WorldWideScience

Sample records for pcr thermocycler chip

  1. Simulation and experimental validation of a SU-8 based PCR thermocycler chip with integrated heaters and temperature sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Poulsen, Claus Riber

    2004-01-01

    We present a SU-8 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with integrated platinum thin film heaters and temperature sensor. The device is fabricated in SU-8 on a glass substrate. The use of SU-8 provides a simple microfabrication process for the PCR chamber, controllable surface properties......C/s, respectively, the performance of the chip is comparable with the best silicon micromachined PCR chips presented in the literature. The SU-8 chamber surface was found to be PCR compatible by amplification of yeast gene ribosomal protein S3 and Campylobacter gene cadF. The PCR compatibility of the chamber...

  2. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  3. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  4. The Use of Infrared Thermography as a Novel Approach for Real-Time Validation of PCR Thermocyclers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Löfström, Charlotta; Helleskov, Jens Bue

    2010-01-01

    Validation of PCR thermocycler performance is crucial to obtain reliable results. In this study, infrared (IR) thermography was evaluated as a novel validation tool. After stabilisation, no significant difference in the temperatures recorded using thermography and a reference blockbased system wa...... was found. By employing IR thermography, information about the length of the time until temperature stabilisation in the sample could be obtained. This study shows the potential of using IR thermography for validation of thermocyclers.......Validation of PCR thermocycler performance is crucial to obtain reliable results. In this study, infrared (IR) thermography was evaluated as a novel validation tool. After stabilisation, no significant difference in the temperatures recorded using thermography and a reference blockbased system...

  5. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-09-04

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using "wire-guided" method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  6. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You David J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A computer numerical control (CNC apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study. This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate. Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction. The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability, in rapid succession (using droplets

  7. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  8. A Novel Pressure Indicator for Continuous Flow PCR Chip Using Micro Molded PDMS Pillar Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Xin

    2005-01-01

    .... Continuous flow PCR chip releases biologists from their laborious exercises. The use of such chip is, however, hindered by costly expense of the syringe pump, which is used to maintain a constant flow rate...

  9. A fully sealed plastic chip for multiplex PCR and its application in bacteria identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youchun; Yan, He; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Kewei; Lu, Ying; Ren, Yonghong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Shan; Xing, Wanli

    2015-07-07

    Multiplex PCR is an effective tool for simultaneous multiple target detection but is limited by the intrinsic interference and competition among primer pairs when it is performed in one reaction tube. Dividing a multiplex PCR into many single PCRs is a simple strategy to overcome this issue. Here, we constructed a plastic, easy-to-use, fully sealed multiplex PCR chip based on reversible centrifugation for the simultaneous detection of 63 target DNA sequences. The structure of the chip is quite simple, which contains sine-shaped infusing channels and a number of reaction chambers connecting to one side of these channels. Primer pairs for multiplex PCR were sequentially preloaded in the different reaction chambers, and the chip was enclosed with PCR-compatible adhesive tape. For usage, the PCR master mix containing a DNA template is pipetted into the infusing channels and centrifuged into the reaction chambers, leaving the infusing channels filled with air to avoid cross-contamination of the different chambers. Then, the chip is sealed and placed on a flat thermal cycler for PCR. Finally, amplification products can be detected in situ using a fluorescence scanner or recovered by reverse centrifugation for further analyses. Therefore, our chip possesses two functions: 1) it can be used for multi-target detection based on end-point in situ fluorescence detection; and 2) it can work as a sample preparation unit for analyses that need multiplex PCR such as hybridization and target sequencing. The performance of this chip was carefully examined and further illustrated in the identification of 8 pathogenic bacterial genomic DNA samples and 13 drug-resistance genes. Due to simplicity of its structure and operation, accuracy and generality, high-throughput capacity, and versatile functions (i.e., for in situ detection and sample preparation), our multiplex PCR chip has great potential in clinical diagnostics and nucleic acid-based point-of-care testing.

  10. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia; Xiao, Kang

    2012-01-01

    amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva

  11. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia

    2011-03-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable chip with volumes as small as 1.25 µl, while the heating and cooling rate may be as fast as 12.7 °C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 minutes to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. The PCR may be performed according to a two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific SRY gene marker by utilizing raw saliva may be achieved. The genetic identification may be in-situ detected after PCR by the optical detection system.

  12. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  13. An In Vitro Model for Studying Neutrophil Activation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass by Using a Polymerase Chain Reaction Thermocycler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-Gang; Gu, Y. John; Chen, Chang-Zhi

    The accurate temperature control of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycler was exploited in developing an in vitro model to study neutrophil activation during cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils from 12 volunteers underwent temperature changes in a PCR thermocycler (37 degrees C for 30

  14. Micro flow-through PCR in a PMMA chip fabricated by KrF excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liying; Liu, Baoan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Shibing; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-09-01

    As the third PCR technology, micro flow-through PCR chip can amplify DNA specifically in an exponential fashion in vitro. Nowadays many academies in the world have successfully amplified DNA using their own-made flow-through PCR chip. In this paper, the ablation principle of PMMA at 248 nm excimer laser was studied, then a PMMA based flow-through PCR chip with 20 cycles was fabricated by excimer laser at 19 kv and 18 mm/min. The chip was bonded together with another cover chip at 105( composite function)C, 160 N and 20 minutes. In the end, it was integrated with electrical thermal thin films and Pt 100 temperature sensors. The temperature controllers was built standard PID digital temperature controller, the temperature control precision was +/- 0.2( composite function)C. The temperature grads between the three temperature zones were 16.5 and 22.2( composite function)C respectively, the gaps between the temperature zones could realize heat insulation.

  15. Detection of a putative virulence cadF gene of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from different sources using a microfabricated PCR chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Riber; El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2005-01-01

    A microfabricated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip made of epoxy-based photoresist (SU-8) was recently designed and developed. In this study, we tested whether the PCR chip could be used for rapid detection of a potential virulence determinant, the cadF gene of Campylobacter jejuni. PCR...... was performed using published PCR conditions and primers for the C. jejuni cadF gene. DNA isolated from a C. jejuni reference strain CCUG 11284, C. jejuni isolates obtained from different sources (chicken and human), and Campylobacter whole cells were used as templates in the PCR tests. Conventional PCR in tube...... was used as the control. After optimization of the PCR chip, PCR positives on the chip were obtained from 91.0% (10/11) of the tested chips. A fast transition time was achieved with the PCR chip, and therefore a faster cycling time and a shorter PCR program were obtained. Using the PCR chip, the cadF gene...

  16. chipPCR: an R package to pre-process raw data of amplification curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, Stefan; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Both the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and quantitative isothermal amplification (qIA) are standard methods for nucleic acid quantification. Numerous real-time read-out technologies have been developed. Despite the continuous interest in amplification-based techniques, there are only few tools for pre-processing of amplification data. However, a transparent tool for precise control of raw data is indispensable in several scenarios, for example, during the development of new instruments. chipPCR is an R: package for the pre-processing and quality analysis of raw data of amplification curves. The package takes advantage of R: 's S4 object model and offers an extensible environment. chipPCR contains tools for raw data exploration: normalization, baselining, imputation of missing values, a powerful wrapper for amplification curve smoothing and a function to detect the start and end of an amplification curve. The capabilities of the software are enhanced by the implementation of algorithms unavailable in R: , such as a 5-point stencil for derivative interpolation. Simulation tools, statistical tests, plots for data quality management, amplification efficiency/quantification cycle calculation, and datasets from qPCR and qIA experiments are part of the package. Core functionalities are integrated in GUIs (web-based and standalone shiny applications), thus streamlining analysis and report generation. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/chipPCR. Source code: https://github.com/michbur/chipPCR. stefan.roediger@b-tu.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Absolute quantification of DNA methylation using microfluidic chip-based digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Bai, Yanan; Cheng, Zule; Liu, Fangming; Wang, Ping; Yang, Dawei; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Mao, Hongju; Zhao, Jianlong

    2017-10-15

    Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of many tumor suppressor genes downregulates their expression and in a result promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, detection of DNA methylation status is a convenient diagnostic tool for cancer detection. Here, we reported a novel method for the integrative detection of methylation by the microfluidic chip-based digital PCR. This method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII, which cleaves the unmethylated DNA strands while keeping the methylated ones intact. After HpaII treatment, the DNA methylation level is determined quantitatively by the microfluidic chip-based digital PCR with the lower limit of detection equal to 0.52%. To validate the applicability of this method, promoter methylation of two tumor suppressor genes (PCDHGB6 and HOXA9) was tested in 10 samples of early stage lung adenocarcinoma and their adjacent non-tumorous tissues. The consistency was observed in the analysis of these samples using our method and a conventional bisulfite pyrosequencing. Combining high sensitivity and low cost, the microfluidic chip-based digital PCR method might provide a promising alternative for the detection of DNA methylation and early diagnosis of epigenetics-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening DNA chip and event-specific multiplex PCR detection methods for biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun

    2014-11-01

    There are about 80 biotech crop events that have been approved by safety assessment in Korea. They have been controlled by genetically modified organism (GMO) and living modified organism (LMO) labeling systems. The DNA-based detection method has been used as an efficient scientific management tool. Recently, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA chip have been developed as simultaneous detection methods for several biotech crops' events. The event-specific multiplex PCR method was developed to detect five biotech maize events: MIR604, Event 3272, LY 038, MON 88017 and DAS-59122-7. The specificity was confirmed and the sensitivity was 0.5%. The screening DNA chip was developed from four endogenous genes of soybean, maize, cotton and canola respectively along with two regulatory elements and seven genes: P35S, tNOS, pat, bar, epsps1, epsps2, pmi, cry1Ac and cry3B. The specificity was confirmed and the sensitivity was 0.5% for four crops' 12 events: one soybean, six maize, three cotton and two canola events. The multiplex PCR and DNA chip can be available for screening, gene-specific and event-specific analysis of biotech crops as efficient detection methods by saving on workload and time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Lab on a chip device for rapid identification of Avian Influenza virus by on-chip sample preparation and solid phase PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel lab-on-a-chip device for fast AIV screening by integrating DNA microarray-based solid phase PCR on microchip. The device can handle viral samples in an automatic way. Moreover, multiplex PCR and sequence detection are done in one-step, which greatly simplifies...

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  1. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP): Revisiting the Efficacy of Sample Preparation, Sonication, Quantification of Sheared DNA, and Analysis via PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The “quantitative” ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA) method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR). Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest. PMID:22046253

  2. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  3. Real-time PCR Machine System Modeling and a Systematic Approach for the Robust Design of a Real-time PCR-on-a-Chip System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chip-based DNA quantification systems are widespread, and used in many point-of-care applications. However, instruments for such applications may not be maintained or calibrated regularly. Since machine reliability is a key issue for normal operation, this study presents a system model of the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR machine to analyze the instrument design through numerical experiments. Based on model analysis, a systematic approach was developed to lower the variation of DNA quantification and achieve a robust design for a real-time PCR-on-a-chip system. Accelerated lift testing was adopted to evaluate the reliability of the chip prototype. According to the life test plan, this proposed real-time PCR-on-a-chip system was simulated to work continuously for over three years with similar reproducibility in DNA quantification. This not only shows the robustness of the lab-on-a-chip system, but also verifies the effectiveness of our systematic method for achieving a robust design.

  4. Portable low-power thermal cycler with dual thin-film Pt heaters for a polymeric PCR chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangdo; Lim, Juhun; Kim, Mi-Young; Yeom, JiHye; Cho, Hyunmin; Lee, Hyunjung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2018-01-29

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for major definite diagnostic tool, but very limited its place used only indoor such as hospital or diagnosis lab. For the rapid on-site detection of pathogen in an outdoor environment, a low-power cordless polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermal cycler is crucial module. At this point of view, we proposed a low-power PCR thermal cycler that could be operated in an outdoor anywhere. The disposable PCR chip was made of a polymeric (PI/PET) film to reduce the thermal mass. A dual arrangement of the Pt heaters, which were positioned on the top and bottom of the PCR chip, improved the temperature uniformity. The temperature sensor, which was made of the same material as the heater, utilized the temperature dependence of the Pt resistor to ensure simple fabrication of the temperature sensor. Cooling the PCR chip using dual blower fans enabled thermal cycling to operate with a lower power than that of a Peltier element with a high power consumption. The PCR components were electrically connected to a control module that could be operated with a Li-ion battery (12 V), and the PCR conditions (temperature, time, cycle, etc.) were inputted on a touch screen. For 30 PCR cycles, the accumulated power consumption of heating and cooling was 7.3 Wh, which is easily available from a compact battery. Escherichia coli genomic DNA (510 bp) was amplified using the proposed PCR thermal cycler and the disposable PCR chip. A similar DNA amplification capability was confirmed using the proposed portable and low-power thermal cycler compared with a conventional thermal cycler.

  5. Simultaneous detection of multiple HPV DNA via bottom-well microfluidic chip within an infra-red PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Warden, Antony; Sun, Jiahui; Shen, Guangxia; Ding, Xianting

    2018-03-01

    Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) devices combined with microfluidic chips or lateral flow stripes have shown great potential in the field of point-of-need testing (PoNT) as they only require a small volume of patient sample and are capable of presenting results in a short time. However, the detection for multiple targets in this field leaves much to be desired. Herein, we introduce a novel PCR platform by integrating a bottom-well microfluidic chip with an infra-red (IR) excited temperature control method and fluorescence co-detection of three PCR products. Microfluidic chips are utilized to partition different samples into individual bottom-wells. The oil phase in the main channel contains multi-walled carbon nanotubes which were used as a heat transfer medium that absorbs energy from the IR-light-emitting diode (LED) and transfers heat to the water phase below. Cyclical rapid heating and cooling necessary for PCR are achieved by alternative power switching of the IR-LED and Universal Serial Bus (USB) mini-fan with a pulse width modulation scheme. This design of the IR-LED PCR platform is economic, compact, and fully portable, making it a promising application in the field of PoNT. The bottom-well microfluidic chip and IR-LED PCR platform were combined to fulfill a three-stage thermal cycling PCR for 40 cycles within 90 min for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) detection. The PCR fluorescent signal was successfully captured at the end of each cycle. The technique introduced here has broad applications in nucleic acid amplification and PoNT devices.

  6. Real-time PCR Machine System Modeling and a Systematic Approach for the Robust Design of a Real-time PCR-on-a-Chip System

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Chip-based DNA quantification systems are widespread, and used in many point-of-care applications. However, instruments for such applications may not be maintained or calibrated regularly. Since machine reliability is a key issue for normal operation, this study presents a system model of the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) machine to analyze the instrument design through numerical experiments. Based on model analysis, a systematic approach was developed to lower the variation of DN...

  7. Multiplex PCR, amplicon size and hybridization efficiency on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J; Morling, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We tested the SNP typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray by analyzing the four Y chromosome loci SRY1532, SRY8299, TAT, and 92R7. Amplicons of different lengths containing the same locus were purified and addressed to the NanoChip array and fluorescently labelled reporte...

  8. PCR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... was constructed with competitive strategy by PCR-cloning technique and the limitation range was determined. The PCR products of MTB and IAC were 245 and 660 bp, respectively on .... products' differentiation was easy.

  9. Selection of Easily Accessible PCR- and Bio-Compatible Materials for Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang

    2013-10-30

    Conventional fabrication of microfluidic chip is a complicated and time, effort and material consuming process. Consequently, due to high expenses, it has poor applicability for performing mass biological analysis by microfluidics. In this study, we repor

  10. Selection of Easily Accessible PCR- and Bio-Compatible Materials for Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang; Kodzius, Rimantas; Wu, Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fabrication of microfluidic chip is a complicated and time, effort and material consuming process. Consequently, due to high expenses, it has poor applicability for performing mass biological analysis by microfluidics. In this study, we

  11. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable

  12. Research to Improve the Efficiency of Double Stereo PCR Microfluidic Chip by Passivating the Inner Surface of Steel Capillary with NOA61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Guo, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Yu, Kuanxin; Ma, Ying; Chen, Tao; Li, Yinghui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report the improvement of PCR microfluidic chip efficiency achieved by coating the inner surface of steel capillary microchannel with a 22-µm film of the ultraviolet-solidified NOA61 using a device invented by us. Our results indicate that with this treatment, the roughness of the inside wall of steel capillary was improved from Ra = 0.921 to Ra = 0.254. The contact angle was decreased from about 95° to 56°, and the surface hydrophobicity was also increased. The flow pressure for performing the real-time PCR in the microfluidic chip with modified surface was reduced by twofold (2.11/1) and that resulted in a substantially increased efficiency of PCR. A modification of the microchannel interior surface improved the quality of the on-chip integrated PCR procedure.

  13. PCR biocompatibility of Lab-on-a-chip and MEMS materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Balmer; Pedersen, Christian Møller; Grøndahl, K. G.

    2007-01-01

    the possibility of interaction between the surfaces and ingredients in the PCR mixture. By proper surface treatment the PCR reaction can be facilitated and in this paper we present a systematic and quantitative study of the impact on the PCR compatibility of a chemical and a biological surface treatment....... The chemical treatments are based on the silanizing agent dichlordimethylsilane [(CH3)(2)SiCl2

  14. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in potato plants with zebra chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Abad, Jorge A; French-Monar, Ronald D; Rascoe, John; Wen, Aimin; Gudmestad, Neil C; Secor, Gary A; Lee, Ing-Ming; Duan, Yongping; Levy, Laurene

    2009-07-01

    The new Liberibacter species, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in New Zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in Texas and other southwestern states in the USA. A species-specific primer LsoF was developed for both quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) to detect and quantify Lso in infected samples. In multiplex qPCR, a plant cytochrome oxidase (COX)-based probe-primer set was used as a positive internal control for host plants, which could be used to reliably access the DNA extraction quality and to normalize qPCR data for accurate quantification of the bacterial populations in environment samples. Neither the qPCR nor the cPCR using the primer and/or probe sets with LsoF reacted with other Liberibacter species infecting citrus or other potato pathogens. The low detection limit of the multiplex qPCR was about 20 copies of the target 16S rDNA templates per reaction for field samples. Lso was readily detected and quantified in various tissues of ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas. A thorough but uneven colonization of Lso was revealed in various tissues of potato plants. The highest Lso populations were about 3x10(8) genomes/g tissue in the root, which were 3-order higher than those in the above-ground tissues of potato plants. The Lso bacterial populations were normally distributed across the ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas, with 60% of ZC-affected potato plants harboring an average Lso population from 10(5) to 10(6) genomes/g tissue, 4% of plants hosting above 10(7) Lso genomes/g tissue, and 8% of plants holding below 10(3) Lso genomes/g tissue. The rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable multiplex qPCR showed its potential to become a powerful tool for early detection and quantification of the new Liberibacter species associated

  15. Comparison of Four Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Methods: Next-generation Sequencing, INNO-LiPA, Electrochemical DNA Chip, and Nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilyanimit, Pornjarim; Chansaenroj, Jira; Poomipak, Witthaya; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, thus necessitating early detection by screening. Rapid and accurate HPV genotyping is crucial both for the assessment of patients with HPV infection and for surveillance studies. Fifty-eight cervicovaginal samples were tested for HPV genotypes using four methods in parallel: nested-PCR followed by conventional sequencing, INNO-LiPA, electrochemical DNA chip, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Seven HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 56, and 58) were identified by all four methods. Nineteen HPV genotypes were detected by NGS, but not by nested-PCR, INNO-LiPA, or electrochemical DNA chip. Although NGS is relatively expensive and complex, it may serve as a sensitive HPV genotyping method. Because of its highly sensitive detection of multiple HPV genotypes, NGS may serve as an alternative for diagnostic HPV genotyping in certain situations. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  16. Construction of a microfluidic chip, using dried-down reagents, for LATE-PCR amplification and detection of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In; Massey, Conner; Martins, Rui P; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2013-12-07

    LATE-PCR is an advanced form of non-symmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA which can readily be characterized at the end of amplification by hybridization to low-temperature fluorescent probes. We demonstrate here for the first time that monoplex and duplex LATE-PCR amplification and probe target hybridization can be carried out in double layered PDMS microfluidics chips containing dried reagents. Addition of a set of reagents during dry down overcomes the common problem of single-stranded oligonucleotide binding to PDMS. These proof-of-principle results open the way to construction of inexpensive point-of-care devices that take full advantage of the analytical power of assays built using LATE-PCR and low-temperature probes.

  17. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymeric LabChip real-time PCR as a point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for rapid detection of influenza A/H1N1 virus in human clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ok Song

    Full Text Available It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1 It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2 It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3 The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4 Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and

  19. IR thermocycler for centrifugal microfluidic platform with direct on-disk wireless temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Gross, A.; Mark, D.; Roth, G.; von Stetten, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2011-06-01

    The direct on-disk wireless temperature measurement system [1,2] presented at μTAS 2010 was further improved in its robustness. We apply it to an IR thermocycler as part of a centrifugal microfluidic analyzer for polymerase chain reactions (PCR). This IR thermocycler allows the very efficient direct heating of aqueous liquids in microfluidic cavities by an IR radiation source. The efficiency factor of this IR heating system depends on several parameters. First there is the efficiency of the IR radiator considering the transformation of electrical energy into radiation energy. This radiation energy needs to be focused by a reflector to the center of the cavity. Both, the reflectors shape and the quality of the reflecting layer affect the efficiency. On the way to the center of the cavity the radiation energy will be diminished by absorption in the surrounding air/humidity and especially in the cavity lid of the microfluidic disk. The transmission spectrum of the lid material and its thickness is of significant impact. We chose a COC polymer film with a thickness of 150 μm. At a peak frequency of the IR radiator of ~2 μm approximately 85 % of the incoming radiation energy passes the lid and is absorbed within the first 1.5 mm depth of liquid in the cavity. As we perform the thermocycling for a PCR, after heating to the denaturation temperature of ~ 92 °C we need to cool down rapidly to the primer annealing temperature of ~ 55 °C. Cooling is realized by 3 ventilators venting air of room temperature into the disk chamber. Due to the air flow itself and an additional rotation of the centrifugal microfluidic disk the PCR reagents in the cavities are cooled by forced air convection. Simulation studies based upon analogous electrical models enable to optimize the disk geometry and the optical path. Both the IR heater and the ventilators are controlled by the digital PID controller HAPRO 0135 [3]. The sampling frequency is set to 2 Hz. It could be further increased up

  20. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  1. Absolute Enumeration of Probiotic Strains Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04® via Chip-Based Digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Z. Hansen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current standard for enumeration of probiotics to obtain colony forming units by plate counts has several drawbacks: long time to results, high variability and the inability to discern between bacterial strains. Accurate probiotic cell counts are important to confirm the delivery of a clinically documented dose for its associated health benefits. A method is described using chip-based digital PCR (cdPCR to enumerate Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM both as single strains and in combination. Primers and probes were designed to differentiate the target strains against other strains of the same species using known single copy, genetic differences. The assay was optimized to include propidium monoazide pre-treatment to prevent amplification of DNA associated with dead probiotic cells as well as liberation of DNA from cells with intact membranes using bead beating. The resulting assay was able to successfully enumerate each strain whether alone or in multiplex. The cdPCR method had a 4 and 5% relative standard deviation (RSD for Bl-04 and NCFM, respectively, making it more precise than plate counts with an industry accepted RSD of 15%. cdPCR has the potential to replace traditional plate counts because of its precision, strain specificity and the ability to obtain results in a matter of hours.

