Because of several applications of the Erwinia L-asparaginase in various fields, isolated Erwinia and their L-asparaginase can be suitable for applied utilization.

  11. Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in Morocco. ... The most efficient isolated strain selected was compared with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results showed ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 67-70 ...

  12. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  13. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-08

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. Copyright © 2015 Su et al.

  14. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from five sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M; Sakata, S; Benno, Y

    2005-01-01

    Five different sourdoughs were investigated for the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains. A total of 57 strains were isolated from five sourdoughs. Isolated strains were all identified by the 16S rDNA sequence and species-specific primers for L. sanfranciscensis. Results of identification showed that LAB strains were L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Weisella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceus. A total of 21 strains were identified as L. sanfranciscensis and these isolates were detected in all five sourdoughs. Ribotyping was applied to investigate the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis and sourdough. A total of 22 strains of L. sanfranciscensis including L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T were compared by ribotyping. The dendrogram of 21 ribotyping patterns showed four clusters, and L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T was independent of the others. The different biotypes of L. sanfranciscensis were present in two sourdoughs compared with other three sourdoughs. The LAB compositions of five sourdoughs were different and the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains and five sourdoughs was shown by ribotyping. This study demonstrated that ribotyping was useful for distinguishing L. sanfranciscensis strains. A further important result is that the intra-species diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains seems to be related to the sourdough preparation.

  15. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

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    Hamid Staji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  16. Molecular Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance among Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Hospital Patients

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    Shadiyeh Abdollahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. They prevent the microbial protein synthesis system through binding to 23 S rRNA. The aim of this study was to apply molecular methods to detect inducible clindamycin resistance genes among staphylococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens.   Methods : Two hundred staphylococcus strains were isolated from nose and throat swabs of patients in Toohid and Besat hospitals in Sanandaj . Antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates were determined using disc diffusion method, agar screen test and D-Test. A multiplex PCR was performed using primers specific for erm (A, B, C, TR genes.   Results: Out of 200 isolates, 18.5 % were MRSA and 32% were MRCNS (methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci. Of 80 erythromycin resistant isolates, 48 were coagulase negative and 32 were S. aureus. Among the 48 coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS isolates, 11.63% expressed the MLSB-inducible phenotypes. Using PCR, the frequency of different genes in the collection of isolates were as follows: ermA 5.41 % , erm B 5.41 % , and erm C 3.13%. The ermTR gene was negative in all isolates. Among the 32 S. aureus isolates, 9.38% expressed the MLSB-nducible phenotype. Using PCR, these isolates harbored erm A (2.22%, ermB (2.22%, ermC (2.22% and ermTR (2.22% .   Conclusion: This is the first study to show the rate of inducible clindamycin clinical isolates of staphylococci harboring erm genes in Sananadaj. It also demonstrated the frequency of erm genes was higher among CONS isolates than S. aureus. This data suggested the transfer of resistance gene from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains is likely to happen. Therefore, screening and control of these resistance genes is recommended at clinical laboratories.

  17. Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from tropical ... Bacillus strains, putatively identified as Bacillus subtilis BM1 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BR1 were ... African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(14), 1554-1559 ...

  18. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Strains of Candida Albicans Isolated from AIDS Patients to Fluconazole and Determination of CDR2 Resistance Gene in Resistant Strains by RT-PCR Method

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    E Farahbakhsh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, opportunistic fungi especially Candida albicans are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in immunodeficiency patients. Increasing Azole-resistant strains of C.albicans are a main problem in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CDR2 gene in C.albicans azole resistant strains, isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis by RT-PCR method. Materials & Methods: The present experimental study was conducted at Tarbiat Modares University of Medical Sciences in 2009. C. albicans isolates from HIV infected patients were identified by standard procedures, including germ tube formation, clamidospor and color of colonies on CHROM agar. At first, susceptibility of C. albicans isolates was assessed by disk diffusion agar technique. Then, CDR2 resistance gene was analyzed by RT-PCR and electrophoresis of the PCR products. Finally, patterns of the resulted bands were compared with standard fluconazole resistant strains. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: The results of drug sensitivity of 66 C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients revealed that 62.6% were susceptible, 8.6% were susceptible-dose dependent (SDD and 28.7% were resistant. In RT-PCR analysis, 6% of patients had the CDR2 gene. Conclusion: The use of phenotypic methods like disk diffusion agar, which is cheaper, along with genotypic methods, like RT-PCR, which provide the possibility of studying the mechanism of drug resistance, is recommended.

  19. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

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    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  20. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  1. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

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    Abdelahhad Barbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS. A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10 and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10 from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. CONCLUSION: The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for

  2. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, A; Furuhata, K; Matsumoto, A; Koike, K A; Fukuyama, M; Tabuchi, K

    1995-01-01

    Strains of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs which were isolated previously from various environments and assigned tentatively to the genus Methylobacterium were characterized in comparison with authentic strains of previously known species of this genus. Most of the isolates derived from chlorinated water supplies exhibited resistance to chlorine, whereas 29 to 40% of the isolates from air, natural aquatic environments, and clinical materials were chlorine resistant. None of the tested authentic strains of Methylobacterium species obtained from culture collections exhibited chlorine resistance. Numerical analysis of phenotypic profiles showed that the test organisms tested were separated from each other except M. organophilum and M. rhodesianum. The chlorine-resistant isolates were randomly distributed among all clusters. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence-based phylogenetic analyses showed that representatives of the isolates together with known Methylobacterium species formed a line of descent distinct from that of members of related genera in the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria and were divided into three subclusters within the Methylobacterium group. These results demonstrate that there is phenotypic and genetic diversity among chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains within the genus. PMID:7793931

  3. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, A; Furuhata, K; Matsumoto, A; Koike, K A; Fukuyama, M; Tabuchi, K

    1995-06-01

    Strains of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs which were isolated previously from various environments and assigned tentatively to the genus Methylobacterium were characterized in comparison with authentic strains of previously known species of this genus. Most of the isolates derived from chlorinated water supplies exhibited resistance to chlorine, whereas 29 to 40% of the isolates from air, natural aquatic environments, and clinical materials were chlorine resistant. None of the tested authentic strains of Methylobacterium species obtained from culture collections exhibited chlorine resistance. Numerical analysis of phenotypic profiles showed that the test organisms tested were separated from each other except M. organophilum and M. rhodesianum. The chlorine-resistant isolates were randomly distributed among all clusters. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence-based phylogenetic analyses showed that representatives of the isolates together with known Methylobacterium species formed a line of descent distinct from that of members of related genera in the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria and were divided into three subclusters within the Methylobacterium group. These results demonstrate that there is phenotypic and genetic diversity among chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains within the genus.

  4. Comparison of Methods for Isolating High Quality DNA and RNA from an Oleaginous Fungus Cunninghamella bainieri Strain 2a1

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Adila, A. K.; Farah Diba, A. B.; Zamri, Z.; Wan Mohtar, W. Y.; Aidil, A. H.; Mahadi, N. M.; Murad, A. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of protocols have been reported for efficient fungal DNA and RNA isolation. However, many of these methods are often designed for certain groups or morphological forms of fungi and, in some cases, are species dependent. In this report, we compared four published protocols for DNA isolation from a locally isolated oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella bainieri strain 2a1. These protocols either involved the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or w...

  5. Vitreous haemorrhage in massive hemorrhagic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes: Vitreous hemorrhage in PCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Raja; Mithal, Kopal; Jalali, Subhadra; Chhablani, Jay Kumar; Mathai, Annie; Ali, Md Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    To report the outcomes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) associated with hemorrhagic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). A retrospective study of 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients of hemorrhagic PCV with VH, which were managed surgically between January 2003 and December 2011, was performed. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy for VH associated with PCV. The main outcome measure was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at baseline, at 1, 3 and 6 months post operatively and at last follow up. The visual acuity measured on early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) chart improved in 16 eyes (57.1 %) by two or more lines, remained unchanged in nine eyes (32.1 %) and decreased in three (10.7 %) after surgery when compared to baseline VA. The mean baseline VA was 2.69 ± 0.57 logMAR units (hemorrhagic PCV have sustained improvement in visual acuity following surgery.

  6. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Producers of Extended-Spectrum and CMY-2 Type Beta-Lactamases, Isolated from Turtles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Torres, Carmen; Castañeda, Miguel; Sánchez, Gabriela Moreno; Alonso, Carla A; López-Pliego, Liliana; Mayen, María G Gutiérrez; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in different environments and hosts, but scarce information exists about their prevalence in reptiles. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms, molecular typing, and plasmid content of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) Escherichia coli isolates recovered from cloacal samples of 71 turtles sheltered in a herpetarium in Mexico. CTX(R)-E. coli were recovered in 11 of 71 samples (15.5%), and one isolate/sample was characterized. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates were detected in four samples (5.6%): two strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 gene (phylogroup D and ST2732) and two contained the blaCTX-M-15 gene (phylogroup B1 and lineages ST58 and ST156). The blaCMY-2 gene was detected by PCR in E. coli isolates of eight samples (9.8%) (one of them also carried blaCTX-M-2); these isolates were distributed into phylogroups A (n = 1), B1 (n = 6), and D (n = 1) and typed as ST155, ST156, ST2329, and ST2732. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in five isolates [aac(6')Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB19, and oqxB]. From three to five replicon plasmids were detected among the strains, being IncFIB, IncI1, IncFrep, and IncK the most prevalent. ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in four strains, and the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were localized in IncFIB or IncI1 plasmids by Southern blot hybridization assays. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in eight strains with six different structures of gene cassette arrays. Nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were found among the 11 studied strains. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of ESBL, CMY-2, PMQR, and mobile determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of turtle origin, highlighting the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria from these animals to other environments and hosts, including humans.

  7. Surveillance of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in Italy: evolution of serotypes and antibiotic resistance in different age groups before and after implementation of PCV7

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    Fabio D’Ambrosio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: PCV7 has been available in Italy since 2001, however only in 2005 national recommendations were issued and vaccination was implemented with different modalities by the Regions. Objectives: Aim of this study was to describe changes in serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae from invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD in the last decade. Study Design: S. pneumoniae isolates from IPD, collected through a national surveillance system, were serotyped and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test. Data were analyzed according to age groups (5 years, >5-64 years, 65 years and to 3 time periods: prior, during and after PCV7 implementation (2001- 2003, 2006-2008 and 2009-2011. Results: The percentage of PCV7 serotypes (vaccine serotypes, VS decreased over the years not only in children (from 60% to 26% but also in the other age groups. Penicillin resistance was rather low in 2001-2003 (7-12%, but peaked in children in 2006-2008 (24%, and decreased in 2009-2011, while erythromycin resistance slightly decreased over the 3 periods. Conclusions: PCV7 use has largely impacted the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Italy, with a decrease in VS in all age groups.The impact of PCV 13, available in Italy since the end of 2010, requires future evaluations.

  8. Comparative experimental studies on Trypanosoma isolates in mice and response to diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride treatment

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    Muluken Yayeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was undertaken from December 2015 to May 2016 with the aim of determining and comparing the pathogenicity and response to diminazene aceturate (DA and isometamidium chloride (ISM treatment in experimentally infected mice with trypanosome isolates from Jawi and Birsheleko areas of northwest Ethiopia. A total of 42 mice were used for the experiment. These mice were randomly assigned in to 7 groups of 6 mice per group. Three of the groups (Group 1, 4 and 5 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Jawi and three other groups (Group-2, 6 and 7 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Birsheleko and the remaining one group (Group 3 was negative control. Each experimental mice were received 0.3 ml of positive blood at the 105 parasites/ml from donor animals intraperitoneally while negative control group were received 0.3 ml sterile water. The mice were clinically observed daily during the study period. Parameters including level of parasitaemia, body weight, PCV and hemoglobin value were recorded once per week for ten consecutive weeks post infection. Trypanocidal treatment was given on day 21 post infection when peak parasitaemia was detected in groups (Group 4-DA-Jawi, 5-ISM-Jawi, 6-DA-BRSH and 7-ISM-BRSH. The treatment doses for DA was at 28 mg/kg and for ISM at 4 mg/kg. In all experimental groups during study period when the mice showed severe clinical signs and at the end of the experiment they were euthanized with 70% ethanol for gross and histopathological examinations. The parameters measured during the study period revealed markers leading to pathological changes in all infected groups. Parasitaemia were detected early in the Jawi isolate infected groups compared to the Birsheleko groups. All infected mice showed clear clinical manifestation of depression, weight loss, reduction in feed intake and huddled together in the corner of the cage. Significant (P < 0.05 reduction was observed in the mean PCV and

  9. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  10. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  11. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  12. Isolation and identification of biocellulose-producing bacterial strains from Malaysian acidic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, W W Y; Rukayadi, Y; Meor Hussin, A S

    2016-05-01

    Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose produced by several species of micro-organisms that has numerous applications in the food, biomedical and paper industries. However, the existing biocellulose-producing bacterial strain with high yield was limited. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the potential biocellulose-producing bacterial isolates from Malaysian acidic fruits. One hundred and ninety-three bacterial isolates were obtained from 19 local acidic fruits collected in Malaysia and screened for their ability to produce BC. A total of 15 potential bacterial isolates were then cultured in standard Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium statically at 30°C for 2 weeks to determine the BC production. The most potent bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Three new and potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were isolated from soursop fruit and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42 was the most potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strain that produced the highest amount of BC 0·58 g l(-1) in standard HS medium. Whereas, the isolates P. vagans WAUPM45 and B. fluminensis WAUPM53 showed 0·50 and 0·52 g l(-1) of BC production, respectively. Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose that is formed by many micro-organisms in the presence of carbon source and acidic condition. It can replace plant-based cellulose in multifarious applications due to its unique characteristics. In this study, three potential biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were obtained from Malaysian acidic fruits and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. This study reports for the first time the new biocellulose-producing bacterial strains isolated from Malaysian acidic fruits. © 2016 The

  13. Susceptibility to tigecycline of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Katarzyna; Krzyściak, Paweł; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to cure due to the acquisition of resistance by these bacteria and lead to an increase in the general costs of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine tigecycline susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit and non-intensive care unit patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MICs were tested by Etest among 70 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The MIC range was from 0.5 to 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For ESBL-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, as well as for strains without carbapenemases, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For AmpC-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 6.0 mg L⁻¹ and, for MBL-producing strains, 2.0 mg L⁻¹. The majority of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from ICU and non-ICU patients demonstrated high values of MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 to tigecycline.

  14. Genome-centric evaluation of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 resistant to high concentrations of uranium and nickel isolated from the Savannah River Site (SRS, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannah River Site (SRS, an approximately 800-km2 former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U and Nickel (Ni were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni. To fully understand the arsenal of metabolic functions possessed by this strain, a draft whole genome sequence (WGS was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. Genome-centric evaluation revealed the isolate to belong to the Burkholderia genus with close affiliation to B. xenovorans LB400, an aggressive polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader. At a coverage of 90×, the genome of strain SRS-W-2-2016 consisted of 8,035,584 bases with a total number of 7071 putative genes assembling into 191 contigs with an N50 contig length of 134,675 bases. Several gene homologues coding for resistance to heavy metals/radionuclides were identified in strain SRS-W-2-2016, such as a suite of outer membrane efflux pump proteins similar to nickel/cobalt transporter regulators, peptide/nickel transport substrate and ATP-binding proteins, permease proteins, and a high-affinity nickel-transport protein. Also noteworthy were two separate gene fragments in strain SRS-W-2-2016 homologous to the spoT gene; recently correlated with bacterial tolerance to U. Additionally, a plethora of oxygenase genes were also identified in the isolate, potentially involved in the breakdown of organic compounds facilitating the strain's successful colonization and survival in the SRS co-contaminated soils. The WGS project of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession #MSDV00000000.

  15. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged

  16. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from sugary and milk kefir reduce Salmonella infection of epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, L; Golowczyc, M A; van Hoorde, K; Medrano, M; Huys, G; Vandamme, P; Abraham, A G

    2016-09-01

    The isolation of potentially probiotic strains and the subsequent study of their properties are very important steps to gain insight in the health benefits ascribed to sugary and milk kefir. The aim of the present study was to characterise fifteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from these beverages by determining some surface properties and their ability to antagonise enterocyte cell damage after Salmonella infection in vitro. Lactobacillus surface properties were determined by hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation assays with Salmonella. In addition, lactobacilli adhesion to Caco-2/TC-7 cells and the effect on Salmonella invasion were evaluated. Finally, the disassembly of F-actin cytoskeleton on intestinal epithelial cells was assayed in vitro when Salmonella infection was performed in the presence of selected Lactobacillus strains. Ten out of the 15 strains showed a high adhesion capacity to Caco-2/TC-7 cells. Most of the strains were hydrophilic and non-autoaggregating. Strains isolated from sugary kefir were non-coaggregating with Salmonella, while strains Lactobacillus paracasei CIDCA 83120, 83121, 83123, 83124, 8339, 83102 isolated from milk kefir were able to coaggregate after 1 h. L. paracasei CIDCA 8339 and Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 83102 were able to diminish Salmonella invasion to the enterocytes. An antagonistic effect on cytoskeleton disruption elicited by the pathogen was also demonstrated. Our results suggest that both strains isolated from milk kefir could be considered as appropriate probiotic candidates.

  18. Development of a novel vaccine against canine parvovirus infection with a clinical isolate of the type 2b strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung

    2012-07-01

    In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. The attenuated isolate conferred complete protection against lethal homologous CPV infection in dogs such that they did not develop any clinical symptoms, and their antibody titers against CPV were significantly high at 7-11 days post infection. These results suggest that the virus isolate obtained after passaging can be developed as a novel vaccine against paroviral infection.

  19. Profile of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats and genetic relationships with isolates from cattle, meat and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Carbonari, C; Gerhardt, E; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Pistone-Creydt, V; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2012-05-04

    Pets can be reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The aim of this study was to examine nine strains belonging to several serotypes (O91:H21, O91:H16, O178:H19, O8:H19, O22:H8, O22:HNT, ONT:H8), previously recovered from cats or dogs. To this end, we assessed a set of additional virulence genes (stx(2) subtype, subAB, ehxA, eae and saa), cytotoxic activity, and genetic relationships with strains isolated from cattle, meat and humans using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most of the isolates carried the stx(2) and/or stx(2vh-b) sequences, while only the O91:H21 isolate presented the mucus-activatable stx(2d) variant, as confirmed by sequencing the genes of subunits A and B. All the strains showed cytotoxic activity in cultured cells. One of the two O178:H19, selected for its high level of cytotoxicity in Vero cells, showed the ability to cause functional alterations in the human colon mucosa in vitro. None of the strains possessed the subAB, eae or saa genes and only the strains belonging to serotype O8:H19 carried the ehxA gene. The isolates shared 90-100% similarity by PFGE to epidemiologically unrelated strains of the corresponding serotypes recovered from cattle, meat or humans. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats may have a role in the infection of humans by STEC, probably serving as a vehicle for bovine strains in the cycle of human infection, and thus emphasize the health risks for owners and their families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the Clinical and Economic Impact of Maintaining use of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Matt; Wilson, Michele; McDade, Cheryl; Grajales, Ana Gabriela; Palacios, Maria Gabriela; Baez- Revueltas, Fabiola Berenice; Farkouh, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background PCV13 replaced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the routine infant immunization schedule in Mexico since 2011. The use of PCV13 has reduced pneumococcal disease incidence for vaccine serotypes, particularly 19A, which emerged following PCV7 use. The 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) contains the same serotypes as PCV13 with the exception of serotypes 3, 19A and 6A but also has different conjugated proteins for the common serotypes. This study evaluated the potential health and economic implications of switching from PCV13 to PCV10 in Mexico. Methods A decision-analytic model was developed to estimate public health and economic impact of maintaining PCV13 compared with switching to PCV10 in Mexico. Disease incidence at time of potential switch for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia (PNE) and acute otitis media (AOM) was obtained from Dirección General de Epidemiología and the published literature. Historical data was used to estimate IPD trends under different infant vaccine pressures and the model forecasted disease across the population. For each vaccination program, health outcomes and associated health-care costs were estimated. Costs, utility weights, and risk of disease-specific complications were derived from published sources. Results In the base case, continued use of PCV13 would result in significantly fewer cases of pneumococcal disease than switching to PCV10 in Mexico (See Table 1). Despite a higher vaccine cost, PCV13 was cost-saving compared with PCV10 in the base case and across a number of scenarios evaluated. Table 1: Total cases and costs associated with maintaining use of PCV13 vs. switching to PCV10 in Mexico over a 10 year period PCV13 PCV10 Difference IPD 16,808 17,248 −440 AOM 7,023,448 7,245,446 −221,998 PNE 1,743,115 1,831,936 −88,821 Deaths 19,457 19,867 −410 Total QALYs 864,069,669 864,068,101 1,568 Total Cost $258,353,508,707 $264,927,566,637 −$6,574,057,930 ICER PCV13 Dominant Costs are

  1. Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Kutima, Phillip M; Mbugua, Samuel K; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development.

  2. Isolation of a novel 'atypical' Brucella strain from a bluespotted ribbontail ray (Taeniura lymma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Riße, Karin; Schauerte, Nicole; Geiger, Christina; Blom, Jochen; Scholz, Holger C

    2017-02-01

    A pleomorphic Gram-negative, motile coccobacillus was isolated from the gills of a wild-caught bluespotted ribbontail ray after its sudden death during quarantine. Strain 141012304 was observed to grow aerobically, to be clearly positive for cytochrome oxidase, catalase, urease and was initially identified as "Brucella melitensis" or "Ochrobactrum anthropi" by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and VITEK2-compact ® , respectively. Affiliation to the genus Brucella was confirmed by bcsp31 and IS711 PCR as well as by Brucella species-specific multiplex PCR, therein displaying a characteristic banding pattern recently described for Brucella strains obtained from amphibian hosts. Likewise, based on recA sequencing, strain 141012304 was found to form a separate lineage, within the so called 'atypical' Brucella, consisting of genetically more distantly related strains. The closest similarity was detected to brucellae, which have recently been isolated from edible bull frogs. Subsequent next generation genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the ray strain represents a novel Brucella lineage within the atypical group of Brucella and in vicinity to Brucella inopinata and Brucella strain BO2, both isolated from human patients. This is the first report of a natural Brucella infection in a saltwater fish extending the host range of this medically important genus.

  3. Isolation of a nitrate-reducing bacteria strain from oil field brine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) strain with vigorous growth, strong nitrate reduction ability, strain B9 2-1, was isolated from Suizhong36-1 oilfield, its routine identification and analysis of 16S rRNA and also the competitive inhibition experiments with the enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were carried out.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  6. Multidrug Resistance in Non-PCV13 Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Northern Japan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-03-01

    Since the implementation of routine PCV13 immunization in Japan, nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) have been increasing among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, susceptibility to 18 antibiotics was tested for all the 231 isolates with NVTs, which were collected from children Japan in 2014 (July-November). High resistance rates were observed for macrolides (>90.9%), tetracycline (91.3%), and clindamycin (75.3%), while penicillin (PEN) nonsusceptibility (PNSP; MIC ≥0.12 μg/ml) was detected in 42.9% of the pneumococci [39.4%; PEN-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), 3.5%; PEN-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP)]. All serotype 15A isolates were PRSP (MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) or PISP, and PNSP was prevalent in also serotypes 23A (96.9%), 6C (41%), and 35B (33.3%). Overall, 42.0% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR). Sequence types (STs) determined for 20 PNSP isolates with NVTs were ST63 (15A), STs 242 or 5832 (6C), STs 338 or 5242 (23A), and ST558 (35B). All the PNSP isolates possessed tet(M), and erm(B) or mefA(A/E), and 70% of them were gPRSP having three altered genes pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b. Among alterations in transpeptidase-coding region of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), two substitutions of T 371 S in the STMK motif and TSQF 574-577 NTGY in PBP1a were common to all PRSP isolates. The present study showed the spread of PNSP in NVTs 15A, 23A, 6C, and 35B, and the emergence of the MDR international clone Sweden 15A -ST63 in northern Japan.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F causing invasive pneumococcal disease using whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H B Demczuk

    Full Text Available Since implementation of the 13-valent polyvalent conjugate vaccine (PCV13 in Canada during 2010, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD has declined from 55% (n = 1492 in 2010 to 31% (n = 764 in 2014. A concurrent increase of non-PCV13 serotypes has occurred and 22F has become the most prevalent serotype in Canada increasing from 7% (n = 183 to 11% (n = 283. Core single nucleotide variant phylogenetic analysis was performed on 137 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F isolates collected across Canada from 2005-2015. Six phylogenetic lineages (n = 117 were identified among a serotype 22F/ST433 clonal complex (CC, including a recently expanding erythromycin-resistant clone. Erythromycin-resistance was observed in 25 isolates possessing ermB, mef or a 23S rRNA A2061G point mutation; 2 penicillin-resistant isolates had recombinant pbp1a, pbp2a and/or pbp2x; 3 tetracycline-resistant isolates contained tetM; and 1 isolate was multidrug-resistant. Virulence factor analysis indicated a high level of homogeneity among the 22F/ST433 clonal complex strains. A group of 6 phylogenetic outlier strains had differing MLST, antimicrobial resistance and molecular profiles suggestive of capsule switching events. While capsule switch events among S. pneumoniae serotype 22F has been observed, increasing prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotype 22F can be attributed to an evolving homogenous clone expanding nationally through local transmission events.

  8. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  9. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan

    2017-08-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  10. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M.; van Helden, Paul D.; van der Merwe, Ruben G.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L.; Tabb, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  11. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; van der Merwe, Ruben G; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L; Tabb, David L

    2017-10-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of the utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study, we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach, we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ∼9% of all coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here, we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e., large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  12. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory probiotic strains isolated from pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maravilla, Edgar; Lenoir, Marion; Mayorga-Reyes, Lino; Allain, Thibault; Sokol, Harry; Langella, Philippe; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Their use is more and more widespread for both prevention and treatment of diseases, including traveler’s diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this work, we isolated and characterized novel candidate probiotic strains from pulque (xaxtle), a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. A total of 14 strains were obtained from xaxtle samples isolated from three different Mexican regions. Species identification was performed by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene targeted PCR. The isolates belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus composti phylogenetic groups, with L. brevis being the most dominant group. Bacteria were tested for lysozyme, low pH, and bile acid resistance. Moreover, the strains were tested for adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells and screened for their immunomodulatory properties using a cellular model. Selected bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory properties were then tested in vivo in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model, and weight loss, gut permeability, and cytokine profiles were measured as readouts of inflammation. One of the selected strains, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LBH1068, improved mice health as observed by a reduction of weight loss, significant decreases in gut permeability, and cytokine modulation. Altogether, our results highlighted the potential of lactobacilli isolated from pulque and in particular the strain L. sanfranciscensis LBH1068 as a novel probiotic to treat IBD.

  13. Occurrence of mannose resistant hemagglutinins in Escherichia coli strains isolated from porcine colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M; Osek, J

    1987-01-01

    Three-hundred and fifty-eight E. coli strains isolated from piglets were tested for the presence of hemagglutinins by the use of the active hemagglutination test with or without mannose. Additionally 86 strains from the mentioned number of strains were investigated for the presence of common fimbriae using the same method but growing the strains in media especially suited for the development of this kind of fimbriae. These 358 strains and additionally 202 E. coli strains were tested using antisera for 987P and K88 antigens. It was found, using the active hemagglutination test, that 51.4% of the strains were hemagglutinating. The hemagglutinating strains carried the K88 antigen. All these strains were isolated from new-born and weaned piglets with enterotoxic form of colibacillosis, called also E. coli diarrhea. From cases of this form of colibacillosis originated also 26.7% of the strains in which common fimbriae (type 1) were detected. This result was obtained when the BHI medium was used for cultivation. In case of TSA medium only 2.3% of strains were positive. No specific or common fimbriae were found in strains recovered from septic form of colibacillosis and oedema disease (called also enterotoxaemic form of colibacillosis). No strain of 560 examined showed the presence of fimbrial 987P antigen.

  14. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected or coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO), or coinfected with both. Twenty-eight pigs were randomly assigned to one ...