  2. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asing; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M. A. Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md. Abdul; Zaidul, I. S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition. PMID:27716792

  3. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asing; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M A Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md Abdul; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-01-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition.

  4. Capillary-based integrated digital PCR in picoliter droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Luo, Zhaofeng; Li, Lin; He, Jinlong; Li, Luoquan; Zhu, Jianwei; Wu, Ping; He, Liqun

    2018-01-30

    The droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is becoming more and more popular in diagnostic applications in academia and industry. In commercially available ddPCR systems, after they have been made by a generator, the droplets have to be transferred manually to modules for amplification and detection. In practice, some of the droplets (∼10%) are lost during manual transfer, leading to underestimation of the targets. In addition, the droplets are also at risk of cross-contamination during transfer. By contrast, in labs, some chip-based ddPCRs have been demonstrated where droplets always run in channels. However, the droplets easily coalesce to large ones in chips due to wall wetting as well as thermal oscillation. The loss of droplets becomes serious when such ddPCRs are applied to absolutely quantify rare mutations, such as in early diagnostics in clinical research or when measuring biological diversity at the cell level. Here, we propose a capillary-based integrated ddPCR system that is used for the first time to realize absolute quantification in this way. In this system, a HPLC T-junction is used to generate droplets and a long HPLC capillary connects the generator with both a capillary-based thermocycler and a capillary-based cytometer. The performance of the system is validated by absolute quantification of a gene specific to lung cancer (LunX). The results show that this system has very good linearity (0.9988) at concentrations ranging from NTC to 2.4 × 10 -4 copies per μL. As compared to qPCR, the all-in-one scheme is superior both in terms of the detection limit and the smaller fold changes measurement. The system of ddPCR might provide a powerful approach for clinical or academic applications where rare events are mostly considered.

  5. The characterization of four gene expression analysis in circulating tumor cells made by Multiplex-PCR from the AdnaTest kit on the lab-on-a-chip Agilent DNA 1000 platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereňová, Markéta; Mikulová, Veronika; Čapoun, Otakar; Zima, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis is a routine method for the detection of PCR fragments. The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer was one of the first commercial devices in this field. Our project was designed to study the characteristics of Agilent DNA 1000 kit in PCR fragment analysis as a part of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection technique. Despite the common use of this kit a complex analysis of the results from a long-term project is still missing. A commercially available Agilent DNA 1000 kit was used as a final step in the CTC detection (AdnaTest) for the determination of the presence of PCR fragments generated by Multiplex PCR. Data from 30 prostate cancer patients obtained during two years of research were analyzed to determine the trueness and precision of the PCR fragment size determination. Additional experiments were performed to demonstrate the precision (repeatability, reproducibility) and robustness of PCR fragment concentration determination. The trueness and precision of the size determination was below 3% and 2% respectively. The repeatability of the concentration determination was below 15%. The difference in concentration determination increases when Multiplex-PCR/storage step is added between the two measurements of one sample. The characteristics established in our study are in concordance with the manufacturer's specifications established for a ladder as a sample. However, the concentration determination may vary depending on chip preparation, sample storage and concentration. The 15% variation of concentration determination repeatability was shown to be partly proportional and can be suppressed by proper normalization.

  6. Postirradiation thermocyclic loading of ferritic-martensitic structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, L.; Orychtchenko, A.; Petersen, C.; Rybin, V.

    Thermonuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak-type will be unique power engineering plants to operate in thermocyclic mode only. Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels are prime candidate structural materials for test blankets of the ITER fusion reactor. Beyond the radiation damage, thermomechanical cyclic loading is considered as the most detrimental lifetime limiting phenomenon for the above structure. With a Russian and a German facility for thermal fatigue testing of neutron irradiated materials a cooperation has been undertaken. Ampule devices to irradiate specimens for postirradiation thermal fatigue tests have been developed by the Russian partner. The irradiation of these ampule devices loaded with specimens of ferritic-martensitic steels, like the European MANET-II, the Russian 05K12N2M and the Japanese Low Activation Material F82H-mod, in a WWR-M-type reactor just started. A description of the irradiation facility, the qualification of the ampule device and the modification of the German thermal fatigue facility will be presented.

  7. Thermocyclic treatment of Be for higher stability of mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Papirov, I.I.; Stoev, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports the results from studies of the effects of upper temperature and speed of thermocyclic treatment (TCT), a combined action of thermal treatment and TCT on the acoustic emission of two batches of hot-pressed beryllium having different mechanical properties. It is demonstrated that the upper temperature of treatment exerts a substantial effect on the mechanical and acoustic characteristics of hot-pressed beryllium. At an upper TCT temperature of 500degC, the materials under study exhibit the minimum activity of acoustic emission and a small total number of pulses detected. Acoustic spectra of beryllium samples were measured after the samples were subjected to the TCT with different velocity values of the process. It has been established that the treatment preceding the TCT (ageing at 650degC for 5 hours) had little effect on the mechanical and acoustic parameters of beryllium, while the treatment following the TCT (600degC, 1 hour) led to dislocation pinning and thus reduced the dislocation mobility. It has been demonstrated that the acoustic parameters can be used for choosing the optimum temperature of the TCT process, for estimating the degree of dislocation mobility and for controlling the quality of thermal treatment performed.(author)

  8. Lab-on-a-chip-based PCR-RFLP assay for the confirmed detection of short-length feline DNA in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Eaqub; Al Amin, Md; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, M A Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Wider availability but lack of legal market trades has given feline meat a high potential for use as an adulterant in common meat and meat products. However, mixing of feline meat or its derivatives in food is a sensitive issue, since it is a taboo in most countries and prohibited in certain religions such as Islam and Judaism. Cat meat also has potential for contamination with of severe acute respiratory syndrome, anthrax and hepatitis, and its consumption might lead to an allergic reaction. We developed a very short-amplicon-length (69 bp) PCR assay, authenticated the amplified PCR products by AluI-restriction digestion followed by its separation and detection on a lab-on-a-chip-based automated electrophoretic system, and proved its superiority over the existing long-amplicon-based assays. Although it has been assumed that longer DNA targets are susceptible to breakdown under compromised states, scientific evidence for this hypothesis has been rarely documented. Strong evidence showed that shorter targets are more stable than the longer ones. We confirmed feline-specificity by cross-challenging the primers against 10 different species of terrestrial, aquatic and plant origins in the presence of a 141-bp site of an 18S rRNA gene as a universal eukaryotic control. RFLP analysis separated 43- and 26-bp fragments of AluI-digest in both the gel-image and electropherograms, confirming the original products. The tested detection limit was 0.01% (w/w) feline meat in binary and ternary admixed as well as meatball matrices. Shorter target, better stability and higher sensitivity mean such an assay would be valid for feline identification even in degraded specimens.

  9. Effect of thermocycling on nickel release from orthodontic arch wires: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    The amount of daily intake of metals from orthodontic appliances over time is a matter of great concern. Nickel results in one of the most common metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis in humans; it produces more allergic reactions than all the other metals combined together. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thermocycling on the nickel release from orthodontic arch wires stored in artificial saliva with different pH values. Forty new wire pieces were selected. Each wire piece was placed in a special capillary Pyrex tube filled with artificial saliva, which was sealed and immersed in deionized water at 37 °C. The samples were divided into four groups of ten. Group I received no treatment; group II was subjected to thermocycling. The pH of storage in groups III and IV was reduced to 4.5, and group IV was subjected to thermocycling. Thermocycling was carried out between 5 and 55 °C for 500 cycles. The release of nickel ions was statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA for the effects of two variables: pH and thermocycling. The interaction between pH and thermocycling was found to be statistically significant (F = 12.127, P = 0.001). Two-way ANOVA showed that different storage media or pH and thermocycling had a significant effect on the nickel release (F = 52.812, P nickel from orthodontic wires, while thermocycling is clearly the dominant factor.

  10. The effect of thermocycling on tensile bond strength of two soft liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramipanah, Farideh; Ghandari, Masoumeh; Zeighami, Somayeh

    2013-09-01

    Failure of soft liners depends mostly on separation from the denture base resin; therefore measurement of the bond strength is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of two soft liners (Acropars, Molloplast-B) to denture base resin before and after thermocycling. Twenty specimens fromeach of the two different soft liners were processed according to the manufacturer's instructions between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets. Ten specimens in each group were maintained in 37°C water for 24 hours and 10 were thermocycled (5000 cycles) among baths of 5° and 55°C. The tensile bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Mode of failure was determined with SEM (magnification ×30). Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The mean and standard deviation of tensile bond strength of Acropars and Molloplast-B before thermocycling were 6.59±1.85 and1.51±0.22 MPa, respectively and 5.89±1.52 and1.37±0.18 MPa, respectively after thermocycling. There was no significant difference before and after thermocycling. Mode of failure in Acropars and Molloplast-B were adhesive and cohesive, respectivley. The bond strength of Acropars was significantly higher than Molloplast-B (P<0.05).

  11. Microleakage under Orthodontic Metal Brackets Bonded with Three Different Bonding Techniques with/without Thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berahman Sabzevari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of beneath the orthodontic brackets bonded with 3 different bonding techniques and evaluate the effect of thermocycling. Methods: One hundred and twenty premolars were randomly divided into 6 groups, received the following treatment: group 1: 37% phosphoric acid gel+Unite primer+Unite adhesive, group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel+ Transbond XT primer+Transbond XT adhesive, group 3: Transbond plus Self Etching Primer (TSEP+Transbond XT adhesive. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were similar to groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Evaluation of microleakage was done following to thermocycling test. After bonding, the specimens were sealed with nail varnish except for 1 mm around the brackets and then stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine. The specimens were sectioned at buccolingual direction in 2 parallel planes and evaluated under a stereomicroscope to determine the amount of microleakage at bracket-adhesive and adhesive-enamel interfaces from gingival and occlusal margins. Results: Microleakage was observed in all groups, and increased significantly after thermocycling at some interfaces of Unite adhesive group and conventional etching+Transbond XT adhesive group, but the increase was not significant in any interface of TSEP group. With or without thermocycling, TSEP displayed more microleakage than other groups. In most groups, microleakage at gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal margin. Conclusion: Thermocycling and type of bonding technique significantly affect the amount of microleakage.

  12. Designing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Primer Multiplexes in the Forensic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common experiment in upper-level undergraduate biochemistry, molecular biology, and forensic laboratory courses as reagents and thermocyclers have become more affordable for institutions. Typically, instructors design PCR primers to amplify the region of interest and the students prepare their samples for…

  13. Novel approach for assessing performance of PCR cyclers used for diagnostic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoder, D.; Schmalwieser, A.; Schauberger, G.

    2005-01-01

    of thermal homogeneities became most evident at the denaturation level during the first 15 s. At the time point zero, the accurate cyclers showed temperature deviations of 0.5 to 1.5 degrees C, whereas less-accurate cyclers failed to reach the set temperature by 13 to 20 degrees C. Consequently, the two less......As part of a large international project for validation and standardization of PCR, the influence of thermocyclers on PCR was tested. Six brand-new, Peltier technology-driven 96-well thermocyclers were subjected to a novel and stringent in-tube (not block) physical testing. The temperature...

  14. A novel lab-on-chip platform with integrated solid phase PCR and Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) microlens array for highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP...

  15. Pressure-driven one-step solid phase-based on-chip sample preparation on a microfabricated plastic device and integration with flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hong Hanh; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we fabricate a monolithic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice on which solid phase-based DNA preparation and flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units were functionally integrated for one-step sample preparation and amplification operated by pressure. Chelex resin, which is used as a solid support for DNA preparation, can capture denatured proteins but releases DNA, and the purified DNA can then be used as a template in a subsequent amplification process. Using the PMMA microdevices, DNA was successfully purified from both Escherichia coli and human hair sample, and the plasmid vector inserted in E. coli and the D1S80 locus in human genomic DNA were successfully amplified from on-chip purified E. coli and human hair samples. Furthermore, the integration potential of the proposed sample preparation and flow-through PCR units was successfully demonstrate on a monolithic PMMA microdevice with a seamless flow, which could pave the way for a pressure-driven, simple one-step sample preparation and amplification with greatly decreased manufacture cost and enhanced device disposability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Durability of feldspathic veneering ceramic on glass-infiltrated alumina ceramics after long-term thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A M M; Ozcan, M; Souza, R O A; Kojima, A N; Nishioka, R S; Kimpara, E T; Bottino, M A

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength durability of a feldspathic veneering ceramic to glass-infiltrated reinforced ceramics in dry and aged conditions. Disc shaped (thickness: 4 mm, diameter: 4 mm) of glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Alumina) and glass-infiltrated alumina reinforced by zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia) core ceramic specimens (N=48, N=12 per groups) were constructed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Veneering ceramic (VITA VM7) was fired onto the core ceramics using a mold. The core-veneering ceramic assemblies were randomly divided into two conditions and tested either immediately after specimen preparation (Dry) or following 30000 thermocycling (5-55 ºC±1; dwell time: 30 seconds). Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (cross-head speed: 1 mm/min). Failure modes were analyzed using optical microscope (x20). The bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Thermocycling did not decrease the bond strength results for both In-Ceram Alumina (30.6±8.2 MPa; P=0.2053) and In-Ceram zirconia (32.6±9 MPa; P=0.3987) core ceramic-feldspathic veneering ceramic combinations when compared to non-aged conditions (28.1±6.4 MPa, 29.7±7.3 MPa, respectively). There were also no significant differences between adhesion of the veneering ceramic to either In-Ceram Alumina or In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (P=0.3289). Failure types were predominantly a mixture of adhesive failure between the veneering and the core ceramic together with cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic. Long-term thermocycling aging conditions did not impair the adhesion of the veneering ceramic to the glass-infiltrated alumina core ceramics tested.

  17. Bond strength of three luting agents to zirconia ceramic - influence of surface treatment and thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Attia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments, 3 luting agents and thermocycling on microtensile bond strength (µTBS to zirconia ceramic. Material and METHODS: A total of 18 blocks (5x5x4 mm were fabricated from zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkonia and duplicated into composite blocks (Alphadent. Ceramic blocks were divided into 3 groups (n=6 according to the following surface treatments: airborne-particle abrasion (AA, silica-coating, (SC (CoJet and silica coating followed by silane application (SCSI (ESPE Sil. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=2 according to the 3 luting agents used. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC, Ketac Cem Plus, self-adhesive resin cement (UN, RelyX Unicem and adhesive resin cement (ML, MultiLink Automix were used for bonding composite and zirconia blocks. Each bonding assembly was cut into microbars (10 mm long and 1±0.1 mm². Seven specimens of each subgroup were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 1 week. The other 7 specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 30 days then thermocycled (TC for 7,500 cycles. µTBS values were recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using a 3-way ANOVA model followed by serial 1-way ANOVAs. Comparison of means was performed with Tukey's HSD test at (α=0.05. RESULTS: µTBS ranged from 16.8 to 31.8 MPa after 1 week and from 7.3 to 16.4 MPa after 30 days of storage in water and thermocycling. Artificial aging significantly decreased µTBS (p<0.05. Considering surface treatment, SCSI significantly increased µTBS (p<0.05 compared to SC and AA. Resin cements (UN and ML demonstrated significantly higher µTBS (p<0.05 compared to RMGIC cement. CONCLUSIONS: Silica coating followed by silane application together with adhesive resin cements significantly increased µTBS, while thermocycling significantly decreased µTBS.

  18. ThermoCycle: A Modelica library for the simulation of thermodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quoilin, Sylvain; Desideri, Adriano; Wronski, Jorrit

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an on-going project to develop ThermoCycle, an open Modelica library for the simulation of low-capacity thermodynamic cycles and thermal systems. Special attention is paid to robustness and simulation speed since dynamic simulations are often limited by numerical...... constraints and failures, either during initialization or during integration. Furthermore, the use of complex equations of state (EOS) to compute thermodynamic properties significantly decreases the simulation speed. In this paper, the approach adopted in the library to overcome these challenges is presented...

  19. Tape cast isotropic, fine-grained tungsten for thermo-cyclic loading applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerer, Mathias, E-mail: Mathias.Sommerer@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Li, Muyuan [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasma Physik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dewitz, Hubertus von; Walter, Steffen; Lampenscherf, Stefan [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81730 München (Germany); Arnold, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Henkestr. 127, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The tape casting process for tungsten is described. • A set-up of a HHF test facility for standing anodes is presented. • The thermo-cyclic behavior of tape cast tungsten and a reference is investigated. • The evolution of crack patterns is described in dependency of HHF-loadings. • The surface roughness of X-ray anodes is related to the microstructural evolution. - Abstract: This paper introduces tape casting as a new route for the production of isotropic and fine-grained tungsten components. Microstructural and thermal properties of tape cast tungsten samples are determined. Thermal shock behavior according to the thermo-cyclic loading of standing X-ray anodes is investigated and compared to the behavior of a rolled tungsten grade. The development of surface roughness during the thermal shock loading is discussed in relation to the development of the grain structure and crack pattern. The fine-grained and stable microstructure of the tape cast material exhibits less roughening under such test conditions.

  20. Effect of storage time, thermocycling and resin coating on durability of dentin bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Along with development of different dental adhesives, concerns about hydrolytic deg-radation of the adhesive components have arisen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro influence of thermocycling, water storage and resin coating on the microshear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems to dentin. Methods:The superficial coronal dentin of eighty intact third molars were exposed and divided into 5 equal groups. Dental adhesives including Scotch Bond Multi Purpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Prompt L-Pop (PLP, and Prompt L-Pop plus Margin bond (PLPM were applied according to the manufacturers′ instructions on prepared surfaces in the study groups, respectively. Then composite cylinders were bonded and specimens were divided into two subgroups. One subgroup was stored in water for 24 hours. The second subgroup was subjected to 3000 thermocycle shocks and then was stored in 37°C water for 3 months. Finally, all teeth were subjected to the mi-croshear bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen similar to each subgroup was also prepared for SEM evaluation. Results:After one-day storage, the SBMP showed the highest bond strength followed by CSE, PLPM, SB and PLP. After three months storage, the highest bond strength was observed in SBMP followed by PLPM, CSE, SB, and PLP. Conclusion: SBMP showed the best bond strength while CSE represented acceptable bond durabil-ity. Resin coating on PLP improved bond strength and durability.

  1. Color change of CAD-CAM materials and composite resin cements after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdal, Isil; Atay, Ayse; Eichberger, Marlis; Cal, Ebru; Üsümez, Aslihan; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2018-04-24

    The color of resin cements and computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations may change with aging. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of thermocycling on the color of CAD-CAM materials with underlying resin cement. Seven different CAD-CAM materials, composite resins and glass-ceramics were cut into 0.7-mm and 1.2-mm thicknesses (n=10) and cemented with a dual-polymerizing resin cement, a light-polymerizing resin cement, and a preheated composite resin (N=420). Color values were measured by using spectrophotometry. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5°C and 55°C; 5000 cycles). The measured color difference (ΔE) data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Normality of data distribution was tested by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Three-way and 1-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test and unpaired 2-sample Student t test were computed to determine the significant differences among the tested parameters (α=.05). ΔE values were significantly influenced by the CAD-CAM material (η p 2 =0.85, Pcement (η P 2 =0.03, P=.003) but were not influenced by thickness (P=.179). Significant interactions were present among thickness, cement, and CAD-CAM materials (Pcement showed significantly lower ΔE values than the preheated composite resin (P=.003). Restoration materials and composite resin cement types used for cementation influence the amount of color change due to aging. Copyright © 2018 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microtensile dentin bond strength of fifth with five seventh-generation dentin bonding agents after thermocycling: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruhvi Poptani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the microtensile dentin bond strength (μTBS of five seventh-generation dentin bonding agents (DBA with fifth-generation DBA before and after thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were assigned to fifth generation control group (optibond solo and each of the five experimental groups namely, Group I (G-Bond ,Group II (S 3 Clearfil, Group III (One Coat 7.0, Group IV (Xeno V, and Group V (Optibond all in one. The crown portions of the teeth were horizontally sectioned below the central groove to expose the dentin. The adhesive resins from all groups were bonded to the teeth with their respective composites. Specimens of sizes 1 × 1 × 6 mm 3 were obtained. Fifty specimens that bonded to dentin from each group were selected. Twenty-five of the specimens were tested for debonding without thermocycling and the remaining were subjected to thermocycling followed by μTBS testing. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett′s-test for comparison with the reference group(Vth Generation. Results: There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the fifth- and seventh-generation adhesives before and after thermocycling. The results of our study showed significantly higher value (P < 0.05 of μTBS of seventh-generation Group II (Clearfil S 3 compared to the fifth-generation before and after thermocycling. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the Clearfil S 3 bond had the highest μTBS values. In addition, of the five tested seventh-generation adhesive resins were comparable to the fifth-generation DBA.

  3. The effect of thermocycling on the sealing ability of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Saghiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the sealing ability of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA after application for management of furcation perforation. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty two human permanent mandibular molar teeth were chosen and after root amputation, the coronal parts were further trimmed and conventional access cavities were prepared. Furcation perforations were made with diamond bur and Peeso drills. Samples were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=10 and two control groups (n=1. The perforations were filled with WMTA in the experimental groups; in the control groups samples remained unfilled. Samples in the first group remained without further treatment, while in the second and third groups, teeth were thermocycled 500 and 800 times between 5 to 55 °C prior to leakage testing. Microleakage testing was done by using bovine serum albumin for 90 days. The number of days for color change was used as an indicator of protein leakage. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Non-thermocycled teeth showed significantly the longest time necessary for protein leakage to occur in comparison with the other two thermocycled groups (p<0.0001. The samples after 800 cycles showed the lowest resistance to protein leakage, while samples after 500 cycles indicated significantly more resistance against leakage (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Thermocycling can remarkably influence the microleakage property of WMTA. Thermal changes occurring inside the oral cavity might jeopardize the sealing property of the applied cement, which can lead to microleakage and possible failure of treatment in a clinical scenario.