  15. Genotyping of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Nejma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported to cause skin and soft tissue infections for children. The emergence of highly virulencet CA-MRSA strains in the immunodeficiency of young children seemed to be the basic explanation of the increased incidence of CA-MRSA infections among this population. The subjects of this study were 8 patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Monastir. The patients were young children (aged from 12 days to 18 months who were suffering from MRSA skin infections; two of them had the infections within 72 h of their admission. The isolates were classified as community isolates as they all carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec IV and pvl genes. Epidemiological techniques, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, were applied to investigate CA-MRSA strains. Analysis of molecular data revealed that MRSA strains were related according to PFGE patterns and they belonged to a single clone ST80. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all strains were resistant to kanamycin and 2 strains were resistant to erythromycin.

  16. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

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    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  17. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  18. JAEA's research on the effects of seawater and radiation on corrosion of Zircaloy and PCV/RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Takashi; Motooka, Takafumi; Nakano, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to implement successfully a lot of work for the extraction of fuel assemblies from spent fuel pool (SFP) and also for the removal of fuel debris from reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and primary containment vessel (PCV) at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of Tokyo Electric Power Co., it is necessary to investigate and to prevent the degradation of structural materials of the fuel assemblies and PCV/RPV which are exposed to the gamma radiation and water containing seawater ingredient, because those factors are influencing and possibly accelerating corrosion of the materials. Therefore, at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), we are carrying out the research related to the corrosion issues which may affect the integrity of fuel assemblies and reactor vessels, i.e. PCV and reactor pressure vessel (RPV), from a viewpoint of the effect of gamma radiation and diluted seawater on corrosion behavior as described in this review. In SFP, hydrazine (N_2H_4) was added to salt-containing water in order to reduce dissolved oxygen (DO). Therefore, deoxygenation behavior by N_2H_4 addition was investigated at the ambient temperature. To evaluate the effects of radiolysis on the initiation of pitting corrosion on Zircaloy-2 in water containing sea salt, the pitting potentials of Zircaloy-2 were evaluated. The experimental results showed that the pitting potential under irradiation was slightly higher than that under conditions in which no radiation was present. Corrosion tests of PCV/RPV steels were conducted in diluted seawater at 50degC under gamma-ray irradiation of dose rates of 4.4 and 0.2 kGy/h. To assess the effect of N_2H_4 as an oxygen scavenger under gamma-ray irradiation in PCV condition, 10 and 100 mg/L N_2H_4 were added to the diluted seawater. When gas phase in test flask was replaced with N_2, corrosion weight loss of the steels decreased remarkably. (author)

  19. Expression of curli by Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients during outbreaks is different from similar strains isolated from leafy green production environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao Venkata Ravva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. More than half of the fecal strains (human and animal and a significant proportion of environmental isolates (82% were found to lack curli expression. EcO157 strains from several outbreaks linked with the consumption of contaminated apple juice, produce, hamburgers, steak and beef were also found to lack curli expression. Phylogenetic analysis of fecal strains indicates curli expression is distributed throughout the population. However, a significant proportion of animal fecal isolates (84% gave no curli expression compared to human fecal isolates (58%. In addition, analysis of environmental isolates indicated nearly exclusive clustering of curli expression to a single branch of the minimal spanning tree. This indicates that curli expression depends primarily upon the type of environmental exposure and the isolation source, although genotypic differences also contribute to clonal variation in curli. Furthermore, curli-deficient phenotype appears to be a selective trait for survival of EcO157 in agricultural environments.

  20. Estimating the Clinical and Economic Impact of Maintaining use of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, Matt; Wilson, Michele; McDade, Cheryl; Grajales, Ana Gabriela; Palacios, Maria Gabriela; Baez- Revueltas, Fabiola Berenice; Farkouh, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background PCV13 replaced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the routine infant immunization schedule in Mexico since 2011. The use of PCV13 has reduced pneumococcal disease incidence for vaccine serotypes, particularly 19A, which emerged following PCV7 use. The 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) contains the same serotypes as PCV13 with the exception of serotypes 3, 19A and 6A but also has different conjugated proteins for the common serotypes. This study evaluated the potential heal...

  1. Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 strains isolated from animal, food, and clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Alejandra; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Sanso, A. Mariel; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Bustamante, Ana V.; Burgán, Julia; Fernández, Luciana; Fernández, Daniel; Leotta, Gerardo; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Padola, Nora L.; Rossen, John W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause serious illness in human. Here we analyze O26:H11 strains known to be among the most reported STEC strains causing human infections. Genetic characterization of strains isolated from animal, food, and clinical specimens in Argentina showed that most carried either stx1a or stx2a subtypes. Interestingly, stx2a-positive O26:H11 rarely isolated from cattle in other countries showed to be an important proportion of O26:H11 strains circulating in cattle and food in our region. Seventeen percent of the isolates harbored more than one gene associated with antimicrobial resistance. In addition to stx, all strains contained the virulence genes eae-β, tir, efa, iha, espB, cif, espA, espF, espJ, nleA, nleB, nleC, and iss; and all except one contained ehxA, espP, and cba genes. On the other hand, toxB and espI genes were exclusively observed in stx2-positive isolates, whereas katP was only found in stx1a-positive isolates. Our results show that O26:H11 STEC strains circulating in Argentina, including those isolated from humans, cattle, and meat products, present a high pathogenic potential, and evidence that cattle can be a reservoir of O26:H11 strains harboring stx2a. PMID:26539413

  2. Safety Evaluation of Enterocin Producer Enterococcus sp. Strains Isolated from Traditional Turkish Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Mine; Özden Tuncer, Banu

    2017-07-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and occurrence of bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from different cheeses and also investigate some of their virulence factors. Enterococcus strains were isolated from 33 different cheeses. Enterococcus faecium (6 strains) and Enterococcus faecalis (5 strains) enterocin-producing strains were identified by 16S rDNA analyses. Structural genes entA, entB, entP and entX were detected in some isolates. Multiple enterocin structural genes were found in 7 strains. None of the tested enterococci demonstrated anyβ-haemolytic activity and only one strain had gelatinase activity. Six strains showed multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and in addition, vanA and several virulence genes were detected in many strains. Only E. faecalis MBE1-9 showed tyrosine decarboxylase activity and tdc gene was detected only in this strain.

  3. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  4. [Sensitivity to disinfectants of Candid albicans strains isolated from the hospital environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeusiak, B

    1998-01-01

    In recent years an increase of the incidence of Candida infections caused mainly by C. albicans strains especially in high risk inpatients with neoplasms, decreased immunity, burns and after treatment with multiple antibiotics has been observed. Candida organisms are particularly dangerous for newborns being responsible for about 30% of septicaemia cases in newborns in intensive care units. Fungal infections can be endogenous in origin but exogenous infection sources occur in hospitals. The cause of the latter are errors in aseptic management and insufficiently disinfected medical instruments and equipment. The purpose of the study was a comparison of the sensitivity to disinfectants of C. albicans belonging to two laboratory strains C. albicans PZH and C. albicans ATCC 10231 used for the determination of concentrations of two disinfectants used. Besides that, this sensitivity was determined in 14 strains isolated from the patients and one from the circuit of dialysis solution supply to artificial kidney. The study was carried out by the qualitative suspension method, in which the cells in the fluid were subjected to the action of disinfectants, and by the carrier method in which the cells of the microorganisms were present on the surface of metal cylinders. By the suspension method the sensitivity was determined to chloramine T in concentrations from 5.0% to 0.001%, formalin from 10.0% to 0.25%, glutaraldehyde from 2.0% to 0.1%, Septyl from 3.5% to 0.25%. The exposure time was 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. The tested strains differed in their sensitivity to the disinfectants used. The greatest interstrain differences were observed in the sensitivity to the disinfectants used. The greatest interstrain differences were observed in the sensitivity to chloramine T. The highest concentrations were tolerated by the strains isolated from the patients and from the artificial kidney circuit as well as by the standard strain ATCC 10231. In the 10-minute exposure time

  5. Immunodominant antigens of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshad, S.; Alborzi, A.; Japoni, A.; Hayati, M.; Nasiri, J.; Rafatpour, N.; Saberfirouzi, M.; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Taghavi, Ali R.; Irajian, Gholam R.

    2006-01-01

    To detect the immunogenic proteins in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from patients with different gastric diseases. We performed this study in the Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, during July 2003 to September 2004. Total proteins of H. pylori strains isolated from the gastric biopsies of 3 groups of patients were separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and then blotted with the sera of their respective hosts. In SDS-PAGE the members of each group showed high correlation according to similarity in their patterns, resulting in considering them in the same cluster. The patterns of immunoblots differed from that of Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained gels. The blotting method did not recognize some of the protein bands in the SDS-PAGE. Only the bands of 106 and 45 kDa from H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric cancer were significantly (p<0.05) recognized specifically with the sera of their respective patients, and the band of 13 kDa was recognized specifically (p<0.05) with the sera of nonulceric patients. With the exception of these bands, in the patterns of blotting of the sera from all patients no significant differences were observed. By using 1D blotting methods we could find 2 antigenic protein bands (106 and 45 kDa) for H. pylori strains isolated from cancerous patients, and one (13 kDa) for the strains isolated from nonulceric patients, which were specifically recognized with their respective host. (author)

  6. Genome Sequence Analysis of New Isolates of the Winona Strain of Plum pox virus and the First Definitive Evidence of Intrastrain Recombination Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delano; Sanderson, Dan; Varga, Aniko; Sheveleva, Anna; Chirkov, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is genetically diverse with nine different strains identified. Mutations, indel events, and interstrain recombination events are known to contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. This is the first report of intrastrain recombination events that contribute to PPV's genetic diversity. Fourteen isolates of the PPV strain Winona (W) were analyzed including nine new strain W isolates sequenced completely in this study. Isolates of other strains of PPV with more than one isolate with the complete genome sequence available in GenBank were included also in this study for comparison and analysis. Five intrastrain recombination events were detected among the PPV W isolates, one among PPV C strain isolates, and one among PPV M strain isolates. Four (29%) of the PPV W isolates analyzed are recombinants; one of which (P2-1) is a mosaic, with three recombination events identified. A new interstrain recombinant event was identified between a strain M isolate and a strain Rec isolate, a known recombinant. In silico recombination studies and pairwise distance analyses of PPV strain D isolates indicate that a threshold of genetic diversity exists for the detectability of recombination events, in the range of approximately 0.78×10(-2) to 1.33×10(-2) mean pairwise distance. RDP4 analyses indicate that in the case of PPV Rec isolates there may be a recombinant breakpoint distinct from the obvious transition point of strain sequences. Evidence was obtained that indicates that the frequency of PPV recombination is underestimated, which may be true for other RNA viruses where low genetic diversity exists.

  7. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Strains Isolated from Chronic Chagasic Patients, Triatomines and Opossums Naturally Infected from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Duarte Fernandes

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five Trypanosoma cruzi strains were isolated from chronic chagasic patients, triatomines and opossums from different municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Parasites were characterized by means of mice infectivity, enzyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from chagasic patients, 4 from triatomines (2 from Triatoma infestans and 2 from Panstrongylus megistus and 2 from opossums Didelphis albiventris. Thirty-three T. cruzi strains were of low and 2 strains of high virulence in mice. Both virulent strains were isolated from P. megistus. Isoenzyme analysis of the strains showed 3 different zymodemes. Eleven strains isolated from chagasic patients and 2 from D. albiventris were Z2. Eighteen strains from patients and 2 from T. infestans were ZB and 2 T. cruzi strains isolated from P. megistus were Z1. RAPD profiles obtained with 4 random primers showed a high genetic heterogeneity of the T. cruzi strains. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were the more polymorphic. A band sharing analysis of the RAPD profiles of Z2 and ZB strains using 3 primers, showed a very low percentage of shared bands, 20% among 13 ZB strains and 14% among 13 Z2 strains. According to the isoenzyme results, 3 T. cruzi populations were present in State of Rio Grande do Sul. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were found infecting man (domiciliar transmission cycle whereas Z1 strains were found infecting the sylvatic vector P. megistus

  8. Clonality and Resistome analysis of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated in Korea using whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Bong-Soo; Chun, Jongsik; Yong, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yeong Seon; Yoo, Jung Sik; Yong, Dongeun; Hong, Seong Geun; D'Souza, Roshan; Thomson, Kenneth S; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the whole genome sequence and resistome of the outbreak Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MP14 and compared it with those of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase- (KPC-) producing isolates that showed high similarity in the NCBI genome database. A KPC-2-producing multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae clinical isolate was obtained from a patient admitted to a Korean hospital in 2011. The strain MP14 was resistant to all tested β-lactams including monobactam, amikacin, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, but susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. Resistome analysis showed the presence of β-lactamase genes including bla KPC-2, bla SHV-11, bla TEM-169, and bla OXA-9. MP14 also possessed aac(6'-)Ib, aadA2, and aph(3'-)Ia as aminoglycoside resistance-encoding genes, mph(A) for macrolides, oqxA and oqxB for quinolone, catA1 for phenicol, sul1 for sulfonamide, and dfrA12 for trimethoprim. Both SNP tree and cgMLST analysis showed the close relatedness with the KPC producers (KPNIH strains) isolated from an outbreak in the USA and colistin-resistant strains isolated in Italy. The plasmid-scaffold genes in plasmids pKpQil, pKpQil-IT, pKPN3, or pKPN-IT were identified in MP14, KPNIH, and Italian strains. The KPC-2-producing MDR K. pneumoniae ST258 stain isolated in Korea was highly clonally related with MDR K. pneumoniae strains from the USA and Italy. Global spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is a worrying phenomenon.

  9. Clonality and Resistome Analysis of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain Isolated in Korea Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the whole genome sequence and resistome of the outbreak Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MP14 and compared it with those of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase- (KPC- producing isolates that showed high similarity in the NCBI genome database. A KPC-2-producing multidrug-resistant (MDR K. pneumoniae clinical isolate was obtained from a patient admitted to a Korean hospital in 2011. The strain MP14 was resistant to all tested β-lactams including monobactam, amikacin, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, but susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. Resistome analysis showed the presence of β-lactamase genes including blaKPC-2, blaSHV-11, blaTEM-169, and blaOXA-9. MP14 also possessed aac(6′-Ib, aadA2, and aph(3′-Ia as aminoglycoside resistance-encoding genes, mph(A for macrolides, oqxA and oqxB for quinolone, catA1 for phenicol, sul1 for sulfonamide, and dfrA12 for trimethoprim. Both SNP tree and cgMLST analysis showed the close relatedness with the KPC producers (KPNIH strains isolated from an outbreak in the USA and colistin-resistant strains isolated in Italy. The plasmid-scaffold genes in plasmids pKpQil, pKpQil-IT, pKPN3, or pKPN-IT were identified in MP14, KPNIH, and Italian strains. The KPC-2-producing MDR K. pneumoniae ST258 stain isolated in Korea was highly clonally related with MDR K. pneumoniae strains from the USA and Italy. Global spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is a worrying phenomenon.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  11. Experimental mouse lethality of Escherichia coli strains isolated from free ranging Tibetan yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yajing; Mehmood, Khalid; Huang, Shucheng; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui

    2017-08-01

    The present study has examined the virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolates harboring at least one virulence gene (associated with ExPEC or InPEC pathotype and belonging to different phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2 or D), isolated from free ranging Tibetan yak feces. The E. coli isolates (n = 87) were characterized for different serogroups and a mouse model of subcutaneous-infection was used to envisage the virulence within these E. coli strains. Of the 87 E. coli isolates examined, 23% of the E. coli isolates caused lethal infections in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection and were classified as killer. Moreover, the majority of the killer strains belonged to phylogroup A (65%) and serogroup O 60 or O 101 (35%). Phylogroup B1, serogroups O 60 and O 101 were statistically associated with the killer status (P 1) were observed between the killer status isolates and all other bacterial virulence traits. This study comprises the first report on the virulence potential of E. coli strains isolated from free-ranging Tibetan yaks feces. Our findings suggest that pathogenic E. coli of free ranging yaks is highly worrisome, as these feces are used as manures by farmers and therewith pose a health risk to humans upon exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora.

  13. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Toddlers before PCV13 Introduction in Niamey, Niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Ousmane

    Full Text Available To mitigate the burden of pneumococcal infections in Niger, a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13, was introduced for routine child vaccination in July 2014. In order to provide pre-vaccine baseline data and allow appreciation of changes on carriage due to vaccination, we analyzed retrospectively pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy, 0 to 2 year old children prior to the vaccine introduction.From June 5, 2007, to May 26, 2008, 1200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy 0 to 2 year old children and analyzed by standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by SM-PCR and the data were analyzed with R version 2.15.0 (2012-03-30.Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in 654/1200 children (54.5% among whom 339 (51.8% were males. The ages of the study subjects varied from few days to 26 months (mean = 7.1, median = 6, 95% CI [6.8-7.4]. Out of 654 frozen isolates, 377 (54.8% were able to be re-grown and analyzed. In total, 32 different serogroups/serotypes were detected of which, the most prevalent were 6/(6A/6B/6C/6D (15.6%, 23F (10.6%, 19F (9.3%, 14 (9%, 19A (5.6%, 23B (4.0%, 25F/38 (3.7%, 18/(18A/18B/18C/18F (2.9% and PCR non-typeable (16.4%. Eleven serogroups/serotypes accounting for 57.3% (216/377 were of PCV13 types. Of the 211/377 (56% isolates tested for drug sensitivity, 23/211 (10.9%, 24/211 (11.4%, 9/211(4.3% and 148/210 (70.5% were respectively resistance to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline. Thirteen of the oxacillin resistant isolates were additionally multidrug-resistant. No resistance was however detected to gentamycin500μg and to fluoroquinolones (ø Norfloxacin5μg 3 months and presence in family of more than one sibling aged 3 months and presence in family of children aged < 6 years were significant factors for pneumococcal carriage. The present data should help understanding post vaccine introduction changes in pneumococcal carriage and infections for better action.

  14. Isolation of perchlorate-reducing Azospira suillum strain JB524 from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Bardiya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and identify perchlorate-reducing bacterium from an enriched consortium from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea. Methods: A perchlorate-enriched consortium from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea was used to isolate Azospira suillum (A. suillum strain JB524. The strain was identified based on partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Perchlorate reduction by the strain was tested with acetate as the e - donor in the presence of NaCl, nitrate and at different growth temperatures using standard anaerobic techniques. The complete enzymatic destruction of perchlorate was confirmed as evolution of O2 by chlorite dismutase in the absence of acetate. Results: Strain JB524 shared 100% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strain A. suillum PST isolated from a swine waste treatment lagoon. Perchlorate reduction coincided with concomitant increase in cell density. Although, acclimatization of the strain PST at suboptimal temperature for perchlorate reduction is not reported, the newly isolated strain could rapidly reduce perchlorate at 22 °C after brief acclimatization. Conclusions: Reduction of perchlorate by A. suillum strain JB524 was negatively affected in the presence of NaCl, suboptimal temperature, presence of nitrate, and limiting amount of acetate as the e-donor.

  15. [Enterotoxin genes occurance among S. aureus strains isolated from inpatients and carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrynowicz-Paciorek, Maja; Kochman, Maria; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Wyrebiak, Agata; Potracka, Ewa; Leniak-Chmiel, Urszula; Magdziak, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    We examined 44 inpatients and 66 carriers Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated in years 2002-2005, for the presence of 18 enterotoxin genes (se/sel) (by PCR), the ability for A-D enterotoxin production (by SET-RPLA) and antibiotic resistance distribution (by disc diffusion method). se/sel genes were detected in 90,9% of all strains, sea (70,5%) and selk and selq (52,3%) - among inpatients strains and egc (65,2%) - among carriers strains were the most frequently se/sel genes found. Positive results of SET-RPLA were consistent with PCR results. There was no correlation observed between antibiotic resistance and se/sel genes distribution among tested S. aureus strains.

  16. In vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A C; Capra, E; Morandi, S; Cremonesi, P; Pantoja, J C F; Langoni, H; de Vargas, A P C; da Costa, M M; Jagielski, T; Bolaños, C A D; Guerra, S T; Ribeiro, M G

    2017-06-01

    Prototheca species have increasingly been reported to be opportunistic pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy herds, and it poses an emergent problem because at present, there are no effective therapies for the treatment of protothecal mastitis. This study investigated the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from 75 cases of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. All strains were susceptible to guanidine in vitro with minimal algaecide concentrations ranging from 0·001 to 0·035%. Guanidine is known to have a high microbicidal effect and is considered to be a new generation microbicidal compound. It is not toxic to human mucous membranes and conjunctivas at low concentrations and has been used as a disinfectant in swimming pools and as an antiseptic for human wounds. The algicidal action of guanidine at low concentrations indicates that it could be an alternative disinfectant or antiseptic for cleaning of the dairy environment and milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, in the chemical dry therapy of bovine teats and even in the intramammary therapy of P. zopfii infections. This is the first report of the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii strains of animal origin. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 is an opportunistic pathogen of bovine mastitis. To date, no effective therapies against protothecal mastitis have been developed. The in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 P. zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from cows revealed that all of the isolates were susceptible to the compound at low concentrations, which indicates that guanidine may be used as an antiseptic/disinfectant for dairy milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, and as a chemical dry therapy or an intramammary therapy. This study describes the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii for the first time. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Isolation and characterization of new strains of methanogens from cold terrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simankova, Maria V; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg R; Lueders, Tillmann; Nozhevnikova, Alla N; Wagner, Bianca; Conrad, Ralf; Friedrich, Michael W

    2003-06-01

    Five strains of methanogenic archaea (MT, MS, MM, MSP, ZB) were isolated from permanently and periodically cold terrestrial habitats. Physiological and morphological studies, as well as phylogenetic analyses of the new isolates were performed. Based on sequences of the 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M reductase a-subunit (mcrA) genes all new isolates are closely related to known mesophilic and psychrotolerant methanogens. Both, phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic properties allow to classify strains MT, MS, and MM as members of the genus Methanosarcina. Strain MT is a new ecotype of Methanosarcina mazei, whereas strains MM and MS are very similar to each other and can be assigned to the recently described psychrotolerant species Methanosarcina lacustris. The hydrogenotrophic strain MSP is a new ecotype of the genus Methanocorpusculum. The obligately methylotrophic strain ZB is closely related to Methanomethylovorans hollandica and can be classified as new ecotype of this species. All new isolates, including the strains from permanently cold environments, are not true psychrophiles according to their growth temperature characteristics. In spite of the ability of all isolates to grow at temperatures as low as 1-5 degrees C, all of them have their growth optima in the range of moderate temperatures (25-35 degrees C). Thus, they can be regarded as psychrotolerant organisms. Psychrotolerant methanogens are thought to play an important role in methane production in both, habitats under seasonal temperature variations or from permanently cold areas.

  18. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+). Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  20. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY)

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor; Pratiwi Pujilestari Sudarmono; Asmarani Kusumawati; Anis Karuniawati

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR) is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4), B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle...

  1. Isolation and characterization of new facultative alkaliphilic Bacillus flexus strains from maize processing waste water (nejayote).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M; Blanco-Gamez, A; Escalante, A; Valladares, A G; Olvera, C; Parra, R

    2011-04-01

    This work describes the isolation and characterization of two new alkaliphilic micro-organisms present in nejayote. Samples of fresh industrial nejayote were plated on nejayote medium and incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Isolates were identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Two gram-positive strains, NJY2 and NJY4, able to hydrolyse starch, xylan, and gelatin were isolated from nejayote. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic studies indicate that the micro-organisms studied were closely related to members of the Bacillus flexus species. The strains were identified as facultative alkaliphilic salt tolerant bacteria. Isolate NJY2 produced cell associated phenolic acid esterases, able to release ferulic acid from nixtamalised corn bran and ethyl and methyl esters. The isolated strains of B. flexus NJY2 and NJY4 showed important physiological properties to produce high-value molecules from agroindustrial by-products. This is the first report about the isolation of alkaliphilic micro-organisms from nejayote and the first report of phenolic acid esterases synthesised by alkaliphiles. The new alkaliphilic micro-organisms have potential application in the treatment and transformation of tortilla industry residues. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Plasmids in Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh with special reference to different distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T; Ando, T; Kusakabe, A; Ullah, M A

    1983-01-01

    We surveyed plasmids in naturally occurring Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh. Among the strains isolated in Japan, about half of the strains isolated from stools of patients of domestic diarrhea outbreaks as well as of travelers returning from East Asia were found to have plasmids, but no strains from foods had plasmids. In contrast, among the strains isolated in Bangladesh, none of the four strains isolated from patients had plasmids, but two out of eight strains isolated from water had plasmids, suggesting that plasmids are common in strains from the water in Bangladesh. All plasmids so far reported in V. parahemolyticus were detected in strains isolated from stools of patients. Incidences of plasmids in this organism were not so high in either area. In Japan, all plasmids were detected in strains from human intestines at 37 C, but in Bangladesh, where the temperature is around 30-40 C, the plasmids were detected in strains from the natural environment. These results suggested the possibility that these plasmids can come from different bacteria under rather high temperatures and that incidences of plasmids are influenced by the incidences of plasmids in bacteria present in the vicinity of V. parahemolyticus strains. None of these plasmids were found to have any relation to the biological characters tested.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences from a Novel Clade of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Strains, Isolated from the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Pope, Robert K; Blank, Thomas E; Stepanov, Victor G; Fox, George E; van Tongeren, Sandra P; Torres, Clinton; Allen, Jonathan; Jaing, Crystal; Pierson, Duane; Perry, Jay; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam; Klubnik, Joy; Treangen, Todd J; Rosovitz, M J; Bergman, Nicholas H

    2017-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of six Bacillus strains, isolated from the International Space Station and belonging to the Bacillus anthracis-B. cereus-B. thuringiensis group, are presented here. These strains were isolated from the Japanese Experiment Module (one strain), U.S. Harmony Node 2 (three

  4. Short communication: The role of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) on antibiotic resistance regulation in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Lumin; Shang, Fei; Li, Wenchang; Zhang, Ming; Ni, Jingtian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli is a major etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is widely present in many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and has been proposed to be involved in interspecies communication. In E. coli model strains, the functional mechanisms of AI-2 have been well studied; however, in clinical antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, whether AI-2 affects the expression of antibiotic resistance genes has not been reported. In this study, we report that exogenous AI-2 increased the antibiotic resistance of a clinical E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis by upregulating the expression of TEM-type enzyme in an LsrR (LuxS regulated repressor)-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary Isolation Strain Determines Both Phage Type and Receptors Recognised by Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine C. Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina

    2015-01-01

    were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb), host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according......In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated...... therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages...

  6. [Phylogenetic analysis of genomes of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, K V; Markelov, M L; Dedkov, V G; Vodop'ianov, A S; Kermanov, A V; Pisanov, R V; Kruglikov, V D; Mazrukho, A B; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2013-01-01

    Determination of origin of 2 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region by using full genome sequencing data. Toxigenic strain 2011 EL- 301 V. cholerae 01 El Tor Inaba No. 301 (ctxAB+, tcpA+) and nontoxigenic strain V. cholerae O1 Ogawa P- 18785 (ctxAB-, tcpA+) were studied. Sequencing was carried out on the MiSeq platform. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes obtained was carried out based on comparison of conservative part of the studied and 54 previously sequenced genomes. 2011EL-301 strain genome was presented by 164 contigs with an average coverage of 100, N50 parameter was 132 kb, for strain P- 18785 - 159 contigs with a coverage of69, N50 - 83 kb. The contigs obtained for strain 2011 EL-301 were deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases with access code AJFN02000000, for strain P-18785 - ANHS00000000. 716 protein-coding orthologous genes were detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis strain P- 18785 belongs to PG-1 subgroup (a group of predecessor strains of the 7th pandemic). Strain 2011EL-301 belongs to groups of strains of the 7th pandemic and is included into the cluster with later isolates that are associated with cases of cholera in South Africa and cases of import of cholera to the USA from Pakistan. The data obtained allows to establish phylogenetic connections with V cholerae strains isolated earlier.

  7. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4, B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle in Java (Jakarta andBandung, South Sulawesi (Maros, East Nusa Tenggara (Kupang and Belu were used in this study. TheDNA bands were observed by agarose gel in the presence of ethidium bromide. Identification was performedbased on the size and number of DNA products amplified by PCR from each isolates. The results showedthat the 50 isolates were of B. abortus field strains. This finding showed that the cause of bovine brucellosisin Indonesia is B. abortus field strains.

  8. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from fishes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, M N A; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A; Zulkafli, A R; Nur-Nazifah, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Streptococcus agalactiae strains that were isolated from fishes in Malaysia using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) techniques. A total of 181 strains of Strep. agalactiae isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were characterized using RAPD and REP-PCR techniques. Both the fingerprinting techniques generated reproducible band patterns, differing in the number and molecular mass amplicons. The RAPD technique displayed greater discriminatory power by its production of more complex binding pattern and divided all the strains into 13 groups, compared to 9 by REP-PCR technique. Both techniques showed the availability to differentiate the genetic profiles of the strains according to their geographical location of origin. Three strains of Strep. agalactiae that were recovered from golden pompano showed a genetic dissimilarity from the strains isolated from red hybrid tilapia, while the strain of ATCC 27956 that recovered from bovine displayed a unique profile for both methods. Both techniques possess excellent discriminative capabilities and can be used as a rapid means of comparing Strep. agalactiae strains for future epidemiological investigation. Framework as the guideline in traceability of this disease and in the search for potential local vaccine candidates for streptococcosis in this country. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. [Isolation, identification and lead adsorption study of lead-resistant Lactobacillus casei strains from feces of healthy newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Yu, Qin-Fei; Wang, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Yi-Duo; Meng, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Hong-Ying

    2016-12-20

    To isolate and identify lead-resistant Lactobacillus casei strains with lead adsorption ability from the stool of healthy newborns as a new source of bacteria for developing lead-eliminating food products. MRS was used to isolate lead-resistant bacteria from the feces of 30 healthy and full-term neonates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA sequences of the isolated bacteria. Physiological and biochemical characterizations of the bacteria were performed according to the Berger's Systematic Bacteriology Handbook, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test and acid-tolerant bile salt test. The adsorption capacity of Pb 2+ of the bacteria was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Three strains of Lactobacillus casei were isolated, which were resistant to penicillin and ceftriaxone and could tolerate the exposure to 500 mg/L Pb 2+ . Acid-tolerant bile salt test showed that the bacteria were resistant to culture in the presence of artificial gastric juice (pH 2.0) for 3 h, and their survival rate reached 62.5% following exposure to 0.3% bile salt for 8 h. The bacteria showed a Pb 2+ adsorption rate of 90.4% at a low Pb 2+ concentration (1 mg/L) and of 86.27% at a high Pb 2+ concentration (50 mg/L). Three Lactobacillus casei strains lead adsorption ability were isolated from the feces of newborns. These bacterial strains provide a new solution to alleviate lead poisoning by probiotic dietary.

  10. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  12. Environmental carbonate chemistry selects for phenotype of recently isolated strains of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Hermoso, Michaël; Lee, Renee B. Y.; Rae, Benjamin D.; Heureux, Ana M. C.; Balestreri, Cecilia; Chakravarti, Leela; Schroeder, Declan C.; Brownlee, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Coccolithophorid algae, particularly Emiliania huxleyi, are prolific biomineralisers that, under many conditions, dominate communities of marine eukaryotic plankton. Their ability to photosynthesise and form calcified scales (coccoliths) has placed them in a unique position in the global carbon cycle. Contrasting reports have been made with regards to the response of E. huxleyi to ocean acidification. Therefore, there is a pressing need to further determine the fate of this key organism in a rising CO2 world. In this paper, we investigate the phenotype of newly isolated, genetically diverse, strains of E. huxleyi from UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme (UKOA) cruises around the British Isles, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean. We find a continuum of diversity amongst the physiological and photosynthetic parameters of different strains of E. huxleyi morphotype A under uniform, ambient conditions imposed in the laboratory. This physiology is best explained by adaptation to carbonate chemistry in the former habitat rather than being prescribed by genetic fingerprints such as the coccolithophore morphology motif (CMM). To a first order, the photosynthetic capacity of each strain is a function of both aqueous CO2 availability, and calcification rate, suggestive of a link between carbon concentrating ability and calcification. The calcification rate of each strain is related linearly to the natural environmental [CO32-] at the site of isolation, but a few exceptional strains display low calcification rates at the highest [CO32-] when calcification is limited by low CO2 availability and/or a lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism. We present O2-electrode measurements alongside coccolith oxygen isotopic composition and the uronic acid content (UAC) of the coccolith associated polysaccharide (CAP), that act as indirect tools to show the differing carbon concentrating ability of the strains. The environmental selection revealed amongst our recently isolated strain

  13. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production.

  14. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Cian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, leaving tigecycline as the only therapeutic choice.The purpose of this study is the characterization of the mechanisms involved in resistance to carbapenems in these strains and the evaluation of a reliable and simple test for phenotypic confirmation of ESBL and/or carbapenemase production. 25 isolates of MDR K. pneumoniae were collected between October 2008 and May 2009, mainly from urinary samples of elderly patients hospitalized in medicine wards. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system.The double-disc (DD test was used to check the production of ESBLs, while imipenem and imipenem-EDTA synergy test was used to detect the production of metallo-ßlactamase (MBL. Carbapenemase activity was tested by an hydrolysis assay and the production of MBLs was also investigated by PCR. The DD synergy test highlighted the possible production of ESBLs in 18 out of 22 strains, considered as negative by Vitek. All ESBLs producers tested positive for the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Only one isolate was resistant to carbapenems and resulted positive for production of MBL by the phenotypic test.The crude extract showed carbapenemase activity inhibited by EDTA; PCR test gave positive result for a blaVIM-type allele. PCR analysis performed on representative isolates, followed by sequencing, showed that coding sequence of ompk35 was not functional. Results of this study confirmed the emergence of ESBL-positive strains of K. pneumoniae that

  15. Isolation of salt stress gene(s) from some haloterant streptomyces strains using polymerase chain reaction (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We studied salt tolerance range in sixteen halotolerant streptomyces strains to isolate salt regulated genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. A group of these strains was isolated from Sedi-creer (S. niveus Sc-2 and S. sendenensis Sc-II); El-Malahat (Alexndria) (S. graminofaciens Ma-13): Qaroon's lake (S. albovinaceus QA-44, S. luteofluorescens Qa-51, S. albidoflavous Qa-53 and S. erthaeus QA-84). The other group represents the strains isolated from different soils from Damaaita (S. violans Da-3). Ismailia (S. alboflavus-Is-10). Port said (S. bobili Ps-12) and Sinai sandy soil (streptomyces species Si-1, S. truirus Si-4, S. lateritius Si-6, S. hawaiiensis Si-8, S. muavecolor Si-9 and S. melanogenes Si-11). These strains were varied in their salt tolerance range in particular, with increasing NaCl concentration in the growth medium up to 14%. It was also noted that all the applied Streptomyces strains appeared abundant growth at NaCl concentrations of 0.05, 3.5 and 7.0%. When NaCl was added at concentration of 10.5%, all of them except S. melanogenes Si-II strain gave moderate growth. On the contrary, NaCl at concentration of 14% inhibited the growth of 50% of strains under investigation. But the other 50% of these strains gave moderate growth at the same NaCl concentration. At the molecular level, the PCR was successfully used for isolating the mtlD and P5CS genes from 3 (S. alboinaceus Qa-44, S. albidoflavus Qa-53, S. erthraeus QA-84) and 4 (S. albovunaecaus Qa-44, Streptomyces species Si-I, S. luteofluorescens Qa-51, S. latritius Si-6) strains, respectively. As PCR fragments with a size of about 1095 and 2100 bp were amplified from the DNA genome of these strains using the primer pairs (P1 and P2) and (P3 and P4), respectively. These results confirmed the ability to use PCR for isolation or detection of any gene based on its nucleotide sequencing in any microorganism. Furthermore, one can recommended the use of the applied halotolerant

  16. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Soleimani-Delfan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  17. Biochemical behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from mice submitted to specific chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesila Pinto M. Marretto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of chemotherapy on the biochemical beha vior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains, three groups of mice were infected with one of three strains of T. cruzi of different biological and isoenzymic patterns (Peruvian, 21 SF and Colombian strains. Each group was subdivided into subgroups: 1 - treated with nifurtimox; 2 - treated with benznidazole and 3 - untreated infected controls. At the end of treatment, that lasted for 90 days, xenodiagnosis, sub inoculation of blood into new born mice and haemoculture were performed as tests of cure. From the positive tests, 22 samples of T. cruzi were isolated from all subgroups. Electrophoretic analysis of the isoenzymes PGM, GP1, ALAT and AS AT failed to show any difference between parasite strains isolated from treated and untreated mice, which indicates that no detectable clonal selection or parasite genetic markers alterations concerning the isoenzymes analysed have been determined by treatment with drugs of recognized antiparasitic effect, suggesting stability of the phenotypic characteristics of the three biological types of T. cruzi strains.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization and Impact of a Single Dose of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Indian Children With HIV and Their Unvaccinated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Ganaie, Feroze; Bhaskar, Arun; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Ravikumar, Kadahalli Lingegowda; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mandal, Sutapa

    2018-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal. All children received one dose of PCV13. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children and parents at baseline and 2 months after vaccination. One hundred and fifteen CLH and 47 HUC received one dose of PCV13. Fifty-eight percent of CLH were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the median nadir CD4 count was 287. There were no significant adverse events in either group. HUC had more VT colonization than CLH-55% versus 23% of all pneumococcal isolates. HIV infection doubled the risk of nonvaccine serotype colonization (P = 0.03). There was no difference in acquisition of VT isolates in CLH (4.4%) and HUC (4.5%) post-PCV13; however, older CLH (>5 years) had decreased clearance of VT strains. ART made no difference in pneumococcal colonization at baseline or after PCV13; however, CLH with higher nadir CD4 counts before starting ART were less likely to have VT colonization post-PCV13 (prevalence ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.5). While there was no difference in acquisition of VT nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in CLH and HUC after one dose of PCV13, earlier access to ART may impact response to PCV13 in CLH.

  19. Use of the VNTR typing technique to determine the origin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from Filipino patients in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Tupasi, Thelma E; Park, Young Kil

    2014-05-01

    With increasing international interchange of personnel, international monitoring is necessary to decrease tuberculosis incidence in the world. This study aims to develop a new tool to determine origin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from Filipino patients living in Korea. Thirty-two variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci were used for discrimination of 50 Filipino M. tuberculosis strains isolated in the Philippines, 317 Korean strains isolated in Korea, and 8 Filipino strains isolated in Korea. We found that the VNTR loci 0580, 0960, 2531, 2687, 2996, 0802, 2461, 2163a, 4052, 0424, 1955, 2074, 2347, 2401, 3171, 3690, 2372, 3232, and 4156 had different mode among copy numbers or exclusively distinct copy number in VNTR typing between Filipino and Korean M. tuberculosis strains. When these differences of the VNTR loci were applied to 8 Filipino M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Korea, 6 of them revealed Filipino type while 2 of them had Korean type. Using the differences of mode or repeated number of VNTR loci were very useful in distinguishing the Filipino strain from Korean strain.

  20. Acetobacter strains isolated during the acetification of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; García, D; Romero, J; Mas, A; Torija, M J; Mateo, E

    2013-09-01

    Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are known to have positive health benefits. The production of blueberry vinegar is one method to preserve this seasonal fruit and allow extended consumption. In this study, blueberry wine acetification was performed with naturally occurring micro-organisms and with an inoculated Acetobacter cerevisiae strain. Acetifications were carried out in triplicate using the Schützenbach method. The successful spontaneous processes took up to 66% more time than the processes involving inoculation. The isolation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and the analysis of these AAB using molecular methods allowed the identification of the main genotypes responsible of the blueberry acetification. Although the Acet. cerevisiae strain was the predominant strain isolated from the inoculated process samples, Acetobacter pasteurianus was isolated from samples for both processes and was the only species present in the spontaneous acetification samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the identification and variability of AAB isolated during blueberry acetification. The isolated Acet. pasteurianus strains could be used for large-scale blueberry vinegar production or as a starter culture in studies of other vinegar production methods. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267 kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.

  2. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  3. [Genomic DNA fingerprints of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2 strains as an epidemiologic marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender-Beck, L; Mühlenberg, W; Lück, P C; Ott, M; Horbach, I; Fehrenbach, F J; Wewalka, G; Hacker, J

    1995-08-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprints of eleven Legionella pneumophila isolates of serogroup 2 were generated. It was shown that two strains from a patient suffering from pneumonia as well as three environmental strains isolated from the shower in the hotel where the patient stayed 5 days before his illness were identical. Six strains of the same serogroup isolated from other sources were clearly separated. Thus, DNA fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are excellent epidemiological markers for the rarely occurring serogroup 2 of Legionella pneumophila.

  4. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus isolated from pregnant women vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsa, Bakwena Ashton; Kumar, Ajay; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2018-03-29

    Vagina which is one of the important reservoirs for Staphylococcus and in pregnant women pathogenic strains may infect the child during the birth or by vertical transmission. A total of 68 presumptive Staphylococcus strains isolated from human vagina were found to be gram-positive cocci, and only 32 (47%) isolates were found beta-hemolytic. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results confirmed 33 isolates belonged to Staphylococcus which consisting of 6 species, i.e., S. aureus (14), S. vitulinus (7), S. epidermidis (4), S cohnii (3), S. equorum (3), and S. succinus (2). Further, the result of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that large proportions (76%-100%) of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and more often resistant to penicillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), oxacillin (97%), oxytetracycline (97%), vancomycin (97%), rifampin (85%), erythromycin (82%), and streptomycin (76%). In the present study, only the sec enterotoxin gene was detected in four S. aureus strains. DNA fingerprints of the 33 isolates that were generated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis revealed great genetic relatedness of isolates. High prevalence of vaginal colonization with multiple antibiotic-resistant staphylococci among pregnant women was observed which were emerged from the single respective species clones that underwent evolution. The vertical transmission of these multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus species to the infant is possible; therefore, the findings of this study emphasize the need for regular surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in pregnant women in this area.

  5. Characterization and Strains of Mycobacteria Isolated from Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and Strains of Mycobacteria Isolated from Cattle Carcasses in Refrigerated Slaughterhouse Bamako Goal. Y S Kone, A Cisse, S S Sidibe, Z Tarnagda, S Diarra, D Yassa, P Coulibaly, B Traore ...

  6. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Novel Probiotic Strains Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Marutpong; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Srivoramas, Thanyakarn; Chaiwong, Tarinee

    2016-01-01

    To isolate, identify, and evaluate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants. The probiotic tests included investigation of hemolysis activity, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions (acid and bile salt tolerance), susceptibility to antibiotics, and ability to inhibit selected bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium). The bacterial species identification was performed by both carbohydrate utilization and partial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Five of fifty LAB isolates (UBU-03, UBU-06, UBU-09, UBU-34, and UBU-37) showed good probiotic properties. These five isolates showed non-hemolysis type (gamma-hemolysis), susceptibility to all antibiotics tested except for vancomycin, ability to survive in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of both acid and bile salt solution, and ability to inhibit growth of E. coli O157: H7 and V. cholerae. Bacterial species identification revealed that all five isolates were firmly identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. The L. rhamnosus strains that were isolated and characterized in this study could be considered as probiotic strains, and then used for further probiotic characterization in human cell cultures or animal models.

  7. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains isolated from traditional cheesemaking fabrications in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, N; Beuvier, E; Grappin, R; Guéguen, M; Benson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in D-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France.

  8. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  9. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Traditional Tibetan Qula, A Raw Yak Milk Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 69 lactobacilli isolated from Tibetan Qula, a raw yak milk cheese, were screened for their potential use as probiotics. The isolates were tested in terms of: Their ability to survive at pH 2.0, pH 3.0, and in the presence of 0.3% bile salts; tolerance of simulated gastric and intestinal juices; antimicrobial activity; sensitivity against 11 specific antibiotics; and their cell surface hydrophobicity. The results show that out of the 69 strains, 29 strains (42% had survival rates above 90% after 2 h of incubation at pH values of 2.0 or 3.0. Of these 29 strains, 21 strains showed a tolerance for 0.3% bile salt. Incubation of these 21 isolates in simulated gastrointestinal fluid for 3 h revealed survival rates above 90%; the survival rate for 20 of these isolates remained above 90% after 4 h of incubation in simulated intestinal fluid. The viable counts of bacteria after incubation in simulated gastric fluid for 3 h and simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h were both significantly different compared with the counts at 0 h (p<0.001. Further screening performed on the above 20 isolates indicated that all 20 lactobacilli strains exhibited inhibitory activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, and Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971. Moreover, all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Of the 20 strains, three were resistant to all 11 elected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and gentamicin in this study, and five were sensitive to more than half of the antibiotics. Additionally, the cell surface hydrophobicity of seven of the 20 lactobacilli strains was above 70%, including strains Lactobacillus casei 1,133 (92%, Lactobacillus plantarum 1086-1 (82%, Lactobacillus casei 1089 (81%, Lactobacillus casei 1138 (79%, Lactobacillus buchneri 1059 (78

  10. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group strains to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin/clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEIXOTO JÚNIOR Arnaldo Aires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 strains of the B. fragilis group was isolated from clinical specimens in two hospital centers in Fortaleza from 1993 to 1997. The most frequently isolated species was Bacteroides fragilis (19 strains and most isolates came from intra-abdominal and wound infections. The susceptibility profile was traced for cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin-clavulanate by using the agar dilution reference method. All isolates were susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate (128/2mug/ml. Resistance rates of 15 and 70% were detected to cefoxitin (64mug/ml and cefoperazone (64mug/ml, respectively. Such regional results permit a better orientation in choosing this group of antibiotics for prophylaxis and therapy especially in relation to cefoxitin, which is frequently used in the hospital centers studied.

  11. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines. PMID:20631096

  12. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  13. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain). Imm...... in the LPS of strains 1536 and 7317 were revealed. Since an antigenic determinant specific for the 9 isolates could not be demonstrated with the methods used, the strains are proposed to be designated K2:O7....

  14. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Isolation and genome sequencing of four Arctic marine Psychrobacter strains exhibiting multicopper oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Morteza Shojaei; Albersmeier, Andreas; Winkler, Anika; Cimmino, Lorenzo; Rise, Kjersti; Hohmann-Marriott, Martin Frank; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wentzel, Alexander; Lale, Rahmi

    2016-02-16

    Marine cold-temperature environments are an invaluable source of psychrophilic microbial life for new biodiscoveries. An Arctic marine bacterial strain collection was established consisting of 1448 individual isolates originating from biota, water and sediment samples taken at a various depth in the Barents Sea, North of mainland Norway, with an all year round seawater temperature of 4 °C. The entire collection was subjected to high-throughput screening for detection of extracellular laccase activity with guaiacol as a substrate. In total, 13 laccase-positive isolates were identified, all belonging to the Psychrobacter genus. From the most diverse four strains, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all originating from the same Botryllus sp. colonial ascidian tunicate sample, genomic DNA was isolated and genome sequenced using a combined approach of whole genome shotgun and 8 kb mate-pair library sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The genomes were assembled and revealed genome sizes between 3.29 and 3.52 Mbp with an average G + C content of around 42%, with one to seven plasmids present in the four strains. Bioinformatics based genome mining was performed to describe the metabolic potential of these four strains and to identify gene candidates potentially responsible for the observed laccase-positive phenotype. Up to two different laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) encoding gene candidates were identified in each of the four strains. Heterologous expression of P11F6-LMCO and P11G5-LMCO2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) resulted in recombinant proteins exhibiting 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and guaiacol oxidizing activity. Thirteen Psychrobacter species with laccase-positive phenotype were isolated from a collection of Arctic marine bacteria. Four of the isolates were genome sequenced. The overall genome features were similar to other publicly available Psychrobacter genome sequences except for P11G5 harboring seven

  17. Cellulose synthesis by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus strain P 1463 isolated from Kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semjonovs, Pavels; Ruklisha, Maija; Paegle, Longina; Saka, Madara; Treimane, Rita; Skute, Marite; Rozenberga, Linda; Vikele, Laura; Sabovics, Martins; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2017-02-01

    Isolate B17 from Kombucha was estimated to be an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose (BC). The isolate was deposited under the number P 1463 and identified as Komagataeibacter rhaeticus by comparing a generated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP™) DNA fingerprint against a reference database. Static cultivation of the K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 in Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium resulted in 4.40 ± 0.22 g/L BC being produced, corresponding to a BC yield from glucose of 25.30 ± 1.78 %, when the inoculum was made with a modified HS medium containing 10 g/L glucose. Fermentations for 5 days using media containing apple juice with analogous carbon source concentrations resulted in 4.77 ± 0.24 g/L BC being synthesised, corresponding to a yield from the consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 37.00 ± 2.61 %. The capacity of K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 to synthesise BC was found to be much higher than that of two reference strains for cellulose production, Komagataeibacter xylinus DSM 46604 and Komagataeibacter hansenii DSM 5602 T , and was also considerably higher than that of K. hansenii strain B22, isolated from another Kombucha sample. The BC synthesised by K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 after 40 days of cultivation in HS medium with additional glucose supplemented to the cell culture during cultivation was shown to have a degree of polymerization of 3300.0 ± 122.1 glucose units, a tensile strength of 65.50 ± 3.27 MPa and a length at break of 16.50 ± 0.83 km. For the other strains, these properties did not exceed 25.60 ± 1.28 MPa and 15.20 ± 0.76 km.

  18. Progress toward isolation of strains and genetically engineered strains of microalgae for production of biofuel and other value added chemicals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ashmita; Khanra, Saumyakanti; Mondal, Madhumanti; Halder, Gopinath; Tiwari, O.N.; Saini, Supreet; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Gayen, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sample collection, isolation and identification to obtain a pure microalgal species. • Isolation of microalgal strains worldwide based on continent and habitat. • Genetic engineering tools for enhanced production of biodiesel and value added chemicals. • Cultivation systems for genetically modified strain. - Abstract: Microalgae and cyanobacteria are promising sources of biodiesel because of their high oil content (∼10 fold higher) and shorter cultivation time (∼4 fold lesser) than conventional oil producing territorial plants (e.g., soybean, corn and jatropha). These organisms also provide source of several valuable natural chemicals including pigments, food supplements like eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], decosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and vitamins. In addition, many cellular components of these organisms are associated with therapeutic properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and antiviral. Isolation and identification of high-yielding strains with the faster growth rate is the key for successful implementation of algal biodiesel (or other products) at a commercial level. A number of research groups in Europe, America, and Australia are thus extensively involved in exploration of novel microalgal strain. Further, genetic engineering provides a tool to engineer the native strain resulting in transgenic strain with higher yields. Despite these efforts, no consensus has yet been reached so far in zeroing on the best microalgal strain for sustainable production of biofuel at reasonable cost. The search for novel microalgal strain and transgenesis of microalgae, are continuing side by side with the hope of commercial scale production of microalgae biofuel in near future. However, no consolidated review report exists which guides to isolate and identify a uncontaminated microalgal strain along with their transgenesis. The present review is focused on: (i) key factors for sample collection, isolation, and identification to

  19. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

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    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  20. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  1. Isolation and characterization of new strains of cholesterol-reducing bacteria from baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, A W; Gottesman, A R; Mott, G E

    1982-01-01

    We isolated and characterized nine new strains of cholesterol-reducing bacteria from feces and intestinal contents of baboons. Cholesterol-brain agar was used for the primary isolation, and subsequent biochemical tests were done in a lecithin-cholesterol broth containing plasmenylethanolamine and various substrates. All strains had similar colony and cell morphology, hydrolyzed the beta-glucosides esculin and amygdalin, metabolized pyruvate, and produced acetate and acetoin. Unlike previously reported strains, the nine new strains did not require cholesterol and an alkenyl ether lipid (e.g., plasmalogen) for growth; however, only two strains reduced cholesterol in the absence of the plasmalogen. These two strains also produced succinate as an end product. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable; some strains produced weak acid (pH 5.5 to 6.0) from only a few carbohydrates, whereas other strains produced strong acid reactions (pH less than or equal to 5.5) from a wide variety of carbohydrates.

  2. Characteristics of Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated during 2010–2014 from Human Infections in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fierz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 95 Shigatoxin-producing E.coli (STEC isolated from human patients in Switzerland during 2010–2014.Methods: We performed O and H serotyping and molecular subtyping.Results: The five most common serogroups were O157, O145, O26, O103, and O146. Of the 95 strains, 35 (36.8% carried stx1 genes only, 43 strains (45.2% carried stx2 and 17 (17.9% harbored combinations of stx1 and stx2 genes. Stx1a (42 strains and stx2a (32 strains were the most frequently detected stx subtypes. Genes for intimin (eae, hemolysin (hly, iron-regulated adhesion (iha, and the subtilase cytotoxin subtypes subAB1, subAB2-1, subAB2-2, or subAB2-3 were detected in 70.5, 83.2, 74.7, and 20% of the strains, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing assigned the majority (58.9% of the isolates to five different clonal complexes (CC, 11, 32, 29, 20, and 165, respectively. CC11 included all O157:[H7] and O55:[H7] isolates. CC32 comprised O145:[H28] isolates, and O145:[H25] belonged to sequence type (ST 342. CC29 contained isolates of the O26:[H11], O111:[H8] and O118:[Hnt] serogroups, and CC20 encompassed isolates of O51:H49/[Hnt] and O103:[H2]. CC165 included isolates typed O80:[H2]-ST301, all harboring stx2d, eae-ξ, hly, and 66.7% additionally harboring iha. All O80:[H2]-ST301 strains harbored at least 7 genes carried by pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Compared to data from Switzerland from the years 2000–2009, an increase of the proportion of non-O157 STEC infections was observed as well as an increase of infections due to STEC O146. By contrast, the prevalence of the highly virulent German clone STEC O26:[H11]-ST29 decreased from 11.3% during 2000–2009 to 1.1% for the time span 2010–2014. The detection of O80:[H2]-ST301 harboring stx2d, eae-ξ, hly, iha, and pS88 related genes suggests an ongoing emergence in Switzerland of an unusual, highly pathogenic STEC serotype

  3. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

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    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  4. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions

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    Maryam Poursoltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens are classified into five toxin types A to E, on the basis of production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. Some strains are able to produce enterotoxin, can cause food poisoning in human. The bacteria are able to produce NetB and TpeL toxins which are virulence factors in necrotic enteritis in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin profile of C. perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions using Single and Multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: In a crossectional study, 180 sample of chicken portions including wing (n=50, liver (n=50, neck (n=50 and gizzard (n=30 were collected randomly and examined for C. perfringens contamination. For this purpose all of samples were cultured on the 7% sheep defibrinated blood agar, TSN and TSC culture media. All of the isolates were investigated for the presence of alpha, beta, epsilon, iota toxin and virulence (tpeL and netB genes. Results: In the present study, 6 isolates out of 180 samples, were confirmed as C. perfringens by culture and molecular methods. All of the isolates (100% were confirmed as cpa and cpb positive strains and belong to type C of C. perfringens. The netB gene was detected in 5 isolates (83.33% and tpeL gene in three isolates (50%. Conclusions: Our findings show the majority of C. perfringens in broilers are belong to type C which produce necrotic enteritis in poultry and may be transmitted to human through poultry products.

  5. Characterization of bacterial strains isolated from a beef-processing plant following cleaning and disinfection - Influence of isolated strains on biofilm formation by Sakaï and EDL 933 E. coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouani-Gadri, Nesrine; Augier, Gladys; Carpentier, Brigitte

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation of bacteria isolated from meat site surfaces following cleaning and disinfection. We first isolated and identified, to the genus level, strains of the latter organisms. Samples were obtained by swabbing the surfaces of equipment or floors over areas ranging from 315 to 3200 cm(2) in a slaughter hall, a meat cutting room and a meat boning room of a meat-processing plant. The number of bacteria recovered from these surfaces ranged from 10(5) CFU/cm(2). In the slaughter hall, stainless steel was in one case one of the most contaminated materials and in other cases one of the less contaminated. The same observation was made for conveyor belts made of polyvinyl chloride in the boning room. Dominant genera in the meat plant were Staphylococcus and Bacillus which were both 34% of the isolates from the slaughter hall and 14 and 4% respectively of the isolates from the cutting room. Randomly selected isolates of each of the genera recovered from the slaughter hall were cultured with E. coli O157:H7 in meat exudate at 15 degrees C to form dual-organism biofilms on polyurethane. In all cases but one, the isolates increased the numbers of attached E. coli O157:H7. The effects ranged from 0.37 to 1.11 for EDL 933 strain and from 0.19 to 1.38 log (CFU/cm(2)) for Sakaï strain. This is the first time that a resident microbiota of a meat-processing plant has been shown to have a favourable effect on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of a solid surface, which is of great interest from a food safety standpoint.