  4. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  5. Cross-Platform Evaluation of Commercial Real-Time SYBR Green RT-PCR Kits for Sensitive and Rapid Detection of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R2 values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  6. Selecting the thermo-cyclic treatment’s optimum parameters based analysis of fractal surfaces indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Юріївна Іващенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of complex modes of heat treatments, in which control the properties of processed steel occurs by varying the large number of parameters, is quite time-consuming process. The influence of thermal processes on the formation of the metal structure manifested at the level of micro- and meso-sizes, which are realized qualitatively different mechanisms of destruction. Method of multi-factual description of the fracture’s surfaces, which was got after tests of mechanical properties, was used for the choice of the optimum thermo-cyclic mode with the variable temperatures Tmax and Tmin in cycles in this work. It vas founded the number of TCT-mode’s cycles and order changing Tmax affect the processes of dislocation motion and the formation of micro-voids in the metal. This work shows the relationship between these processes and fractal indices. Fractal indices of micro levels correlate to the dislocation density of the structure, and the meso-level indices - to the percentage reduction of area at fracture. It was proved that the analysis of the topography of the fracture’s surfaces using fractal indices to determine the optimal combination of processing parameters required to obtain the best mechanical properties. The new TCT-modes with variable temperature settings can be seen as reinforcing thermal technology that promotes self-organization phase-structural state of steels because it is able to generate an effective barrier to the movement of dislocations and cracks promotion

  7. Improvement in properties of welded joints of titanium alloy VT22 by thermocyclic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyasotskaya, V.S.; Kulikov, F.R.; Kirillov, Yu.G.; Ravdonikas, N.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of the thermocyclic treatment (TCT) effect on the structure and properties of butt welded joints of tubes (with external diameter 180 mm and wall thickness 20-25 mm) of the VT22 alloy are presented. Welded joints have been obtained by means of multipassing automatic argon-arc (ARAW) and electron-beam (ELB) welding. It is shown that TCT of welded joints of the VT22 alloy results in formation in all zones of substructure with disperse precipitations of α-phase which is analogous to the structure of near welded seam zone metal immediately after welding. As a result of TCT and subsequent TT of welded joints poligonization and recrystallization processes of α- and #betta#-phases, changes in parameters of structural components and thin phase structure take place. TCT with strengthening TT or annealing leads to strength increase, while TCT with annealing besides that improves placticity and impact strength of the VT22 alloy welded joints

  8. Effect of Endodontic Irrigants on Microtensile Bond Strength to Dentin After Thermocycling and Long-Term Water Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Galafassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The bond strength of adhesives in irrigated dentin behaves differently over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of long-term water storage and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin irrigated with endodontic solutions.Materials and Methods: Sixty human molars were used after removal of the occlusal portion and exposure of the dentin by grinding. The specimens were irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes and then 17% EDTA for 5 minutes and assigned to six groups according to the adhesive system (n=10: G1 and G2–Clearfil SE Bond; G3 and G4–Single Bond 2; and G5 and G6–XP Bond. The teeth were restored with composite and were subjected to water storage for different time periods. G1, G3 and G5 were stored for 24 h; G2, G4 and G6 were stored for 6 months and were subjected to thermocycling (12,000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C, 500 cycles per week for 6 months. After storage, the tooth/restoration assembly was sectioned to obtain four sticks of approximately 1 mm2, for microtensile bond strength testing. The results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.Results: Significant differences were observed among the adhesives (p<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the microtensile bond strength between samples after 24 hours of storage without thermocycling and after 6-month storage with 12,000 cycles (p<0.05.Conclusion: The bond strengths of G5 and G6 after irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were significantly different from those of other groups. Long-term water storage/thermocycling had no effect on bond strength to dentin.

  9. Effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Cleci de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three acrylic resins (Dencor-De, Duralay-Du, and Vipi Cor-VC were selected and one composite resin (Opallis-Op was used as a parameter for comparison. The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed in stainless steel moulds (20 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick. Thirty samples of each resin were made and divided into three groups (n = 10 according to the moment of Vickers hardness (VHN and roughness (Ra analyses: C (control group: immediately after specimen preparation; Sw: after storage in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours; Tc: after thermocycling (3000 cycles; 5-55 °C, 30 seconds dwell time. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Op resin had higher surface hardness values (p 0.05 in roughness among materials (De = 0.31 ± 0.07; Du = 0.51 ± 0.20; VC = 0.41 ± 0.15; Op = 0.42 ± 0.18. Storage in water did not change hardness and roughness of the tested materials (p > 0.05. There was a significant increase in roughness after thermocycling (p < 0.05, except for material Du, which showed no significant change in roughness in any evaluated period (p = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Thermocycling increased the roughness in most tested materials without affecting hardness, while storage in water had no significant effect in the evaluated properties.

  10. [E-MTAB-587] PCR_artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muino Acuna, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    WARNING: This library was yield low amount of material and it was over-amplified by PCR. This libraries are used study the robustness of several statitical methods against PCR artifacts. ChIP experiments were performed on Arabidopsis wildtype inflorescences using an antibody raised against a

  11. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  12. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  13. Effect of Thermocycling on Microleakage of New Adhesive Systems on Primary Teeth: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Atash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the sealing ability of three different adhesives in primary bovine teeth. Methods: Facial and lingual class V cavities were prepared half in enamel and half in cementum, in 48 bovine primary mandibular incisors and randomly divided into three groups and each group divided to two subgroups. The tested adhesives were XPBond (XP, ClearfilS3 Bond (S3, and Xeno III (XE. All cavities were restored with composite and light cured. After 24 hours storage in 37°C distilled water and polishing, teeth were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then, they were stored in 2% methylene blue and dye penetration was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Results: No significant differences were recorded in the microleakage value between three adhesives in enamel and dentin margins (p>0.0.5 before and after thermocycling. The lowest microleakage value was obtained in XE followed by XP and S3. Conclusion: There were not any differences between adhesives in enamel and dentin margins of class V cavities on primary bovine teeth.

  14. Effect of Thermocycling on Microleakage of New Adhesive Systems on Primary Teeth: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the sealing ability of three different adhesives in primary bovine teeth. Methods: Facial and lingual class V cavities were prepared half in enamel and half in cementum, in 48 bovine primary mandibular incisors and randomly divided into three groups and each group divided to two subgroups. The tested adhesives were XPBond (XP, ClearfilS3 Bond (S3, and Xeno III (XE. All cavities were restored with composite and light cured. After 24 hours storage in 37°C distilled water and polishing, teeth were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then, they were stored in 2% methylene blue and dye penetration was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Results: No significant differences were recorded in the microleakage value between three adhesives in enamel and dentin margins (p>0.0.5 before and after thermocycling. The lowest microleakage value was obtained in XE followed by XP and S3. Conclusion: There were not any differences between adhesives in enamel and dentin margins of class V cavities on primary bovine teeth.

  15. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  16. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  17. Microleakage after Thermocycling of Three Self-Etch Adhesives under Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine O. Geerts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate microleakage that appeared on Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement (RMGIC restorations. Sixty class V cavities (h×w×l=2mm×2mm×3mm were cut on thirty extracted third molars, which were randomly allocated to three experimental groups. All the buccal cavities were pretreated with polyacrylic acid, whereas the lingual cavities were treated with three one-step Self-Etch adhesives, respectively, Xeno III (Dentsply Detrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany, iBond exp (Heraeus Kulzer gmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany, and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (3M ESPE AG, Dental products Seefeld, Germany. All cavities were completely filled with RMGIC, teeth were thermocycled for 800 cycles, and leakage was evaluated. Results were expressed as means ± standard deviations (SDs. Microleakage scores were analysed by means of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs assuming an ordinal logistic link function. All results were considered to be significant at the 5% critical level (<.05. The results showed that bonding RMGIC to dentin with a Self-Etch adhesive rather than using polyacrylic acid did not influence microleakage scores (=.091, except for one tested Self-Etch adhesive, namely, Xeno III (<.0001. Nevertheless, our results did not show any significant difference between the three tested Self-Etch adhesive systems. In conclusion, the pretreatment of dentin with Self-Etch adhesive system, before RMGIC filling, seems to be an alternative to the conventional Dentin Conditioner for the clinicians as suggested by our results (thermocycling and others (microtensile tests.

  18. Effect of brushing and thermocycling on the shade and surface roughness of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Wee, Alvin G; Alfaro, Maria F; Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2017-09-29

    The effects of toothbrushing (B) and thermocycling (TC) on the surface texture of different materials with various fabrication processes have been investigated. However, studies of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) ceramic restorations are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of B and TC on the color stability and surface roughness of extrinsically characterized and glazed CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. Lithium disilicate CAD ceramic (n=90) and zirconia ceramic (n=90) were studied. All specimens were crystallized/sintered, characterized, and glazed following the manufacturer's recommendation. The specimens were divided into 9 different groups: B, TC, and a combination of B plus TC (B+TC). Brushing was performed at 50 000, 100 000, and 150 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Thermocycling was performed at 6000, 12 000, and 18 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Brushing plus TC was performed with the combination of the 50 000 cycles of B, then 6000 cycles of TC, and 10 000 cycles of B, then 12 000 cycles of TC, and 15 000 cycles of B, then 18 000 cycles of TC. The color and surface roughness of each specimen were measured before and after all interventions with simulated cycles. Color differences (ΔE) and surface roughness (ΔR a ) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, followed by the least significant difference test (α=.05). The correlation between ΔE and ΔR a was statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis. Within the lithium disilicate CAD groups, intervention did not result in any significant differences in color change (P>.05). Within the zirconia groups, a 15-year clinical simulation revealed significantly higher ΔE values than a simulated 5-year exposure (P=.017). Increased simulated cycles showed significantly higher R a values for all groups. Within the zirconia groups, B revealed

  19. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives. PMID:22675358

  20. On-chip concentration of bacteria using a 3D dielectrophoretic chip and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-hyeong; Lee, Jeong-Gun

    2010-01-01

    We report the on-chip concentration of bacteria using a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with 3D electrodes and subsequent laser-based DNA extraction in the same chip. The DEP chip has a set of interdigitated Au post electrodes with 50 µm height to generate a network of non-uniform electric fields for the efficient trapping by DEP. The metal post array was fabricated by photolithography and subsequent Ni and Au electroplating. Three model bacteria samples (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans) were tested and over 80-fold concentrations were achieved within 2 min. Subsequently, on-chip DNA extraction from the concentrated bacteria in the 3D DEP chip was performed by laser irradiation using the laser-irradiated magnetic bead system (LIMBS) in the same chip. The extracted DNA was analyzed with silicon chip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The total process of on-chip bacteria concentration and the subsequent DNA extraction can be completed within 10 min including the manual operation time.

  1. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of silicone-based denture liners after thermocycling and surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Datta, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    To examine, evaluate, and compare the tensile bond strength of two silicone-based liners; one autopolymerizing and one heat cured, when treated with different chemical etchants to improve their adhesion with denture base resin. Hundred and sixty test specimens of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were fabricated; out of which 80 specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after bonding it to autopolymerizing resilient liner (Ufigel P) and rest 80 to heat-cured resilient liner (Molloplast B). Each main group was further divided into four subgroups of 20 specimens each, one to act as a control and three were subjected to surface treatment with different chemical etchants namely dichloromethane, MMA monomer, and chloroform. The two silicone-based denture liners were processed between 2 PMMA specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 40 mm) in the space provided by a spacer of 3 mm, thermocycled (5-55°C) for 500 cycles, and then their tensile strength measurements were done in the universal testing machine. One-way ANOVA technique showed a highly significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength values for all the groups. The Student's t-test computed values of statistics for the compared groups were greater than the critical values both at 5% and at 1% levels. Surface treatment of denture base resin with chemical etchants prior to the application of silicone-based liner (Ufigel P and Molloplast-B) increased the tensile bond strength. The increase was the highest with specimens subjected to 180 s of MMA surface treatment and the lowest with control group specimens.

  2. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of silicone-based denture liners after thermocycling and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine, evaluate, and compare the tensile bond strength of two silicone-based liners; one autopolymerizing and one heat cured, when treated with different chemical etchants to improve their adhesion with denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Hundred and sixty test specimens of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA were fabricated; out of which 80 specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after bonding it to autopolymerizing resilient liner (Ufigel P and rest 80 to heat-cured resilient liner (Molloplast B. Each main group was further divided into four subgroups of 20 specimens each, one to act as a control and three were subjected to surface treatment with different chemical etchants namely dichloromethane, MMA monomer, and chloroform. The two silicone-based denture liners were processed between 2 PMMA specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 40 mm in the space provided by a spacer of 3 mm, thermocycled (5-55°C for 500 cycles, and then their tensile strength measurements were done in the universal testing machine. Results: One-way ANOVA technique showed a highly significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength values for all the groups. The Student′s t-test computed values of statistics for the compared groups were greater than the critical values both at 5% and at 1% levels. Conclusion: Surface treatment of denture base resin with chemical etchants prior to the application of silicone-based liner (Ufigel P and Molloplast-B increased the tensile bond strength. The increase was the highest with specimens subjected to 180 s of MMA surface treatment and the lowest with control group specimens.

  3. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  4. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Balne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8% was higher (not significant, P value 0.2 than conventional PCR (57.6% and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%. Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20 by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  5. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  6. Real-Time PCR using a PCR Microchip with Integrated Thermal System and Polymer Waveguides for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Sekulovic, Andrea; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR microchip platform with integrated thermal system and polymer waveguides has been developed. By using the integrated optical system of the real-time PCR chip, cadF – a virulence gene of Campylobacter jejuni, could specifically be detected. Two different DNA binding dyes, SYTOX...

  7. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  8. Development of a real-time microchip PCR system for portable plant disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwan Koo

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25 × 16 × 8 cm(3 in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample.

  9. Development of a Real-Time Microchip PCR System for Portable Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Cifci, Osman S.; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L.; Ma, Bo; Kim, Sungman; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Ong, Kevin; Jo, Young-Ki; Gross, Dennis C.; Shim, Won-Bo; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon) of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25×16×8 cm3 in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample. PMID:24349341

  10. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  11. [Wear intensity and surface roughness of microhybrid composite and ceramic occlusal veneers on premolars after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Jiang, T; Cheng, M X; Zhang, Y W

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the wear intensity and surface roughness of occlusal veneers on premolars made of microhybrid composite resin or two kinds of ceramics in vitro after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests. In the study,24 fresh extracted human premolars without root canal treatment were prepared (cusps reduction of 1.5 mm in thickness to simulate middle to severe tooth wear, the inclinations of cusps were 20°). The prepared teeth were restored with occlusal veneers made of three different materials: microhybrid composite, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate ceramic in the thickness of 1.5 mm. The occlusal veneers were cemented with resin cement. The specimens were fatigued using the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests after being stored in water for 72 h. The wear of specimens was measured using gypsum replicas and 3D laser scanner before and after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests and the mean lost distance (mm) was used to indicate the level of wear. The surfaces of occlusal contact area were observed and the surface roughness was recorded using 3D laser scanning confocal microscope before and after the fatigue test. Differences between the groups were compared using ONE-way ANOVA(Pcomposite group, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic group, and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic group was (-0.13±0.03) mm, (-0.05±0.01) mm and (-0.05±0.01) mm, the wear of microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite(P=0.005) and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic (P=0.010). From the view of wear speed, microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two kinds of ceramics, but it was similar to enamel when the opposing tooth was natural. The surface roughness before the themocycling and cyclic mechanical loading test of microhybrid

  12. Experiment list: SRX100469 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX100469 hg19 TFs and others GABPA Pluripotent stem cell hESC H1 NA 59698055,78.1,10.0,16884 GSM803424: Hud...sonAlpha ChipSeq H1-hESC GABP PCR1x source_name=H1-hESC || biomaterial_provider=WiC

  13. Experiment list: SRX100563 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s=Leukemia Chronic Myelogenous 39078535,86.0,20.8,1302 GSM803518: HudsonAlpha ChipSeq K562 BCL3 PCR1x source..._name=K562 || biomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=HudsonAlpha || lab description=Myers - Hudson Alpha Institute

  14. Experiment list: SRX100430 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s=Leukemia Chronic Myelogenous 47818475,79.5,9.7,26072 GSM803385: HudsonAlpha ChipSeq K562 HEY1 PCR1x source..._name=K562 || biomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=HudsonAlpha || lab description=Myers - Hudson Alpha Institute

  15. Experiment list: SRX100473 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX100473 hg19 TFs and others SIN3A Pluripotent stem cell hESC H1 NA 48520029,77.7,11.0,14690 GSM803428: Hud...sonAlpha ChipSeq H1-hESC Sin3Ak-20 PCR1x source_name=H1-hESC || biomaterial_provide

  16. Modification of Electrical Properties of Thin La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 Films by Pulsed Thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiodoras ANISIMOVAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Highly resistive states were formed in nonhomogeneous thin La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films at 80 K temperature after resistance switching induced by the pulsed thermocycling. Heating up to room temperature does not destroy the resistive states. They demonstrate high values of electroresistance at applied pulsed electric field. It was registered formation of novel highly resistive state by resistance switching at 130 K in Tm region. We suppose that local temperature increase in the film is responsible for the formation of the resistive states in both cases and present a plausible explanation of the obtained results. The method of cyclic nanosecond temperature increase and decrease can be useful for modification of material properties having strongly correlated electron system and of ferroelectrics. Questions of practical realization of proposed method are discussed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2427

  17. Numerical Signal Analysis of Thermo-Cyclically Operated MOG Gas Sensor Arrays for Early Identification of Emissions from Overloaded Electric Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-cyclically operated multi metal oxide gas sensor (MOG array is introduced together with a novel signal analysis approach (SimSens for identifying the emissions from overheated isolation cable materials thereby detecting the fires originated in electrical cabinets at early stages. The MOG array can yield specific conductance signatures appropriate to specifically identify gases. The obtained results bear good capability for detection and identification of pyrolysis gas emissions at relatively low sample heating temperatures even before a visible color-change of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC-isolation material. The dynamic conductance signals were evaluated using SimSens, a numerical analysis tool designed for simultaneous evaluation of conductance profiles. The results show promising pyrolysis gas identification and concentration determination capabilities in relation to the conductance profile shapes of model gases like carbon monoxide (CO and propene.

  18. New LightCycler PCR for Rapid and Sensitive Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Guides Therapeutic Decision-Making in Relapsing Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C.; Hufnagel, Markus; Zahn, Katrin; Beutel, Karin; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Ullmann, Uwe; Rautenberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA offers diagnostic advantages over serology, particularly in persistent infections of immunocompromised patients. A rapid, novel method of B19 DNA detection and quantification is introduced. This method, a quantitative PCR assay, is based on real-time glass capillary thermocycling (LightCycler [LC]) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The PCR assay allowed quantification over a dynamic range of over 7 logs and could quantify as little as 250 B19 genome equivalents (geq) per ml as calculated for plasmid DNA (i.e., theoretically ≥5 geq per assay). Interrater agreement analysis demonstrated equivalence of LC-FRET PCR and conventional nested PCR in the diagnosis of an active B19 infection (kappa coefficient = 0.83). The benefit of the new method was demonstrated in an immunocompromised child with a relapsing infection, who required an attenuation of the immunosuppressive therapy in addition to repeated doses of immunoglobulin to eliminate the virus. PMID:11724854

  19. Effects of air-abrasion pressure on the resin bond strength to zirconia: a combined cyclic loading and thermocycling aging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Z. Al-Shehri,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the combined effect of fatigue cyclic loading and thermocycling (CLTC on the shear bond strength (SBS of a resin cement to zirconia surfaces that were previously air-abraded with aluminum oxide (Al2O3 particles at different pressures. Materials and Methods Seventy-two cuboid zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the air-abrasion pressures (1, 2, and 2.8 bar, and each group was further divided into 2 groups depending on aging parameters (n = 12. Panavia F 2.0 was placed on pre-conditioned zirconia surfaces, and SBS testing was performed either after 24 hours or 10,000 fatigue cycles (cyclic loading and 5,000 thermocycles. Non-contact profilometry was used to measure surface roughness. Failure modes were evaluated under optical and scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and χ2 tests (α = 0.05. Results The 2.8 bar group showed significantly higher surface roughness compared to the 1 bar group (p < 0.05. The interaction between pressure and time/cycling was not significant on SBS, and pressure did not have a significant effect either. SBS was significantly higher (p = 0.006 for 24 hours storage compared to CLTC. The 2 bar-CLTC group presented significantly higher percentage of pre-test failure during fatigue compared to the other groups. Mixed-failure mode was more frequent than adhesive failure. Conclusions CLTC significantly decreased the SBS values regardless of the air-abrasion pressure used.

  20. Identification and genotyping of molluscum contagiosum virus from genital swab samples by real-time PCR and Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trama, Jason P; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is important as lesions can be confused with those caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and varicella-zoster virus. To develop a rapid method for identifying patients infected with MCV via swab sampling. Two dual-labeled probe real-time PCR assays, one homologous to the p43K gene and one to the MC080R gene, were designed. The p43K PCR was designed to be used in conjunction with Pyrosequencing for confirmation of PCR products and discrimination between MCV1 and MCV2. Both PCR assays were optimized with respect to reaction components, thermocycling parameters, and primer and probe concentrations. The specificities of both PCR assays were confirmed by non-amplification of 38 known human pathogens. Sensitivity assays demonstrated detection of as few as 10 copies per reaction. Testing 703 swabs, concordance between the two real-time PCR assays was 99.9%. Under the developed conditions, Pyrosequencing of the p43K PCR product was capable of providing enough nucleotide sequence to definitively differentiate MCV1 and MCV2. These real-time PCR assays can be used for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of MCV and, when combined with Pyrosequencing, can further discriminate between MCV1 and MCV2.