  6. Phylodynamic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2: Methodological approach and datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, PCV2 has emerged as one of the most economically relevant diseases for the swine industry. Despite the introduction of vaccines effective in controlling clinical syndromes, PCV2 spread was not prevented and some potential evidences of vaccine immuno escape have recently been reported (“Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2b variant present in cases of vaccine failures in the United States” (Xiao and Halbur, 2012 [1], “Genetic and antigenic characterization of a newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2b mutant first isolated in cases of vaccine failure in Korea” (Seo et al., 2014 [2]. In this article, we used a collection of PCV2 full genomes, provided in the present manuscript, and several phylogentic, phylodynamic and bioinformatic methods to investigate different aspects of PCV2 epidemiology, history and evolution (more thoroughly described in “PHYLODYNAMIC ANALYSIS of PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 REVEALS GLOBAL WAVES of EMERGING GENOTYPES and the CIRCULATION of RECOMBINANT FORMS” [3]. The methodological approaches used to consistently detect recombiantion events and estimate population dymanics and spreading patterns of rapidly evolving ssDNA viruses are herein reported. Programs used are described and original scripts have been provided. Ensembled databases used are also made available. These consist of a broad collection of complete genome sequences (i.e. 843 sequences; 63 complete genomes of PCV2a, 310 of PCV2b, 4 of PCV2c, 217 of PCV2d, 64 of CRF01, 140 of CRF02 and 45 of CRF03., divided in differnt ORF (i.e. ORF1, ORF2 and intergenic regions, of PCV2 genotypes and major Circulating Recombinat Forms (CRF properly annotated with respective collection data and country. Globally, all of these data can be used as a starting point for further studies and for classification purpose.

  7. Comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shu Yong; Yap, Kien-Pong; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes considerable morbidity in humans with high mortality rates. In this study, we have sequenced the genomes and performed comparative genomics analyses on two strains, LM115 and LM41, isolated from ready-to-eat food in Malaysia. The genome size of LM115 and LM41 was 2,959,041 and 2,963,111 bp, respectively. These two strains shared approximately 90% homologous genes. Comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses revealed that LM115 and LM41 were more closely related to the reference strains F2365 and EGD-e, respectively. Our virulence profiling indicated a total of 31 virulence genes shared by both analysed strains. These shared genes included those that encode for internalins and L. monocytogenes pathogenicity island 1 (LIPI-1). Both the Malaysian L. monocytogenes strains also harboured several genes associated with stress tolerance to counter the adverse conditions. Seven antibiotic and efflux pump related genes which may confer resistance against lincomycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, quinolone, tetracycline, and penicillin, and macrolides were identified in the genomes of both strains. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent L. monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Malaysia. The identification of strains with pathogenic, persistent, and antibiotic resistant potentials from minimally processed food warrant close attention from both healthcare and food industry.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  9. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakiya, Riddhi N; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Mody, Kalpana H; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655) similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661) and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development), heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis). The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15-C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM), and Gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H 2 O 2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II), an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s) detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s). In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria , isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat), India showed promising

  10. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi N. Dholakiya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655 similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661 and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development, heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis. The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15–C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM, and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96. Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II, an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s. In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India showed promising

  11. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakiya, Riddhi N.; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Mody, Kalpana H.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655) similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661) and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development), heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis). The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15–C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM), and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II), an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s) detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s). In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat), India showed promising

  12. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O26:H8 among Diarrheagenic E. coli O26 Strains Isolated in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Roxane M. F.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Rocha, Letícia B.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance. PMID:23974139

  13. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant-producing Alcanivorax strains: hydrocarbon accession strategies and alkane hydroxylase gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Nelda L; Nievas, Marina L; Lozada, Mariana; Del Prado, Guillermo; Dionisi, Hebe M; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2009-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria belonging to the genera Alcanivorax, Cobetia and Halomonas were isolated from marine sediments with a history of hydrocarbon exposure (Aristizábal and Gravina Peninsulas, Argentina). Two Alcanivorax isolates were found to form naturally occurring consortia with strains closely related to Pseudomonas putida and Microbacterium esteraromaticum. Alkane hydroxylase gene analysis in these two Alcanivorax strains resulted in the identification of two novel alkB genes, showing 86% and 60% deduced amino acid sequence identity with those of Alcanivorax sp. A-11-3 and Alcanivorax dieselolei P40, respectively. In addition, a gene homologous to alkB2 from Alcanivorax borkumensis was present in one of the strains. The consortium formed by this strain, Alcanivorax sp. PA2 (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with A. borkumensis SK2(T)) and P. putida PA1 was characterized in detail. These strains form cell aggregates when growing as mixed culture, though only PA2 was responsible for biosurfactant activity. During exponential growth phase of PA2, cells showed high hydrophobicity and adherence to hydrocarbon droplets. Biosurfactant production was only detectable at late growth and stationary phases, suggesting that it is not involved in initiating oil degradation and that direct interfacial adhesion is the main hydrocarbon accession mode of PA2. This strain could be useful for biotechnological applications due to its biosurfactant production, catabolic and aggregation properties.

  14. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  15. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of different yeast strains isolated from ripe banana peels to produce ethanol was investigated. Of the 8 isolates screened for their fermentation ability, 5 showed enhanced performance and were subsequently identified and assessed for important ethanol fermentation attributes such as ethanol producing ability, ...

  16. Description of two Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional Peruvian artisanal-produced cheeses with a bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Galvez A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and to characterize strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity from 27 traditional cheeses artisanal-produced obtained from different Peruvian regions. Twenty Gram+ and catalasenegative strains among 2,277 isolates exhibited bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes CWBIB2232 as target strain. No change in inhibitory activity was observed after organic acid neutralization and treatment with catalase of the cell-free supernatant (CFS. The proteinic nature of the antimicrobial activity was confirmed for the twenty LAB strains by proteolytic digestion of the CFS. Two strains, CWBI-B1431 and CWBI-B1430, with the best antimicrobial activity were selected for further researches. These strains were taxonomically identified by phenotypic and genotypic analyses as Enterococcus mundtii (CWBI-B1431 and Enterococcus faecium (CWBI-B1430. The two strains were sensitive to vancomycin (MIC 2 μg.ml-1 and showed absence of haemolysis.

  17. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, M.F.; Mohd Zahangir Alam; Shabana, H.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  18. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  19. Potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional dadih fermented milk against pathogen intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M Carmen; Surono, Ingrid S; Meriluoto, Jussi; Salminen, Seppo

    2007-03-01

    Traditional fermented buffalo milk in Indonesia (dadih) has been believed to have a beneficial impact on human health, which could be related to the properties of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in its fermentation process. In previous studies, it was discovered that strains of dadih lactic isolates possessed some beneficial properties in vitro. In the present study, the adhesion capacity of specific LAB isolates from dadih to intestinal mucus was analyzed. Further, the ability to inhibit model human pathogens and displace them from mucus was assessed. The adhesion of tested LAB strains was strain-dependent and varied from 1.4 to 9.8%. The most adhesive Lactobacillus plantarum strain was IS-10506, with 9.8% adhesion. The competition assay between dadih LAB isolates and pathogens showed that a 2-h preincubation with L. plantarum at 37 degrees C significantly reduced pathogen adhesion to mucus. All tested LAB strains displaced and inhibited pathogen adhesion, but the results were strain-specific and dependent on time and pathogen strains. In general, L. plantarum IS-10506 showed the best ability against pathogen adhesion.

  20. Isolation and characterization of new strains of cholesterol-reducing bacteria from baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkley, A W; Gottesman, A R; Mott, G E

    1982-01-01

    We isolated and characterized nine new strains of cholesterol-reducing bacteria from feces and intestinal contents of baboons. Cholesterol-brain agar was used for the primary isolation, and subsequent biochemical tests were done in a lecithin-cholesterol broth containing plasmenylethanolamine and various substrates. All strains had similar colony and cell morphology, hydrolyzed the beta-glucosides esculin and amygdalin, metabolized pyruvate, and produced acetate and acetoin. Unlike previously...

  1. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, from the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes disease in plants and humans (premature and immunocompromised persons of all age groups. The goal of this study was to isolate and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula (PIF milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU ward. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 125 consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward were surveyed. Isolation and Identification of microorganisms was carried out according to FDA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the standard disc diffusion method based on CLSI (2011 recommendations. Results: Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from 2 (1.6% of 125 PIF milk samples. The results showed that isolated strains are sensitive to most antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Conclusion: Since the infant formula (PIF samples are unsterile products and contamination could occure during different steps, it is imperative to prepare the infant formula milk foods according to the manufacturer’s instruction and in an aseptic condition. Contamination of PIF only could be reduced or prevented by monitoring the critical control points and taking appropriate action during the processing.

  2. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, C.K.; Kuzin, Yu.Yu.; Kozlovskii, Yu.E.; Prozorov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis

  4. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  5. Virulence-associated genes, antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from swine from 2000 to 2012 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F; Medeiros, M I C; Kich, J D; Falcão, J P

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated in Brazil from swine (22) and the surrounding swine environment (5) from 2000 to 2012 and compare them to the profiles of 43 human strains isolated from 1983 to 2010, which had been previously studied. The presence of 12 SPI-1, SPI-2 and plasmid genes was assessed by PCR, the antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antimicrobials was determined by the disc diffusion assay and genotyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and ERIC-PCR. More than 77·8% of the swine strains carried 10 or more of the virulence markers. Ten (37%) strains isolated from swine were multi-drug resistant (MDR). All the molecular typing techniques grouped the strains in two main clusters. Some strains isolated from swine and humans were allocated together in the PFGE-B2, MLVA-A1, MLVA-B and ERIC-A1 clusters. The genotyping results suggest that some strains isolated from swine and humans may descend from a common subtype and may indicate a possible risk of MDR S. Typhimurium with high frequency of virulence genes isolated from swine to contaminate humans in Brazil. This study provided new information about the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic diversity of S. Typhimurium isolates from swine origin in Brazil, the fourth largest producer of pigs worldwide. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Ultrastructural and chemotaxonomic analysis of a xylanolytic strain of Cryptococcus adeliensis isolated from sheep droppings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Encarna; del Villar, María; Grondona, Isabel; Monte, Enrique; González-Villa, Tomás

    2006-09-01

    Cryptococcus adeliensis was initially described as a psycrophilic species containing a single strain CBS 8351(T) isolated from decayed algae in Terre Adelie (Antartida). Later, a second strain of this species was isolated from an immunosuppressed patient affected by leukaemia in Germany and recently several strains from this species have been found in human patients and pigeon droppings of the same country. In this study, we isolated from sheep droppings in Spain a xylanolytic strain named LEVX01 that was phenotypically related to the strain CBS 8351(T) and showed a 100% similarity in the D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS region sequences with respect to the remaining described strains of C. adeliensis. These findings suggest that this species has a wide geographical distribution and that the animal faeces are a common habitat for C. adeliensis. The chemotaxonomic analyses showed the absence of detectable amounts of xylose in the cell walls of the strains LEVX01 and CBS8351(T) in contrast to other Cryptococcus species. Interestingly, the ultrastructural study showed the presence of fimbriae in these two strains that could be involved in the attachment to the host cells and, as occurs in Candida albicans, they could also be a pathogenicity factor for the man.

  7. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  8. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Zheng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for

  9. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing

  10. Coaggregation between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Sharifzadeh, Shahab; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, coaggregation interactions between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from food-processing surfaces were characterized. Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3727 formed intrageneric coaggregates with Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3803 and intergeneric coaggregates with 2 strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MF3293, MF3627). Stronger coaggregation between A. calcoaceticus MF3727 and Rhodococcus sp. MF3293 was observed after growth in batch culture at 30 °C than at 20 °C, after growth in tryptic soy broth than in liquid R2A medium, and between cells in exponential and early stationary phases than cells in late stationary phase. The coaggregation ability of Rhodococcus sp. MF3727 was maintained even after heat and Proteinase K treatment, suggesting its ability to coaggregate was protein independent whereas the coaggregation determinants of the other strains involved proteinaceous cell-surface-associated polymers. Coaggregation was stable at pH 5-9. The mechanisms of coaggregation among Acinetobacter and Rhodococcus strains bare similarity to those displayed by coaggregating bacteria of oral and freshwater origin, with respect to binding between proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous determinants and the effect of environmental factors on coaggregation. Coaggregation may contribute to biofilm formation on industrial food surfaces, protecting bacteria against cleaning and disinfection.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Kieboom, C. van den; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Junca, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 μm wide and 1 to 2 μm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on

  12. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdoub, Nihed

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  13. Isolation and molecular identification of a UV-resistant strain of Dietzia maris and antioxidant activity of pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamanian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ability of radioresistant bacteria to survive high levels of UV radiation has been linked to their strong DNA repair systems and ability to produce primary and secondary metabolic products. The biosynthesis of pigments provides an opportunity for bacteria to live in radiation-rich environment. Recent radiation-responsive pigments are used commercially as food colorants, anticancer drugs, as well as antibiotics and for cosmetic purposes. Materials and methods: Soil sample of Omidiyeh city was collected during the spring of 2014 and UV-resistant strain was isolated after primary and secondary screening. Then it was identified by molecular methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antioxidant activity of pigment was evaluated by 2,2 -diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and the reducing power of pigments were analyzed by ferric chloride. Results: In this present study, new UV-resistant strain NM2 was isolated and by comparison of these 16S rRNA gene sequences to public database using the BLAST, the genus and species of the isolate was identified as Dietzia maris with 99% similarity. Extraction of pigment from isolated strain was carried out by methanol and acetone as solvents. The spectrum is characterized by maximum peak at 473 nm for pigment of NM2 strain. Antioxidant activity and the reducing ability of pigments increased by increasing their concentrations. NM2 strain pigment showed EC50 concentration of 3.30 mg/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and EC50 concentration of 28.46 µg/ml for reducing power. Discussion and conclusion: Isolation of natural resources of pigment is very important with high anti-oxidant activity. In the current study, pigment of UV-resistant bacteria demonstrated a strong antioxidant activity in vitro and pigment of these bacteria could play an important role in UV tolerance. Pigment of UV-resistant bacteria may be an appropriate source for antioxidative-related functional foods and the pharmaceutical

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  15. Genome sequencing and analysis of the first complete genome of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, an Apis mellifera gut isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Asenjo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The honey bee (Apis mellifera is the most important pollinator in agriculture worldwide. However, the number of honey bees has fallen significantly since 2006, becoming a huge ecological problem nowadays. The principal cause is CCD, or Colony Collapse Disorder, characterized by the seemingly spontaneous abandonment of hives by their workers. One of the characteristics of CCD in honey bees is the alteration of the bacterial communities in their gastrointestinal tract, mainly due to the decrease of Firmicutes populations, such as the Lactobacilli. At this time, the causes of these alterations remain unknown. We recently isolated a strain of Lactobacillus kunkeei (L. kunkeei strain MP2 from the gut of Chilean honey bees. L. kunkeei, is one of the most commonly isolated bacterium from the honey bee gut and is highly versatile in different ecological niches. In this study, we aimed to elucidate in detail, the L. kunkeei genetic background and perform a comparative genome analysis with other Lactobacillus species. Methods. L. kunkeei MP2 was originally isolated from the guts of Chilean A. mellifera individuals. Genome sequencing was done using Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing technology. De novo assembly was performed using Celera assembler. The genome was annotated using Prokka, and functional information was added using the EggNOG 3.1 database. In addition, genomic islands were predicted using IslandViewer, and pro-phage sequences using PHAST. Comparisons between L. kunkeei MP2 with other L. kunkeei, and Lactobacillus strains were done using Roary. Results. The complete genome of L. kunkeei MP2 comprises one circular chromosome of 1,614,522 nt. with a GC content of 36,9%. Pangenome analysis with 16 L. kunkeei strains, identified 113 unique genes, most of them related to phage insertions. A large and unique region of L. kunkeei MP2 genome contains several genes that encode for phage structural protein and

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BACILLUS-STEAROTHERMOPHILUS ISOLATE - A HIGHLY THERMOSTABLE ALPHA-AMYLASE-PRODUCING STRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIND, RD; BUITELAAR, RM; EGGINK, G; HUIZING, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known alpha-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable alpha-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this

  17. An Entamoeba sp. strain isolated from rhesus monkey is virulent but genetically different from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Pandey, Kishor; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2007-06-01

    An Entamoeba sp. strain, P19-061405, was isolated from a rhesus monkey in Nepal and characterized genetically. The strain was initially identified as Entamoeba histolytica using PCR amplification of peroxiredoxin genes. However, sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed a 0.8% difference when compared to the reference E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS human strain. Differences were also observed in the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, and analysis of the serine-rich protein gene from the monkey strain showed unique codon usages compared to E. histolytica isolated from humans. The amino acid sequences of two hexokinases and two glucose phosphate isomerases also differed from those of E. histolytica. Isoenzyme analyses of these enzymes in the monkey strain showed different electrophoretic mobility patterns compared with E. histolytica isolates. Analysis of peroxiredoxin genes indicated the presence of at least seven different types of protein, none of which were identical to proteins in E. histolytica. When the trophozoites from the monkey strain were inoculated into the livers of hamsters, formation of amebic abscesses was observed 7 days after the injection. These results demonstrate that the strain is genetically different from E. histolytica and is virulent. Revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli is proposed for the organism.

  18. Sequence analysis and typing of Saprolegnia strains isolated from freshwater fish from Southern Chinese regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siya Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprolegniasis, caused by Saprolegnia infection, is one of the most common diseases in freshwater fish. Our study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of saprolegniasis in Chinese regions of high incidence. Saprolegnia were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular methods targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA and building neighbor-joining (NJ and maximum parsimony (MP phylogenetic trees. The ITS sequences of eight isolated strains were compared with GenBank sequences and all strains fell into three clades: CLADE1 (02, LP, 04 and 14, CLADE2 (S1, and CLADE3 (CP, S2, L5 and the reference ATCC200013. Isolates 02 and LP shared 80% sequence similarity with S. diclina, S. longicaulis, S. ferax, S. mixta, and S. anomalies. Further, isolates 04 and 14 shared 80% similarity with S. bulbosa and S. oliviae. Finally, extremely high ITS sequence similarities were identified between isolates S1 and S. australis (100%; CP and S. hypogyna (96%; and S2, L5, ATCC200013 and S. salmonis (98%. This research provides insights into the identification, prevention and control of saprolegniasis pathogens and the potential development of effective drugs.

  19. Title: High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oaca

    High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a Tunisian .... UV- visible) at 37°C. Specific activity is calculated on depending of. Ross and ..... Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing;. Seventeenth ...

  20. Pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin degradation using mesorhizobium sp. (s1b) and bartonella sp. (s2b) strains isolated from cotton crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumro, W.A.; Phulpoto, A.H.; Mangi, S.; Kanhar, N.A.; Ahmed, S.; Qazi, M.A.; Pirzada, T.

    2017-01-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LC), synthetic pyrethroid pesticide is used to control a wide range of pests in variety of agricultural fields. Pesticides are potentially harmful environmental pollutants and pose serious threat to human health. Very limited options are available for environment friendly removal of LC. Interestingly, soil microbes have been known to possess remarkable genetic makeup that helps them to perform vital job in cleaning-up harmful pollutants from the environment. In present study, two LC-degrading bacteria viz. Mesorhizobium sp. strain S1B (Accession no. gb|MF471843|) and Bartonella sp. strain S2B (Accession no. b|MF471844|) were isolated by soil enrichment technique from cotton crop soil and characterized taxonomically using conventional methods and molecular PCR-based 16S rRNA sequence homology. The bacterial strains S1B and S2B achieved 29% and 40% removal of LC (conc. 250 mg/L, w/v), with maximum growth absorbance (OD) of 1.19 +- 0.06 and 1.13+- 0.09, respectively, during 20 days of incubation at 30 degree C and agitation 200 rpm under experimental laboratory circumstances. The percent removal of LC was estimated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy at 287 nm (? max) against the standard curve plotted at different LC concentrations. The bacterial isolates of present study have exhibited substantial efficiency for environmental biodegradation of the pesticide. (author)

  1. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba Alawi, Wail; Kamau, Allan; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated

  2. In Vitro Characterization of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fruit Processing By-Products as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-23

    Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity. Regarding the physiological functionality properties, none of the strains were able to deconjugate bile salts; all of them presented low to moderate cell hydrophobicity and were able to autoaggregate, coaggregate with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Exposure to pH 2 sharply decreased the survival of the examined strains after 1- or 2-h exposure; variable decreases were noted after 3-h exposure to pH 3. Overall, exposure to pH 5 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.3, and 1%) did not decrease the strains' survival. Examined strains presented better ability to survive from the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions in laboratorial media and milk than in grape juice. Considering the technological properties, all the strains were positive for proteolytic activity and EPS and diacetyl production, and most of them had good tolerance to 1-4% NaCl. These results indicate that wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fruit processing by-products could present performance compatible with probiotic properties and technological features that enable the development of probiotic foods with distinct characteristics.

  3. In Vitro characterization of Lactococcus lactis strains Isolated from Iranian Traditional Dairy Products as a Potential Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nejati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been reported regarding probiotic properties of Lactococcus lactis strains although they are extensively used as starter cultures in the production of dairy products. In this study 8 wild isolates of Lactococcus lactis were evaluated in vitro with regard to resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, adherence ability to Caco-2 cells and HT29-MTX-E12 cell lines, anti-microbial activity, hydrophobicity and antibiotic susceptibility. The results revealed that all isolates had better survival after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal tract stresses in comparison to control probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Regarding adherence efficiency, almost all isolates exhibited similar adherence with control. Three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes through spot-agar method. Almost all isolates (seven out of eight showed similar hydrophobicity to control probiotic. Regarding to antibiotic resistance, all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, penicillin, kanamycin and nitrofurantoin. Although, further investigations are necessary, it was concluded that strains derived from raw milk and home-made dairy products could be a remarkable reservoir for identification of new potential probiotic strains.

  4. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    , catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates. Strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally sensitive to food processing (cold, heat, drying) and storage conditions. The 327 whole genome...

  5. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of MCPA-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain ERG5, Isolated from a Groundwater Aquifer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Kot, Witold; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function in bioaug......Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function...

  7. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Traditional Tibetan Qula, A Raw Yak Milk Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Wang, Yanping; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Zongwei; Jiao, Zhen; Huang, Qunce

    2016-10-01

    In this study, 69 lactobacilli isolated from Tibetan Qula, a raw yak milk cheese, were screened for their potential use as probiotics. The isolates were tested in terms of: Their ability to survive at pH 2.0, pH 3.0, and in the presence of 0.3% bile salts; tolerance of simulated gastric and intestinal juices; antimicrobial activity; sensitivity against 11 specific antibiotics; and their cell surface hydrophobicity. The results show that out of the 69 strains, 29 strains (42%) had survival rates above 90% after 2 h of incubation at pH values of 2.0 or 3.0. Of these 29 strains, 21 strains showed a tolerance for 0.3% bile salt. Incubation of these 21 isolates in simulated gastrointestinal fluid for 3 h revealed survival rates above 90%; the survival rate for 20 of these isolates remained above 90% after 4 h of incubation in simulated intestinal fluid. The viable counts of bacteria after incubation in simulated gastric fluid for 3 h and simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h were both significantly different compared with the counts at 0 h (pstrains exhibited inhibitory activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, and Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971. Moreover, all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Of the 20 strains, three were resistant to all 11 elected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and gentamicin) in this study, and five were sensitive to more than half of the antibiotics. Additionally, the cell surface hydrophobicity of seven of the 20 lactobacilli strains was above 70%, including strains Lactobacillus casei 1,133 (92%), Lactobacillus plantarum 1086-1 (82%), Lactobacillus casei 1089 (81%), Lactobacillus casei 1138 (79%), Lactobacillus buchneri 1059 (78%), Lactobacillus plantarum1141 (75%), and Lactobacillus plantarum 1197 (71%). Together, these results suggest

  8. Differences in Shiga toxin and phage production among stx2g-positive STEC strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviana Granobles Velandia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC are characterized by the production of Shiga toxins (Stx encoded by temperate bacteriophages. Stx production is linked to the induction of the phage lytic cycle. Several stx variants have been described and differentially associated with the risk of developing severe illness.The variant named stx2g was first identified in a STEC strain isolated from the faeces of healthy cattle. Analysis of stx2g-positive strains isolated from humans, animals and environmental sources have shown that they have a close relationship. In this study, stx2g-positive STEC isolated from cattle were analyzed for phage and Stx production, with the aim to relate the results to differences observed in cytotoxicity.The presence of inducible phages was assessed by analyzing the bacterial growth/lysis curves and also by plaque assay. Bacterial growth curves in the absence of induction were similar for all isolates, however, notably differed among induced cultures. The two strains that clearly evidenced bacteriolysis under this condition also showed higher phage titers in plaque assays. However, only the phage plaques produced by one of these strains (FB 62 hybridized with a stx2-probe. Furthermore, the production of Stx was evaluated by EIA and Western immunoblotting in overnight supernatants. By EIA, we detected Stx only in supernatants of FB 62, with a higher signal with induced than in uninduced cultures. By immunoblotting, Stx2 could be detected after induction in all stx2g-positive isolates, but with lower amounts of Stx2B subunit in those supernatants where phages could not be detected.Taking into account all the results, several differences could be found among stx2g-positive strains. The strain with the highest cytotoxic titer showed higher levels of stx2-phages and toxin production by EIA, and the opposite was observed for strains that previously showed low cytotoxic titers, confirming that in stx2g-positive strains Stx production is

  9. Effects of community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the Gambia: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs of limited valency is justified in Africa by the high burden of pneumococcal disease. Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia.A cluster-randomized (by village trial of the impact of PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted in 21 Gambian villages between December 2003 to June 2008 (5,441 inhabitants in 2006. Analysis was complemented with data obtained before vaccination. Because efficacy of PCV-9 in young Gambian children had been shown, it was considered unethical not to give PCV-7 to young children in all of the study villages. PCV-7 was given to children below 30 mo of age and to those born during the trial in all study villages. Villages were randomized (older children and adults to receive one dose of PCV-7 (11 vaccinated villages or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (10 control villages. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs to collect nasopharyngeal swabs were conducted before vaccination (2,094 samples in the baseline CSS, and 4-6, 12, and 22 mo after vaccination (1,168, 1,210, and 446 samples in CSS-1, -2, and -3, respectively. A time trend analysis showed a marked fall in the prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in all age groups following vaccination (from 23.7% and 26.8% in the baseline CSS to 7.1% and 8.5% in CSS-1, in vaccinated and control villages, respectively. The prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage was lower in vaccinated than in control villages among older children (5 y to <15 y of age and adults (≥15 y of age at CSS-2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [95% CI 0.04-0.57] and OR = 0.32 [95% CI 0.10-0.98], respectively and at CSS-3 (OR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.15-0.90] for older children, and 0% versus 7.6% for adults in vaccinated and control villages, respectively. Differences in the prevalence of

  10. NEW PRODUCER STRAINS OF BIOBUTANOL. І. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tigunova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Getting new, more productive strains of microorganisms that produce butanol is a topical problem. Studing of morphological and physiological characteristics of the isolated strains, improvement of their cultivation conditions, optimization of biobutanol synthesis gives the possibility to organize a cost-effective butanol production technology. The aim of this work was searching new butanol and butyric acid producer strains, their identification and studying the main steps of the selective strains biosynthesis. The objects of this study were microorganisms that had allocated from soils and sludges samples of Kiev’s lakes. Obtained cultures have been screened. Three strains were obtained as promising and identified as C. acetobutylicum, C. tyrobutylicum, C. butylicum. Selective medium have been developed and modified for the microorganisms. Producer’s features were investigated in order to maximize the accumulation of target metabolites.

  11. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus(®)2B and FloraFIT(®) Probiotics (P coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 ± 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic.

  12. Metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial strains isolated from northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, A.; Latif, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas. (author)

  13. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  14. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  15. Characteristics of cytotoxic necrotizing factor and cytolethal distending toxin producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from meat samples in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, H J; Ball, H J; Oswald, E; Rowe, M T

    2006-08-01

    Swabs collected from pig, lamb and beef carcasses and samples of pork, lamb and beef mince were cultured for Escherichia coli strains. Strains harbouring cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF1 and 2) and cytolethal distending toxins (CDT-I,-II,-III and -IV) were identified in plate cultures of the isolates by colony hybridization with labelled probes and multiplex PCR assays. Simplex and multiplex PCR assays were used to further characterize the isolates to determine the presence of P, S and F17 fimbriae as well as afimbrial adhesins and haemolysin. The serotype was also determined where possible. Thirty strains with the capacity to code for CNF (4), CDT (24) or both (2) were isolated and characterized, and a wide range of associated factor patterns was observed. The methods utilized were successful in demonstrating the detection of viable strains with potentially significant pathogenic factors from human food sources.

  16. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  17. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  18. Comparison of the acidifying activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from goat's milk and Valdeteja cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Calleja, C; Carballo, J; Capita, R; Bernardo, A; García-López, M L

    2002-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the acid production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from goat's milk and goat cheese (Valdeteja variety) in order to select a suitable starter culture for industrial goat cheese manufacturing. The titrable acidity of 45 Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a home-made batch of Valdeteja cheese with excellent sensory characteristics was measured over a period of 18 h. The strains were divided into two groups depending on the acid production rate: 20 fast acid producer (F) strains and 25 slow acid producer (S) strains. The kinetic parameters (lag phase, maximum acid production rate and value of upper asymptote curve) of the acid production curves for F and S strains were significantly (P titrable acidity of F and S strains were observed after the second hour of incubation. An F strain acetoin producer (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 470Ch2) was selected as autochthonous starter culture for industrial Valdeteja goat cheese manufacturing.

  19. Comparison of 3 vaccination strategies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 on a 3 pathogen challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Kim, Seeun; Park, Kee Hwan; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic ( M. hyopneumoniae - and PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.

  20. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three draft genomes of Vibrio coralliilyticus strains isolated from bivalve hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported here are the draft genomes of three Vibrio coralliilyticus isolates RE87, AIC-7, and 080116A. Each strain was isolated in association with diseased oyster larvae in commercial aquaculture systems. These draft genomes will be useful for further studies in understanding the genomic features...

  2. Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha-Guerrero, S.I.; Pinon-Castillo, H.A.; Luna-Velasco, A.; Orrantia-Borunda, E.; Brito, E.M.S.; Tarango-Rivero, S.H.; Caretta, C.A.; Duran, R.

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of the nanoparticles (NPs) on several processes is notorious. In contrast the eco toxicological effects of NPs have been scarcely studied. The main current researches are related to the oxide metallic NPs. In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 classes: Bacilli (36 strains), Flavobacteria (2 strains), and Gamma proteobacteria (18 strains). Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. The obtained CuONPs have a spherical shape and primary size less than 17 nm. Twenty-one strains were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CuONPs and 11 of these strains showed high sensibility. Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus later osporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ananatis strains CSA34 and CSA35) were selected to determine the kind of damage produced. The CuONPs toxic effect was observed at expositions over 25 mg·L -1 and the damage to cell membrane above 160 mg·L -1 . The electron microscopy showed the formation of cavities, holes, membrane degradation, blebs, cellular collapse, and lysis. These toxic effects may probably be due to the ions interaction, the oxide-reduction reactions, and the generation of reactive species

  3. Isolation and lipid degradation profile of Raoultella planticola strain 232-2 capable of efficiently catabolizing edible oils under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mika; Utsue, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    The lipids (fats and oils) degradation capabilities of soil microorganisms were investigated for possible application in treatment of lipids-contaminated wastewater. We isolated a strain of the bacterium Raoultella planticola strain 232-2 that is capable of efficiently catabolizing lipids under acidic conditions such as in grease traps in restaurants and food processing plants. The strain 232-2 efficiently catabolized a mixture (mixed lipids) of commercial vegetable oil, lard, and beef tallow (1:1:1, w/w/w) at 20-35 °C, pH 3-9, and 1,000-5,000 ppm lipid content. Highly effective degradation rate was observed at 35 °C and pH 4.0, and the 24-h degradation rate was 62.5 ± 10.5 % for 3,000 ppm mixed lipids. The 24-h degradation rate for 3,000 ppm commercial vegetable oil, lard, beef tallow, mixed lipids, and oleic acid was 71.8 %, 58.7 %, 56.1 %, 55.3 ± 8.5 %, and 91.9 % at pH 4 and 30 °C, respectively. R. planticola NBRC14939 (type strain) was also able to efficiently catabolize the lipids after repeated subculturing. The composition of the culture medium strongly influenced the degradation efficiency, with yeast extract supporting more complete dissimilation than BactoPeptone or beef extract. The acid tolerance of strain 232-2 is proposed to result from neutralization of the culture medium by urease-mediated decomposition of urea to NH(3). The rate of lipids degradation increased with the rates of neutralization and cell growth. Efficient lipids degradation using strain 232-2 has been achieved in the batch treatment of a restaurant wastewater.

  4. PCV Solid Rocket Motor: Design Status of the Motor Case Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, A.; Zallo, A.; Perugini, P.; Di Cosmo, A.; Pasquale, N.; Mucci, R.

    2014-06-01

    For the VEGA Launch system new developments are running in order to allow: a) performances increase b) cost reduction c) introduction of new technologies.In the VEGA C configuration the PCV SRM replace the P80 in the first stage.The PCV design is based on the consolidate AVIO heritage with important improvements both from the material and from the technological side.Important improvements in skirts manufacturing will be tested as well, with the development of a customized automatic tape laying machine.From the material side a top class fiber will be selected on the bases of extensive trade-off plan which is under completion.The pre-preg material is based on an in-house resin formulation tailored to the specific motor case process requirements.

  5. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparison analysis of microRNAs in response to dengue virus type 2 infection between the Vero cell-adapted strain and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Lin, Yao; Jiang, Liming; Xi, Juemin; Wang, Xiaodan; Guan, Jiaoqiong; Chen, Junying; Pan, Yue; Luo, Jia; Ye, Chao; Sun, Qiangming

    2018-05-02

    To elucidate the differences in microRNAs during dengue virus infection between Vero cell-adapted strain (DENV-2-Vero) and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain (DENV-2-C6/36), a comparison analysis was performed in Vero cells by high throughput sequencing. The results showed that the expression of 16 known and 3 novel miRNAs exhibited marked differences. 5 known miRNAs were up-regulated in DENV-2-C6/36 group, while 11 known microRNAs were down-regulated in DENV-2-Vero group. The GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis showed that there was a distinct difference in regulating viral replication between two strains. In DENV-2-Vero infection group, significantly enriched GO terms included virion attachment to host cells, viral structural protein/genome processing and packaging. Meanwhile, the regulation of cell death and apoptosis between two groups were different in the early stage of infection. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DENV-2-C6/36 infection induced more intense regulation of immune-related pathways, including Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, etc. DENV-2-Vero infection could partially alleviate the immune defense of Vero cells compared with DENV-2-C6/36. The results indicated that the distinct microRNA changes induced by two DENV-2 strains may be partly related to their infective abilities. Our data provide useful insights that help elucidate the host-pathogen interactions following DENV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharide produced by Vibrio harveyi strain VB23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhachari, P V; Dubey, S K

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Vibrio harveyi strain VB23. Growth and EPS production by V. harveyi strain VB23, was studied in mineral salts medium supplemented with NaCl (1.5%) and glucose (0.2%). The rate of EPS production in batch cultures was highest during the late log phase of growth when compared with stationary growth phase. The exopolymer was recovered from the culture supernatant by using a cold ethanol precipitation-dialysis procedure. Chemical analyses of EPS revealed that it is primarily composed of neutral sugars, uronic acids, proteins and sulfates. The purified EPS revealed prominent functional reactive groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxylic and amides, which correspond to a typical heteropolymeric polysaccharide and the EPS, also possessed good emulsification activity. The gas chromatographic analysis of an alditol acetate-derivatized sample of EPS revealed that it is composed primarily of galactose and glucose. Minor components found were rhamnose, fucose, ribose, arabinose, xylose and mannose. The EPS produced by V. harveyi strain VB23 is a heteropolysaccharide possessing good emulsification activity. EPS was readily isolated from culture supernatants, which suggests that the EPS was a slime-like EPS. This is the first report of EPS characterization in luminous V. harveyi bacteria, which describes the isolation and characterization of an EPS expressed by V. harveyi. The results of the study contributes significantly towards an understanding of the chemical composition and applications of the EPS in environmental biotechnology and bioremediation.

  8. A strain-isolation design for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Ming; Chen, Wei-Qiu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yong-Gang; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-12-01

    Stretchable electronics represents a direction of recent development in next-generation semiconductor devices. Such systems have the potential to offer the performance of conventional wafer-based technologies, but they can be stretched like a rubber band, twisted like a rope, bent over a pencil, and folded like a piece of paper. Isolating the active devices from strains associated with such deformations is an important aspect of design. One strategy involves the shielding of the electronics from deformation of the substrate through insertion of a compliant adhesive layer. This paper establishes a simple, analytical model and validates the results by the finite element method. The results show that a relatively thick, compliant adhesive is effective to reduce the strain in the electronics, as is a relatively short film.

  9. Full genome sequences and molecular characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanová, Petra; Černý, Jiří; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Valdés, James J; Kozlova, Irina; Dzhioev, Yuri; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), one of the most important human neuroinfections across Eurasia. Up to date, only three full genome sequences of human European TBEV isolates are available, mostly due to difficulties with isolation of the virus from human patients. Here we present full genome characterization of an additional five low-passage TBEV strains isolated from human patients with severe forms of TBE. These strains were isolated in 1953 within Central Bohemia in the former Czechoslovakia, and belong to the historically oldest human TBEV isolates in Europe. We demonstrate here that all analyzed isolates are distantly phylogenetically related, indicating that the emergence of TBE in Central Europe was not caused by one predominant strain, but rather a pool of distantly related TBEV strains. Nucleotide identity between individual sequenced TBEV strains ranged from 97.5% to 99.6% and all strains shared large deletions in the 3' non-coding region, which has been recently suggested to be an important determinant of virulence. The number of unique amino acid substitutions varied from 3 to 9 in individual isolates, but no characteristic amino acid substitution typical exclusively for all human TBEV isolates was identified when compared to the isolates from ticks. We did, however, correlate that the exploration of the TBEV envelope glycoprotein by specific antibodies were in close proximity to these unique amino acid substitutions. Taken together, we report here the largest number of patient-derived European TBEV full genome sequences to date and provide a platform for further studies on evolution of TBEV since the first emergence of human TBE in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production.

  11. Isolation and evaluation of a high H{sub 2}-producing lab isolate from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana; Sinha, Pallavi [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India)

    2009-09-15

    Hydrogen producing bacterial strain was isolated from Indian cow dung and identified of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. This lab isolate was differentiated from Citrobacter Y-19 at molecular level by using RAPD, PCR based technique, and OPO-03{sub 460} and OPO-17{sub 800} RAPD marker for this specific strain (lab isolate) was identified. Fermentative studies were investigated for important parameters, starting with pH of the culture, temperature, inoculum age and inoculum volume, initial substrate concentration and different substrates. Among different substrates, dextrose and sucrose were the preferred substrates for hydrogen production. The optimal starting pH of the culture was found to be 5.0. The H{sub 2} production increased with increase in temperature up to 30 C. The maximum value of H{sub 2} production was recorded when inoculum volume was 12.5% of the culture broth and inoculum age was 14 h. Under batch fermentation conditions, the maximum hydrogen production rate and yield were 355.2 ml l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 2.1 mol/mol glucose (conversion 35%), respectively. These results indicate that this lab isolate is an ideal hydrogen producer. (author)

  12. Functional Properties of Lactobacillus mucosae Strains Isolated from Brazilian Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Georgia Maciel Dias; de Abreu, Louricélia Rodrigues; do Egito, Antônio Silvio; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; da Silva, Liana Maria Ferreira; Nero, Luís Augusto; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich

    2017-09-01

    The search for probiotic candidates among lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from food may uncover new strains with promising health and technological properties. Lactobacillus mucosae strains attracted recent research attention due to their ability to adhere to intestinal mucus and to inhibit pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract, both related to a probiotic potential. Properties of interest and safety aspects of three Lb. mucosae strains (CNPC006, CNPC007, and CNPC009) isolated from goat milk were investigated employing in vitro tests. The presence of genetic factors related to bile salt hydrolase production (bsh), intestinal adhesion properties (msa, map, mub, and ef-tu), virulence, and biogenic amine production were also verified. All strains exhibited the target map, mub, and ef-tu sequences; the msa gene was detected in CNPC006 and CNPC007 strains. Some of the searched sequences for virulence factors were detected, especially in the CNPC009 strain; all strains carried the hyl gene, related to the production of hyaluronidase. Lb. mucosae CNPC007 exhibited a high survival rate in simulated gastric and enteric conditions. Besides, all strains exhibited the bsh sequence, and CNPC006 and CNPC007 were able to deconjugate salts of glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC). Regarding technological properties for dairy product applications, a relatively higher milk acidification and clotting capacity, diacetyl production, and proteolytic activity were registered for CNPC007 in comparison to the other strains. Collectively, the results aim at Lb. mucosae CNPC007 as a promising probiotic candidate for application in dairy products, deserving further studies to confirm and explore its potential.

  13. Rapid Evaluation of Bacteriolysis of Listeria innocua and L. welshimeri Strains Isolated from Foods

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Figen; ÇIBIK, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the bacteriolytic extent of 10 strains of Listeria innocua and 9 strains of L. welshimeri isolated from foods. Bacteriolysis was measured at 650 nm by spectrophotometer. For this purpose, late exponential phase cells were transferred into potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0) and incubated at 37 ºC. While the bacteriolysis range of L. innocua strains was 48% to 76% after 48 h of incubation, L. welshimeri isolates exhibited broader bacteriolytic vari...

  14. Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Saif, Linda J; Marthaler, Douglas; Esseili, Malak A; Meulia, Tea; Lin, Chun-Ming; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Jung, Kwonil; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiuhong

    2014-10-10

    The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis under sulfidic conditions: insights from the isolate Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring—a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis. We hypothesize that the specific adaptation mechanisms of the isolate to H2S emerged from a close spatial interaction with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The new isolate, Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii, is not closely related to other well-characterized Cyanobacteria that can perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, which further highlights the need to characterize the diversity and biogeography of metabolically versatile Cyanobacteria. The isolate will be an ideal model organism for exploring the adaptation of Cyanobacteria to sulfidic conditions. PMID:29328062

  16. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis under sulfidic conditions: insights from the isolate Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-02-01

    We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H 2 S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H 2 S and irradiance; (iii) O 2 production is inhibited by H 2 S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis. We hypothesize that the specific adaptation mechanisms of the isolate to H 2 S emerged from a close spatial interaction with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The new isolate, Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii, is not closely related to other well-characterized Cyanobacteria that can perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, which further highlights the need to characterize the diversity and biogeography of metabolically versatile Cyanobacteria. The isolate will be an ideal model organism for exploring the adaptation of Cyanobacteria to sulfidic conditions.

  17. Cyanide Degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain W_2 Isolated from Mining Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinda Tiong; Zaratulnur Mohd Bahari; Nor Sahslin Irwan Shah Lee; Jafariah Jaafar; Zaharah Ibrahim; Shafinaz Shahir

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to the living organisms as it inhibits respiration system in the cell mitochondria. Cyanide is commonly used in gold extraction process and its discharge into the environment not only causes pollution but it also brings harm to the surrounding population. Chemical treatment is expensive and the use of hazardous compound can exacerbate the problem. Biodegradation offers cheap and safe alternative as it overcomes the problems faced by chemical treatment. In this study, indigenous bacteria from mining wastewater were isolated. Cyanide degradation was done via shake flask method. A bacterium, designated W2 was found able to grow in the mining wastewater. 16S rRNA analysis identified the strain as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which could tolerate up to 39 mg/L cyanide concentration and growth was depleted at 52 mg/L. 60 % cyanide degradation was achieved in wastewater containing medium. End-product analysis from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detected formamide implicating the role of cyanide hydratase in cyanide degradation. It can be concluded that P. pseudoalcaligenes is capable of biodegrading cyanide and its potential in wastewater treatment containing cyanide is feasible. (author)

  18. Establishment of a nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay to distinguish field strains and attenuated strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gui-Hua; Cui, Yu-Dong; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. Previous studies have indicated that PEDV vaccine strains have a partial deletion in ORF3. In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine rotavirus (RV), and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay we describe here can be used to distinguish field strains from vaccine strains of PEDV, and it shows promise for reducing economic loss due to PEDV infection.

  19. In vitro effects of various xenobiotics on Fusarium spp. strains isolated from cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Fusarium spp. strains isolated from cereals to selected heavy metals, fungicides and silver nanoparticles. The experiments were conducted using 50 Fusarium strains belonging to five species: F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. oxysporum, F. sporotrichioides and F. avenaceum. The strains were found to be highly resistant to Pb(2+) and Zn(2+). Medium resistance to Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) and low resistance to Cd(2+) and Fe(3+) was also observed. Among the tested fungicides, formulations containing azoxystrobin, prochloraz and tebuconazole proved to be the most effective in inhibiting the growth of fungi, as they affected fungal growth in each of the applied doses. Susceptibility of Fusarium spp. to nanosilver, demonstrated in this study, shows the legitimacy of using nanostructures as fungicidal agents. The results confirm high diversity of the analyzed fungal species in terms of susceptibility to the tested substances, and encourage to continue research on the resistance of Fusarium spp. to various fungicidal agents.

  20. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nepal based on hypervariable region of VP2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2005-01-01

    Two Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates, NP1SSH and NP2K were obtained from a severe infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Nepal in 2002. The hypervariable (HV) region of VP2 gene (1326 bp) of the isolates was generated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The obtained nucleotide sequences were compared with those of twenty other IBDV isolates/strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on this comparison revealed that NP1SSH and NP2K clustered with very virulent (vv) IBDV strains of serotype 1. In contrast, classical, Australian classical and attenuated strains of serotype 1 and avirulent IBDV strains of serotype 2 formed a different cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two isolates showed a 98.3% identity with each other and 97.1% and 98.3% identities, respectively with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolates/strains. Three amino acids substitutions at positions 300 (E-->A), 308 (I-->F) and 334 (A-->P) within the HV region were common for both the isolates. The amino acids substitutions at positions 27 (S-->T), 28 (I-->T), 31 (D-->A), 36 (H-->Y), 135 (E-->G), 223 (G-->S), 225 (V-->I), 351 (L-->I), 352 (V-->E) and 399 (I-->S) for NP1SSH and at position 438 (I-->S) for NP2K were unique and differed from other IBDV isolates/strains. NP1SSH and NP2K showed highest similarity (97.8%) with the BD399 strain from Bangladesh as compared with other vvIBDV isolates/strains. We conclude that the NP1SSH and NP2K isolates of IBDV from Nepal represent vvIBDV of serotype 1.

  1. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034, which is close to that of Metschnikowia drosophilae based on ITS- and D1/D2 domain-based phylogenetic analysis. However, the physiology of the strain was not associated to M. drosophilae. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested azoles, echinocandins, 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B. This study provided insight into Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM. The isolate utilized 373 nutrients of 760 nutrient sources and could adapt to a broad range of osmotic and pH environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Metschnikowia non-pulcherrima sp. from skin scraping, revealing this rare yeast species as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified as Candida sp. using conventional methods. Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 can survive in flexible and diverse environments with a generalist lifestyle.

  4. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  5. Temporal association between the isolation of Sabin-related poliovirus vaccine strains and the Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Friedrich

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight paralysis cases classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS in Brazil were analysed. In all these cases Sabin-related poliovirus vaccine strains were isolated. In most of the cases the last vaccine dose was given months or years before the onset of GBS, suggesting a persistent infection or the transmission of the Sabin-related strains to the patients. The isolation of Sabin-related strains from GBS cases some days or weeks after the onset of the disease, demonstrated a temporal association between the isolation of the strains and the disease. Although the isolates from the GBS cases may not be the etiological agent of the disease, this study strongly indicates that infections caused by Sabin-related vaccine strains can trigger the GBS in certain cases.

  6. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by fungi strains isolated from the sand and soil of recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wójcik, Anna; Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16). In addition, 13 biotypes characteristic of particular species of fungi were defined. Most strains could be categorized as biotypes C2 – 39.5% and A – 26%. The examined fungal strains isolated from recreational areas have selected biochemical characteristics i.e. production of hydrolases, which demonstrate their pathogenicity. They produce a number of enzymes which are also present in strains isolated from patients with mycoses, including: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11) and alkaline phosphatase (e1). The biotypes identified in the course of this study (A, B3, B4, C1, C6 and D3) have been also reported in cases of fungal infection. Therefore, the fungi present in the sand and soil of recreational have pathogenic properties and are possible factors of fungal infection among children.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Personnel of Jahrom Hospitals in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Undo edits Methods: In this cross - sectional study, 397 of the anterior nasal samples of medical personnel and hospital services were collected by swab. The identification of S.aureus was determined by biochemical tests and microbiology, and the antibiotic resistances of isolates were determined by disk diffusion method for 13 antibiotics. In this method, the inhibition zone for methicillin-resistant strains was ≤ 10 mm the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against antibiotic vancomycin, ticoplanin, linezolid and synercid were determined by E-test method. Results: In the present study, 11.3% of personals carried S. aureus in the nose. Among them, 90% were health care workers and 10% were health service workers. The most sensitivity was observed resistance to Ciprofloxacin, rifampin, linezolid and synercid (91.1%, but the lowest sensitivity was to penicillin (4.7%. of 9 MRSA strains, 1 strain was resistance to vancomycin and 2 strains were resistant to teicoplanin and linezolid. Conclusion: Because of S. aureus strains isolated from hospital staffs were resistant to most common antibiotics, identification and treatment of health care and health service workers can prevent nosocomial infections. Key words: Staphylococcu aureus carriers, hospital personnel, antibiotic resistance.

  8. Major clonal lineages in impetigo Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Machová, Ivana; Kostýlková, Karla; Doškař, Jiří

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven exfoliative toxin-producing (ET-positive) strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected in 23 Czech and one Slovak maternity hospitals from 1998 to 2011 were genotypically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, and ETA-converting prophage carriage, which resulted in the identification of 21 genotypes grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC). Ninety-one isolates carried the eta gene alone whilst 12 isolates harboured only the etb gene. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t6644 and t6645) and 2 novel sequence types (ST2194 and ST2195) were identified in the set of strains under study. The predominant CC121 occurred in 13 Czech hospitals. CC15, CC9, and ST88 (CC88) exclusively included eta gene-positive strains while the strains belonging to ST121 harboured the eta and/or etb genes. This study highlights not only significant genomic diversity among impetigo strains and the distribution of major genotypes disseminated in the Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals, but also reveals their impact in epidermolytic infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden isolated in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, K L; Goh, Y L; Radu, S; Noorzaleha, S; Yasin, R; Koh, Y T; Lim, V K E; Rusul, G; Puthucheary, S D

    2002-07-01

    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotype Weltevreden Isolated in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, K. L.; Goh, Y. L.; Radu, S.; Noorzaleha, S.; Yasin, R.; Koh, Y. T.; Lim, V. K. E.; Rusul, G.; Puthucheary, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia. PMID:12089269

  11. Antibacterial activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. extract against standard bacteria and isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Omidpanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have been trying to develop new broad-spectrum antibiotics against the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites for many decades. Prolonged usage of the antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug resistance among bacteria; therefore, there is a tremendous need for novel antimicrobial agents from different sources such as plants which are used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effect of Achillea tenuifolia. The plant material was extracted by maceration method using methanol three times at room temperature. The extract was concentrated after removing the solvent by rotary evaporator and then lyophilized using freeze dryer. Inhibitory effect of the extract was examined against four standard bacteria strains and two isolated strains from diseased hen using disk diffusion method and microdilution method to evaluate their inhibition zone diameter (IZD and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, respectively. The results showed that the extract of the plant was active against standard strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with IZDs of 10.3±0.5, 14±0.0, 12±0.0 and 11.6±0.5, respectively. However, growths of isolated strains were not inhibited in the presence of the extract. Although, the growths of isolated strains were not inhibited by the plant extract, the standard strains were moderately susceptible to the extract; among those P. aeroginosa was more sensible than other tested strains

  12. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus pla...

  13. Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Terio, Valentina; Elia, Gabriella; Lucente, Maria Stella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of thermotolerant Vermamoeba vermiformis strains from water sources in Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    In this study, twenty water samples were collected in the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Water samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 2 of the 20 processed samples (10%) incubated at room temperature and 37°C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing in order to confirm the identity of the isolated amoebic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of FLA in environmental sources in Lanzarote Island and the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in water sources in this island. Furthermore, the two strains isolated in this study were collected in recreational areas with close contact with humans and thus awareness should be raised.

  15. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmaied, Ezzedine; Ben Mbarek, Wael

    2010-01-01

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  16. Genome Sequence of Carbon Dioxide-Sequestering Serratia sp. Strain ISTD04 Isolated from Marble Mining Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manish; Gazara, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sandhya; Kumar, Madan; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The Serratia sp. strain ISTD04 has been identified as a carbon dioxide (CO2)-sequestering bacterium isolated from marble mining rocks in the Umra area, Rajasthan, India. This strain grows chemolithotrophically on media that contain sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the sole carbon source. Here, we report the genome sequence of 5.07?Mb Serratia sp. ISTD04.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Novel Low-Abundance Species Strains Isolated from Kefir Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyu; Blasche, Sonja; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-28

    We report here the genome sequences of three novel bacterial species strains- Bacillus kefirresidentii Opo, Rothia kefirresidentii KRP, and Streptococcus kefirresidentii YK-isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. The draft genomes of these isolates were remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identities, 77.80%, 89.01%, and 92.10%, respectively) to those of the previously sequenced strains. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  18. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains 1303 and ECC-1470 isolated from bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  19. Molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Wagner, Carolina; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes two cases of Acanthamoeba infections (keratitis and ascites/peritonitis) in small breed domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. In both cases, amoebic trophozoites were observed under the inverted microscope and isolated from the infected tissues and/or fluids, without detecting the presence of other viral, fungal or bacterial pathogens. Amoebae were isolated using 2 % non-nutrient agar plates and axenified for further biochemical and molecular analyses. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that both isolates were able to grow up to 37 °C and 1 M of mannitol and were thus considered as potentially pathogenic. Moreover, the strains were classified as highly cytotoxic as they cause more than 75 % of toxicity when incubated with two eukaryotic cell lines. In order to classify the strains at the molecular level, the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was amplified and sequenced, revealing that both isolates belonged to genotype T4. In both cases, owners of the animals did not allow any further studies or follow-up and therefore the current status of these animals is unknown. Furthermore, the isolation of these pathogenic amoebae should raise awareness with the veterinary community locally and worldwide.

  20. The isolation and preliminary characterization of native cyanobacterial and microalgal strains from lagoons contaminated with petroleum oil in Khark Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Noroozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Algae has many applications in terms of ecology, biodiversity, agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, industry, etc. They are potent organisms in bio-active compound production, bioremediation and primary producer. Therefore, it is important to discover local strains with biotechnological and ecological applications. Materials and methods: Soil and water samples were collected from different sites of Khark Island (Persian Gulf. The samples were cultivated and purified using different techniques. Seven different antibiotics together with other physical methods used to purify the isolates. Results: Throughout the project 7 strains including 2 eukaryotic algae and 5 cyanobacteria have been isolated. Imipenem and cycloheximide were the best antibiotics for purification of cultures. Three of isolates were morphologically similar to Arthronema africanum, Pseudanabaena teremula, Anabaenopsis sp. However, they have some different characteristics which according to the present identification keys it is not possible to identify their identity (they have nominated Kh.C.d2, Kh.T.1 and Kh.T.2. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, isolated strains were identified at the genus level based on morphology characters; therefore the complementary examinations such as molecular identification, ITS, 18s rRNA, 16s rRNA and sequencing can help to approve the strains identity. Upon approval of the new strains account for morphological traits are necessary for their easy identification. The Imipenem antibiotic is the best for eukaryotic algae purification and Cycloheximide is suitable for prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria purification.