  1. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  2. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  3. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus with the use of real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and correlation with virus detection in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Hilt, Deborah A; Jackwood, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays have been used to detect the presence of challenge virus when the efficacy of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine against field viruses is being experimentally evaluated. However, federal guidelines for licensing IBV vaccines indicate that challenge-virus detection following vaccination is to be conducted in embryonated eggs. In this study, we examined qRT-PCR data with the use of universal and type-specific primers and probe sets for IBV detection and compared those data with challenge-virus detection in embryonated eggs to determine if the two methods of evaluating vaccine efficacy are comparable. In addition, we tested the qRT-PCR assays on thermocyclers from two different manufacturers. We found the universal IBV primers and probe set to be comparable to challenge-virus detection in embryonated eggs. However, for some IBV types (Mass41 and Conn on the SmartCycler II and Ark, Mass41, Conn, and GA98 on the ABI 7500) the qRT-PCR assay was more sensitive than virus detection in embryonated eggs. This may simply be due to the universal IBV qRT-PCR assay being more sensitive than virus detection in eggs or to the assay detecting nucleic acid from nonviable virus. This finding is important and needs to be considered when evaluating challenge-virus detection for vaccination and challenge studies, because qRT-PCR could potentially identify positive birds that would otherwise be negative by virus detection in embryonated eggs; thus it could lead to a more stringent measure of vaccine efficacy. We also found that the IBV type-specific primers and probe sets designed in this study were in general less sensitive than the universal IBV primers and probe set. Only the Ark-DPI-spedcific assay on the SmartCycler II and the Ark-DPI-, Mass41-, and DE072/GA98- (for detection of GA98 virus only) specific assays on the ABI 7500 were comparable in sensitivity to virus detection in eggs. We

  5. External PCR, ASN's decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French law imposes in some situations the presence of a person skilled in radiation protection (PCR). This article describes the cases when this person must belong to the staff of the enterprise or when this person may be sub-contracted. For instance in most nuclear facilities the PCR must be on the payroll, for enterprises dedicated to nuclear transport the PCR's job can be sub-contracted. A decision given by the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) sets the minimal requests (in terms of training, job contract, activities) of the sub-contracted PCR. (A.C.)

  6. Chip-Oriented Fluorimeter Design and Detection System Development for DNA Quantification in Nano-Liter Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chip-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR system has been developed in recent years to achieve DNA quantification. Using a microstructure and miniature chip, the volume consumption for a PCR can be reduced to a nano-liter. With high speed cycling and a low reaction volume, the time consumption of one PCR cycle performed on a chip can be reduced. However, most of the presented prototypes employ commercial fluorimeters which are not optimized for fluorescence detection of such a small quantity sample. This limits the performance of DNA quantification, especially low experiment reproducibility. This study discusses the concept of a chip-oriented fluorimeter design. Using the analytical model, the current study analyzes the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fluorimeter to fit the requirements for detecting fluorescence in nano-liter volumes. Through the optimized processes, a real-time PCR on a chip system with only one nano-liter volume test sample is as sensitive as the commercial real-time PCR machine using the sample with twenty micro-liter volumes. The signal to noise (S/N ratio of a chip system for DNA quantification with hepatitis B virus (HBV plasmid samples is 3 dB higher. DNA quantification by the miniature chip shows higher reproducibility compared to the commercial machine with respect to samples of initial concentrations from 103 to 105 copies per reaction.

  7. Integrated sample-to-detection chip for nucleic acid test assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Pabbaraju, K; Wong, S; Tellier, R; Kaler, K V I S

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques are routinely used for the detection of infectious agents. Most of these assays rely on nucleic acid extraction platforms for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids and a separate real-time PCR platform for quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). Several microfluidic lab on chip (LOC) technologies have been developed, where mechanical and chemical methods are used for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. Microfluidic technologies have also been effectively utilized for chip based real-time PCR assays. However, there are few examples of microfluidic systems which have successfully integrated these two key processes. In this study, we have implemented an electro-actuation based LOC micro-device that leverages multi-frequency actuation of samples and reagents droplets for chip based nucleic acid extraction and real-time, reverse transcription (RT) PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification from clinical samples. Our prototype micro-device combines chemical lysis with electric field assisted isolation of nucleic acid in a four channel parallel processing scheme. Furthermore, a four channel parallel qRT-PCR amplification and detection assay is integrated to deliver the sample-to-detection NAT chip. The NAT chip combines dielectrophoresis and electrostatic/electrowetting actuation methods with resistive micro-heaters and temperature sensors to perform chip based integrated NATs. The two chip modules have been validated using different panels of clinical samples and their performance compared with standard platforms. This study has established that our integrated NAT chip system has a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the standard platforms while providing up to 10 fold reduction in sample/reagent volumes.

  8. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  9. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  10. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  11. Smart vision chips: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  12. Evaluation of the surface hardness, roughness, gloss and color of composites after different finishing/polishing treatments and thermocycling using a multitechnique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Kanşad; Tekçe, Neslihan; Tuncer, Safa; Serim, Merve Efe; Demirci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of resin composites. The materials evaluated were the Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Filtek Z550 and G-aenial Posterior composites. A total of 189 specimens were fabricated for microhardness, roughness, gloss and color tests. The specimens were divided into three finishing and polishing systems: Enhance, OneGloss and Sof-Lex Spiral. Microhardness, roughness, gloss and color were measured after 24 h and after 10,000 thermocycles. Two samples from each group were evaluated using SEM and AFM. G-aenial Posterior exhibited the lowest microhardness values. The mean roughness ranged from 0.37 to 0.61 µm. The smoothest surfaces were obtained with Sof-Lex Spiral for each material. G-aenial Posterior with Enhance was determined to be the glossiest surfaces. All of the materials exhibited similar ΔE values ranging between 1.69 and 2.75. Sof-Lex Spiral discs could be used successfully to polish composites.

  13. Effect of two-step and one-step surface conditioning of glass ceramic on adhesion strength of orthodontic bracket and effect of thermo-cycling on adhesion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Alaqeel, Samer M; Durgesh, Bangalore H; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2018-08-01

    The adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to dental glass ceramics was evaluated after ceramic surface was treated with two-step and one-step surface conditioning systems, and subjecting to thermo-cycling. A total of forty specimens were fabricated from silica based glass ceramic (lithium disilicate) by duplicating the buccal surface of maxillary first premolar. The specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n = 20), group one specimens were treated with two-step surface conditioning system (IPS ceramic etching gel™ and Monobond plus™) and group two specimens were treated with one-step surface conditioning system (Monobond etch and prime™). The surface roughness of the specimens after treatment with two-step and one-step surface conditioning system was measured using non-contact surface profilometer. Ten randomly selected specimens from each group were subjected to thermo-cycling and the remaining ten served as baseline. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured using universal material testing machine. The adhesive remnant index score was calculated, and the results of surface roughness and bond strength were tabulated and subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc tukey's test at a significance level of p step conditioning system had higher surface roughness and bond strength than one-step conditioning system. The majority of the specimens treated with both two-step and one-step conditioned specimens showed adhesive failure after subjecting thermo-cycling. Traditional two-step conditioning provides better bond strength. The clinical importance of the study is that, the silane promoted adhesion significantly reduces on exposure to thermo-cycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-10

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  15. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Wu, Jinbo; Yi, Xin; Gong, Xiuqing; Foulds, Ian G.; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  16. Molecular diagnostic PCR handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, G.J.; Crowther, J.R.; Nel, L.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uses of nucleic acid-directed methods have increased significantly in the past five years and have made important contributions to disease control country programmes for improving national and international trade. These developments include the more routine use of PCR as a diagnostic tool in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. However, there are many problems associated with the transfer and particularly, the application of this technology. These include lack of consideration of: the establishment of quality-assured procedures, the required set-up of the laboratory and the proper training of staff. This can lead to a situation where results are not assured. This book gives a comprehensive account of the practical aspects of PCR and strong consideration is given to ensure its optimal use in a laboratory environment. This includes the setting-up of a PCR laboratory; Good Laboratory Practice and standardised PCR protocols to detect animal disease pathogens. Examples of Standard Operating Procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories and an outline of training materials necessary for PCR technology transfer are presented. The difficulties, advantages and disadvantages in PCR applications are explained and placed in context with other test systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of PCR for detection of pathogens, with a particular focus on diagnosticians and scientists from the developing world. It is hoped that this book will enable readers from various disciplines and levels of expertise to better judge the merits of PCR and to increase their skills and knowledge in order to assist in a more logical, efficient and assured use of this technology

  17. Fabrication of Polymerase Chain Reaction Plastic Lab-on-a-Chip Device for Rapid Molecular Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu The Loan Trinh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aim to fabricate a thermoplastic poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device to perform continuous- flow polymerase chain reactions (PCRs for rapid molecular detection of foodborne pathogen bacteria. Methods: A miniaturized plastic device was fabricated by utilizing PMMA substrates mediated by poly(dimethylsiloxane interfacial coating, enabling bonding under mild conditions, and thus avoiding the deformation or collapse of microchannels. Surface characterizations were carried out and bond strength was measured. The feasibility of the Lab-on-a-Chip device for performing on-chip PCR utilizing a lab-made, portable dual heater was evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available thermal cycler. Results: A PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device was designed and fabricated for conducting PCR using foodborne pathogens as sample targets. A robust bond was established between the PMMA substrates, which is essential for performing miniaturized PCR on plastic. The feasibility of on-chip PCR was evaluated using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cronobacter condimenti, two worldwide foodborne pathogens, and the target amplicons were successfully amplified within 25 minutes. Conclusions: In this study, we present a novel design of a low-cost and high-throughput thermoplastic PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device for conducting microscale PCR, and we enable rapid molecular diagnoses of two important foodborne pathogens in minute resolution using this device. In this regard, the introduced highly portable system design has the potential to enable PCR investigations of many diseases quickly and accurately.

  18. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  19. Nitrogen Cycle Evaluation (NiCE) Chip for the Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple N-Cycle Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Segawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Satoshi

    2018-02-02

    Various microorganisms play key roles in the Nitrogen (N) cycle. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-amplicon sequencing of the N cycle functional genes allow us to analyze the abundance and diversity of microbes responsible in the N transforming reactions in various environmental samples. However, analysis of multiple target genes can be cumbersome and expensive. PCR-independent analysis, such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, is useful but expensive especially when we analyze multiple samples and try to detect N cycle functional genes present at relatively low abundance. Here, we present the application of microfluidic qPCR chip technology to simultaneously quantify and prepare amplicon sequence libraries for multiple N cycle functional genes as well as taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene markers for many samples. This approach, named as N cycle evaluation (NiCE) chip, was evaluated by using DNA from pure and artificially mixed bacterial cultures and by comparing the results with those obtained by conventional qPCR and amplicon sequencing methods. Quantitative results obtained by the NiCE chip were comparable to those obtained by conventional qPCR. In addition, the NiCE chip was successfully applied to examine abundance and diversity of N cycle functional genes in wastewater samples. Although non-specific amplification was detected on the NiCE chip, this could be overcome by optimizing the primer sequences in the future. As the NiCE chip can provide high-throughput format to quantify and prepare sequence libraries for multiple N cycle functional genes, this tool should advance our ability to explore N cycling in various samples. Importance. We report a novel approach, namely Nitrogen Cycle Evaluation (NiCE) chip by using microfluidic qPCR chip technology. By sequencing the amplicons recovered from the NiCE chip, we can assess diversities of the N cycle functional genes. The NiCE chip technology is applicable to analyze the temporal dynamics of the N cycle gene

  20. Microshear Bond Strength of OptiBond All-in-One Self-adhesive Agent to Er:YAG Laser Treated Enamel After Thermocycling and Water Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohammadi, Ebrahim; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the microshear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser using a self-etch one step bonding agent. Methods: Seventy-six enamel surfaces were prepared from 38 sound human third molar teeth. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 18. The enamel surface in half the specimens was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. One extra specimen from each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composite micro-cylinders were bonded to the specimen surfaces using OptiBond All-In-One (OB) adhesive agent and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Half the specimens were thermocycled (2000 cycles) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for three months (TW). The microshear bond strength of composite to enamel was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification to determine the mode of failure. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: The mean values (±standard deviation) were 17.96 ± 2.92 MPa in OB group, 22.29 ± 4.25 MPa in laser + OB group, 18.11 ± 3.52 MPa in laser + OB + TW group and 9.42 ± 2.47 MPa in OB + TW group. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that laser irradiation increased the microshear bond strength ( P Enamel surface preparation with Er:YAG laser is recommended to enhance the durability of the bond of self-etch bonding systems to enamel.

  1. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  2. Silicon Chip-to-Chip Mode-Division Multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jan Markus; Porto da Silva, Edson; Ding, Yunhong

    2018-01-01

    A chip-to-chip mode-division multiplexing connection is demonstrated using a pair of multiplexers/demultiplexers fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator platform. Successful mode multiplexing and demultiplexing is experimentally demonstrated, using the LP01, LP11a and LP11b modes.......A chip-to-chip mode-division multiplexing connection is demonstrated using a pair of multiplexers/demultiplexers fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator platform. Successful mode multiplexing and demultiplexing is experimentally demonstrated, using the LP01, LP11a and LP11b modes....

  3. Experiment list: SRX122496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || chip antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip ant...ibody catalog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc

  4. Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

    2006-01-23

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins), which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples.

  5. Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium head blight (FHB is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins, which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. Results We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. Conclusion PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples.

  6. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  7. On-chip real-time single-copy polymerase chain reaction in picoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Hindson, B; Wheeler, E; Hall, S B; Rose, K A; Kennedy, I; Colston, B

    2007-04-20

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection has performed PCR in isolated droplets at volumes 10{sup 6} smaller than commercial real-time PCR systems. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a silicon device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing them to be thermal cycled through the PCR protocol without droplet motion. With this system a 10-pL droplet, encapsulating less than one copy of viral genomic DNA through Poisson statistics, showed real-time PCR amplification curves with a cycle threshold of {approx}18, twenty cycles earlier than commercial instruments. This combination of the established real-time PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy nucleic acids in a complex environment.

  8. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  9. Chips with everything

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In March 1972, Sir Robin Saxby gave a talk to the Royal Television Society called 'TV and Chips' about a 'state of the art' integrated circuit, containing 50 resistors and 50 transistors. Today's 'state of the art' chips contain up to a billion transistors. This enormous leap forward illustrates how dramatically the semiconductor industry has evolved in the past 34 years. The next 10 years are predicted to bring times of turbulent change for the industry, as more and more digital devices are used around the world. In this talk, Sir Robin will discuss the history of the Microchip Industry in parallel with ARM's history, demonstrating how a small European start-up can become a world player in the IT sector. He will also present his vision of important applications and developments in the next 20 years that are likely to become even more pervasive than the mobile phone is today, and will provide anecdotes and learning points from his own experience at ARM. About ARM: Sir Robin and a group of designers from Acorn...

  10. Highly specific detection of genetic modification events using an enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Zhang, X F; Chen, X M; Chen, X; Wu, S; Xu, L L

    2015-08-10

    The enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip utilizes a method based on ligase-hybridizing probe chip technology, with the principle of using thio-primers for protection against enzyme digestion, and using lambda DNA exonuclease to cut multiple PCR products obtained from the sample being tested into single-strand chains for hybridization. The 5'-end amino-labeled probe was fixed onto the aldehyde chip, and hybridized with the single-stranded PCR product, followed by addition of a fluorescent-modified probe that was then enzymatically linked with the adjacent, substrate-bound probe in order to achieve highly specific, parallel, and high-throughput detection. Specificity and sensitivity testing demonstrated that enzyme-linked probe hybridization technology could be applied to the specific detection of eight genetic modification events at the same time, with a sensitivity reaching 0.1% and the achievement of accurate, efficient, and stable results.

  11. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  13. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  14. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  15. Subtyping of swine influenza viruses using a high-throughput real time PCR platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goecke, Nicole Bakkegård; Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    ). The results revealed that the performance of the dynamic chip was similar to conventional real time analysis. Discussion and conclusion. Application of the chip for subtyping of swine influenza has resulted in a significant reduction in time, cost and working hours. Thereby, it is possible to offer diagnostic...... test and subsequent subtyping is performed by real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) but several assays are needed to cover the wide range of circulating subtypes which is expensive,resource and time demanding. To mitigate these restrictions the high-throughput qPCR platform BioMark (Fluidigm) has been explored...... services with reduced price and turnover time which will facilitate choice of vaccines and by that lead to reduction of antibiotic used....

  16. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  17. Implementation of Microfluidic Chip Electrophoresis for the Detection of B-cell Clonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazan M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A clonal population of B-cells is defined as those cells arising from the mitotic division of a single somatic cell with the same rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes. This gives rise to DNA markers for each individual lymphoid cell and its progenies and enables us to study clonality in different B-cell malignancies using multiplex polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The BIOMED-2 protocol has been implemented for clonality detection in lymphoproliferative diseases and exploits multiplex PCR reaction, subsequently analyzed by heteroduplex analysis (HDA using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. With the advent of miniaturization and automation of molecular biology methods, lab-on-chip technologies were developed and replace partially the conventional approaches. We tested device for microfluidic chip, which is used for B-cells clonality analysis, using a PCR reaction for three subregions called frameworks (FR of the immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH gene.

  18. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    Microfluidic chips have a variety of applications in the biological sciences and medicine. In contrast with traditional experimental approaches, microfluidics entails lower sample and reagent consumption, allows faster reactions and enables efficient separation. Additionally microfluidics offers other advantages accruing from the fluids’ various distinct behaviors, such as energy dissipation, fluidic resistance, laminar flow, and surface tension. Biological molecules suspended in fluid and transported through microfluidics channels interact with the channel-wall material. This interaction is even stronger in high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAVR) microfluidic channels. Adsorption and inhibition of biomolecules occur when these materials come in contact with biomolecular reaction components. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a thermal cycling procedure for amplifying target DNA. The PCR compatibility of silicon, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and other surfaces have been studied; however the results are inconclusive. Usually for protein-surface interaction measurements, bulky and expensive equipment is used, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning or Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), spectrophotometric protein concentration measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). \\tThe PCR reaction components include the DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase (the main component), dNTPs, a buffer, divalent ions (MgCl2), and KCl. \\tWe designed a simple, relatively quick measurement that only requires a PCR cycler; thus it mimics actual conditions in PCR cycling. In our study, we evaluated the inhibitory affect of different materials on PCR, which is one of the most frequently used enzymatic reactions in microfluidics. PCR reaction optimization through choice of surface materials is of the upmost importance, as it enables and improves enzymatic reaction in microfluidics. Our assessment of the PCR

  19. Lab-on-a-Chip Pathogen Sensors for Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumsang Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

  20. Tensile bond strength of adhesive systems: effects of primer and thermocycling Resistência à tração de sistemas adesivos: efeitos do “ primer” e dos ciclos térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tibiriçá AGUILAR

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of primer and thermocycling on the bond strength of multi-purpose adhesive systems applied to enamel, under tensile stress. The following bonding systems were applied, according to the manufacturers' instructions, on unground enamel buccal surfaces of 96 premolars, with or without the application of primer: Scotchbond MP, OptiBond FL, Amalgambond Plus and OptiBond (dual-cure. A composite resin (Z100, 3M was applied and light-cured in a cast metal hollow cone, which was previously fixed to the enamel surfaces. Half of the sample was subjected to 3,000 thermocycles (5-37ºC; 37-55ºC, dwell time of 60 s, and the other half was stored in water at 37ºC for the same period. The data were treated by means of ANOVA and no significant effects were detected, which indicates that tensile bond strength was not affected by the adhesive systems, application of primer or thermocycling.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar o efeito do "primer" e dos ciclos térmicos na resistência da união entre adesivos multiuso e esmalte dental, sob ensaios de tração. Os seguintes sistemas adesivos foram aplicados, de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes, na superfície vestibular (sem desgaste de 96 pré-molares com ou sem a aplicação prévia do "primer": Scotchbond MP, OptiBond FL, Amalgambond Plus e OptiBond - "dual cure". Após a aplicação do sistema adesivo, foi confeccionado um cone de resina composta (Z100, 3M, e fotoativado dentro de um molde metálico. Metade do total de espécimes foi submetida a 3.000 ciclos térmicos (5-37ºC; 37-55ºC, 60 s de imersão; a outra metade permaneceu imersa em água a 37ºC pelo mesmo tempo dispensado no procedimento anterior. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância (p = 0,05 e nenhum efeito significante foi detectado, indicando que a resistência de união não foi afetada pelo sistema adesivo, pela aplicação do "primer" ou pelos ciclos térmicos.

  1. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  2. Cache-aware network-on-chip for chip multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatas, Konstantinos; Kyriacou, Costas; Dekoulis, George; Demetriou, Demetris; Avraam, Costas; Christou, Anastasia

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the hardware prototype of a Network-on-Chip (NoC) for a chip multiprocessor that provides support for cache coherence, cache prefetching and cache-aware thread scheduling. A NoC with support to these cache related mechanisms can assist in improving systems performance by reducing the cache miss ratio. The presented multi-core system employs the Data-Driven Multithreading (DDM) model of execution. In DDM thread scheduling is done according to data availability, thus the system is aware of the threads to be executed in the near future. This characteristic of the DDM model allows for cache aware thread scheduling and cache prefetching. The NoC prototype is a crossbar switch with output buffering that can support a cache-aware 4-node chip multiprocessor. The prototype is built on the Xilinx ML506 board equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA.

  3. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  4. One-stop polymerase chain reaction (PCR): An improved PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... membrane filtration was carried out with a commercial PCR product purification kit (Generay, Shanghai), according to the manufacture's instruction. In brief, 50 µl PCR product was mixed thoroughly with binding buffer, and the resultant mixture was loaded directly onto a silica membrane Gelclean column.

  5. Experiment list: SRX214075 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available age=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  6. Experiment list: SRX122523 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  7. Experiment list: SRX122414 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  8. Experiment list: SRX214071 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=

  9. Experiment list: SRX214086 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  10. Experiment list: SRX122485 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100

  11. Experiment list: SRX122521 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  12. Experiment list: SRX122417 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  13. Experiment list: SRX122520 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  14. Experiment list: SRX122413 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  15. Experiment list: SRX122412 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  16. Experiment list: SRX122406 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 http:/

  17. Experiment list: SRX122415 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  18. Experiment list: SRX214074 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  19. Experiment list: SRX214072 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  20. Experiment list: SRX214067 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fferentiated || cell line=F9 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manufacturer 2=none http://dbarchive.bioscien

  1. Experiment list: SRX122416 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  2. Experiment list: SRX122565 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  3. Protocol: methodology for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strenkert Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP protocol for the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The protocol is suitable for the analysis of nucleosome occupancy, histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites at the level of mononucleosomes for targeted and genome-wide studies. We describe the optimization of conditions for crosslinking, chromatin fragmentation and antibody titer determination and provide recommendations and an example for the normalization of ChIP results as determined by real-time PCR.