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  2. Synthesis of siderophores by strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarapińska-Kwaszewska, Jadwiga; Farkas, Lukasz I

    2003-01-01

    Siderophore activity as the feature of microorganisms enabling colonization of human body and the survival in inanimate environment was investigated in 108 strains of Staphylococcus cohnii; S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (50 strains) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (58 strains). Strains were isolated from people, hospital and non-hospital environment. Highest siderophore activity was noted in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus particularly from the inanimate environments origin. In 86% analyzed strains siderophores of hydroxamate class were detected. Larger amounts of these compounds were synthesized in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Strains belonging to both subspecies from human origin showed lower activity of siderophores (total pool) and did not produce hydroxamate class chelators or produced very small amounts of these compounds.

  3. Pathogenic Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Belonging to Farmers Are of the Same Subtype as Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica Strains Isolated from Humans and May Be a Source of Human Infection in Jiangsu Province, China ▿ ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-01-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections. PMID:20181899

  4. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+) and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-). Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.

  5. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of naturally isolated wild strains of Aspergillus niger with hyper glucose oxidase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOUD EL-HARIRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOx is the basic stone for many of biological industry worldwide. The improvement of GOx production basically depends on selection of hyper producer strain of Aspergillus niger. Selective isolation and screening for natural hyper producer strains of A. niger and sequence analysis of the GOD gene, which is responsible for production of the enzyme, are very effective approaches to investigate the naturally modified strains of A. niger with hyper productive capacity of GOx enzyme. The aims of the current study were selective isolation of naturally hyper GOx producing strains of A. niger and evaluation of their GOx activities under optimized parameters in the laboratory. Five wild Egyptian isolates of A. niger were screened for GOx and catalase activity using two types of modified basal liquid media. The GOx activity was evaluated by high throughout liquid phase system. The isolates showed a variable activity for GOx production ranged from 0 to 28.7 U.ml-1. One isolate coded Strain 7 was negative GOx producer on Vogel's broth medium in comparison to other isolates, while its GOx activity on Cazpek Dox was considered as positive (7.28 U.ml-1. It was concluded that GOx production is affected by three controllable factors – the basal media components, time of incubation, and the strain with its adaption to the media components‎. Also, the catalase activity was tested and it was produced with a different degree of variability, which may be reflected on GOx stability. GOD genes of these wild variant of A. niger were cloned and sequenced to determine intraspecies diversity of GOD between the wild variants. The comparison of isolated wild variants to other reference hyper GOx producer strains of A. niger was performed to determine if the GOD sequence analysis of these strains can be distinguished based on their GOx activity. This is the first report for isolation and detection of naturally A. niger hyper GOx-producer strains with

  6. Influence of gamma-rays and some cultural conditions on the enhancement of cellulase production by some fungal strains isolated from cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Abo-State, M.A.; Girigs, A.M.P.; Youssef, Kh.A.; El-Mahalawy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, out of 51 fungal strains isolated from the cellulosic wastes, only 19 were CMCase-producers. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most common fungal genera isolated from the cellulosic wastes. Fusarium neoceras, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporium produced CMCase activity than Trichoderma viride. Out of 23 gamma-irradiated survivors from A.fumigatus and F. neoceras showing CMCase production, only two mutant strains A.fumigatus 8G-2 and F. neoceras 4G-2 produced the highest levels of CMCase than the parent strains. The results indicated that the maximum level of of CMCase activity was produced by A.fumigatus and F. neoceras strains under optiminizing conditions.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

    2013-10-01

    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.

  8. Identification of syncytial mutations in a clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggeridge, Martin I.; Grantham, Michael L.; Johnson, F. Brent

    2004-01-01

    Small polykaryocytes resulting from cell fusion are found in herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions in patients, but their significance for viral spread and pathogenesis is unclear. Although syncytial variants causing extensive fusion in tissue culture can be readily isolated from laboratory strains, they are rarely found in clinical isolates, suggesting that extensive cell fusion may be deleterious in vivo. Syncytial mutations have previously been identified for several laboratory strains, but not for clinical isolates of HSV type 2. To address this deficiency, we studied a recent syncytial clinical isolate, finding it to be a mixture of two syncytial and one nonsyncytial strain. The two syncytial strains have novel mutations in glycoprotein B, and in vitro cell fusion assays confirmed that they are responsible for syncytium formation. This panel of clinical strains may be ideal for examining the effect of increased cell fusion on pathogenesis

  9. Study of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to carbapenems isolated from blood in eastern Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Carnesecchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Study of multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood cultures collected from in-patients of hospitals located in eastern Liguria, and evaluation of the susceptibility to carbapenems and other antibiotics by E-test and automated methods. Methods. At the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, of Lavagna Hospital in eastern Liguria, 397 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were collected from in-patients from different wards of hospitals sites, during the year 2011. They included 115 isolates from blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic and various biological materials. All strains were tested in the laboratory for their susceptibility to antibiotics. Results. Of the 115 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from blood cultures 59.1% showed resistance to imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem. Conclusions. The data show a high incidence of resistance to carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures.This is important to implement surveillance programs for control and prevention, but also reduce the intake of antibiotics when they are not strictly necessary.

  10. Isolation and characterization of butachlor-catabolizing bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila JS-1 from soil and assessment of its biodegradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Singh, B R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Alarifi, S; Musarrat, J

    2010-07-01

    Isolation, characterization and assessment of butachlor-degrading potential of bacterial strain JS-1 in soil. Butachlor-degrading bacteria were isolated using enrichment culture technique. The morphological, biochemical and genetic characteristics based on 16S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the isolate as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain JS-1. The strain JS-1 exhibited substantial growth in M9 mineral salt medium supplemented with 3.2 mmol l(-1) butachlor, as a sole source of carbon and energy. The HPLC analysis revealed almost complete disappearance of butachlor within 20 days in soil at a rate constant of 0.17 day(-1) and half-life (t((1/2))) of 4.0 days, following the first-order rate kinetics. The strain JS-1 in stationary phase of culture also produced 21.0 microg ml(-1) of growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of 500 microg ml(-1) of tryptophan. The IAA production was stimulated at lower concentrations of butachlor, whereas higher concentrations above 0.8 mmol l(-1) were found inhibitory. The isolate JS-1 characterized as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila was capable of utilizing butachlor as sole source of carbon and energy. Besides being an efficient butachlor degrader, it substantially produces IAA. The bacterial strain JS-1 has a potential for butachlor remediation with a distinctive auxiliary attribute of plant growth stimulation.

  11. Genetic diversity, anti-microbial resistance, plasmid profile and frequency of the Vi antigen in Salmonella Dublin strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, F P; Frazão, M R; Rodrigues, D P; Costa, R G; Casas, M R T; Fernandes, S A; Falcão, J P; Campioni, F

    2018-02-01

    Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs. For this reason, 113 S. Dublin strains isolated between 1983 and 2016 from humans (83) and animals (30) in Brazil were typed by PFGE and MLVA. The presence of the capsular antigen Vi was verified by PCR, and the phenotypic expression of the capsular antigen was determined serologically. Also, a plasmid analysis for each strain was carried out. The strains studied were divided into 35 different PFGE types and 89 MLVA-types with a similarity of ≥80% and ≥17.5%, respectively. The plasmid sizes found ranged from 2 to >150 kb and none of the strains studied presented the capsular antigen Vi. Resistance or intermediate resistance was found in 23 strains (20.3%) that were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, streptomycin and/or tetracycline. The majority of the S. Dublin strains studied and isolated over a 33-year period may descend from a common subtype that has been contaminating humans and animals in Brazil and able to cause invasive disease even in the absence of the capsular antigen. The higher diversity of resistance phenotypes in human isolates, as compared with animal strains, may be a reflection of the different anti-microbial treatments used to control S. Dublin infections in humans in Brazil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID BY PENICILLIUM CAMEMBERTI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CAMEMBERT TYPE CHEESE

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    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate the strains of fungi from Camembert type cheese, identify them and to test isolated strains of Penicillium camemberti for their ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid. The description of micro- and macromorphological features was used for identification of Penicillium camemberti strains. Strains were subsequently in vitro tested on their potential ability to produce mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA. All of the 14 strains of Penicillium camemberti, which were obtained from 20 samples of Camembert type cheese, were cultivated 7, 14, 21, 27 and 30 days on CYA medium at 10±1°C, 15±1°C and 25±1°C in the dark. For determination of CPA production ability by P. camemberti isolates in vitro was TLC used. After 7 days of cultivation cyclopiazonic acid was produced only by 5 from 14 strains cultivated at all cultivation temperatures. After 14 and 21 days of cultivation was CPA produced by 6 strains at all of cultivation temperatures. After 27 and 30 days of cultivation was CPA identified in 7 strains cultivated at all temperatures of cultivation. The other strains also produced mycotoxin, however, not at each temperature. The most productive at all temperatures and after all days were 5 out of 14 tested strains (S9, S10, S13, S18 and S19. Strains S6 and S16 did not produce CPA at any temperature. The lowest production after all days of cultivation was found at 10±1 °C (44% and the highest at 25±1 °C (85%.

  13. Determining the probiotic potential of cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus and Weissella strains isolated from gherkins (fermented cucumber) and south Indian fermented koozh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Santhanakaruppu, Rajendran; Manimaran, Muthusamy; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditionally fermented south Indian koozh and gherkin (cucumber). A total of 51 LAB strains were isolated, among which four were identified as Lactobacillus spp. and three as Weissella spp. The strains were screened for their probiotic potential. All isolated Lactobacillus and Weissella strains were capable of surviving under low pH and bile salt conditions. GI9 and FKI21 were able to survive at pH 2.0 and 0.50% bile salt for 3 h without losing their viability. All LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity against tested pathogens and were able to deconjugate bile salt. Higher deconjugation was observed in the presence of sodium glycocholate (P Strain FKI21 showed maximum auto-aggregation (79%) and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli MTCC 1089 (68%). Exopolysaccharide production of LAB strains ranged from 68.39 to 127.12 mg/L (P Lactobacillus crispatus and Weissella koreensis, respectively. This is the first study to report isolation of W. koreensis FKI21 from fermented koozh and demonstrates its cholesterol-reducing potential. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial sensitivity and frequency of DRUG resistance among bacterial strains isolated from cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, M.; Bashir, T.

    2004-01-01

    Blood stream infections (bacteremia) is potentially life threatening. Concomitant with a change in the incidence and epidemiology of infecting organisms, there has been an increase in resistance to many antibiotic compounds. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial pathogens has an impact on our ability to treat patients effectively. The changing spectrum of microbial pathogens and widespread emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotic drugs has emphasized the need to monitor the prevalence of resistance in these strains. In the present study frequency of isolation of clinically significant bacteria and their susceptibility and resistance pattern against a wide range of antimicrobial drugs from positive blood cultures collected during 2001-2003 was studied. A total of 102 consecutive isolates were found with 63% gram positive and 44% gram negative strains. The dominating pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (51%), Streptococci (31%), Pseudomonas (40%), Proteus (13%), Klebsiella (13%). The isolated strains were tested against a wide range of antibiotics belonging to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and quinolone derivative group by disk diffusion method. It has been observed that isolated strains among gram positive and negative strains showed different level of resistance against aminoglycosides and cephalosporin group of antibiotics with gram positives showing highest number and frequency of resistance against aminoglycosides (40-50%) and cephalosporins.(35-45%) whereas cephalosporins were found to be more effective against gram negatives with low frequency of resistant strains. Cabapenem and quinolone derivative drugs were found to be most effective among other groups in both gram positive and negative strains with 23-41% strains found sensitive to these two drugs. The frequency of sensitive strains against aminoglycoside and cephalosporin in gram negative and gram positive strains were found to be decreasing yearwise with a trend towards an

  15. Differentiation and distribution of potato virus Y strains isolated from tobacco in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorster, L L

    1986-01-01

    Four strains of potato virus Y (PVY) orginally isolated from tobacco in South Africa belonging to three different strain groups (PVY/sup N/, PVY/sup c/ and PVY/sup o/) were differentiated according to their effect on various tobacco cultivars. The results obtained in this study confirm previous reports which indicated that inoculation with PVY had a detrimental effect on the yield and quality of tobacco. The severity of the effects was generally related to the length of time that the virus was present in the host, with late infections having less effect than early infections. An important aspect that evolved from the present study is the differences in reactions of the various strains (necrotic to mild strains) of PVY on the tobacco cultivars tested. A direct correlation was evident between the virulence of the different PVY strains and the effect of O/sub 2/-uptake of the host. cDNA probes prepared from PVY-RNA are specific to RNA extracted from purified PVY suspensions as well as crude sap from tobacco plants infected with the PVY strains used in this study. Radioactive probes and /sup 32/Phosporus labelling were used in the DNA and RNA studies of PVY. A procedure described by Bar-Joseph, et al (1983) were used successfully for the isolation of viral double-stranded RNA from various tissues. However, from the results obtained in this study it is clear that this method is of little or no value for the detection and diagnosis of PVY strains.

  16. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the enterocin P structural gene of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from nonfermented animal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlindo, Samuel; Calo, Pilar; Franco, Carlos; Prado, Marta; Cepeda, Alberto; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    The bacteriocins produced by two lactic acid bacteria isolated from nonfermented fresh meat and fish, respectively, and exhibiting a remarkable antilisterial activity, were characterized. Bacteriocinogenic strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium and the maximum bacteriocin production by both strains was detected in the stationary phase of growth. The activity against Listeria monocytogenes was maintained in pH range of 3-7 and was stable in both strains after heating at 100 or 121 degrees C. The genes coding for enterocin P were detected, isolated, and sequenced in both E. faecium strains. They exhibited DNA/DNA homology in the 87.1-97.2% range with respect to the other four enterocin P genes reported so far. Three single nucleotide polymorphism events, silent at the amino acid level, were detected at nucleotide positions 45 (G/A), 75 (A/G), and 90 (T/C) in E. faecium LHICA 28-4 and may explain the differences reported for those loci in other enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains. This work provides the first description of enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains in nonfermented foodstuffs and, in the case of E. faecium LHICA 51, the first report of an enterocin P-producing strain isolated from fish so far.

  18. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Different Part of Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Ahmadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. This organism has been shown resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determination antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: Acinetobacter strains were isolated from different specimens consisting biopsy 24 (55.8%, wound 13 (30/2% and blood 6 (14%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest activity (60.5% against isolated strains. 33 (76/7% isolates demonstrated resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: In outbreak situations, surveillance cultures of patients involved in the outbreak or who are deemed at risk for colonization/infection with the outbreak organism are often parts of the planned intervention.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Enterobacter sp. strain SE08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin; Hu, Qiulong; Xiong, Xingyao; Su, Xiaojun; Huang, Yanning; Jiang, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingming; Zhao, Songyi; Zeng, Wei-ai

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain (SE08) capable of utilizing 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated by continuous enrichment culturing in minimal salt medium (MSM) from a long term MCPA exposed soil. This bacterial strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Its ability to degrade MCPA was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The strain SE08 can tolerate unusually high MCPA concentrations (125-2000mg/L). The influences of culturing factors (initial concentration, pH, and temperature) on the bacterial growth and substrate degradation were studied. The results showed that the optimal MCPA degradation occurred at an MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, 30°C and pH 6.0. Under these conditions, 68.5 percent of MCPA in MSM was degraded by SE08, and the OD600nm reached 0.64 after culturing for 72h. The degradation of MCPA could be enhanced by addition of both carbon and nitrogen sources. At an initial MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, when 5g/L glucose and 2.5g/L yeast extract were added into the MSM media, the MCPA degradation was significantly increased to 83.8 percent, and OD600nm was increased to 1.09 after incubation at 30°C and pH 6.0 for 72h. This is the first study showing that an Enterobacter sp. strain is capable of degrading MCPA, which might provide a new approach for the remediation of MCPA contaminated soil and contribute to the limited knowledge about the function of Enterobacter species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteriz ation of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Goudarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, the frequency of integrons and associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii strains isolated from selected hospital intensive care units. Methods: During a ten-month period, 120 A. baumannii isolates were studied. The resistance rates to different classes of antimicrobial agents were determined. PCR was used to detect different types of integrons and associated gene cassettes. Results: The resistance rates to the majority of antibiotics tested were found to be between 39.3% and 99.1%. No isolate was observed to be resistant to colistin and polymyxin B. The rate of extensive drug-resistance among these clinical isolates was 62.5%. The prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons was found to be 74.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Seven different gene cassettes (ampC, aacA4-catB8, ISAba1-blaOXA-23-GES-14, aadA2-cm1A6-GES-14-qacF, VIM-25-GES-24-qacF, dfrA5-ISAba1-blaOXA-51-blaOXA-40 and aadA2-GES-11-IMP-1 were observed in Class 1 integron-carrying strains. Three gene cassettes (IMP-4, VIM-2-VEB-aacA4 and dfrA2-sat-2-aadA4 were detected in class 2 integron-bearing A. baumannii strains. Conclusions: A high prevalence of integron was described among multidrug resistant A. baumannii in the hospital. The findings highlighted the need for continuous surveillance in order to prevent dissemination of multidrug resistance among A. baumannii strains in Iran.

  1. Genome Sequence of Carbon Dioxide-Sequestering Serratia sp. Strain ISTD04 Isolated from Marble Mining Rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Gazara, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sandhya; Kumar, Madan; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-10-20

    The Serratia sp. strain ISTD04 has been identified as a carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-sequestering bacterium isolated from marble mining rocks in the Umra area, Rajasthan, India. This strain grows chemolithotrophically on media that contain sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) as the sole carbon source. Here, we report the genome sequence of 5.07 Mb Serratia sp. ISTD04. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  2. Relevance of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from retreatment root canals on periapical lesions, resistance to irrigants and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongchun; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi; Huang, Lijia; Ma, Jinglei

    2017-12-01

    A high prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) is observed in teeth with root canal treatment failures. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are widely distributed in prokaryotes that have adaptive immune systems against mobile elements, including pathogenic genes. The present study investigated the relevance of the CRISPR in E. faecalis strains isolated from retreated root canals on biofilms, periapical lesions and drug resistance. A total of 20 E. faecalis strains were extracted from the root canals of teeth referred for root canal retreatment. CRISPR-Cas loci were identified by two pairs of relevant primers and polymerase chain reaction. The susceptibility of the 20 isolated strains to intracanal irrigants was evaluated by 1- and 5-minute challenges with a mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The microtiter plate assay and crystal violet staining were used to compare the biofilm formation of the E. faecalis isolate strains. Out of the 20 E. faecalis isolate strains, 5 strains that lacked CRISPR-cas determinants exhibited significant periapical lesions. Among the 15 strains containing CRISPR-cas determinants, 8 were isolated from root canals with inadequate fillings and 7 were isolated from root canals without any fillings. The five strains lacking CRISPR-cas loci were observed to be more resistant to MTAD and 2% CHX than the 15 strains that had CRISPR-cas loci. All of the strains exhibited the same susceptibility to 5.25% NaOCl. Furthermore, the 5 strains lacking CRISPR-cas determinants generated more biofilm than the other 15 strains. Thus, the results of the present study suggested that E. faecalis root canal isolates lacking CRISPR-cas exhibit higher resistance to intracanal irrigants, stronger biofilm formation and generate significant periapical lesions.

  3. Genome Sequences of Shewanella baltica and Shewanella morhuae Strains Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Gram, Lone; Dailey, Frank E

    2018-06-21

    We present here the genome sequences of Shewanella baltica strain CW2 and Shewanella morhuae strain CW7, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Salvelinus namaycush (lean lake trout) and Coregonus clupeaformis (whitefish), respectively. These genome sequences provide insights into the niche adaptation of these specific species in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2018 Castillo et al.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  6. Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Daniela E; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Liebl, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is among the most prevalent of known anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. In this study, genetic and phenotypic variations among C. thermocellum strains isolated from different biogas plants were determined and different genotyping methods were evaluated on these isolates. At least two C. thermocellum strains were isolated independently from each of nine different biogas plants via enrichment on cellulose. Various DNA-based genotyping methods such as ribotyping, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) were applied to these isolates. One novel approach - the amplification of unknown target sequences between copies of a previously discovered Random Inserted Mobile Element (RIME) - was also tested. The genotyping method with the highest discriminatory power was found to be the amplification of the sequences between the insertion elements, where isolates from each biogas plant yielded a different band pattern. Cellulolytic potentials, optimal growth conditions and substrate spectra of all isolates were characterized to help identify phenotypic variations. Irrespective of the genotyping method used, the isolates from each individual biogas plant always exhibited identical patterns. This is suggestive of a single C. thermocellum strain exhibiting dominance in each biogas plant. The genotypic groups reflect the results of the physiological characterization of the isolates like substrate diversity and cellulase activity. Conversely, strains isolated across a range of biogas plants differed in their genotyping results and physiological properties. Both strains isolated from one biogas plant had the best specific cellulose-degrading properties and might therefore achieve superior substrate utilization yields in biogas fermenters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

  8. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Draft genome sequences of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Garcia-Mazcorro, José F; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J; Dowd, Scot E; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved in virulence, disease, and defense and both species show phenotypic low biofilm production and evidence of increased antibiotic resistance associated to biofilm production. From both isolates, a new Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec was detected: mec class A, ccr type 1. This is the first report of whole genome sequences of opportunistic S. cohnii isolated from human patients.

  10. Draft genome sequences of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from human patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Olazar?n, Soraya; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jos? F.; Morf?n-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Trevi?o, Licet; Camacho-Ortiz, Adri?n; Rodr?guez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Maldonado-Garza, H?ctor J.; Dowd, Scot E.; Garza-Gonz?lez, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved...

  11. [Isolation of a methanol-utilizing strain and its application for determining methanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Fei; Lu, Dongtao; Zheng, Jun; Pang, Jinmei; Yang, Yujing

    2013-08-04

    To isolate and characterize bacteria that can be used todevelop microbial biosensor for methanol (MeOH) determination. We used selective medium and streak plate to isolate bacteria. Morphological, physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were used to identify the strain. An MeOH biosensor was then developed by immobilizing M211 along with dissolved oxygen (O2) sensor. An MeOH utilizing bacterium was isolated from biogas-producing tank using methanol as the sole carbon source, and identified as Methylobacteriumorganophilium. Decrease of O2 concentration is linearly related to the MeOH concentration in the range from 0.02% to 1%, with the MeOH detection limit of 0.27 mg/L. The response time of the biosensor is within 20 min. Furthermore, the result of interference test and the detection of methanol sample are both satisfactory. Good results are obtained in interference test and the detection of methanol sample. The proposed method seems very attractive in monitoring methanol.

  12. Emergence of Serratia marcescens isolates possessing carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase KPC-2 from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Hu, Q; Zhang, R; Hu, Y; Xu, X; Lv, H

    2016-09-01

    Eighty-three carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates were recovered from Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem for all isolates were 2 to >128 μg/mL. Polymerase chain reaction indicated that 63 S. marcescens isolates produced Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2. Clone A (15 isolates) and clone B (41 isolates) were the two dominant clones and clone A strains were gradually replaced by clone B strains between 2011 and 2014. The results indicate that blaKPC-2-positive S. marcescens emerged in our hospital as the major mechanism of carbapenem resistance. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Inner Mongolia "Hurood" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Yujuan; Niu, Chunhua; Yang, Zhennai; Li, Shengyu

    2014-02-28

    Total 121 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade Inner Mongolia extra hard Hurood cheese. Seven of these strains, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, were studied for probiotic characteristics. All seven strains survived at pH 3.0 for 3 h, or in the presence of oxgall at 0.3% or 0.6% for 4 h, but their viabilities were affected to different extents at pH 2.0 for 3 h. Strains C37 and C51 showed better adherence to Caco-2 cells, and higher hydrophobicity. The seven L. plantarum strains were different in in vitro free radical scavenging activities and cholesterolreducing ability. In vivo evaluation of the influence of L. plantarum C37 on the intestinal flora in a mouse model showed strain C37 could increase the viable counts of lactobacilli in feces of mice and decrease the viable counts of enterococci. When L. plantarum C37 was used to prepare probiotic Hurood cheese, it was able to maintain high viable counts (>7.8 log CFU/g) during the whole storage period, but the composition of the cheese was not changed. These results indicate that L. plantarum C37 could be considered as a promising probiotic strain.

  14. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  15. Toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens field strains isolated from healthy and diseased chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is well known as the aetiological agent of necrotic enteritis in chicken. Type A and type C are considered the C. perfringens toxin types responsible for this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes coding for α, β, ε, ι, β2 and enterotoxin in C. perfringens field strains collected from healthy and diseased chickens. Thirty-seven C. perfringens field strains were toxin typed: all strains resulted to be toxin type A and 3 of these tested positive for the presence of the toxin β2 coding gene. Four isolates showed the cpa gene with the insertion of a group II intron. Our findings confirm the most recent results reported from different countries and the data suggest that the role of C. perfringens type C should be revaluated in the etiopathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.

  16. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (survival rates of 81-94 % after 24 h, whereas after incubation in 2 and 4 % bile salt solution it was 59-94 %. All tested strains showed very good and good resistance to 0.4 % phenol addition, however only Lb. johnsonii K4 was able to multiply. The hydrophobic nature of the cell surface of the tested strains was moderated recording hydrophobicity of Lb. johnsonii K4 and Lb. rhamnosus K3 above 60 %. Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies.

  17. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... ... of these studies, the preferred candidate for industrial production of ethanol ... The yeast strains were isolated using the method of Ameh et al. (1989), on ... gas in the Durham tube during the incubation period. Fermentation ...

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Strains Isolated from the Blood of Patients in Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Complete genome sequences of Zika Virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in 1 Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012). 2 Ellison,D.W.1...Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20 21 Running Head: Zika Virus Genomes 22 23 ABSTRACT 24 ZIKV is an arbovirus and member of the family...genome sequences of two Zika Virus (ZIKV) strains, Zika virus /H.sapiens-27 tc/THA/2014/SV0127-14 and Zika virus /H.sapiens-tc/PHL/2012/CPC-0740, isolated

  19. [VNTR-genotyping of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from objects in the territory of Russian Federation in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodop'ianov, A S; Mazrukho, A B; Vodop'ianov, S O; Mishan'kin, B N; Kruglikov, V D; Apkhangel'skaia, I V; Oleĭnikov, I P; Zubkova, D A; Monakhova, E V; Grigorenko, L V

    2014-01-01

    VNTR-typing of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in the territory of Russian Federation in 2012. 71 Vibrio cholerae O3 and 3 V cholerae O1/O139 strains were used in the study. Genotyping was performed by using PCR for 5 VNTR-loci. Multilocus VNTR-typing allowed to group the strains into 31 VNTR-genotypes. Genotypes were divided among 10 discrete clusters by results of a cluster analysis. The presence of tcpA gene is clearly linked with the presence of VcB locus. Each geographic region was characterized by their own VNTR-genotypes. In the course of the carried out VNTR-genotyping of V. cholerae isolated in 2012, 2 types of vibrio population formation were detected. A geographic attachment to specific regions was characteristic for most of the genotypes.

  20. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S.; Lal, B.

    2004-01-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. [Isolation of a carbapenem-resistant K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain and the study of resistance mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xuan; Lü, Jianxin

    2014-12-16

    To study the virulence and mechanism of carbapenem resistance of a clinical isolate of carbapenem-resistant K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain. Identification of isolate was carried out with VITEK-2 compact system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-test; Metallo β-lactamases and carbapenemases screening were conducted by imipenem-EDTA double disc synergy test and modified Hodge test, respectively.Specific polymerehse chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were preformed to detect the virulence genes including K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, K57, magA, rmpA, wcaG and a series of β-lactamase resistence genes. Conjunction experiment was also performed. The plasmids of transconjugants were submitted to PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) method. Molecular typing was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that the Klebsiella pneumonia strain was resistant to most of the antibiotics used in clinic. Phynotype confirmary rest revealed the production of carbapanemases, while Metallo β-lactamases were negative; PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed the isolate was positive for blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1 and virulence genes K1, magA, rmpA, wcaG simultaneously; blaKPC-2 was transferred from donor to Escherichia EC600 by conjunction experiment, while no virulence genes were found in the transconjugants. PBRT revealed that Frep plasmid was found in transconjugants. MLST analysis revealed that this strain belonged to ST23. K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain carries virulence genes and carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC-2, noteworthily the carbapenem resistance genes can be transferred through horizontal transmission on plasmids.