  4. Chip compacting press; Jido kirikuzu asshukuki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, K. [Yuken Kogyo Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    The chips exhausted from various machine tools are massy, occupy much space and make working environment worse by staying added cutting oil to lower part. The chips are exhausted as a result of machining and have not constant quality. Even if used material is same the chips have various shapes and properties by kinds and machining methods of used machine tools, and are troublesome materials from a standpoint of their treatment. Pressing and solidification of the chips have frequently been tried. A chip compacting press introduced in this paper, a relatively cheap chip compacting press aimed for relatively small scale chip treatment, and has such characteristics and effects as follows. Chips are pressed and solidified by each raw material, so fractional management can be easily conducted. As casting metal chips and curled chips of iron and aluminum can be pressed to about 1/3 to 1/5 and about 1/40, respectively, space saving can be conducted. Chip compacting pressing upgrades its transporting efficiency to make possible to reduce its transporting cost. As chip solidification controls its oxidation and most cutting oil are removed, chips are easy to recycle. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. STUDY OF CHIP IGNITION AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY AFTER MILLING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the impact of specified technological parameters of milling (vc, fz, ap on time to ignition. Stages leading to chip ignition were analysed. Metallographic images of magnesium chip were presented. No significant difference was observed in time to ignition in different chip fractions. Moreover, the surface of chips was free of products of ignition and signs of strong oxidation.

  6. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  7. Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum...

  8. Influence of passivation process on chip performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the performance of CMOS chips before and after a low temperature post-processing step. In order to prevent damage to the IC chips by the post-processing steps, a first passivation layers is needed on top of the IC chips. Two different passivation layer deposition

  9. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  10. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  11. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A chip scale tunable laser in the visible spectral band is realized by generating a periodic droplet array inside a microfluidic channel. Combined with a gain medium within the droplets, the periodic structure provides the optical feedback of the laser. By controlling the pressure applied to two...

  12. Chip & Cut Tests an Elastomeren

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Dieser Vortrag stellt einen neuartigen Prüfstand vor, mit welchem das Chip & Cut Verhalten von Elastomeren charakterisiert werden kann. Sowohl theoretischer Hintergrund als auch praktische Erkenntnisse werden diskutiert. Die Vorstellung der Praxisrelevanz dieser Untersuchungen steht im Fokus des Vortrags.

  13. Digital PCR: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital PCR for quantification of a target of interest has been independently developed several times, being described in 1990 and 1991 using the term “limiting dilution PCR” and in 1999 using the term “digital PCR”. It came into use in the decade following its first development but its use was cut short by the description of real-time PCR in 1996. However digital PCR has now had a renaissance due to the recent development of new instruments and chemistry which have made it a much simpler and...

  14. Cohort analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism on DNA chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwonbeck, Susanne; Krause-Griep, Andrea; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansrüdi; Bier, Frank F

    2004-11-15

    A method has been developed to determine SNPs on DNA chips by applying a flow-through bioscanner. As a practical application we demonstrated the fast and simple SNP analysis of 24 genotypes in an array of 96 spots with a single hybridisation and dissociation experiment. The main advantage of this methodical concept is the parallel and fast analysis without any need of enzymatic digestion. Additionally, the DNA chip format used is appropriate for parallel analysis up to 400 spots. The polymorphism in the gene of the human phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 was studied as a model SNP. Biotinylated PCR products containing the SNP (The SNP summary web site: ) (mutant) and those containing no mutation (wild-type) were brought onto the chips coated with NeutrAvidin using non-contact spotting. This was followed by an analysis which was carried out in a flow-through biochip scanner while constantly rinsing with buffer. After removing the non-biotinylated strand a fluorescent probe was hybridised, which is complementary to the wild-type sequence. If this probe binds to a mutant sequence, then one single base is not fully matching. Thereby, the mismatched hybrid (mutant) is less stable than the full-matched hybrid (wild-type). The final step after hybridisation on the chip involves rinsing with a buffer to start dissociation of the fluorescent probe from the immobilised DNA strand. The online measurement of the fluorescence intensity by the biochip scanner provides the possibility to follow the kinetics of the hybridisation and dissociation processes. According to the different stability of the full-match and the mismatch, either visual discrimination or kinetic analysis is possible to distinguish SNP-containing sequence from the wild-type sequence.

  15. Optical lattice on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....

  16. Bubble-free on-chip continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction: concept and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenming; Kang, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2011-06-07

    Bubble formation inside a microscale channel is a significant problem in general microfluidic experiments. The problem becomes especially crucial when performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a chip which is subject to repetitive temperature changes. In this paper, we propose a bubble-free sample injection scheme applicable for continuous-flow PCR inside a glass/PDMS hybrid microfluidic chip, and attempt to provide a theoretical basis concerning bubble formation and elimination. Highly viscous paraffin oil plugs are employed in both the anterior and posterior ends of a sample plug, completely encapsulating the sample and eliminating possible nucleation sites for bubbles. In this way, internal channel pressure is increased, and vaporization of the sample is prevented, suppressing bubble formation. Use of an oil plug in the posterior end of the sample plug aids in maintaining a stable flow of a sample at a constant rate inside a heated microchannel throughout the entire reaction, as compared to using an air plug. By adopting the proposed sample injection scheme, we demonstrate various practical applications. On-chip continuous-flow PCR is performed employing genomic DNA extracted from a clinical single hair root sample, and its D1S80 locus is successfully amplified. Also, chip reusability is assessed using a plasmid vector. A single chip is used up to 10 times repeatedly without being destroyed, maintaining almost equal intensities of the resulting amplicons after each run, ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of the proposed sample injection scheme. In addition, the use of a commercially-available and highly cost-effective hot plate as a potential candidate for the heating source is investigated.

  17. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  18. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    surrogate sensitivities of these two assays were 100% (95%CI 83-100 for FT, BA (pX02, YP, VM, VZV, dengue 2,3,4 and 95% (95%CI 75-100 for BA (pX01 and dengue 1 using spiked clinical specimens. The specificity of both BioT multiplex assays on spiked specimens was 100% (95% CI 99-100. Compared to other available assays (culture, serology, PCR, etc. both the BioT DNA mPCR-EHA and BioT RNA mRT-PCR-EHA are rapid, sensitive and specific assays for detecting many category “A” Bioterrorism agents using a standard thermocycler.

  19. Experiment list: SRX122465 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 || chip antibody=Relb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Bethyl || chip anti...body catalog number 1=A302-183A || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2

  20. Experiment list: SRX122555 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip anti...body catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-7

  1. Multiplex, Quantitative, Reverse Transcription PCR Detection of Influenza Viruses Using Droplet Microfluidic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is facilitated by leveraging droplet microfluidic (DMF system, which due to its precision dispensing and sample handling capabilities at microliter and lower volumes has emerged as a popular method for miniaturization of the PCR platform. This work substantially improves and extends the functional capabilities of our previously demonstrated single qRT-PCR micro-chip, which utilized a combination of electrostatic and electrowetting droplet actuation. In the reported work we illustrate a spatially multiplexed micro-device that is capable of conducting up to eight parallel, real-time PCR reactions per usage, with adjustable control on the PCR thermal cycling parameters (both process time and temperature set-points. This micro-device has been utilized to detect and quantify the presence of two clinically relevant respiratory viruses, Influenza A and Influenza B, in human samples (nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs. The device performed accurate detection and quantification of the two respiratory viruses, over several orders of RNA copy counts, in unknown (blind panels of extracted patient samples with acceptably high PCR efficiency (>94%. The multi-stage qRT-PCR assays on eight panel patient samples were accomplished within 35–40 min, with a detection limit for the target Influenza virus RNAs estimated to be less than 10 RNA copies per reaction.

  2. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  3. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, T; Zoschke, K; Rothermund, M; Oppermann, H; Woehrmann, M; Ehrmann, O; Lang, K D; Huegging, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump deposition process the glass-readout chip stack is diced in one step. Finally the glass carrier chip is released by laser illumination after flip chip assembly of the readout chip onto sensor tile. The results of the flip chip assembly process development for the ATLAS IBL upgrade are described more in detail. The new ATLAS FEI4B chip with a size of 20 × 19 mm 2 is flip chip bonded with a thickness of only 150 μm, but the capability of this technology has been demonstrated on hybrid modules with a reduced readout chip thickness of down to 50 μm which is a major step for ultra-thin electronic systems

  4. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  5. A scalable single-chip multi-processor architecture with on-chip RTOS kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, B.D.; Verschueren, A.C.; Reyes Suarez, V.V.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Nunez, A.

    2003-01-01

    Now that system-on-chip technology is emerging, single-chip multi-processors are becoming feasible. A key problem of designing such systems is the complexity of their on-chip interconnects and memory architecture. It is furthermore unclear at what level software should be integrated. An example of a

  6. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R.M.; Poe, Brian L.; Riehl, Paul S.; Santos, Fernando M. dos; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C.G.; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P.

    2015-01-01

    while also integrating PCR with extraction upstream and separation/detection downstream. - Highlights: • Polyester chips were used in an infra-red thermal control system for PCR. • Thermo-response of the chips to infra-red radiation was modified by a spatial mask. • PCR inhibition from the chip substrate was mitigated by dynamic surface passivation. • Chips with different sample throughput successfully delivered PCR results.

  7. 1-Million droplet array with wide-field fluorescence imaging for digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S; Tovar, Armando R; Hsieh, Albert T; Lin, Robert; Pentoney, Stephen L; Yang, David L; Lee, Abraham P

    2011-11-21

    Digital droplet reactors are useful as chemical and biological containers to discretize reagents into picolitre or nanolitre volumes for analysis of single cells, organisms, or molecules. However, most DNA based assays require processing of samples on the order of tens of microlitres and contain as few as one to as many as millions of fragments to be detected. Presented in this work is a droplet microfluidic platform and fluorescence imaging setup designed to better meet the needs of the high-throughput and high-dynamic-range by integrating multiple high-throughput droplet processing schemes on the chip. The design is capable of generating over 1-million, monodisperse, 50 picolitre droplets in 2-7 minutes that then self-assemble into high density 3-dimensional sphere packing configurations in a large viewing chamber for visualization and analysis. This device then undergoes on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and fluorescence detection to digitally quantify the sample's nucleic acid contents. Wide-field fluorescence images are captured using a low cost 21-megapixel digital camera and macro-lens with an 8-12 cm(2) field-of-view at 1× to 0.85× magnification, respectively. We demonstrate both end-point and real-time imaging ability to perform on-chip quantitative digital PCR analysis of the entire droplet array. Compared to previous work, this highly integrated design yields a 100-fold increase in the number of on-chip digitized reactors with simultaneous fluorescence imaging for digital PCR based assays.

  8. pcr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Diagnosis, Bacteria, Infections. INTRODUCTION ... used to amplify a piece of DNA by in-vitro enzymatic replication (David and .... receiving antimicrobial treatment, or when the causative agents are small ...

  9. A Trip from a Tube to a Chip Applied Micro and Nanotechnology in Biotechnology, Veterinary and Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Cao, Cuong

    2010-01-01

    of such pathogens. Microchipfabrication has had a major impact on electronics and is expected to have an equally pronounced effect on life sciences. By combining micro-fluidics with micromechanics, micro-optics, and microelectronics, systems can be realized to perform complete chemical or biochemical analyses......-nanotechnology in life sciences will be given. In addition, examples of DNA micro arrays, micro fabricated integrated PCR chips and total integrated lab-on-chip systems from different National and EU research projects being carried out at the Laboratory of Applied Micro-Nanotechnology (LAMINATE) group at the National...

  10. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-04-23

    In today\\'s world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  11. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Fahad, H.; Rojas, J.; Hasan, M.; Talukdar, A.; Oommen, J.; Mink, J.

    2010-04-01

    In today's world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  12. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  13. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  14. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  15. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...

  16. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  17. Simple photolithographic rapid prototyping of microfluidic chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hoyland, James; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2012-01-01

    Vi præsenterer en simpel metode til at producere støbeforme til støbning af PDMS mikrofluide chips vha. fotolitografi, med 35mm fotonegativer som masker. Vi demonstrer metodens muligheder og begrænsninger. Vi har optimeret processen til at fremstille planare lab-on-a-chip strukturer med meget høj...

  18. Microneedle Array Interface to CE on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Vrouwe, E.X.; van den Berg, Albert; Northrup, M.A.; Jensen, K.F; Harrison, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a microneedle array sampler interfaced to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) glass chip with integrated conductivity detection electrodes. A solution of alkali ions was electrokinetically loaded through the microneedles onto the chip and separation was demonstrated compared to a

  19. Multimedia-Based Chip Design Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalkaya, Tamer; Golze, Ulrich

    This paper focuses on multimedia computer-based training programs on chip design. Their development must be fast and economical, in order to be affordable by technical university institutions. The self-produced teaching program Illusion, which demonstrates a monitor controller as an example of a small but complete chip design, was implemented to…

  20. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main calculation methods for heat- and mass transfer in porous heterogeneous medium have been considered. The paper gives an evaluation of the possibility to apply them for calculation of metal chip heating process. It has been shown that a description of transfer processes in a chip has its own specific character that is attributed to difference between thermal and physical properties of chip material and lubricant-coolant components on chip surfaces. It has been determined that the known expressions for effective heat transfer coefficients can be used as basic ones while approaching mutually penetrating continuums. A mathematical description of heat- and mass transfer in chip medium can be considered as a basis of mathematical modeling, numerical solution and parameter optimization of the mentioned processes.

  1. Comparison of DNA Microarray, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Real-Time PCR with DNA Sequencing for Identification of Fusarium spp. Obtained from Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcela; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohoru; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Trabasso, Plínio

    2017-08-01

    The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%. LAMP exhibited 100% specificity, while DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity. The three techniques had 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. Sixteen isolates were identified as FSSC by sequencing, being five Fusarium keratoplasticum, nine Fusarium petroliphilum and two Fusarium solani. On the other hand, sequencing identified four isolates as Fusarium non-solani species complex (FNSSC), being three isolates as Fusarium napiforme and one isolate as Fusarium oxysporum. Finally, LAMP proved to be faster and more accessible than DNA microarray and real-time PCR, since it does not require a thermocycler. Therefore, LAMP signalizes as emerging and promising methodology to be used in routine identification of Fusarium spp. among cases of invasive fungal infections.

  2. FY1995 evolvable hardware chip; 1995 nendo shinkasuru hardware chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project aims at the development of 'Evolvable Hardware' (EHW) which can adapt its hardware structure to the environment to attain better hardware performance, under the control of genetic algorithms. EHW is a key technology to explore the new application area requiring real-time performance and on-line adaptation. 1. Development of EHW-LSI for function level hardware evolution, which includes 15 DSPs in one chip. 2. Application of the EHW to the practical industrial applications such as data compression, ATM control, digital mobile communication. 3. Two patents : (1) the architecture and the processing method for programmable EHW-LSI. (2) The method of data compression for loss-less data, using EHW. 4. The first international conference for evolvable hardware was held by authors: Intl. Conf. on Evolvable Systems (ICES96). It was determined at ICES96 that ICES will be held every two years between Japan and Europe. So the new society has been established by us. (NEDO)

  3. Two-temperature PCR for Microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-05-01

    Since its invention in 1983, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the method of choice for DNA amplification. Successful PCR depends on the optimization of several parameters, which is a cumbersome task due to the many variables (conditions and compon

  4. Two-temperature PCR for Microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yu, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    Since its invention in 1983, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the method of choice for DNA amplification. Successful PCR depends on the optimization of several parameters, which is a cumbersome task due to the many variables (conditions and compon

  5. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6.5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40% at terminals

  6. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  7. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips. stump wood chips, and chips from small-sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6,5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40 % at terminals. (orig.)

  8. Experiment list: SRX122563 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A h

  9. Experiment list: SRX122564 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A h

  10. Experiment list: SRX122488 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody c...atalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 h

  11. Experiment list: SRX122510 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Egr1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab54966-100 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-110 ht

  12. Experiment list: SRX122491 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 htt

  13. Experiment list: SRX122519 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http:

  14. Experiment list: SRX122548 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody... catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A

  15. Experiment list: SRX122468 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Rela || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Bethyl || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=A301-824A || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-372 htt

  16. Experiment list: SRX122561 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A h

  17. Experiment list: SRX122551 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ca...talog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A htt

  18. Experiment list: SRX122409 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody cata...log number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 htt

  19. Experiment list: SRX122487 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody c...atalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 h

  20. Experiment list: SRX122546 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A h

  1. Experiment list: SRX122552 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibo...dy catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753

  2. Experiment list: SRX122547 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody c...atalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A ht

  3. Experiment list: SRX214084 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available turer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture...ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufac

  4. Experiment list: SRX122472 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Runx1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab61753 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-8564 http

  5. Experiment list: SRX122544 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody c...atalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A ht

  6. Experiment list: SRX122408 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catal...og number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 http

  7. Experiment list: SRX122473 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Runx1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody ca...talog number 1=ab61753 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-8564

  8. Experiment list: SRX122513 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Egr1 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catal...og number 1=ab54966-100 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-110

  9. Experiment list: SRX214077 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17_V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=Sox17 || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=R&D || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Invit

  10. Experiment list: SRX122497 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-70 http:

  11. Experiment list: SRX214082 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available facturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture...age=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manu

  12. Experiment list: SRX122410 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog n...umber 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://db

  13. Experiment list: SRX122567 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 ht

  14. Experiment list: SRX122466 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Relb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Bethyl || chip antibody cata...log number 1=A302-183A || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-226 h

  15. Experiment list: SRX122490 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 htt

  16. Experiment list: SRX214068 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inoic acid || cell line=F9 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip... antibody 2=none || chip antibody manufacturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachDat

  17. Experiment list: SRX122558 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antib...ody catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-75

  18. Experiment list: SRX122494 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hip antibody=Atf4 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody ca...talog number 1=ab28830-100 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-2

  19. Experiment list: SRX122545 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody c...atalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A ht

  20. Experiment list: SRX186172 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1=YY1 || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody 2=YY1 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cru...ip-Seq; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=Rag1 -/- pro-B cells || chip antibody

  1. Experiment list: SRX122557 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antib...ody catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-75

  2. Experiment list: SRX122492 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 htt

  3. Experiment list: SRX122493 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf4 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catal...og number 1=ab28830-100 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-200

  4. Experiment list: SRX122571 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catal...og number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http

  5. Experiment list: SRX122411 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog n...umber 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://db

  6. Experiment list: SRX122549 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody... catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753A

  7. Experiment list: SRX122498 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-70 http:

  8. Experiment list: SRX122516 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http:

  9. Experiment list: SRX122484 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody cata...log number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100 http

  10. Experiment list: SRX122514 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog nu...mber 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://db

  11. Experiment list: SRX122570 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 ht

  12. Experiment list: SRX214080 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture...ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufa

  13. Experiment list: SRX122569 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody ca...talog number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 h

  14. Experiment list: SRX122511 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Egr1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=ab54966-100 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-11

  15. Experiment list: SRX122471 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Rela || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Bethyl || chip antibody cat...alog number 1=A301-824A || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-372

  16. Experiment list: SRX122495 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catal...og number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-70 http://

  17. Experiment list: SRX122554 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibo...dy catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-753

  18. Experiment list: SRX214081 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture...ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufa

  19. Pathogen Causing Disease of Diagnosis PCR Tecnology

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİNDİK, Emre; KIR, A. Çağrı; BAŞKEMER, Kadir; UZUN, Veysel

    2013-01-01

    Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) with which, the development of recombinant DNA tecnology, a technique commonly used in field of moleculer biology and genetic. Duplication of the target DNA is provided with this technique without the need for cloning. Some fungus species, bacteria, viruses constitutent an important group of pathogenicity in human, animals and plants. There are routinely applied types of PCR in the detection of pathogens infections diseases. These Nested- PCR, Real- Time PCR, M...

  20. Chip-to-Chip Half Duplex Spiking Data Communication over Power Supply Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Takushi; Nagata, Makoto

    Chip-to-chip serial data communication is superposed on power supply over common Vdd/Vss connections through chip, package, and board traces. A power line transceiver demonstrates half duplex spiking communication at more than 100Mbps. A pair of transceivers consumes 1.35mA from 3.3V, at 130Mbps. On-chip power line LC low pass filter attenuates pseudo-differential communication spikes by 30dB, purifying power supply current for internal circuits. Bi-directional spiking communication was successfully examined in a 90-nm CMOS prototype setup of on-chip waveform capturing. A micro controller forwards clock pulses to and receives data streams from a comparator based waveform capturer formed on a different chip, through a single pair of power and ground traces. The bit error rate is small enough not to degrade waveform acquisition capability, maintaining the spurious free dynamic range of higher than 50dB.

  1. Principles and technical aspects of PCR amplification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelt-Verkuil, Elizabeth van; Belkum, Alex van; Hays, John P

    2008-01-01

    ... to illustrate any particularly important concepts or comments. Indeed, all commercial PCR biotechnology companies offer information about their products on internet sites and in online technical manuals. These online resources will be invaluable for any readers requiring more detailed PCR protocols. The authors have provided references for many PCR co...

  2. The PCR revolution: basic technologies and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bustin, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    ... by leading authorities on the many applications of PCR and how this technology has revolutionized their respective areas of interest. This book conveys the ways in which PCR has overcome many obstacles in life science and clinical research and also charts the PCR's development from time-consuming, low throughput, nonquantitative proced...

  3. Extraction, amplification and detection of DNA in microfluidic chip-based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-12-20

    This review covers three aspects of PCR-based microfluidic chip assays: sample preparation, target amplification, and product detection. We also discuss the challenges related to the miniaturization and integration of each assay and make a comparison between conventional and microfluidic schemes. In order to accomplish these essential assays without human intervention between individual steps, the micro-components for fluid manipulation become critical. We therefore summarize and discuss components such as microvalves (for fluid regulation), pumps (for fluid driving) and mixers (for blending fluids). By combining the above assays and microcomponents, DNA testing of multi-step bio-reactions in microfluidic chips may be achieved with minimal external control. The combination of assay schemes with the use of micro-components also leads to rapid methods for DNA testing via multi-step bioreactions. Contains 259 references.

  4. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  5. Medicaid CHIP Environmental Scanning and Program Char...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ESPC development is sponsored by the CMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation in partnership with the Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services (CMCS) under the...

  6. Wafer of Intel Pentium 4 Prescott Chips

    CERN Multimedia

    Silicon wafer with hundreds of Penryn cores (microprocessor). There are around four times as many Prescott chips can be made per wafer than with the previous generation of Northwood-core Pentium 4 processors. It is faster and cheaper.

  7. On-chip power delivery and management

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisband, Inna P; Popovich, Mikhail; Mezhiba, Andrey V; Köse, Selçuk; Friedman, Eby G

    2016-01-01

    This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power delivery and management systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this fourth edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

  8. Distributed Processing Using Single-chip Microcomputers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, William

    1996-01-01

    This project investigates the use of single-chip microprocessors as nodes in a token ring control network and explores the implementation of a protocol to manage communication across such a network...

  9. Optical bio-sensors in microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Dongre, C.; Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Bernhardi, Edward; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Direct femtosecond laser writing is used to integrate optical waveguides that intersect the microfluidic channels in a commercial optofluidic chip. With laser excitation, fluorescently labeled DNA molecules of different sizes are separated by capillary electrophoresis with high operating speed and

  10. Optics and molecules on atom chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherneck, M; Holmes, M E; Quinto-Su, P A; Haimberger, C; Kleinert, J; Bigelow, N P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will report on four experiments which have been carried out in the last year in our group. All of these experiments are necessary steps towards the trapping and probing of ultracold molecules on a chip surface

  11. The CHIP surveys | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Many of the young scholars relied on data generated by the China Household Income Project (CHIP), a collaboration between Chinese and international economists that has tracked inequality in China for the past 20 years.

  12. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  13. Detection of adenoviruses in shellfish by means of conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture PCR (ICC/PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, C; Sincero, T C M; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2005-01-01

    We tested three PCR based methodologies to detect adenoviruses associated with cultivated oysters. Conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/PCR) were first optimized using oysters seeded with know amounts of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). The maximum sensitivity for Ad5 detection was determined for each method, and then used to detect natural adenovirus contamination in oysters from three aquiculture farms in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, over a period of 6 months. The results showed that the nested-PCR was more sensitive (limit of detection: 1.2 PFU/g of tissue) than conventional-PCR and ICC-PCR (limit of detection for both: 1.2 x 10(2)PFU/g of tissue) for detection of Ad5 in oyster extracts. Nested-PCR was able to detect 90% of Ad5 contamination in harvested oyster samples, while conventional-PCR was unable to detect Ad5 in any of the samples. The present work suggests that detection of human adenoviruses can be used as a tool to monitor the presence of human viruses in marine environments where shellfish grow, and that nested-PCR is the method of choice.

  14. Industry trends in chip storage and handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald; Alastair Twaddle

    2000-01-01

    A survey was conducted of US pulp and paper mills to characterize chip pile management trends. The survey was developed by members of the TAPPI Fiber Raw Material Supply Committee and mailed out in December of 1999. There were a total of 80 respondents to the survey. A typical mill was foudn to maintain one sofhvood and one hardwood chip pile, with maximum inventory of...

  15. FY1995 evolvable hardware chip; 1995 nendo shinkasuru hardware chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project aims at the development of 'Evolvable Hardware' (EHW) which can adapt its hardware structure to the environment to attain better hardware performance, under the control of genetic algorithms. EHW is a key technology to explore the new application area requiring real-time performance and on-line adaptation. 1. Development of EHW-LSI for function level hardware evolution, which includes 15 DSPs in one chip. 2. Application of the EHW to the practical industrial applications such as data compression, ATM control, digital mobile communication. 3. Two patents : (1) the architecture and the processing method for programmable EHW-LSI. (2) The method of data compression for loss-less data, using EHW. 4. The first international conference for evolvable hardware was held by authors: Intl. Conf. on Evolvable Systems (ICES96). It was determined at ICES96 that ICES will be held every two years between Japan and Europe. So the new society has been established by us. (NEDO)

  16. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  17. The Advances, Challenges and Future Possibilities of Millimeter-Wave Chip-to-Chip Interconnections for Multi-Chip Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Ganguly

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With aggressive scaling of device geometries, density of manufacturing faults is expected to increase. Therefore, yield of complex Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chips (MP-SoCs will decrease due to higher probability of manufacturing defects especially, in dies with large area. Therefore, disintegration of large SoCs into smaller chips called chiplets will improve yield and cost of complex platform-based systems. This will also provide functional flexibility, modular scalability as well as the capability to integrate heterogeneous architectures and technologies in a single unit. However, with scaling of the number of chiplets in such a system, the shared resources in the system such as the interconnection fabric and memory modules will become performance bottlenecks. Additionally, the integration of heterogeneous chiplets operating at different frequencies and voltages can be challenging. State-of-the-art inter-chip communication requires power-hungry high-speed I/O circuits and data transfer over long wired traces on substrates. This increases energy consumption and latency while decreasing data bandwidth for chip-to-chip communication. In this paper, we explore the advances and the challenges of interconnecting a multi-chip system with millimeter-wave (mm-wave wireless interconnects from a variety of perspectives spanning multiple aspects of the wireless interconnection design. Our discussion on the recent advances include aspects such as interconnection topology, physical layer, Medium Access Control (MAC and routing protocols. We also present some potential paradigm-shifting applications as well as complementary technologies of wireless inter-chip communications.

  18. Discovery Mondays: Chips with everything!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electronics to hear the sound of matter From the TV to the fridge, the wristwatch to the washing machine, hardly any consumer product in this day and age can escape the influence of electronics, and the ever more powerful microchip. So it's hardly surprising to learn that such sophisticated devices as particle detectors are bristling with the best and most powerful microchips technology has to offer! Particle detectors known as trackers are like 3-D digital cameras. They are used to detect the tracks of particles created in the accelerator and to pin down their momentum and thus their identity. A chip seen with a microscope.Come to Microcosm and see with your own eyes a silicon detector, packed full of electronic microchips. Get up closer with a microscope and admire the way in which the fine details of the etchings break down light. Further on, watch a TV as you've never done before - from the inside! Then try out our special simulation game that helps you understand the purpose of a particle detector. Bu...

  19. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  20. On-chip digital power supply control for system-on-chip applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Otten, R.H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors presented an on-chip, fully-digital, power-supply control system. The scheme consists of two independent control loops that regulate power supply variations due to semiconductor process spread, temperature, and chip's workload. Smart power-switches working as linear voltage regulators

  1. Mitochondrial capture enriches mito-DNA 100 fold, enabling PCR-free mitogenomics biodiversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shanlin; Wang, Xin; Xie, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity analyses based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have developed by leaps and bounds in recent years. A PCR-free strategy, which can alleviate taxonomic bias, was considered as a promising approach to delivering reliable species compositions of targeted environments...... data is highly demanding on computing resources. Here, we present a mitogenome enrichment pipeline via a gene capture chip that was designed by virtue of the mitogenome sequences of the 1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution project (1KITE, www.1kite.org). A mock sample containing 49 species was used...... in abundance. However, the frequencies of input taxa were largely maintained after capture (R2 = 0.81). We suggest that our mitogenome capture approach coupled with PCR-free shotgun sequencing could provide ecological researchers an efficient NGS method to deliver reliable biodiversity assessment....

  2. Application of reverse transcription-PCR and real-time PCR in nanotoxicity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Qunwei

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique to determine the expression level of target genes and is widely used in biomedical science research including nanotoxicology studies for semiquantitative analysis. Real-time PCR allows for the detection of PCR amplification in the exponential growth phase of the reaction and is much more quantitative than traditional RT-PCR. Although a number of kits and reagents for RT-PCR and real-time PCR are commercially available, the basic principles are the same. Here, we describe the procedures for total RNA isolation by using TRI Reagent, for reverse transcription (RT) by M-MLV reverse transcriptase, and for PCR by GoTaq(®) DNA Polymerase. And real-time PCR will be performed on an iQ5 multicolor real-time PCR detection system by using iQ™ SYBR Green Supermix.

  3. Comparison of reverse transcriptase PCR, reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and culture-based assays for Salmonella detection from pork processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-02-01

    Novel rapid Salmonella detection assays without the need for sophisticated equipment or labor remain in high demand. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays, though rapid and sensitive, require expensive thermocyclers, while a novel RT loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method requires only a simple water bath. Our objective was to compare the detection sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium from the pork processing environment by RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and culture-based assays. Carcass and surface swabs and carcass rinses were obtained from a local processing plant. Autoclaved carcass rinses (500 ml) were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and filtered. Filters were placed in stomacher bags containing tetrathionate broth (TTB) and analyzed with or without 10-h enrichment at 37 °C. Natural swabs were stomached with buffered peptone water, and natural carcass rinses were filtered, preenriched, and further enriched in TTB. Serially-diluted enriched samples were enumerated by spread plating on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. RNA was extracted from 5 ml of enriched TTB with TRIzol. RT-LAMP assay using previously described invA primers was conducted at 62 °C for 90 min in a water bath with visual detection and by gel electrophoresis. SYBR Green I-based-real-time RT-PCR was carried out with invA primers followed by melt temperature analysis. The results of RT-LAMP detection for spiked carcass rinses were comparable to those of RT-PCR and cultural plating, with detection limits of 1 log CFU/ml, although they were obtained significantly faster, within 24 h including preenrichment and enrichment. RT-LAMP showed 4 of 12 rinse samples positive, while RT-PCR showed 1 of 12 rinse samples positive. For swabs, 6 of 27 samples positive by RT-LAMP and 5 of 27 by RT-PCR were obtained. This 1-day RT-LAMP assay shows promise for routine Salmonella screening by the pork industry. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  4. Pitfalls in PCR troubleshooting: Expect the unexpected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Schrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a well-understood and established laboratory technique often used in molecular diagnostics. Huge experience has been accumulated over the last years regarding the design of PCR assays and their set-up, including in-depth troubleshooting to obtain the optimal PCR assay for each purpose. Here we report a PCR troubleshooting that came up with a surprising result never observed before. With this report we hope to sensitize the reader to this peculiar problem and to save troubleshooting efforts in similar situations, especially in time-critical and ambitious diagnostic settings.

  5. Absolute quantification by droplet digital PCR versus analog real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, Christopher M; Chevillet, John R; Briggs, Hilary A; Gallichotte, Emily N; Ruf, Ingrid K; Hindson, Benjamin J; Vessella, Robert L; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Nanoliter-sized droplet technology paired with digital PCR (ddPCR) holds promise for highly precise, absolute nucleic acid quantification. Our comparison of microRNA quantification by ddPCR and real-time PCR revealed greater precision (coefficients of variation decreased by 37–86%) and improved day-to-day reproducibility (by a factor of seven) of ddPCR but with comparable sensitivity. When we applied ddPCR to serum microRNA biomarker analysis, this translated to superior diagnostic performance for identifying individuals with cancer. PMID:23995387

  6. Prototype detection unit for the CHIPS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Maciej M.

    2017-09-01

    CHIPS (CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS) is an R&D project aiming to develop novel cost-effective neutrino detectors, focused on measuring the CP-violating neutrino mixing phase (δ CP). A single detector module, containing an enclosed volume of purified water, would be submerged in an existing lake, located in a neutrino beam. A staged approach is proposed with first detectors deployed in a flooded mine pit in Northern Minnesota, 7 mrad off-axis from the existing NuMI beam. A small proof-of-principle model (CHIPS-M) has already been tested and the first stage of a fully functional 10 kt module (CHIPS-10) is planned for 2018. One of the instruments submerged on board of CHIPS-M in autumn 2015 was a prototype detection unit, constructed at Nikhef. The unit contains hardware borrowed from the KM3NeT experiment, including 16 3 inch photomultiplier tubes and readout electronics. In addition to testing the mechanical design and data acquisition, the detector was used to record a large sample of cosmic ray muon events. The collected data is valuable for characterising the cosmic muon background and validating a Monte Carlo simulation used to optimise future designs. This paper introduces the CHIPS project, describes the design of the prototype unit, and presents the results of a preliminary data analysis.

  7. Advantages and limitations of quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)-based approaches in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy J; Osborn, A Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR or real-time PCR) approaches are now widely applied in microbial ecology to quantify the abundance and expression of taxonomic and functional gene markers within the environment. Q-PCR-based analyses combine 'traditional' end-point detection PCR with fluorescent detection technologies to record the accumulation of amplicons in 'real time' during each cycle of the PCR amplification. By detection of amplicons during the early exponential phase of the PCR, this enables the quantification of gene (or transcript) numbers when these are proportional to the starting template concentration. When Q-PCR is coupled with a preceding reverse transcription reaction, it can be used to quantify gene expression (RT-Q-PCR). This review firstly addresses the theoretical and practical implementation of Q-PCR and RT-Q-PCR protocols in microbial ecology, highlighting key experimental considerations. Secondly, we review the applications of (RT)-Q-PCR analyses in environmental microbiology and evaluate the contribution and advances gained from such approaches. Finally, we conclude by offering future perspectives on the application of (RT)-Q-PCR in furthering understanding in microbial ecology, in particular, when coupled with other molecular approaches and more traditional investigations of environmental systems.

  8. The impact of CHIP premium increases on insurance outcomes among CHIP eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya; Stearns, Sally

    2014-03-03

    Within the United States, public insurance premiums are used both to discourage private health policy holders from dropping coverage and to reduce state budget costs. Prior research suggests that the odds of having private coverage and being uninsured increase with increases in public insurance premiums. The aim of this paper is to test effects of Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) premium increases on public insurance, private insurance, and uninsurance rates. The fact that families just below and above a state-specific income cut-off are likely very similar in terms of observable and unobservable characteristics except the premium contribution provides a natural experiment for estimating the effect of premium increases. Using 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) merged with CHIP premiums, we compare health insurance outcomes for CHIP eligible children as of January 2003 in states with a two-tier premium structure using a cross-sectional regression discontinuity methodology. We use difference-in-differences analysis to compare longitudinal insurance outcomes by December 2003. Higher CHIP premiums are associated with higher likelihood of private insurance. Disenrollment from CHIP in response to premium increases over time does not increase the uninsurance rate. When faced with higher CHIP premiums, private health insurance may be a preferable alternative for CHIP eligible families with higher incomes. Therefore, competition in the insurance exchanges being formed under the Affordable Care Act could enhance choice.

  9. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  10. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  12. The single chip microcomputer technique in an intelligent nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tieliu; Sun Punan; Wang Ying

    1995-01-01

    The authors present that how to acquire and process the output signals from the nuclear detector adopting single chip microcomputer technique, including working principles and the designing method of the computer's software and hardware in the single chip microcomputer instrument

  13. Experiment list: SRX180159 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sd || cell type=hemogenic endothelium || chip antibody=CEBPb || chip antibody vendor=santa cruz biotechnol...ogy http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachData/bw/SRX180159.bw http://

  14. Experiment list: SRX112178 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line=OS25 ES cells || chip antibody=8WG16 (MMS-126R, Covance) || chip antibody manufacturer=Covance || chromatin=Fixed || beads...=Magnetic beads http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm

  15. Experiment list: SRX319550 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Myc || chip beads=Dynabeads MyOne Streptavidin T1 || chip bea...ds vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/k

  16. Experiment list: SRX319556 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ype=mouse embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Dax1 || chip beads=Dynabeads... MyOne Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  17. Experiment list: SRX112184 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line=OS25 ES cells || chip antibody=CTD4H8 (MMS-128P, Covance) || chip antibody manufacturer=Covance || chromatin=Fixed || beads...=Sepharose beads http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/m

  18. Experiment list: SRX319558 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available | cell type=mouse embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing control BirA || chip beads=Dynabeads... MyOne Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  19. Experiment list: SRX319553 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Tip60 || chip beads=Dynabeads MyOne... Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j

  20. Experiment list: SRX319557 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Nanog || chip beads=Dynabeads MyOne... Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j

  1. Experiment list: SRX319555 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ype=mouse embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Dax1 || chip beads=Dynabeads... MyOne Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  2. Experiment list: SRX319551 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available use embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged Dmap1 || chip beads=Dynabeads MyOn...e Streptavidin T1 || chip beads vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.

  3. Experiment list: SRX185907 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MCF-...7 || cell_type=ER-positive breast adenocarcinoma cells || treatment=DMSO || chip_

  4. Experiment list: SRX367330 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nology) || sirna transfection=siBrd4 http://dbarchive.bi...=HEK293T cell || cell line=Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells || chip antibody=CDK9 || chip antibody details=2316S (Cell Signaling Tech

  5. Experiment list: SRX367328 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nology) || sirna transfection=siCTL http://dbarchive.bio...=HEK293T cell || cell line=Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells || chip antibody=CDK9 || chip antibody details=2316S (Cell Signaling Tech

  6. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...

  7. Experiment list: SRX543048 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea...CID.adh murine thymic lymphoma || development stage=DN3 || chip antibody=rabbit anti-Miz-1 || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech

  8. Lab-on a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  9. Biostability of an implantable glucose sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, M.; Birkholz, M.; Ehwald, K. E.; Kulse, P.; Fursenko, O.; Katzer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Surface materials of an implantable microelectronic chip intended for medical applications were evaluated with respect to their long-term stability in bio-environments. The sensor chip shall apply in a glucose monitor by operating as a microviscosimeter according to the principle of affinity viscosimetry. A monolithic integration of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) into the sensor chip was successfully performed in a combined 0.25 μm CMOS/BiCMOS technology. In order to study material durability and biostability of the surfaces, sensor chips were exposed to various in vitro and in vivo tests. Corrosional damage of SiON, SiO2 and TiN surfaces was investigated by optical microscopy, ellipsometry and AFM. The results served for optimizing the Back-end-of-Line (BEoL) stack, from which the MEMS was prepared. Corrosion of metal lines could significantly be reduced by improving the topmost passivation layer. The experiments revealed no visible damage of the actuator or other functionally important MEMS elements. Sensor chips were also exposed to human body fluid for three month by implantation into the abdomen of a volunteer. Only small effects were observed for layer thickness and Ra roughness after explantation. In particular, TiN as used for the actuator beam showed no degradation by biocorrosion. The highest degradation rate of about 50 nm per month was revealed for the SiON passivation layer. These results suggest that the sensor chip may safely operate in subcutaneous tissue for a period of several months.

  10. Biostability of an implantable glucose sensor chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fröhlich, M; Ehwald, K E; Kulse, P; Fursenko, O; Katzer, J; Birkholz, M

    2012-01-01

    Surface materials of an implantable microelectronic chip intended for medical applications were evaluated with respect to their long-term stability in bio-environments. The sensor chip shall apply in a glucose monitor by operating as a microviscosimeter according to the principle of affinity viscosimetry. A monolithic integration of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) into the sensor chip was successfully performed in a combined 0.25 μm CMOS/BiCMOS technology. In order to study material durability and biostability of the surfaces, sensor chips were exposed to various in vitro and in vivo tests. Corrosional damage of SiON, SiO 2 and TiN surfaces was investigated by optical microscopy, ellipsometry and AFM. The results served for optimizing the Back-end-of-Line (BEoL) stack, from which the MEMS was prepared. Corrosion of metal lines could significantly be reduced by improving the topmost passivation layer. The experiments revealed no visible damage of the actuator or other functionally important MEMS elements. Sensor chips were also exposed to human body fluid for three month by implantation into the abdomen of a volunteer. Only small effects were observed for layer thickness and R a roughness after explantation. In particular, TiN as used for the actuator beam showed no degradation by biocorrosion. The highest degradation rate of about 50 nm per month was revealed for the SiON passivation layer. These results suggest that the sensor chip may safely operate in subcutaneous tissue for a period of several months.

  11. Rapid and simple method by combining FTA™ card DNA extraction with two set multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and virulence genes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Park, S H; Lee, S I; Ricke, S C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that could simultaneously detect six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as well as the three virulence genes. We also investigated the potential of combining the FTA™ card-based DNA extraction with the multiplex PCR assays. Two multiplex PCR assays were optimized using six primer pairs for each non-O157 STEC serogroup and three primer pairs for virulence genes respectively. Each STEC strain specific primer pair only amplified 155, 238, 321, 438, 587 and 750 bp product for O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 respectively. Three virulence genes were successfully multiplexed: 375 bp for eae, 655 bp for stx1 and 477 bp for stx2. When two multiplex PCR assays were validated with ground beef samples, distinctive bands were also successfully produced. Since the two multiplex PCR examined here can be conducted under the same PCR conditions, the six non-O157 STEC and their virulence genes could be concurrently detected with one run on the thermocycler. In addition, all bands clearly appeared to be amplified by FTA card DNA extraction in the multiplex PCR assay from the ground beef sample, suggesting that an FTA card could be a viable sampling approach for rapid and simple DNA extraction to reduce time and labour and therefore may have practical use for the food industry. Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were optimized for discrimination of six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and identification of their major virulence genes within a single reaction, simultaneously. This study also determined the successful ability of the FTA™ card as an alternative to commercial DNA extraction method for conducting multiplex STEC PCR assays. The FTA™ card combined with multiplex PCR holds promise for the food industry by offering a simple and rapid DNA sample method for reducing time, cost and labour for detection of STEC in

  12. Bioinformatic tools for PCR Primer design

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES

    reaction (PCR), oligo hybridization and DNA sequencing. Proper primer design is actually one of the most important factors/steps in successful DNA sequencing. Various bioinformatics programs are available for selection of primer pairs from a template sequence. The plethora programs for PCR primer design reflects the.

  13. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  14. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  15. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  16. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  17. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw

    2005-01-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  18. Modified precision-husky progrind H-3045 for chipping biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Fernando Seixas; John. Klepac

    2008-01-01

    A specific size of whole tree chip was needed to co-mill wood chips with coal. The specifications are stringent because chips must be mixed with coal, as opposed to a co-firing process. In co-firing, two raw products are conveyed separately to a boiler. In co-milling, such as at Alabama Power's Plant Gadsden, the chip and coal mix must pass through a series of...

  19. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  20. MCMII and the TriP chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Estrada et al.

    2003-12-19

    We describe the development of the electronics that will be used to read out the Fiber Tracker and Preshower detectors in Run IIb. This electronics is needed for operation at 132ns bunch crossing, and may provide a measurement of the z coordinate of the Fiber Tracker hits when operating at 396ns bunch crossing. Specifically, we describe the design and preliminary tests of the Trip chip, MCM IIa, MCM IIb and MCM IIc. This document also serves as a user manual for the Trip chip and the MCM.

  1. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR in agrobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taški-Ajduković Ksenija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural biotechnology applies polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology at numerous steps throughout product development. The major uses of PCR technology during product development include gene discovery and cloning, vector construction, transformant identification, screening and characterization as well as seed quality control. Commodity and food companies as well as testing laboratories rely on PCR technology to verify the presence or absence of genetically modification (GM in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in the product. This article describes the fundamental elements of PCR analysis and its application to the testing of grains and highlights some of areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. The article also discuses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effect they may have on the accuracy of the PCR analytical results.

  3. A proposed holistic approach to on-chip, off-chip, test, and package interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Dirk J.