  3. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  4. Isolation of a strain of Acidithiobacillus caldus and its role in bioleaching of chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G.; Bo, F.; Bo, Z.H.; Xi, L.; Jian, G.; Fei, L.F.; Hua, C.X. [Central South University of Technology, Changsha (China)

    2007-09-15

    A moderately thermophilic and acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium named S-2, was isolated from coal heap drainage. The bacterium was motile, Gramnegative, rod-shaped, measured 0.4 to 0.6 by 1 to 2 gm, and grew optimally at 42-45{sup o}C and an initial pH of 2.5. The strain S-2 grew autotrophically by using elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate and potassium tetrathionate as energy sources. The strain did not use organic matter and inorganic minerals including ferrous sulfate, pyrite and chalcopyrite as energy sources. The morphological, biochemical, physiological characterization and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain S2 is most closely related to Acidithiobacillus caldus (> 99% similarity in gene sequence). The combination of the strain S-2 with Leptospirillum ferriphilum or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in chalcopyrite bioleaching improved the copper-leaching efficiency. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the chalcopyrite surface in a mixed culture of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus caldus was heavily etched. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that Acidithiobacillus caldus has the potential role to enhance the recovery of copper from chalcopyrite by oxidizing the sulfur formed during the bioleaching progress.

  5. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain ZJ7 isolate from domestic dogs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Bin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV, named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N, phosphoprotein (P and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China.

  6. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain ZJ7 isolate from domestic dogs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Wen, Yong-Jun; Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Dong; Hu, Jia-Xin; Shi, Xin-Chuan; Yang, Bo-Chao; Chen, Li-Zhi; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wu, Hua

    2011-11-16

    A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV), named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P) and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China.

  7. Anaerobic oxidation of 2-chloroethanol under denitrifying conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, J A; Stams, A J M; Schraa, G; Ballerstedt, H; de Bont, J A M; Gerritse, J

    2003-11-01

    A bacterium that uses 2-chloroethanol as sole energy and carbon source coupled to denitrification was isolated from 1,2-dichloroethane-contaminated soil. Its 16 S rDNA sequence showed 98% similarity with the type strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri (DSM 5190) and the isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ. Strain JJ oxidized 2-chloroethanol completely to CO(2) with NO(3)(- )or O(2) as electron acceptor, with a preference for O(2) if supplied in combination. Optimum growth on 2-chloroethanol with nitrate occurred at 30 degrees C with a mu(max) of 0.14 h(-1) and a yield of 4.4 g protein per mol 2-chloroethanol metabolized. Under aerobic conditions, the mu(max) was 0.31 h(-1). NO(2)(-) also served as electron acceptor, but reduction of Fe(OH)(3), MnO(2), SO(4)(2-), fumarate or ClO(3)(-) was not observed. Another chlorinated compound used as sole energy and carbon source under aerobic and denitrifying conditions was chloroacetate. Various different bacterial strains, including some closely related Pseudomonas stutzeri strains, were tested for their ability to grow on 2-chloroethanol as sole energy and carbon source under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, respectively. Only three strains, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain LMD 76.42, Pseudomonas putida US2 and Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, grew aerobically on 2-chloroethanol. This is the first report of oxidation of 2-chloroethanol under denitrifying conditions by a pure bacterial culture.

  8. Isolation of soil thermophilic strains of actinomycetes for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... to high fructose (Pandey et al., 2000; Asgher et al., 2007). *Corresponding ... can be increased by pH, temperature or substrates. ... The following media were used for isolating thermophilic strains of ... To observe the effect of different culture conditions on α-amylase .... Influence of pH on the inactivation of.

  9. Biological characteristics and probiotic effect of Leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, Sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low pH, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. But the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. The isolate was resistant to several antibiotics, including Cephalothin, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Tobramycin. The isolate could autoaggregate itself and coaggregate with other bacteria in vitro. The autoaggregation percentage increased to 23.29% after 20 h of incubation. The percentage of coaggregation were respectively 31.21%, 29.44%, 10.74%, 16.49%, 24.36%, 24.41% and 20.99% for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteusbacillus vulgaris after 20 h incubation of a mixed suspension. The supernatant of the strain inhibited the growth of several pathogens, such as V.parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Shigella. These results indicated that the isolate, Leuconostoc lactis, might be an attractive candidate for perspectival strain for probiotics in marine aquaculture.

  10. Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from farmed duck, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Lee, Seungki; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Kim, Doo-Jin; Lee, Moo-Seung; Kim, Hye Kwon; Park, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Park, Se Chang

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii has become increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen of clinically significant nosocomial and farm animal infections. This study was designed to determine the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from a farmed duck in Korea. Genomic DNA was sequenced using the PacBio RS II system. The complete genome was annotated and the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified. The annotated 2,625,703 bp genome contained various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to β-lactam, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols and trimethoprim. The virulence-associated three synergistic hemolysins have been identified in the strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete genome of S. cohnii, and will provide important insights into the biodiversity of CoNS and valuable information for the control of this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Antibacterial Properties of Yeast Strains Isolated from Iranian Richal and Traditional Dairy Products in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:The use of bio preservative or strains as sources are interesting for food bioprocessing technologist,   and is one of the latest methods to increase the shelf life of food by the health authorities . The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of supernatants of yeasts isolated from Richal as a traditional dairy product and fermented dairy products in Armenia. Methods: In the present experimental study, the purified supernatant of 77 strains of Armenian yeast products and 12 strains from Iranian Richal were isolated. The purified supernatant were tested against three strains as food spoilages bacteria includes: B. subtilis 17-89, B. Thuringensis17-89, S.typhimuium G-38 , on 3media in 2 condition as aerobic and anaerobic. The inhibition zone of the supernatant were measured   and reported as antibacterial activity. Data were analyzed using statistical tests. Result: A total of 89 strains of yeasts, three species of Rachel and 9 strains of Armenian products (13.5% percent had demonstrated antibacterial activity. T86 strains of Armenian yeasts and FA1 (25 of Rachel had shown more ZOI and antibacterial activity on three media at both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Comparing the mean of ZOI upon three corruption factors, Rachel strains were significantly different (p <0.05. The highest and lowest effect was observed on Bacillus subtilis effect and Salmonella typhimurium respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the yeast strains isolated in anaerobic and aerobic conditions on spoilage bacteria had antibacterial activity effect. Thus, it could be concluded that adding the yeast or its supernatant to food as a bio preservative, may introduce a operative product to the food industry.

  12. Isolation and characterization of the E. coli membrane protein production strain Mutant56(DE3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Schlegel, Susan; Wagner, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Membrane protein production is usually toxic to E. coli. However, using genetic screens strains can be isolated in which the toxicity of membrane protein production is reduced, thereby improving production yields. Best known examples are the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, which are both derived...... from the T7 RNA polymerase (P)-based BL21(DE3) protein production strain. In C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) mutations lowering t7rnap expression levels result in strongly reduced T7 RNAP accumulation levels. As a consequence membrane protein production stress is alleviated in the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains......, thereby increasing membrane protein yields. Here, we isolated Mutant56(DE3) from BL21(DE3) using a genetic screen designed to isolate BL21(DE3)-derived strains with mutations alleviating membrane protein production stress other than the ones in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). The defining mutation of Mutant56(DE3...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melton, Emily Denise; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Overmars, Lex; Chertkov, Olga; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Shapiro, Nicole; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Lapidus, Alla L.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2T is a strictly anaerobic sulfidogenic haloalkaliphile isolated from a composite sediment sample of eight hypersaline alkaline lakes in the Wadi al Natrun valley in the Egyptian Libyan Desert. D. alkaliphilus AHT2T is Gram-negative and

  14. Effect of Antimicrobials on Salmonella Spp. Strains Isolated from Poultry Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mion

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The routine use of antimicrobials in animal production for the treatment of infections, disease prevention, or as growth promoters is a predisposing factor for the development and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. In food industries, sanitizers are used for the control of microbial colonization, and their efficacy depends on contact time and on the dilution of the products used. The present study assessed the effect of 12 antimicrobials and four commercial sanitizers on 18 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from poultry processing plants. None of the evaluated antimicrobials was 100% effective against the tested Salmonella spp. strains; however, 94% of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 77% to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and to ampicillin, and 72% to enrofloxacin, whereas 100% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G, 16% to tetracycline, and 11% to sulfonamide. The tested Salmonella spp. strains were 100% inhibited by peracetic acid after five minutes of contact, 0.5% by quaternary ammonium after 15 minutes, and 85.7% by chlorhexidine after 15 minutes. The results indicate the importance of testing of efficacy of antimicrobials used in animal production and in public health to monitor their action and the development of resistance.

  15. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance of Lactococcus Sp. Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ture Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A current profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of 29 Lactococcus garvieae and one Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss from farms throughout Turkey were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G (90%, ampicillin (86.7%, florfenicol (83.3%, amoxicillin (80.1%, and tetracycline (73.4%, and resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (86.6% and gentamycin (46.6% by disc diffusion method. Twenty-eight (93% isolates had two to seven antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined by PCR. The most prevalent ARGs were tetracycline (tetB, erythromycin (ereB, and β-lactam (blaTEM. Bacterial strains were also screened for plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and two strains harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 9 kb.

  16. Genome sequence of the pathogenic Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain Os34, isolated from rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weijun; Ye, Shuting; Liu, Jian; Chang, Siping; Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Bo; Guo, Longbiao; An, Qianli

    2012-12-01

    Most Herbaspirillum seropedicae strains are beneficial endophytes to plants. In contrast, H. seropedicae strain Os34, isolated from rice roots, is pathogenic. The draft genome sequence of strain Os34 presented here allows in-depth comparative genome analyses to understand the specific mechanisms of beneficial and pathogenic Herbaspirillum-plant interactions.

  17. Genome sequence of the pathogenic Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain Os45, isolated from rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Ye, Shuting; Chang, Siping; Chen, Mingyue; Sun, Li; An, Qianli

    2012-12-01

    Most Herbaspirillum seropedicae strains are beneficial to plants. In contrast, H. seropedicae strain Os45, isolated from rice roots, is pathogenic. The draft genome sequence of strain Os45 presented here allows an in-depth comparative genome analysis to understand the subtle mechanisms of beneficial and pathogenic Herbaspirillum-plant interactions.

  18. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  19. Genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from raw camel milk in two southwest Algerian arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  20. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  1. Clonal structure of Streptococcus sanguinis strains isolated from endocarditis cases and the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T; Gilbert, S C; Klein, J; Warren, S; Wade, W G; Beighton, D

    2011-10-01

    A collection of Streptococcus sanguinis strains from patients with endocarditis (n = 21) and from the oral cavity (n = 34) was subjected to a multi-locus sequence typing analysis using seven housekeeping genes, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (carB), Co/Zn/Cd efflux system component (czcD), d-alanyl-d-alanine ligase (ddl), DNA polymerase III (dnaX), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (gdh), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, beta subunit (rpoB) and superoxide dismutase (sodA). The scheme was expanded by the inclusion of two the putative virulence genes, bacitracin-resistance protein (bacA) and saliva-binding protein (ssaB), to increase strain discrimination. Extensive intra-species recombination was apparent in all genes but inter-species recombination was also apparent with strains apparently harbouring gdh and ddl from unidentified sources and one isolate harboured a sodA allele apparently derived from Streptococcus oralis. The recombination/mutation ratio for the concatenated housekeeping gene sequences was 1.67 (95% confidence limits 1.25-2.72) and for the two virulence genes the r/m ratio was 3.99 (95% confidence limits 1.61-8.72); recombination was the major driver for genetic variation. All isolates were distinct and the endocarditis strains did not form distinct sub-clusters when the data were analysed using ClonalFrame. These data support the widely held opinion that infecting S. sanguinis strains are opportunistic human pathogens. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Molecular Strain Typing of Clinical Isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) Region as a Molecular Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Vijayaraman, Rajyoganandh S; Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of fungi which infect keratinized tissues and causes superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The group comprises of three major genera, Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Among them Trichophyton rubrum is a predominant anthropophilic fungi which causes chronic infections. Although, the infection is superficial and treatable, reinfection/coinfection causes inflation in the treatment cost. Identifying the source and mode of transmission is essential to prevent its transmission. Accurate discrimination is required to understand the clinical (relapse or reinfection) and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this species. Polymorphism in the Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters renders an effective way to discriminate strains among T. rubrum . To carry out the strain typing of the clinical isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using NTS as a molecular marker. Seventy T.rubrum clinical isolates obtained from April-2011-March 2013, from Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and included in this prospective study. The isolates were then subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting two subrepeat elements (SREs), TRS-1 and TRS-2 of the NTS region. Strain-specific polymorphism was observed in both subrepeat loci. Total, nine different strains were obtained on combining both TRS-1 and TRS-2, SREs. The outcome has given a strong representation for using NTS region amplification in discriminating the T. rubrum clinical isolates. The method can be adapted as a tool for conducting epidemiology and population based study in T. rubrum infections. This will help in future exploration of the epidemiology of T. rubrum .

  3. Isolation and characterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-anaerobic thermophilic bacteria strains from waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Svenson, Charles J; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Leong, Caine T C; Bowman, John P; Chen, Betty; Glenn, Dianne R; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    In a search for potential ethanologens, waste compost was screened for ethanol-tolerant thermophilic microorganisms. Two thermophilic bacterial strains, M5EXG and M10EXG, with tolerance of 5 and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, were isolated. Both isolates are facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods that are capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources including arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose and xylose and produce low amounts of ethanol, acetate and lactate. Growth of both isolates was observed in fully defined minimal media within the temperature range 50-80 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that both isolates clustered with members of subgroup 5 of the genus Bacillus. G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness of M5EXG and M10EXG revealed that they are strains belonging to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, physiological and biochemical differences were evident when isolates M5EXG and M10EXG were compared with G. thermoglucosidasius type strain (DSM 2542(T)). The new thermophilic, ethanol-tolerant strains of G. thermoglucosidasius may be candidates for ethanol production at elevated temperatures.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from inpatients with infected diabetic foot ulcers in an Algerian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djahmi, N; Messad, N; Nedjai, S; Moussaoui, A; Mazouz, D; Richard, J-L; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from diabetic foot infection (DFI). The consequence of its spread to soft tissue and bony structures is a major causal factor for lower-limb amputation. The objective of the study was to explore ecological data and epidemiological characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from DFI in an Algerian hospital setting. Patients were included if they were admitted for DFI in the Department of Diabetology at the Annaba University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2012. Ulcers were classified according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification system. All S. aureus isolates were analysed. Using oligonucleotide arrays, S. aureus resistance and virulence genes were determined and each isolate was affiliated to a clonal complex. Among the 128 patients, 277 strains were isolated from 183 samples (1.51 isolate per sample). Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolated organisms (54.9% of all isolates). The study of ecological data highlighted the extremely high rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) (58.5% of all isolates). The situation was especially striking for S. aureus [(85.9% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], Klebsiella pneumonia (83.8%) and Escherichia coli (60%). Among the S. aureus isolates, 82.2% of MRSA belonged to ST239, one of the most worldwide disseminated clones. Ten strains (13.7%) belonged to the European clone PVL+ ST80. ermA, aacA-aphD, aphA, tetM, fosB, sek, seq, lukDE, fnbB, cap8 and agr group 1 genes were significantly associated with MRSA strains (p study shows for the first time the alarming prevalence of MDROs in DFI in Algeria. ©2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection ©2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. First report of Tasmanian sheep strain (G2) genotype isolated from Iranian goat using the high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad; Mohag Hegh, Mohammad Ali; Pestechian, Nader; Ganji, Maryam; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mahmoudi Lamouki, Reza; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate E. granulosus genotypes isolated from goats using HRM analysis in Isfahan province. Cystic echincoccosis, so-called hydatidosis, is widespread infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus . This is an important zoonotic disease worldwide, especially in the developing countries such as Iran. To date, molecular studies mainly based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified distinct genotypes termed G1-G10 which can differ in some characteristics such as the growth and infectivity to different intermediate hosts or the survival rate in the definitive hosts that are important for the development of control strategies. From August to December 2014, 1341 goats were investigated and hydatid cysts were collected from the liver and lungs of 43 infected goats in Isfahan province abattoirs, Isfahan, Iran. Total genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, amplified for the presence of polymorphism of mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), using high resolution melting curve (HRM) method. the results of HRM analysis using the sequence of CO1 gene for 43 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from goats showed 31, 2 and 10 isolates were identified as G1, G2, and G3 genotypes, respectively. G1 is the predominant genotype in the isolated goat samples in Isfahan province, and the presence of G2 strain was reported for the first time in goat in Iran.

  6. In vitro comparison of the activity of various antibiotics and drugs against new Taiwan isolates and standard strains of avian mycoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M Y

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-nine antibiotics or drugs were incorporated individually into mycoplasma agar to evaluate their inhibitory activity against avian mycoplasmas: 100 recent Taiwan isolates of 7 serotypes and 10 standard strains of 7 serotypes were tested. All of the standard strains were very sensitive to erythromycin, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and tetracycline, but the local isolates were highly resistant to these antibiotics. The drugs or antibiotics that possessed an MIC90 of 50 micrograms/ml or less against the local isolates were tiamulin (less than 0.4 micrograms/ml), lincospectin (2.7), josamycin (2.7), lincomycin (3.0), spectinomycin (4.8), tylosin (6.0), kanamycin (6.0), chloramphenicol (6.0), gentamicin (7.5), apramycin (24.5), doxycycline (27.4), minocycline (29.0), spiramycin (30.0), colistin (44.3), leucomycin (45.0), and streptomycin (50.0). The MIC90 of the other antibiotics or drugs was greater than 50 micrograms/ml. None of the isolates or strains were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ronidazole, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, carbadox, or four sulfa drugs at a concentration about 5 times the therapeutic level.

  7. Comparison of Methods for Isolating High Quality DNA and RNA from an Oleaginous Fungus Cunninghamella bainieri Strain 2a1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of protocols have been reported for efficient fungal DNA and RNA isolation. However, many of these methods are often designed for certain groups or morphological forms of fungi and, in some cases, are species dependent. In this report, we compared four published protocols for DNA isolation from a locally isolated oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella bainieri strain 2a1. These protocols either involved the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB or without using PVB or CTAB. For RNA isolation, we tested two published protocols, one of which is based on TRI REAGENT (Molecular Research Center, USA and another is simple method employing phenol for RNA extraction and LiCl for precipitation. We found that the protocol involving the use of CTAB produced the highest genomic DNA yield with the best quality compared to other protocols. In the presence of CTAB, unwanted polysaccharides were removed and this method yielded an average amount of 816 ± 12.2 µg DNA/g mycelia with UV absorbance ratios A260/280 and A260/230 of 1.67 ± 0.64 and 1.97 ± 0.23, respectively. The genomic DNA isolated via this protocol is also suitable for PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion. As for RNA isolation, the method involving phenol extraction and LiCl precipitation produced the highest yield of RNA with an average amount of 372 ± 6.0 µg RNA/g mycelia. The RNA appears to be relatively pure since it has UV absorbance ratios A260/280 and A260/230 of 1.89 ± 2.00 and 1.99 ± 0.03, respectively. Finally, we have demonstrated that this method could produce RNA of sufficient quality for RT-PCR that amplified a 600 bp fragment of ∆12-fatty acid desaturase gene in C. bainieri.

  8. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAYEL SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvents in the cytoplasm, indicating the adaptation of the bacterial strain to the solvent after 48h of incubation. The strain was also capable of growing in presence of wide range of other hydrophobic solvents with log P-values below 3.5. The isolate could uptake 50 ng/ml of uranium in its initial 12h of growth, exhibiting both solvent tolerance and metal resistance property. This combination of solvent tolerance and metal resistance will make the isolated Bacillus thermophilus PS11 a potential tool for metal bioremediation in solvent rich wastewaters.

  9. Frequency of resistance to methicillin and other antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pigs and their human handlers in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gordon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged recently worldwide in production animals, particularly pigs and veal calves, which act as reservoirs for MRSA strains for human infection. The study determined the prevalence of MRSA and other resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares of pigs and human handlers on pig farms in Trinidad. Methods: Isolation of S. aureus was done by concurrently inoculating Baird-Parker agar (BPA and Chromagar MRSA (CHROM with swab samples and isolates were identified using standard methods. Suspect MRSA isolates from Chromagar and BPA were subjected to confirmatory test using Oxoid PBP2 latex agglutination test. The disc diffusion method was used to determine resistance to antimicrobial agents. Results: The frequency of isolation of MRSA was 2.1% (15 of 723 for pigs but 0.0% (0 of 72 for humans. Generally, for isolates of S. aureus from humans there was a high frequency of resistance compared with those from pigs, which had moderate resistance to the following antimicrobials: penicillin G (54.5%, 51.5%, ampicillin (59.1%, 49.5%, and streptomycin (59.1%, 37.1%, respectively. There was moderate resistance to tetracycline (36.4%, 41.2% and gentamycin (27.2%, 23.7% for human and pig S. aureus isolates, respectively, and low resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4.5%, 6.2% and norfloxacin (9.1%, 12.4%, respectively. The frequency of resistance to oxacillin by the disc method was 36.4 and 34.0% from S. aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively. Out of a total of 78 isolates of S. aureus from both human and pig sources that were resistant to oxacillin by the disc diffusion method, only 15 (19.2% were confirmed as MRSA by the PBP'2 latex test kit. Conclusions: The detection of MRSA strains in pigs, albeit at a low frequency, coupled with a high frequency of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in pig and humans could have zoonotic and therapeutic

  10. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Chow; Guang Nong; Franz J. St. John; John D. Rice; Ellen Dickstein; Olga Chertkov; David Bruce; Chris Detter; Thomas Brettin; James Han; Tanja Woyke; Sam Pitluck; Matt Nolan; Amrita Pati; Joel Martin; Alex Copeland; Miriam L. Land; Lynne Goodwin; Jeffrey B. Jones; Lonnie O. Ingram; Keelnathan T. Shanmugam; James F. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by...

  11. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Mehdi M.; Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, S.; Jafari, F.; Zali, Reza M.; Mani, M.; Alikhani, Yousef M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to identify and classify Iranian isolates of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the basis of presence of virulence genes and to determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 at the Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. One hundred and ninety-three diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheal patients in different regions of Iran were included in current study. Virulence factors genees for diarrheagenic E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 193 diarrheagenic E. coli detected by PCR, 86(44.5%) were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 74 (38.4%) enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 19 (9.8%) enteroaggregative E. coli and 14 (7.3%) enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to 12 clinically important antimicrobial agents was determined for 193 strains of diarrhheagenic E. coli. A high incidence of resistance to tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (62%), streptomycin (56%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (44.5%), trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (39.5%) and cephalothin (37%) was observed. The STEC and EPEC strains with high resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin but highly susceptible to quinolones are among the most important causative agent of diarrhea in Iran. This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance is wide spread among E. coli strains colonizing Iranian patients. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries require updating. (author)

  12. Isolation, identification, and the growth promoting effects of two antagonistic actinomycete strains from the rhizosphere of Mikania micrantha Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Wang, Lanying; Luo, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The plant growth promoting effect was determined. Finally, the growth of wheat seedlings was assessed using the Petri dish method. Overall, of the isolated twelve strains, WZS1-1 and WZS2-1 could significantly inhibit target fungi. Isolate WZS1-1 was identified as Streptomyces rochei, and WZS2-1 was identified as Streptomyces sundarbansensis. In particular, Fusarium graminearum (FG) from wheat was inhibited by more than 80%, and the inhibitory bandwidths against FG were 31 ± 0.3 mm and 19 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The genes PKS-I were successfully amplified, confirming that these strains are capable of producing biosynthetic secondary metabolites. Major component analysis revealed aliphatic ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters, with n-hexadecanoic acid being the most abundant compound. Plant growth promoting test indicated that both strains produced IAA, presented with orange loops on CAS plates, dissolved phosphorus and potassium, fixed nitrogen, but did not generate organic acids; both strains colonized in soil, while only WZS1-1 colonized in wheat roots. Additionally, the fermentation broth significantly promoted the growth of wheat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of a DNA restriction-modification system in Pectobacterium carotovorum strains isolated from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleron, K; Waleron, M; Osipiuk, J; Podhajska, A J; Lojkowska, E

    2006-02-01

    Polish isolates of pectinolytic bacteria from the species Pectobacterium carotovorum were screened for the presence of a DNA restriction-modification (R-M) system. Eighty-nine strains of P. carotovorum were isolated from infected potato plants. Sixty-six strains belonged to P. carotovorum ssp. atrosepticum and 23 to P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum. The presence of restriction enzyme Pca17AI, which is an isoschizomer of EcoRII endonuclease, was observed in all isolates of P. c. atrosepticum but not in P. c. carotovorum. The biochemical properties, PCR amplification, and sequences of the Pca17AI restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase genes were compared with the prototype EcoRII R-M system genes. Only when DNA isolated from cells of P. c. atrosepticum was used as a template, amplification of a 680 bp homologous to the gene coding EcoRII endonuclease. Endonuclease Pca17AI, having a relatively low temperature optimum, was identified. PCR amplification revealed that the nucleotide sequence of genes for EcoRII and Pca17AI R-M are different. Dcm methylation was observed in all strains of Pectobacterium and other Erwinia species tested. The sequence of a DNA fragment coding Dcm methylase in P. carotovorum was different from that of Escherichia coli. Pca17AI is the first psychrophilic isoschizomer of EcoRII endonuclease. The presence of specific Dcm methylation in chromosomal DNA isolated from P. carotovorum is described for the first time. A 680 bp PCR product, unique for P. c. atrosepticum strains, could serve as a molecular marker for detection of these bacteria in environmental samples.

  14. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  15. Biodegradation of buprofezin by Rhodococcus sp. strain YL-1 isolated from rice field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Zhi-Guo; Cao, Li; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2012-03-14

    A buprofezin-degrading bacterium, YL-1, was isolated from rice field soil. YL-1 was identified as Rhodococcus sp. on the basis of the comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The strain could use buprofezin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth and was able to degrade 92.4% of 50 mg L(-1) buprofezin within 48 h in liquid culture. During the degradation of buprofezin, four possible metabolites, 2-tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinan-4-one, N-tert-butyl-thioformimidic acid formylaminomethyl ester, 2-isothiocyanato-2-methyl-propane, and 2-isothiocyanato-propane, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was strongly induced during the degradation of buprofezin. A novel microbial biodegradation pathway for buprofezin was proposed on the basis of these metabolites. The inoculation of soils treated with buprofezin with strain YL-1 resulted in a higher degradation rate than that observed in noninoculated soils, indicating that strain YL-1 has the potential to be used in the bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments.

  16. Inhibition of food-related bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Ferreira Rangel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of antimicrobial substances by strains of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from pasteurized milk and their potential action against food-related bacteria were investigated. Samples of pasteurized milk were purchased from arbitrarily chosen commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the four samples analyzed, three presented several typical colonies of Pseudomonas. About 100 colonies were chosen and subjected to biochemical tests for confirmation of their identity. Eighteen strains of the Pseudomonas genus were identified and submitted to tests for the production of antimicrobial substances. Twelve strains (66.7% were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, four (22.2% as P. aeruginosa, one (5.5% as P. mendocina and one (5.5% as P. pseudoalcaligenes. Only two P. fluorescens strains were unable to produce any antimicrobial substance against any of the indicator strains tested. Most of the strains presented a broad spectrum of action, inhibiting reference and food-related strains such as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Hafnia alvei, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Five antimicrobial substance-producing strains, which presented the broadest spectrum of action, were also tested against Staphylococcus aureus reference strains and 26 Staphylococcus sp. strains isolated from foods, some of which were resistant to antibiotics. The producer strains 8.1 and 8.3, both P. aeruginosa, were able to inhibit all the staphylococcal strains tested. The antimicrobial substances produced by strains 8.1 and 8.3 did not seem to be typical bacteriocins, since they were resistant to the three proteolytic enzymes tested. Experiments involving the characterization of these substances are being carried out in order to evaluate their biotechnological application.

  17. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...