    1998-11-01

    The term interconnection has traditionally implied a `robust' connection from a transistor or a group of transistors in an IC to the outside world, usually a PC board. Optimum system utilization is done from outside the IC. As an alternative, this paper addresses `unimpeded' transistor-to-transistor interconnection aimed at reaching the high circuit densities and computational capabilities of neighboring IC's. In this view, interconnections are not made to some human-centric place outside the IC world requiring robustness—except for system input and output connections. This unimpeded interconnect style is currently available only through intra-chip signal traces in `system-on-a-chip' implementations, as exemplified by embedded DRAMs. Because the traditional off-chip penalty in performance and wiring density is so large, a merging of complex process technologies is the only option today. It is suggested that, for system integration to move forward, the traditional robustness requirement inherited from conventional packaging interconnect and IC manufacturing test must be discarded. Traditional system assembly from vendor parts requires robustness under shipping, inspection and assembly. The trend toward systems on a chip signifies willingness by semiconductor companies to design and fabricate whole systems in house, so that `in-house' chip-to-chip assembly is not beyond reach. In this scenario, bare chips never leave the controlled environment of the IC fabricator while the two major contributors to off-chip signal penalty, ESD protection and the need to source a 50-ohm test head, are avoided. With in-house assembly, ESD protection can be eliminated with the precautions already familiar in plasma etching. Test interconnection impacts the fundamentals of IC manufacturing, particularly with clock speeds approaching 1GHz, and cannot be an afterthought. It should be an integral part of the chip-to-chip interconnection bandwidth optimization, because—as we must

  4. Mathematical analysis of the real time array PCR (RTA PCR) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Johan Frederik; Pierik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Real time array PCR (RTA PCR) is a recently developed biochemical technique that measures amplification curves (like with quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT PCR)) of a multitude of different templates in a sample. It combines two different methods in order to profit from the

  5. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  6. A Neuron- and a Synapse Chip for Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, John; Lehmann, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    A cascadable, analog, CMOS chip set has been developed for hardware implementations of artificial neural networks (ANN's):I) a neuron chip containing an array of neurons with hyperbolic tangent activation functions and adjustable gains, and II) a synapse chip (or a matrix-vector multiplier) where...

  7. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized

  8. Wood chip delivery and research project at Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, a large-scale energywood production chain was started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. Over 60 000 m 3 (about 46 000 MWh of energy) of forest processed chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 60 % of these chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 51 FIM/m 3 (68 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 40 FIM/m 3 (53 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of wood chips could compete with those of fuel peat only in the most favourable cases. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of forestry plans. According to the study, there is enough raw material for permanent, large-scale delivery of forest processed chips (up to 250 000 m 3 /a) in the forests located at a distance of under 40 road kilometers from the Pursiala heat and power plant. The following project stages will involve further development of the wood chip delivery chain logistics, as well as improvement of logging and chipping equipment and methods in energywood and logging waste production. Also the effects of wood energy production on the economy and environment of the whole Mikkeli region will be studied. (author)

  9. Experiment list: SRX485203 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346544: Rhino ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq ...source_name=Rhino ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult ||... Sex=female || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=custo

  10. Experiment list: SRX485202 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346543: Rhino ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 1; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq ...source_name=Rhino ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult ||... Sex=female || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=custo

  11. Experiment list: SRX485205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46546: Rhino ChIP from deadlock germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=R...hino ChIP from deadlock germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female ...|| tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=deadlock || chip antibody=custom-made rabb

  12. Experiment list: SRX485212 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346553: Cutoff ChIP from cutoff germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=C...utoff ChIP from cutoff germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female |...| tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=cutoff || chip antibody=custom-made rabbit

  13. Experiment list: SRX485210 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6551: Deadlock ChIP from deadlock germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name...=Deadlock ChIP from deadlock germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=fe...male || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=deadlock || chip antibody=custom-made

  14. Experiment list: SRX485220 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 53 GSM1346561: RNA Polymerase II ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-...Seq source_name=RNA Polymerase II ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 day...s old adult || Sex=female || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=rhino || chip an

  15. Experiment list: SRX485211 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346552: Cutoff ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=...Cutoff ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female... || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=custom-made rabb

  16. Experiment list: SRX485204 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346545: Rhino ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=Rhi...no ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female || ti...ssue=ovary || germline knock-down=rhino || chip antibody=custom-made rabbit polyc

  17. Experiment list: SRX485208 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346549: Rhino ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq sou...rce_name=Rhino ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=f...emale || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=piwi || chip antibody=custom-made ra

  18. Experiment list: SRX485206 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346547: Rhino ChIP from cutoff germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=Rh...ino ChIP from cutoff germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female || ...tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=cutoff || chip antibody=custom-made rabbit po

  19. Experiment list: SRX485209 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346550: Deadlock ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=Deadlock ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=fe...male || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=custom-made

  20. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen; Nurmi, J.; Takala, J.; Hamalainen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both

  1. Experiment list: SRX110782 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e3 (ab6002, abcam), Pol II (CTD4H8, Millipore) || chip antibody 1 manufacturer=ab...cam || chip antibody 2=Pol II (CTD4H8, Millipore) || chip antibody 2 manufacturer=Millipore http://dbarchive

  2. Assessment of the real-time PCR and different digital PCR platforms for DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Jernej; Žel, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) is beginning to supersede real-time PCR (qPCR) for quantification of nucleic acids in many different applications. Several analytical properties of the two most commonly used dPCR platforms, namely the QX100 system (Bio-Rad) and the 12.765 array of the Biomark system (Fluidigm), have already been evaluated and compared with those of qPCR. However, to the best of our knowledge, direct comparison between the three of these platforms using the same DNA material has not been done, and the 37 K array on the Biomark system has also not been evaluated in terms of linearity, analytical sensitivity and limit of quantification. Here, a first assessment of qPCR, the QX100 system and both arrays of the Biomark system was performed with plasmid and genomic DNA from human cytomegalovirus. With use of PCR components that alter the efficiency of qPCR, each dPCR platform demonstrated consistent copy-number estimations, which indicates the high resilience of dPCR. Two approaches, one considering the total reaction volume and the other considering the effective reaction size, were used to assess linearity, analytical sensitivity and variability. When the total reaction volume was considered, the best performance was observed with qPCR, followed by the QX100 system and the Biomark system. In contrast, when the effective reaction size was considered, all three platforms showed almost equal limits of detection and variability. Although dPCR might not always be more appropriate than qPCR for quantification of low copy numbers, dPCR is a suitable method for robust and reproducible quantification of viral DNA, and a promising technology for the higher-order reference measurement method.

  3. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  4. On-chip electrochromic micro display for a disposable bio-sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjun; Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports an on-chip electrochromic micro display made of polyaniline (PANi) which can be easily made on a CMOS chip. Micro-patterned PANi thin films were selectively deposited on pre-patterned microelectrodes by using electrodeposition. The optimum conditions for deposition and electrochromism were investigated. An 8-pixel on-chip micro display was made on a Si chip. The color of each PANi film could be independently but simultaneously controlled, which means any 1-byte digital data could be displayed on the display. The PANi display had a response time as fast as about 100 ms, which means the transfer data rate was as fast as 80 bits per second.

  5. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  6. A Single-Chip CMOS Pulse Oximeter with On-Chip Lock-In Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Diwei He; Stephen P. Morgan; Dimitrios Trachanis; Jan van Hese; Dimitris Drogoudis; Franco Fummi; Francesco Stefanni; Valerio Guarnieri; Barrie R. Hayes-Gill

    2015-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and continuous method for monitoring the blood oxygen saturation level. This paper presents the design and testing of a single-chip pulse oximeter fabricated in a 0.35 ?m CMOS process. The chip includes photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, analogue band-pass filters, analogue-to-digital converters, digital signal processor and LED timing control. The experimentally measured AC and DC characteristics of individual circuits including the DC output voltage of the...

  7. Results of irriadiating the APV5 chip

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, M

    1996-01-01

    An APV5 chip has been irradiated in steps up to 16 Mrads using a Co-60 source in order to confirm the radiation hardness expected from individual transistor and sub-circuit measurements. Full functionality is preserved after irradiation and measurements of the amplifier pulse shape and noise are presented.

  8. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis...

  9. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  10. Cytostretch, an Organ-on-Chip Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaio, N.; van Meer, B.; Quiros Solano, W.F.; Bergers, L.; van de Stolpe, A; Mummery, CL; Sarro, P.M.; Dekker, R.

    2016-01-01

    Organ-on-Chips (OOCs) are micro-fabricated devices which are used to culture cells in order to mimic functional units of human organs. The devices are designed to simulate the physiological environment of tissues in vivo. Cells in some types of OOCs can be stimulated in situ by electrical and/or

  11. Microprocessors: From basic chips to complete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    These lectures aim to present and explain in general terms some of the characteristics of microprocessor chips and associated components. They show how systems are synthesized from the basic integrated circuit building blocks which are currently available; processor, memory, input-output (I/0) devices, etc. (orig./HSI)

  12. Potential roughness near lithographically fabricated atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Andersson, L. M.; Wildermuth, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Potential roughness has been reported to severely impair experiments in magnetic microtraps. We show that these obstacles can be overcome as we measure disorder potentials that are reduced by two orders of magnitude near lithographically patterned high-quality gold layers on semiconductor atom chip...

  13. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  14. On-chip mode division multiplexing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Frellsen, Louise Floor; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM) is currently widely investigated in order to provide enhanced capacity thanks to the utilization of space as a new degree of multiplexing freedom in both optical fiber communication and on-chip interconnects. Basic components allowing the processing of spatial...... photonic integrated circuit mode (de) multiplexer for few-mode fibers (FMFs)....

  15. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  16. Microarrays (DNA Chips) for the Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Betsy; Sussman, Michael; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Nienhuis, James; Krysan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and optimized the necessary laboratory materials to make DNA microarray technology accessible to all high school students at a fraction of both cost and data size. The primary component is a DNA chip/array that students "print" by hand and then analyze using research tools that have been adapted for classroom use. The…

  17. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  18. Atom chips: mesoscopic physics with cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.; Wildermuth, S.; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.; GAllego Garcia, D.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Cold neutral atoms can be controlled and manipulated in microscopic potentials near surfaces of atom chips. These integrated micro-devices combine the known techniques of atom optics with the capabilities of well established micro- and nanofabrication technology. In analogy to electronic microchips and integrated fiber optics, the concept of atom chips is suitable to explore the domain of mesoscopic physics with matter waves. We use current and charge carrying structures to form complex potentials with high spatial resolution only microns from the surface. In particular, atoms can be confined to an essentially one-dimensional motion. In this talk, we will give an overview of our experiments studying the manipulation of both thermal atoms and BECs on atom chips. First experiments in the quasi one-dimensional regime will be presented. These experiments profit from strongly reduced residual disorder potentials caused by imperfections of the chip fabrication with respect to previously published experiments. This is due to our purely lithographic fabrication technique that proves to be advantageous over electroplating. We have used one dimensionally confined BECs as an ultra-sensitive probe to characterize these potentials. These smooth potentials allow us to explore various aspects of the physics of degenerate quantum gases in low dimensions. (author)

  19. Comparison between digital PCR and real-time PCR in detection of Salmonella typhimurium in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Junjie; Gai, Zhongtao; Huo, Shengnan; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Ranran; Xing, Sheng; Shi, Guosheng; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-02-02

    As a kind of zero-tolerance foodborne pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium poses a great threat to quality of food products and public health. Hence, rapid and efficient approaches to identify Salmonella typhimurium are urgently needed. Combined with PCR and fluorescence technique, real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (ddPCR) are regarded as suitable tools for detecting foodborne pathogens. To compare the effect between qPCR and ddPCR in detecting Salmonella typhimurium, a series of nucleic acid, pure strain culture and spiking milk samples were applied and the resistance to inhibitors referred in this article as well. Compared with qPCR, ddPCR exhibited more sensitive (10 -4 ng/μl or 10 2 cfu/ml) and less pre-culturing time (saving 2h). Moreover, ddPCR had stronger resistance to inhibitors than qPCR, yet absolute quantification hardly performed when target's concentration over 1ng/μl or 10 6 cfu/ml. This study provides an alternative strategy in detecting foodborne Salmonella typhimurium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Salama, Khaled N.; Sedky, S.; Soliman, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  1. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-07-28

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  2. Real-time PCR in virology

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of P...

  3. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yiwen [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Duarte, Gabriela R.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74690-900 (Brazil); Poe, Brian L.; Riehl, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Santos, Fernando M. dos; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C.G. [Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO 75132-400 (Brazil); Carrilho, Emanuel [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, CP 6154, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Landers, James P., E-mail: landers@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-12-11

    -volume amplification while also integrating PCR with extraction upstream and separation/detection downstream. - Highlights: • Polyester chips were used in an infra-red thermal control system for PCR. • Thermo-response of the chips to infra-red radiation was modified by a spatial mask. • PCR inhibition from the chip substrate was mitigated by dynamic surface passivation. • Chips with different sample throughput successfully delivered PCR results.

  4. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  5. Transgene detection by digital droplet PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk A Moser

    Full Text Available Somatic gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of severe diseases. Because of its abuse potential for performance enhancement in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA included the term 'gene doping' in the official list of banned substances and methods in 2004. Several nested PCR or qPCR-based strategies have been proposed that aim at detecting long-term presence of transgene in blood, but these strategies are hampered by technical limitations. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR protocol for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1 detection and demonstrated its applicability monitoring 6 mice injected into skeletal muscle with AAV9-IGF1 elements and 2 controls over a 33-day period. A duplex ddPCR protocol for simultaneous detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1 and Erythropoietin (EPO transgenic elements was created. A new DNA extraction procedure with target-orientated usage of restriction enzymes including on-column DNA-digestion was established. In vivo data revealed that IGF1 transgenic elements could be reliably detected for a 33-day period in DNA extracted from whole blood. In vitro data indicated feasibility of IGF1 and EPO detection by duplex ddPCR with high reliability and sensitivity. On-column DNA-digestion allowed for significantly improved target detection in downstream PCR-based approaches. As ddPCR provides absolute quantification, it ensures excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Therefore, we expect this technique to be used in diagnosing and monitoring of viral and bacterial infection, in detecting mutated DNA sequences as well as profiling for the presence of foreign genetic material in elite athletes in the future.

  6. Diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, R.M.; Shalaby, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity of PCR, wet preparation and culture in detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in urine and vaginal fluid. A PCR targeting the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis was used for the detection of the organism in both vaginal swab and urine specimens from infected patients. Random urine samples were collected from 30 patients (23 females and 7 males), and tested for T. vaginalis by wet preparation and the Inpouch T. vaginalis culture systeme. Two vaginal swabs were collected by each woman. PCR detection. was carried out on samples negative by first methods. The positive result was found in 28.57% in male urine and 39.13% in female urine samples, 65.21% in 1st swab and 78.26 % in 2nd swab by wet preparation. By culture, the male urine samples showed 42.85% positive, female urine 69.56% while 1st swab showed 86.95% positive and 2nd swab 91.30% positive. All negative cases by culture in urine and vaginal samples were tested by PCR, which showed 2 cases to be positive in male urine samples and 5 cases positive in female urine sample. PCR assay was as good as or more sensitive than wet preparation and culture and resulted in practical advantage of providing results in shorter time. However, PCR test is still very expensive. (author)

  7. On-chip particle trapping and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Kaelyn Danielle

    The ability to control and manipulate the world around us is human nature. Humans and our ancestors have used tools for millions of years. Only in recent years have we been able to control objects at such small levels. In order to understand the world around us it is frequently necessary to interact with the biological world. Optical trapping and manipulation offer a non-invasive way to move, sort and interact with particles and cells to see how they react to the world around them. Optical tweezers are ideal in their abilities but they require large, non-portable, and expensive setups limiting how and where we can use them. A cheap portable platform is required in order to have optical manipulation reach its full potential. On-chip technology offers a great solution to this challenge. We focused on the Liquid-Core Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (liquid-core ARROW) for our work. The ARROW is an ideal platform, which has anti-resonant layers which allow light to be guided in liquids, allowing for particles to easily be manipulated. It is manufactured using standard silicon manufacturing techniques making it easy to produce. The planner design makes it easy to integrate with other technologies. Initially I worked to improve the ARROW chip by reducing the intersection losses and by reducing the fluorescence and background on the ARROW chip. The ARROW chip has already been used to trap and push particles along its channel but here I introduce several new methods of particle trapping and manipulation on the ARROW chip. Traditional two beam traps use two counter propagating beams. A trapping scheme that uses two orthogonal beams which counter to first instinct allow for trapping at their intersection is introduced. This scheme is thoroughly predicted and analyzed using realistic conditions. Simulations of this method were done using a program which looks at both the fluidics and optical sources to model complex situations. These simulations were also used to

  8. Método Taguchi para optimizar marcadores RAPD-PCR y determinar diversidad genética: un modelo, la tortuga cabezona Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Martínez-Ortega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Taguchi method to optimize RAPD-PCR Markers for determining the genetic diversity: an example the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Testudines:Cheloniidae. DNA was isolated from Caretta caretta two zone of the Colombian Caribbean (Don Diego N=5 and Rosario Islands N=3 and quantified it. Was applied a Taguchi orthogonal matriz of four variables to standardize RAPD-PCR reaction. The data were analyzed with the program PopGen. The conditions were standardized to 7.85 ng/ml of DNA, 3.5 mM MgCl2, 200 mM dNTP's, 0.5 mM oligonucleotide and one unit of Taq DNA polymerase in a final reaction volume of 20 ml. Thermocycling conditions initiated at 94°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of: 94°C for 40 s, 37°C for 40 s and 72°C for 90 s. The markers were recorded in a binary matrix of presence (1 and absence (0, and as a model example of genetic diversity was determined using the Shannon index (H '= 0.44 + / -0.27 individuals and Don Diego H '= 0.25 + / -0.32 for Isla del Rosario, the average rate of genetic structure (Gst=0.27 and the effective migration rate (Nm=1.28. Methodology was standardized using Taguchi method that produces bands of light, legible and reproducible that can be used as a reliable alternative for studies of genetic diversity in the loggerhead turtle and other species, and further, integrate them into the curriculum of molecular biology and/or biochemistry for undergraduate and graduate students.

  9. SASqPCR: robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a key method for measurement of relative gene expression. Analysis of RT-qPCR data requires many iterative computations for data normalization and analytical optimization. Currently no computer program for RT-qPCR data analysis is suitable for analytical optimization and user-controllable customization based on data quality, experimental design as well as specific research aims. Here I introduce an all-in-one computer program, SASqPCR, for robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS. This program has multiple macros for assessment of PCR efficiencies, validation of reference genes, optimization of data normalizers, normalization of confounding variations across samples, and statistical comparison of target gene expression in parallel samples. Users can simply change the macro variables to test various analytical strategies, optimize results and customize the analytical processes. In addition, it is highly automatic and functionally extendable. Thus users are the actual decision-makers controlling RT-qPCR data analyses. SASqPCR and its tutorial are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/sasqpcr/downloads/list.

  10. Microengineered physiological biomimicry: organs-on-chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-06-21

    Microscale engineering technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to create cell culture microenvironments that go beyond current three-dimensional in vitro models by recapitulating the critical tissue-tissue interfaces, spatiotemporal chemical gradients, and dynamic mechanical microenvironments of living organs. Here we review recent advances in this field made over the past two years that are focused on the development of 'Organs-on-Chips' in which living cells are cultured within microfluidic devices that have been microengineered to reconstitute tissue arrangements observed in living organs in order to study physiology in an organ-specific context and to develop specialized in vitro disease models. We discuss the potential of organs-on-chips as alternatives to conventional cell culture models and animal testing for pharmaceutical and toxicology applications. We also explore challenges that lie ahead if this field is to fulfil its promise to transform the future of drug development and chemical safety testing.

  11. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Zauner, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report low resolution surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) conducted with a chip based spectrometer. The flat field spectrometer presented here is fabricated in SU-8 on silicon, showing a resolution of around 3 nm and a free spectral range of around 100 nm. The output facet...... is projected onto a CCD element and visualized by a computer. To enhance the otherwise rather weak Raman signal, a nanosurface is prepared and a sample solutions is impregnated on this surface. The surface enhanced Raman signal is picked up using a Raman probe and coupled into the spectrometer via an optical...... fiber. The obtained spectra show that chip based spectrometer together with the SERS active surface can be used as Raman sensor....

  12. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Mahoney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1/1000th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, “slow-light” response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330  μm diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  13. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  14. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...... was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...

  15. Technology Roadmap: Lab-on-a-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Pattharaporn Suntharasaj; Tugrul U Daim

    2010-01-01

    With the integration of microfluidic and MEMS technologies, biochips such as the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices are at the brink of revolutionizing the medical disease diagnostics industries. Remarkable advancements in the biochips industry are making products resembling Star Trek.s "tricorder" and handheld medical scanners a reality. Soon, doctors can screen for cancer at the molecular level without costly and cumbersome equipments, and discuss treatment plans based on immediate lab results. Th...

  16. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    fiber-based polarization controllers and a polarization beam splitter , and the output power is monitored with a sensitive photodiode. We use a...a single CW laser beam coupled to a microresonators can produce stabilized, octave-spanning combs through highly cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM...resonator designs , the resonator and the coupling waveguide are monolithically integrated. Thus, the entire on-chip configuration of CMOS-compatible

  17. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  18. A single chip with multiple talents

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The Medipix chips developed at CERN are being used in a variety of fields: from medicine to education and back to high-tech engineering. The scene is set for a bright future for this versatile technology.   The Medipix chip. It didn’t take long for a brilliant team of physicists and engineers who were working on pixel detectors for the LHC to realize that the technology had great potential in medical imaging. This was the birth of the Medipix project. Fifteen years later, with the collaboration of 18 research institutes, the team has produced an advanced version of the initial ideas: Medipix3 is a device that can measure very accurately the position and energy of the photons (one by one) that hit the associated detector. Radiography and computed tomography (CT) use X-ray photons to study the human body. The different energies of the photons in the beam can be thought of as the colours of the X-ray spectrum. This is why the use of Medipix3 chips in such diagnostic techniques is referred...