  18. Potential antagonism of some Trichoderma strains isolated from Moroccan soil against three phytopathogenic fungi of great economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa MOKHTARI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 17 Trichoderma strains were isolated from different soils (crop fields and Argan forests in Morocco. Purified monospore cultures were identified using molecular methods and tested for their potential antagonism against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyxporum, verticillium dahlia and rhizoctonia solani. After DNA extraction, translation elongation factor (tef1 was amplified in extracts of 17 strains, sequenced and compared with their ex-types. As a result, three species were identified among the strains, which clustered in two different subclades of Trichoderma: the species T. afroharzianum, and T. guizhouense belong to the Harzianum clade, while T. longibrachiatum belongs to the Longibrachiatum clade. Investigation of potential antagonistic effects of these strains against the soil-borne phytopathogens F. oxysporum, R. solani and V. dahliae was conducted in a dual culture plate assay, using 17 promising Trichoderma strains that have been selected based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR screening approach. In vitro, Trichoderma isolates showed effective antagonistic performance by decreasing soil borne pathogens mycelium radial growth. Trichoderma afroharzianum showed the highest Percentage of Radial Inhibition Growth (PRIG %. The highest PRIG% = 98% was for 8A2.3 isolate against R. solani and the lowest PRIG%= 67% for T9i10 against F. oxysporum. On the other hand, T9i12, which is T. reesei species, led to a high radial inhibition of pathogens’ mycelium.

  19. Characterization of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria Enterobacter Strains Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell Exposed to Copper Shock Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Qin, Dan; Chen, Lixiang; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Hongbo; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu) shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III) oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load) and B4B2 (after Cu shock load) were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L−1 of Cu(II) while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m−2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density. PMID:25412475

  20. Characterization of exoelectrogenic bacteria enterobacter strains isolated from a microbial fuel cell exposed to copper shock load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijie Feng

    Full Text Available Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load and B4B2 (after Cu shock load were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L-1 of Cu(II while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m-2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density.

  1. Characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients in the Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Bedenić,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients during a three-year period, to determine their antibiotic susceptibility, investigate the transfer of ESBL genes with cotransfer of resistance and to characterize isolated beta-lactamases. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The double-disk test was used for ESBL detection. Transfer of resistance was performed by broth mating method and characterization of isolated beta-lactamases by polymerase chain reaction. Results The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli was 1.5% and of K. pneumoniae 4.1% with its different distribution according to patients`age and gender. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae showed high resistance rates to aminoglycosides, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and quinolones while ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, with exception of high aminoglycoside resistance, showed low resistance rates to other antibiotics. Successful conjugation of ESBL genes was obtained with 25% E. coli and 76.2% K. pneumoniae strains. Comparing to E. coli, K. pneumoniae strains showed higher rates of aminoglycosideand cotrimoxazole resistance cotransfer. Beta-lactamases of investigated strains belonged to TEM, SHV and CTX-M families.Conclusion The existence of multiple-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains was confirmed in observed outpatient population. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, in contrast toESBL-producing E. coli, showed higher resistance rates to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, probably caused by cotransfer of resistance genes located on the same plasmid as ESBL genes. It is important to monitor the prevalence of such strains and their possible spreading in the outpatient population of the Zagreb region

  2. [Isolation, identification and characterization of acid-producing strains from psychrotolerant biogas fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongqing; Zhang, Wei; Mandlaa; Tian, Ruihua; Wang, Ruigang; Duan, Kaihong

    2015-11-04

    The aim of this study was to screen acid-producing strains from the broth of psychrotolerant biogas fermentation and evaluate the acid-producing character of them. Acid-producing strains were isolated by a medium with methyl red at 4 degrees C in Petri dishes and identified by morphology observation and 16S rRNA sequencing. Moreover, the ability of hydrolysis of starch, fermentation of carbohydrates, liquefaction of gelatin and production of catalase were studied. Two acid-producing strains (FJ-8 and FJ-15) were isolated. The result of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree shows that FJ-8 and FJ-15 belong to Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp., respectively. Both FJ-8 and FJ-15 could hydrolyze starch, liquidize gelatin and produce catalase. The optimum temperature for acid-producing of FJ-8 and FJ-15 is 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. After 10 days cultivation at 4 degrees C, the concentration of acetic acid was 792 mg/L and 966 mg/L of FJ-8 and FJ-15, respectively. The selected strains, FJ-8 and FJ-15, have the potential to produce acids at low temperature.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sp. Strain TCF032-E4, Isolated from Fermented Radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sp. strain TCF032-E4 (= CCTCC AB2015090 = DSM 100358), isolated from a Chinese fermented radish. The total length of the 57 contigs is about 2.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 43.5 mol% and 2,797 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). Copyright © 2015 Mao et al.

  4. Melanin production by a yeast strain XJ5-1 of Aureobasidium melanogenum isolated from the Taklimakan desert and its role in the yeast survival in stress environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhe; Wang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Ly-Ly; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The yeast strain XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert soil was identified to be a strain of Aureobasdium melanogenum and could produce a large amount of melanin when it was grown in the PDA medium, but its melanin biosynthesis and expression of the PKS gene responsible for the melanin biosynthesis was significantly repressed in the presence of (NH4)2SO4. However, A. melanogenum P5 strain isolated from a mangrove ecosystem grown in both the presence and the absence of (NH4)2SO4 did not produce any melanin. The cell size of A. melanogenum XJ5-1 strain was much higher than that of A. melanogenum P5 strain. The melanized cells of the yeast strain XJ5-1 had higher tolerance to UV radiation, oxidation (200.0 mM H2O2), heat treatment (40 °C), salt shock (200.0 g/L NaCl), desiccation and strong acid hydrolysis (6.0 M HCl) at high temperature (80 °C) than the non-melanized cells of the same yeast strain XJ5-1. At the same time, the melanized cells of the yeast strain XJ5-1 also had higher tolerance to UV radiation, oxidation (200.0 mM H2O2), desiccation and strong acid hydrolysis (6.0 M HCl) at high temperature (80 °C) than A. melanogenum P5 strain, but had similar resistance to heat treatment (40 °C) and salt shock (200.0 g/L NaCl) compared to those of A. melanogenum P5 strain. All the results revealed that many characteristics of A. melanogenum XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert soil was different from those of A. melanogenum P5 strain isolated from the mangrove ecosystem.

  5. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a new CO-utilizing strain, Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans, isolated from a geothermal spring in Turkey.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2009-08-23

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and sugar-fermenting bacterium (strain TLO) was isolated from a geothermal spring in Ayaş, Turkey. The cells were straight to curved rods, 0.4-0.6 microm in diameter and 3.5-10 microm in length. Spores were terminal and round. The temperature range for growth was 40-80 degrees C, with an optimum at 70 degrees C. The pH optimum was between 6.3 and 6.8. Strain TLO has the capability to ferment a wide variety of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides and proteinaceous substrates, producing mainly lactate, next to acetate, ethanol, alanine, H(2), and CO(2). Remarkably, the bacterium was able to grow in an atmosphere of up to 25% of CO as sole electron donor. CO oxidation was coupled to H(2) and CO(2) formation. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the DNA-DNA hybridization data, this bacterium is most closely related to Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (99% similarity for both). However, strain TLO differs from Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus in important aspects, such as CO-utilization and lipid composition. These differences led us to propose that strain TLO represents a subspecies of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus, and we therefore name it Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a new CO-utilizing strain, Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans, isolated from a geothermal spring in Turkey.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Heilig, Hans G H J; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Stams, Alfons J M; Rijpstra, Irene C; Sinninghe-Damsté , Jaap S; de Vos, Willem M; Kengen, Servé W M

    2009-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and sugar-fermenting bacterium (strain TLO) was isolated from a geothermal spring in Ayaş, Turkey. The cells were straight to curved rods, 0.4-0.6 microm in diameter and 3.5-10 microm in length. Spores were terminal and round. The temperature range for growth was 40-80 degrees C, with an optimum at 70 degrees C. The pH optimum was between 6.3 and 6.8. Strain TLO has the capability to ferment a wide variety of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides and proteinaceous substrates, producing mainly lactate, next to acetate, ethanol, alanine, H(2), and CO(2). Remarkably, the bacterium was able to grow in an atmosphere of up to 25% of CO as sole electron donor. CO oxidation was coupled to H(2) and CO(2) formation. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the DNA-DNA hybridization data, this bacterium is most closely related to Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (99% similarity for both). However, strain TLO differs from Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus in important aspects, such as CO-utilization and lipid composition. These differences led us to propose that strain TLO represents a subspecies of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus, and we therefore name it Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans.

  8. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Hulak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may result in the potential use of selected strains as starter, bioprotective or even probiotic cultures. This study focuses on potential use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from traditional Istrian cheese as starter cultures, by using methods that determine their proteolytic, lipolytic, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential, as well as their ability of acidification, autoaggregation and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Our results indicated that from 12 representative strains most revealed a low or moderate proteolytic activity as well as absence of lipolytic and haemolytic activities. From 12 strains, 5 of them showed a medium to strong acidification ability and lowered the pH of milk below 5.00 after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, almost all isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against Serratia marcescens, and lowest number of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The studied Lactobacillus strains revealed high survival rate in a simulated oral cavity and duodenum conditions, while the survival ability in a simulated gastric conditions was much lower. Ability to aggregate was low for all tested strains, after 3 hours and after 5 hours of incubation.

  9. The health and economic impact of vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) during an annual influenza epidemic and influenza pandemic in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Ronald; Roberts, Craig S; An, Zhijie; Chen, Chieh-I; Wang, Bruce

    2015-07-24

    China has experienced several severe outbreaks of influenza over the past century: 1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009. Influenza itself can be deadly; however, the increase in mortality during an influenza outbreak is also attributable to secondary bacterial infections, specifically pneumococcal disease. Given the history of pandemic outbreaks and the associated morbidity and mortality, we investigated the cost-effectiveness of a PCV7 vaccination program in China from the context of typical and pandemic influenza seasons. A decision-analytic model was employed to evaluate the impact of a 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) infant vaccination program on the incidence, mortality, and cost associated with pneumococcal disease during a typical influenza season (15% flu incidence) and influenza pandemic (30% flu incidence) in China. The model incorporated Chinese data where available and included both direct and indirect (herd) effects on the unvaccinated population, assuming a point in time following the initial introduction of the vaccine where the impact of the indirect effects has reached a steady state, approximately seven years following the implementation of the vaccine program. Pneumococcal disease incidence, mortality, and costs were evaluated over a one year time horizon. Healthcare costs were calculated using a payer perspective and included vaccination program costs and direct medical expenditures from pneumococcal disease. The model predicted that routine PCV7 vaccination of infants in China would prevent 5,053,453 cases of pneumococcal disease and 76,714 deaths in a single year during a normal influenza season.The estimated incremental-cost-effectiveness ratios were ¥12,281 (US$1,900) per life-year saved and ¥13,737 (US$2,125) per quality-adjusted-life-year gained. During an influenza pandemic, the model estimated that routine vaccination with PCV7 would prevent 8,469,506 cases of pneumococcal disease and 707,526 deaths, and would be cost-saving. Routine

  10. Efficient screening of environmental isolates for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are suitable for brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Hidehiko; Hino, Mika; Takashita, Hideharu; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Keiko; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    We developed an efficient screening method for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from environmental isolates. MultiPlex PCR was performed targeting four brewing S. cerevisiae genes (SSU1, AWA1, BIO6, and FLO1). At least three genes among the four were amplified from all S. cerevisiae strains. The use of this method allowed us to successfully obtain S. cerevisiae strains.

  11. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  12. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas strains isolated from floral nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Belgacem, Z; Bijttebier, S; Verreth, C; Voorspoels, S; Van de Voorde, I; Aerts, G; Willems, K A; Jacquemyn, H; Ruyters, S; Lievens, B

    2015-06-01

    To screen and identify biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas strains isolated from floral nectar; to characterize the produced biosurfactants; and to investigate the effect of different carbon sources on biosurfactant production. Four of eight nectar Pseudomonas isolates were found to produce biosurfactants. Phylogenetic analysis based on three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB and gyrB) classified the isolates into two groups, including one group closely related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and another group closely related to Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas jessenii. Although our nectar pseudomonads were able to grow on a variety of water-soluble and water-immiscible carbon sources, surface active agents were only produced when using vegetable oil as sole carbon source, including olive oil, sunflower oil or waste frying sunflower oil. Structural characterization based on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass mass spectrometry (UHPLC-amMS) revealed that biosurfactant activity was most probably due to the production of fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1 and C18:2), and mono- and diglycerides thereof. Four biosurfactant-producing nectar pseudomonads were identified. The active compounds were identified as fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1 and C18:2), and mono- and diglycerides thereof, produced by hydrolysis of triglycerides of the feedstock. Studies on biosurfactant-producing micro-organisms have mainly focused on microbes isolated from soils and aquatic environments. Here, for the first time, nectar environments were screened as a novel source for biosurfactant producers. As nectars represent harsh environments with high osmotic pressure and varying pH levels, further screening of nectar habitats for biosurfactant-producing microbes may lead to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with broad tolerance towards different environmental conditions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Infection, excretion and seroconversion dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs from post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal case-control studies were performed in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms from Denmark and Spain using similar designs. Fourteen independent batches of 100-154 pigs per batch were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence. Pigs displaying PMWS......-like signs and matched healthy cohorts were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and pigs were classified as: (i) PMWS cases, (ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and (iii) healthy pigs. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) quantitative PCR (q...... prevalence and/or viral load than healthy pigs in all collected samples at necropsy (p sampling prior to PMWS outbreak (p

  14. Biodegradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Micrococcus sp. strain SMN-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Sikandar I; Hoskeri, Robertcyril S; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ninnekar, Harichandra Z

    2011-02-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of degrading nitroaromatic compounds was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil samples by selective enrichment on 2-nitrotoluene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The three different bacterial isolates obtained from bacterial consortium were identified as Bacillus sp. (A and C), Bacillus flexus (B) and Micrococcus sp. (D) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics and by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The pathway for the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Micrococcus sp. strain SMN-1 was elucidated by the isolation and identification of metabolites, growth and enzymatic studies. The organism degraded 2-nitrotoluene through 3-methylcatechol by a meta-cleavage pathway, with release of nitrite.

  15. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Guatemala City: Importance of Serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensbauer, James T; Asturias, Edwin J; Soto, Monica; Holt, Elizabeth; Olson, Daniel; Halsey, Neal A

    2016-05-01

    To inform estimations of the potential impact of recently introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), we report results of 11 years of pre-PCV surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in Guatemala City. Cases of IPD in children younger than 5 years were identified by active surveillance at 3 referral hospitals in Guatemala City from October 1996 through 2007. Clinical and demographic data were obtained, and isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from normally sterile sites were serotyped using latex agglutination and confirmed by Quellung reaction. Four hundred fifty-two cases of IPD were identified with a case fatality rate of 21%. Meningitis was the most common cause of death (77% of all deaths) and occurred more often in infancy (median age 5 months) than other clinical syndromes. Of the 137 isolates serotyped, type 1 (26 cases, 17%), type 2 (25 cases, 16%) and type 5 (18 cases, 12%) were the most common. Serotype 2 was associated with a higher case fatality rate (28%), higher rate of meningitis (68%) and occurred in younger infants (median age, 3.5 months) than other common serotypes. Recently introduced PCV13 includes 73% of observed serotypes in the study. Infants with IPD presented at a young age. Serotype 2, rarely reported as a significant cause of IPD and not included in available PCVs, was a common cause of disease in this population. PCV13 introduction in Guatemala, begun in 2013, may not have as great an impact in disease reduction as has been observed in other countries.

  16. Characterization of cefalexin degradation capabilities of two Pseudomonas strains isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bokun; Lyu, Jinling; Lyu, Xian-jin; Yu, Han-qing; Hu, Zhong; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2015-01-23

    Pharmaceuticals have recently been regarded as contaminants of emerging concern. To date, there is limited knowledge about antibiotic-degrading microorganisms in conventional activated sludge treatment systems and their characteristics toward antibiotic degradation especially in the presence of a pharmaceutical mixture. As such, antibiotic-degrading microorganisms were investigated and isolated from the activated sludge, and their degradation capabilities were evaluated. Two strains of cefalexin-degrading bacteria CE21 and CE22 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. in the collected activated sludge. Strain CE22 was able to degrade over 90% of cefalexin, while CE21 was able to remove 46.7% of cefalexin after incubation for 24h. The removal efficiency of cefalexin by CE22, different from that of CE21, was not significantly affected by an increase in cefalexin concentration, even up to 10ppm, however the presence of 1ppm of other pharmaceuticals had a significant effect on the degradation of cefalexin by CE22, but no significant effect on CE21. The degradation product of cefalexin by the two strains was identified to be 2-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyrazine. Our results also indicated that CE21 and CE22 were able to degrade caffeine, salicylic acid and chloramphenicol. Moreover, CE21 was found to be capable of eliminating sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple enzymatic profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    Full Text Available The enzymatic characterization of vibrios has been used as a virulence indicator of sanitary interest. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (n = 70 isolated from Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters. The strains were examined for the presence of gelatinase (GEL, caseinase (CAS, elastase (ELAS, phospholipase (PHOS, lipase (LIP, amilase (AML and DNase. All enzymes, except elastase, were detected in more than 60% of the strains. The most recurrent enzymatic profiles were AML + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 16; 22.9% and AML + CAS + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 21; 30%. Considering the fact that exoenzyme production by vibrios is closely related to virulence, one must be aware of the bacteriological risk posed to human health by the consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  18. Characterization of two recent Japanese field isolates of canine distemper virus and examination of the avirulent strain utility as an attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Yoneda, Misako; Seki, Takahiro; Uema, Masashi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Nishi, Toshiya; Fujita, Kentaro; Miura, Ryuichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2014-12-05

    Recently, several new strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) have been isolated in Japan. To investigate their pathogenesis in dogs, the Yanaka and Bunkyo-K strains were investigated by infecting dogs and determining clinical signs, amount of virus, and antibody responses. The Yanaka strain is avirulent and induced an antibody response. The Bunkyo-K strain induced typical CDV clinical signs in infected dogs and virulence was enhanced by brain passage. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H genes demonstrated the Bunkyo-K strains were of a different lineage from Asia-1 group including the Yanaka strain and Asia-2 group that contain recent Japanese isolates, which were recently identified as major prevalent strains worldwide but distinct from old vaccine strains. Based on these data, we tested the ability of the Yanaka strain for vaccination. Inoculation with the Yanaka strain efficiently induced CDV neutralizing antibodies with no clinical signs, and the protection effects against challenge with either old virulent strain or Bunkyo-K strain were equal or greater when compared with vaccination by an original vaccine strain. Thus, the Yanaka strain is a potential vaccine candidate against recent prevalent CDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of virulence genes of E. coli strains isolated from children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of virulence genes in E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of children with urinary tract infection(UTI and their correlation with clinical data, we iso-lated E. coli strains from urine samples of children with UTI during the period of August 2005 - August 2006 and studied them for the presence of the virulence genes by PCR. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated. The prevalence of genes, pyelonephritis associated pili (pap genes, S-family adhesions (sfa gene, hemolysin (hly gene, and cytotoxic nercotizing factor type 1 (cnf-1-1 gene among the isolated strains was 27.1%, 14.6%, 13.5% and 22.9 %, respectively. Pyelonephritis was more prevalent in the cases with positive virulence genes. The results showed significant correlation bet-ween age of the patient and the presence of the genes (P< 0.05. Cnf-1 gene was significantly more common in samples of patients with abnormal finding on the ultrasound of kidneys (P= 0.049. Our study demonstrated higher prevalence of pyelonephritis in the presence of E. coli virulence genes. Detection of the genes in urine samples may help in the management of UTI.

  20. The prevalence of virulence genes of E. coli strains isolated from children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshad, Shohreh; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of virulence genes in E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of children with urinary tract infection(UTI) and their correlation with clinical data, we isolated E. coli strains from urine samples of children with UTI during the period of August 2005 - August 2006 and studied them for the presence of the virulence genes by PCR. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated. The prevalence of genes, pyelonephritis associated pili (pap genes), S-family adhesions (sfa gene), hemolysin (hly gene), and cytotoxic nercotizing factor type 1 (cnf-1-1 gene) among the isolated strains was 27.1%, 14.6%, 13.5% and 22.9 %, respectively. Pyelonephritis was more prevalent in the cases with positive virulence genes. The results showed significant correlation between age of the patient and the presence of the genes (P< 0.05). Cnf-1 gene was significantly more common in samples of patients with abnormal finding on the ultrasound of kidneys (P0.049). Our study demonstrated higher prevalence of pyelonephritis in the presence of E. coli virulence genes. Detection of the genes in urine samples may help in the management of UTI. (author)

  1. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ołdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products.

  2. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Aleksandra; Rzepkowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products. PMID:28626762

  3. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  4. Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, A.W.; Phelps, C.D.; Young, L.Y. [Rutgers-The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment

    1999-03-01

    Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 40bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.

  5. Molecular and serological characterization of the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Bruno Alonso; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Sousa, Gisele Oliveira de; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi

    2016-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. The dog was kept in a public shelter in São Paulo city, Brazil, and presented asymptomatic urinary shedding detected by PCR. Prospective evaluation was performed to fully characterize its chronic carrier state. The dog did not present anti-Leptospira titles or clinical/laboratorial abnormalities during the evaluations; nevertheless long-term urinary shedding was confirmed by PCR and leptospires were recovered from two occasions. The isolated strain was molecularly characterized by partial 16S rRNA and secY gene sequencing and MLST analysis. Serogroup identification was performed using polyclonal antibodies. The strain was identified as Leptospira santarosai, serogroup Sejroe. This is the first evidence in the literature of the isolation of L. santarosai in dogs. Our findings show that dogs can persistently harbor leptospires other than L. interrogans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pullulan-hyperproducing color variant strain of Aureobasidium pullulans FB-1 newly isolated from phylloplane of Ficus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Saini, G K

    2008-06-01

    The studies were carried out for the isolation of efficient pullulan producing strains of Aureobasidium pullulans. Five strains were isolated from phylloplane of different plants. Amongst these, three were producing black pigment melanin, while the remaining two produced pink pigment. These two color variant isolates of A. pullulans were designated as FB-1 and FG-1, and obtained from phylloplane of Ficus benjamina and Ficus glometa, respectively. The parameters employed for the identification of the isolates included morphology, nutritional assimilation patterns and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Isolates were compared with standard cultures for EPS production. A. pullulans FB-1 was the best producer of pullulan giving up to 1.9, 1.4 and 1.7 times more pullulan than the control of A. pullulans NCIM 976, NCIM 1048 and NCIM 1049, respectively. The IR spectra of the isolates and standard strains revealed that the polysaccharide was pullulan, but not aubasidan. The study also supported the fact that A. pullulans is a ubiquitous organism and phylloplane being the important niche of the organism.

  7. Characterization and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Carminati, Domenico; Burns, Patricia; Suàrez, Viviana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    Ninety-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian and Argentinean cheeses were evaluated for probiotic potential. After a preliminary subtractive screening based on the presence of msa and bsh genes, 27 strains were characterized. In general, the selected strains showed high resistance to lysozyme, good adaptation to simulated gastric juice, and a moderate to low bile tolerance. The capacity to agglutinate yeast cells in a mannose-specific manner, as well as the cell surface hydrophobicity was found to be variable among strains. Very high β-galactosidase activity was shown by a considerable number of the tested strains, whereas variable prebiotic utilization ability was observed. Only tetracycline resistance was observed in two highly resistant strains which harbored the tetM gene, whereas none of the strains showed β-glucuronidase activity or was capable of inhibiting pathogens. Three strains (Lp790, Lp813, and Lp998) were tested by in vivo trials. A considerable heterogeneity was found among a number of L. plantarum strains screened in this study, leading to the design of multiple cultures to cooperatively link strains showing the widest range of useful traits. Among the selected strains, Lp790, Lp813, and Lp998 showed the best probiotic potential and would be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of probiotic fermented foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Capsular polysaccharide typing of domestic mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus strains and its potential exploration of bovine mastitis vaccine development. I. Capsular polysaccharide typing, isolation and purification of the strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H R; Pak, S I; Kang, S W; Jong, W S; Youn, C J

    2000-06-01

    One hundred seven isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis were investigated for colony morphology in serum-soft agar (SSA), autoagglutination in salt, and capsular serotype. Capsular polysaccharide (CP) was purified and quantified from the extracts of clinical isolates. Overall, 89 isolates (83.2%) were diffuse in the SSA, without any difference in the proportion of diffuse colony between type 5 and type 8 strains. Some strains exhibited compact colonies in the SSA and expressed CP as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating that compact morphology does not exclude encapsulation. The majority of the strains (11/12) showed autoagglutination in the salt aggregation test. The serotype 336 accounted for 46.7% of the isolates followed by serotype 5 (12.1%) and serotype 8 (12.1%). Particularly, twenty-six (24.3%) isolates reacted with two serotypes; 7 for type 8/336 and 19 for type 5/336. Five isolates (4.7%) were nontypeable with monoclonal antibodies specific for CP serotype 5, 8, or 336. The CP concentration in culture supernatants varied with the serotypes, and the total amount of CP produced by cells grown in a liquid medium was much less than that produced by cells grown on a solid medium. The Western blotting indicated that the CP bands of S. aureus serotype 5 and 8 were ranged in the molecular mass of 58-84 kilodalton (kDa), with additional bands in the region of approximately >/= 48 or

  9. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Strains That Efficiently Decompose Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Furmanczyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their particular properties, detergents are widely used in household cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in agriculture as adjuvants tailoring the features of pesticides or other crop protection agents. The continuously growing use of these various products means that water soluble detergents have become one of the most problematic groups of pollutants for the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Thus it is important to identify bacteria having the ability to survive in the presence of large quantities of detergent and efficiently decompose it to non-surface active compounds. In this study, we used peaty soil sampled from a surface flow constructed wetland in a wastewater treatment plant to isolate bacteria that degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. We identified and initially characterized 36 Pseudomonas spp. strains that varied significantly in their ability to use SDS as their sole carbon source. Five isolates having the closest taxonomic relationship to the Pseudomonas jessenii subgroup appeared to be the most efficient SDS degraders, decomposing from 80 to 100% of the SDS present in an initial concentration 1 g/L in less than 24 h. These isolates exhibited significant differences in degree of SDS degradation, their resistance to high detergent concentration (ranging from 2.5 g/L up to 10 g/L or higher, and in chemotaxis toward SDS on a plate test. Mass spectrometry revealed several SDS degradation products, 1-dodecanol being dominant; however, traces of dodecanal, 2-dodecanol, and 3-dodecanol were also observed, but no dodecanoic acid. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography revealed that all of the selected isolates possessed alkylsulfatase-like activity. Three isolates, AP3_10, AP3_20, and AP3_22, showed a single band on native PAGE zymography, that could be the result of alkylsulfatase activity, whereas for isolates AP3_16 and AP3_19 two bands were observed. Moreover, the AP3_22 strain exhibited a band

  11. Genome characterization of a porcine circovirus type 3 in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Liu, X; Zhang, P; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Zhang, L; Liang, P; Song, C

    2018-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a novel circovirus that was associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and multisystemic inflammation. Recently, a PCV3 strain was identified from pyretic and pneumonic piglets in Guangdong province, China. This virus strain was sequenced and designated PCV3-China/GD2016. The complete genome of PCV3-China/GD2016 is 2,000 bp in length and shared 99.1% and 99.1% nucleotide identities with PCV3/29160 and PCV3/2164, respectively. [Corrections added after initial online publication on 13 March 2017: The numbers '98.5%' and '97.4%' has been changed to '99.1%' and '99.1%' in the previous sentence.] Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that PCV3-China/GD2016 clustered with the emerging PCV3 and separated with other virus in genus Circovirus. The results of this study suggest that PCV3 has existed within the pigs of China. It is urgent to investigate the pathogenicity and epidemiology of this novel circovirus China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and production of biofilms in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Allori, María Cristina Gaudioso; Jure, María Angela; Romero, Cintia; de Castillo, Marta Elena Cecilia

    2006-08-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains are frequently associated with bacteremia and hospital-acquired infections. 293 CNS strains were isolated from 744 samples from a dialysis center in S. M. de Tucumán, Argentina, from hemocultures, catheters and urine and identified as S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. hominis and S. cohnii. 13 antibiotics were tested for antibacterial resistance. 75% of S. saprophyticus, 66% of S. epidermidis and 57% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to erythromycin and 50% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to ciprofloxacin. OXA resistance was found in 43% of S. haemolyticus. Presence of PBP 2a in OXA-R strains was confirmed with the modified agglutination assay (MRSA) and presence of the mecA gene. 15 strains with intermediate halos for vancomycin and teicoplanin showed a MIC in solid and liquid medium resistance to methicillin and biofilm production are decisive for a prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy and limited use of inappropriate glycopeptides.

  13. Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yue Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Pseudomonas putida