  19. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  20. Power-aware transceiver design for half-duplex bidirectional chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangirov Jamshid; Ukaegbu Ikechi Augustine; Lee Tae-Woo; Park Hyo-Hoon; Sangirov Gulomjon

    2013-01-01

    A power-aware transceiver for half-duplex bidirectional chip-to-chip optical interconnects has been designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The transceiver can detect the presence and absence of received signals and saves 55% power in Rx enabled mode and 45% in Tx enabled mode. The chip occupies an area of 1.034 mm 2 and achieves a 3-dB bandwidth of 6 GHz and 7 GHz in Tx and Rx modes, respectively. The disabled outputs for the Tx and Rx modes are isolated with 180 dB and 139 dB, respectively, from the enabled outputs. Clear eye diagrams are obtained at 4.25 Gbps for both the Tx and Rx modes. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. A fast template matching method for LED chip Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency determines the profits of the semiconductor producers. So the producers spare no effort to enhance the efficiency of every procedure. The purpose of the paper is to present a method to shorten the time to locate the LED chips on wafer. The method consists of 3 steps. Firstly, image segmentation and blob analyzation are used to predict the positions of potential chips. Then predict the orientations of potential chips based on their dominant orientations. Finally, according to the positions and orientations predicted above, locate the chips precisely based on gradient orientation features. Experiments show that the algorithm is faster than the traditional method we choose to locate the LED chips. Besides, even the orientations of the chips on wafer are of big deviation to the orientation of the template, the efficiency of this method won't be affected.

  2. A primary battery-on-a-chip using monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2016-07-01

    We present here a bottom-up approach for realizing on-chip on-demand batteries starting out with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. Single graphene monolayers contacted by electrode lines on a silicon chip serve as electrodes. The anode and cathode are realized by electrodeposition of zinc and copper respectively onto graphene, leading to the realization of a miniature graphene-based Daniell cell on a chip. The electrolyte is housed partly in a gel and partly in liquid form in an on-chip enclosure molded using a 3d printer or made out of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The realized batteries provide a stable voltage (∼1.1 V) for many hours and exhibit capacities as high as 15 μAh, providing enough power to operate a pocket calculator. The realized batteries show promise for deployment as on-chip power sources for autonomous systems in lab-on-a-chip or biomedical applications.

  3. From the 'PCR' function to the 'PCR' profession; de la fonction 'PCR' au metier 'PCR'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, L. [CERAP, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context concerning the appointment and training of a radiation protection expert (PCR for 'personne competente en radioprotection'), the author outlines that the PCR's role has notably evolved: his function is now of primary importance in the company and his activity does not correspond to the legal framework any longer. Moreover, with the application of a European directive, some small establishments possessing ionizing radiation sources are disadvantaged, and the PCR is now facing an increasing number of missions and tasks. The author gives a list of them and assesses a needed time of 146 days per year: this means PCRs cannot have an other activity within their company

  4. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...... inlet of microphone. External electrical connection can be made economically reliable and the thermal stress is avoided with the small size solid state silicon based condenser microphone....

  5. Firing with wood chips in heating and cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The document was produced for use as detailed teaching material aimed at spreading information on the use of wood chips as fuel for heating and cogeneration plants. It includes information and articles on wood fuels generally, combustion values, chopping machines, suppliers, occupational health hazards connected with the handling of wood chips, measuring amounts, the selection of types, prices, ash, environmental aspects and information on the establishment of a wood-chip fired district heating plant. (AB)

  6. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m 3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m 3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m 3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m 3 /ha

  7. Experiment list: SRX485216 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3K9me3 ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_na...me=H3K9me3 ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=fema...le || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=rhino || chip antibody=Histone H3K9me3

  8. Experiment list: SRX485222 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4me2 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_na...me=H3K4me2 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=fe...male || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=Anti-dimethy

  9. Experiment list: SRX485221 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K4me2 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 1; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_n...ame=H3K4me2 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=f...emale || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=Anti-dimeth

  10. Experiment list: SRX485215 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K9me3 ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 1; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=H3K9me3 ChIP from rhino germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=femal...e || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=rhino || chip antibody=Histone H3K9me3 a

  11. Experiment list: SRX485218 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K9me3 ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name...=H3K9me3 ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female ...|| tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=piwi || chip antibody=Histone H3K9me3 anti

  12. Experiment list: SRX485213 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K9me3 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 1; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_n...ame=H3K9me3 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=f...emale || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=Histone H3K

  13. Experiment list: SRX485214 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K9me3 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_n...ame=H3K9me3 ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=f...emale || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || chip antibody=Histone H3K

  14. Experiment list: SRX485217 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3K9me3 ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries, replicate 1; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=H3K9me3 ChIP from piwi germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6 days old adult || Sex=female... || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=piwi || chip antibody=Histone H3K9me3 ant

  15. CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera On A Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recent advancements in CMOS image sensor technology are reviewed, including both passive pixel sensors and active pixel sensors. On- chip analog to digital converters and on-chip timing and control circuits permit realization of an electronic camera-on-a-chip. Highly miniaturized imaging systems based on CMOS image sensor technology are emerging as a competitor to charge-coupled devices for low cost uses.

  16. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  17. PCR melting profile (PCR MP - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital.

  18. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  19. Detection of Leishmania infantum in animals and their ectoparasites by conventional PCR and real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Rayana Carla Silva; Gonçalves, Suênia da Cunha; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Kamila Gaudêncio; da Silva, Fernando José; Silva, Rômulo Pessoa E; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena

    2013-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is primarily transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. However, there has been much speculation on the role of other arthropods in the transmission of VL. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of L. infantum in cats, dogs and their ectoparasites in a VL-endemic area in northeastern Brazil. DNA was extracted from blood samples and ectoparasites, tested by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) targeting the L. infantum kinetoplast DNA. A total of 280 blood samples (from five cats and 275 dogs) and 117 ectoparasites from dogs were collected. Animals were apparently healthy and not previously tested by serological or molecular diagnostic methods. Overall, 213 (76.1 %) animals and 51 (43.6 %) ectoparasites were positive to L. infantum, with mean parasite loads of 795.2, 31.9 and 9.1 fg in dogs, cats and ectoparasites, respectively. Concerning the positivity between dogs and their ectoparasites, 32 (15.3 %) positive dogs were parasitized by positive ectoparasites. The overall concordance between the PCR protocols used was 59.2 %, with qPCR being more efficient than cPCR; 34.1 % of all positive samples were exclusively positive by qPCR. The high number of positive animals and ectoparasites also indicates that they could serve as sentinels or indicators of the circulation of L. infantum in risk areas.

  20. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  1. A simple clockless Network-on-Chip for a commercial audio DSP chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    We design a very small, packet-switched, clockless Network-on-Chip (NoC) as a replacement for the existing crossbar-based communication infrastructure in a commercial audio DSP chip. Both solutions are laid out in a 0.18 um process, and compared in terms of area, power consumption and routing...... to the existing crossbar, it allows all blocks to communicate. The total wire length is decreased by 22% which eases the layout process and makes the design less prone to routing congestion. Not least, the communicating blocks are decoupled by means of the NoC, providing a Globally-Asynchronous, Locally...

  2. Reduction of heteroduplex formation in PCR amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michu, Elleni; Mráčková, Martina; Vyskot, Boris; Žlůvová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2010), s. 173-176 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600040801; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040801; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polymerase chain reaction * reconditioning PCR * mixed-template PCR Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  3. A naked-eye colorimetric "PCR developer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Despite several advances in molecular biology and diagnostics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is currently the gold standard for nucleic acids amplification and detection, due to its versatility, low-cost and universality, with estimated genetically modified organisms, and pathogens). The PCR developer proved to be highly specific and ultra-sensitive, discriminating down to few copies of HIV viral DNA, diluted in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA, which is a clinically relevant viral load. Hence, it could be a valuable tool for both academic research and clinical applications.

  4. Integrated lasers for polymer Lab-on-a-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Vannahme, Christoph; Grosmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers.......We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers....

  5. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  6. Microbial Succession in Co-Composting of Chipped-Ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Najib Ahmad; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Succession and phylogenetic profile of microbial communities during co-composting of chipped-ground oil palm frond (CG-OPF) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) were studied by apply-ing polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results indicated that the dominant microbial community detected was γ-Pro bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp. at almost throughout the composting process. Whilst Bacillales such as Bacillus psychrodurans were found toward the end of the composting process. Bacteroidetes such as Pedobacter solani were detected at the final stage of composting. This study contributed to a better understanding of microbial shifting and functioning throughout CG-OPF composting. Therefore, PCR-DGGE is recommended to be used as a tool to identify potential microbes that can contribute to a better performance of composting process. (author)

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F; Dadang-Sudrajat; Maria-Lina, R.

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10 -9 g

  8. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  9. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. A Single-Chip CMOS Pulse Oximeter with On-Chip Lock-In Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwei He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and continuous method for monitoring the blood oxygen saturation level. This paper presents the design and testing of a single-chip pulse oximeter fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process. The chip includes photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, analogue band-pass filters, analogue-to-digital converters, digital signal processor and LED timing control. The experimentally measured AC and DC characteristics of individual circuits including the DC output voltage of the transimpedance amplifier, transimpedance gain of the transimpedance amplifier, and the central frequency and bandwidth of the analogue band-pass filters, show a good match (within 1% with the circuit simulations. With modulated light source and integrated lock-in detection the sensor effectively suppresses the interference from ambient light and 1/f noise. In a breath hold and release experiment the single chip sensor demonstrates consistent and comparable performance to commercial pulse oximetry devices with a mean of 1.2% difference. The single-chip sensor enables a compact and robust design solution that offers a route towards wearable devices for health monitoring.

  11. A Single-Chip CMOS Pulse Oximeter with On-Chip Lock-In Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Diwei; Morgan, Stephen P; Trachanis, Dimitrios; van Hese, Jan; Drogoudis, Dimitris; Fummi, Franco; Stefanni, Francesco; Guarnieri, Valerio; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R

    2015-07-14

    Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and continuous method for monitoring the blood oxygen saturation level. This paper presents the design and testing of a single-chip pulse oximeter fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process. The chip includes photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, analogue band-pass filters, analogue-to-digital converters, digital signal processor and LED timing control. The experimentally measured AC and DC characteristics of individual circuits including the DC output voltage of the transimpedance amplifier, transimpedance gain of the transimpedance amplifier, and the central frequency and bandwidth of the analogue band-pass filters, show a good match (within 1%) with the circuit simulations. With modulated light source and integrated lock-in detection the sensor effectively suppresses the interference from ambient light and 1/f noise. In a breath hold and release experiment the single chip sensor demonstrates consistent and comparable performance to commercial pulse oximetry devices with a mean of 1.2% difference. The single-chip sensor enables a compact and robust design solution that offers a route towards wearable devices for health monitoring.

  12. A survey of tools for the analysis of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Stephan; Rödiger, Stefan; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories used for various applications in basic research. Analysis of qPCR data is a crucial part of the entire experiment, which has led to the development of a plethora of methods. The released tools either cover specific parts of the workflow or provide complete analysis solutions. Here, we surveyed 27 open-access software packages and tools for the analysis of qPCR data. The survey includes 8 Microsoft Windows, 5 web-based, 9 R-based and 5 tools from other platforms. Reviewed packages and tools support the analysis of different qPCR applications, such as RNA quantification, DNA methylation, genotyping, identification of copy number variations, and digital PCR. We report an overview of the functionality, features and specific requirements of the individual software tools, such as data exchange formats, availability of a graphical user interface, included procedures for graphical data presentation, and offered statistical methods. In addition, we provide an overview about quantification strategies, and report various applications of qPCR. Our comprehensive survey showed that most tools use their own file format and only a fraction of the currently existing tools support the standardized data exchange format RDML. To allow a more streamlined and comparable analysis of qPCR data, more vendors and tools need to adapt the standardized format to encourage the exchange of data between instrument software, analysis tools, and researchers.

  13. Quantitative Real-Time PCR using the Thermo Scientific Solaris qPCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrean, Christy; Jackson, Ben; Covino, James

    2010-01-01

    The Solaris qPCR Gene Expression Assay is a novel type of primer/probe set, designed to simplify the qPCR process while maintaining the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay. These primer/probe sets are pre-designed to >98% of the human and mouse genomes and feature significant improvements from previously available technologies. These improvements were made possible by virtue of a novel design algorithm, developed by Thermo Scientific bioinformatics experts. Several convenient features have been incorporated into the Solaris qPCR Assay to streamline the process of performing quantitative real-time PCR. First, the protocol is similar to commonly employed alternatives, so the methods used during qPCR are likely to be familiar. Second, the master mix is blue, which makes setting the qPCR reactions easier to track. Third, the thermal cycling conditions are the same for all assays (genes), making it possible to run many samples at a time and reducing the potential for error. Finally, the probe and primer sequence information are provided, simplifying the publication process. Here, we demonstrate how to obtain the appropriate Solaris reagents using the GENEius product search feature found on the ordering web site (www.thermo.com/solaris) and how to use the Solaris reagents for performing qPCR using the standard curve method. PMID:20567213

  14. Pneumocystis PCR: It Is Time to Make PCR the Test of Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Laura; Vogel, Sherilynn; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    The testing strategy for Pneumocystis at the Cleveland Clinic changed from toluidine blue staining to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied the differences in positivity rates for these assays and compared each with the detection of Pneumocystis in companion specimens by cytology and surgical pathology. We reviewed the results of all Pneumocystis test orders 1 year before and 1 year after the implementation of a Pneumocystis -specific PCR. We also reviewed the corresponding cytology and surgical pathology results, if performed. Finally, we reviewed the medical records of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected by PCR in an effort to differentiate colonization vs true disease. Toluidine blue staining and surgical pathology had similar sensitivities and negative predictive values, both of which were superior to cytology. There was a >4-fold increase in the annual detection of Pneumocystis by PCR compared with toluidine blue staining (toluidine blue staining: 11/1583 [0.69%] vs PCR: 44/1457 [3.0%]; chi-square P < .001). PCR detected 1 more case than surgical pathology and was far more sensitive than cytology. Chart review demonstrated that the vast majority of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected were immunosuppressed, had radiologic findings supportive of this infection, had no other pathogens detected, and were treated for pneumocystosis by the clinical team. PCR was the most sensitive method for the detection of Pneumocystis and should be considered the diagnostic test of choice. Correlation with clinical and radiologic findings affords discrimination of early true disease from the far rarer instances of colonization.

  15. Real-time PCR (qPCR) primer design using free online software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most commonly used fluorescent chemistries are SYBR® Green dyes and TaqMan®, Molecular Beacon or Scorpion probes. SYBR® Green is very simple to use and cost efficient. As SYBR® Green dye binds to any double-stranded DNA product, its success depends greatly on proper primer design. Many types of online primer design software are available, which can be used free of charge to design desirable SYBR® Green-based qPCR primers. This laboratory exercise is intended for those who have a fundamental background in PCR. It addresses the basic fluorescent chemistries of real-time PCR, the basic rules and pitfalls of primer design, and provides a step-by-step protocol for designing SYBR® Green-based primers with free, online software. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Methods for size classification of wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter [Forest and Landscape FLD, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Temmerman, Michaeel; Rabier, Fabienne [Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques CRA-W Departement Genie rural, 146, Chaussee de Namur, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Golser, Michael [Holzforschung Austria HFA Franz Grill-Stra beta e 7, A-1031 Wien (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one from hog fuel. The true size distribution of these two samples (according to length, width and height) had been determined stereometrically (reference method) using a digital calliper gauge and by weighing each of the about 7000 wood particles per sample. Five different horizontal and three rotary screening devices were tested using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63mm, round holes). These systems are compared to a commercially available continuously measuring image analysis equipment. The results show that among the devices of a measuring principle-horizontal and rotary screening-the results are quite comparable, while there is a severe incompatibility when distributions are determined by different measuring principles. Highest conformity with the reference values is given for measurements with an image analysis system, whereas for all machines with horizontal screens the median value of the size distribution only reached between one-third to half of the reference median value for the particle length distribution. These deviations can be attributed to a higher particle misplacement, which is particularly found in the larger fractions. Such differences decrease when the particle's shape is more roundish (i.e. sphericity closer to one). The median values of length distributions from screenings with a rotary classifier are between the measurements from an image analysis and horizontal screening devices. (author)

  17. Application of DNA chips in the analysis of gene mutation in HBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongzhong; Ruan Lihua; Zhou Guoping; Wu Guoxiang; Chen Min

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical applicability of DNA chips for analysis of gene mutation in HBV. Methods: Serum HBV DNA from 47 patients with viral hepatitis type B was amplified with PCR. Possible gene mutations were searched for in site 1896 of pre-C section, sites 1762,1764 of BCP section and sites 528, 552 of P section with DNA chip method based upon membrane coloration. Results: In the 32 patients without lamivudine treatment, the results were as follows: (1) 6 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg + , HBeAb - , no mutations observed. (2) 13 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg - , HBeAb + , mutations at site 1896, pre- C 4 cases, mutations at sites 1762,1764, BCP 11 cases. (3) 13 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg + , HBeAb + , mutations at site 1896 pre -C 4 cases, mutations at sites 1762,1764 BCP 13 cases. In the 15 patients after 48 weeks treatment with lamivudine but remained HBV DNA positive, mutations were observed at: site 1896 pre-C, 5 cases, sites 1762,1764 BCP, 6 cases, site 528 P section, 2 cases, site 552 P section, YVDD 4 cases, YIDD 7 cases. Conclusion: Mutations at sites 1896, 1762,1764 were more frequent in patients with HBeAb + and were related to the negative expression of HBeAg, Mutations at 1762,1764 BCP were closely related to the changes of HBeAg/HBeAb. P section mutations were only observed after lamivadine treatment and were related to resistance against the drug. DNA chip method based upon membrane coloration for detection of gene mutation was expedient and specific and worth popularization. (authors)

  18. Digital PCR for direct quantification of viruses without DNA extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pav?i?, Jernej; ?el, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction before amplification is considered an essential step for quantification of viral DNA using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, this can directly affect the final measurements due to variable DNA yields and removal of inhibitors, which leads to increased inter-laboratory variability of qPCR measurements and reduced agreement on viral loads. Digital PCR (dPCR) might be an advantageous methodology for the measurement of virus concentrations, as it does not depend on any calibration mat...

  19. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  20. Architectures for single-chip image computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Robert J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper will focus on the architectures of VLSI programmable processing components for image computing applications. TI, the maker of industry-leading RISC, DSP, and graphics components, has developed an architecture for a new-generation of image processors capable of implementing a plurality of image, graphics, video, and audio computing functions. We will show that the use of a single-chip heterogeneous MIMD parallel architecture best suits this class of processors--those which will dominate the desktop multimedia, document imaging, computer graphics, and visualization systems of this decade.

  1. Comparison of simultaneous splenic sample PCR with blood sample PCR for diagnosis and treatment of experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-11-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  2. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  3. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  4. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  5. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.

    1996-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  6. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H; Seppaenen, V

    1997-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  7. An economic evaluation of a chlorhexidine chip for treating chronic periodontitis: the CHIP (chlorhexidine in periodontitis) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, C J; Villa, K F; Aichelmann-Reidy, M E; Armitage, G C; Eber, R M; Genco, R J; Killoy, W J; Miller, D P; Page, R C; Polson, A M; Ryder, M I; Silva, S J; Somerman, M J; Van Dyke, T E; Wolff, L F; Evans, C J; Finkelman, R D

    2001-11-01

    The authors previously suggested that an adjunctive, controlled-release chlorhexidine, or CHX, chip may reduce periodontal surgical needs at little additional cost. This article presents an economic analysis of the CHX chip in general dental practice. In a one-year prospective clinical trial, 484 chronic periodontitis patients in 52 general practices across the United States were treated with either scaling and root planing, or SRP, plus any therapy prescribed by treating, unblinded dentists; or SRP plus other therapy as above but including the CHX chip. Economic data were collected from bills, case report forms and 12-month treatment recommendations from blinded periodontist evaluators. Total dental charges were higher for SRP + CHX chip patients vs. SRP patients when CHX chip costs were included (P = .027) but lower when CHX chip costs were excluded (P = .012). About one-half of the CHX chip acquisition cost was offset by savings in other charges. SRP + CHX chip patients were about 50 percent less likely to undergo surgical procedures than were SRP patients (P = .021). At the end of the trial, periodontist evaluators recommended similar additional procedures for both groups: SRP, about 46 percent; maintenance, about 37 percent; surgery, 56 percent for SRP alone and 63 percent for SRP + CHX chip. Adjunctive CHX chip use for general-practice patients with periodontitis increased costs but reduced surgeries over one year. At study's end, periodontists recommended similar additional surgical treatment for both groups. In general practice, routine use of the CHX chip suggests that costs will be partially offset by reduced surgery over at least one year.

  8. The gut microbiotassay – a high-throughput real-time PCR chip combined with next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mølbak, Lars

    it demonstrated distinct quantities of bacteria in the different gut sections, with the highest number found in colon as expected. From the sequence data it was evident that primer systems targeting lower taxonomical levels, contributed with a higher resolution, revealing species that primer system targeting...

  9. Experiment list: SRX507380 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available + (wildtype) || age of animals=1-5 day old || tissue=Ovaries || chip antibody=anti-HP1 || chip antibody vend...1770: WT anti-HP1- replicate#2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=WT_WT_anti-HP1 || strain=piwi/

  10. Experiment list: SRX507384 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available + (wildtype) || age of animals=1-5 day old || tissue=Ovaries || chip antibody=Anti-H3K4me2 || chip antibody ... Anti-H3K4me2- replicate#2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=WT_WT_Anti-H3K4me2 || strain=piwi/

  11. Experiment list: SRX507382 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available + (wildtype) || age of animals=1-5 day old || tissue=Ovaries || chip antibody=Anti-H3K9me3 || chip antibody ... Anti-H3K9me3- replicate#2; Drosophila melanogaster; ChIP-Seq source_name=WT_WT_Anti-H3K9me3 || strain=piwi/

  12. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock - Recent Development Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 467 THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK – RECENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRESS R. Lutwak ...1] R. Lutwak , et al., 2003, “The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock – Coherent Population Trapping vs. Conventional Interrogation,” in

  13. A microfluidic chip for electrochemical conversions in drug metabolism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Baumann, A.; Lohmann, W.; van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Olthuis, Wouter; Karst, U.; van den Berg, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a microfluidic microreactor chip for electrochemical conversion of analytes, containing a palladium reference electrode and platinum working and counter electrodes. The counter electrode is placed in a separate side-channel on chip to prevent unwanted side-products appearing in the

  14. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  15. Design of a 1-chip IBM-3270 protocol handler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L.

    1989-01-01

    The single-chip design of a 20MHz IBM-3270 coax protocol handler in a conventional 3 μ CMOS process-technology is discussed. The harmonious combination of CMOS circuit tricks and high-level design disciplines allows the 50k transistor design to be compiled and optimized into a 35 mm**2 chip in 4

  16. Experiment list: SRX144526 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stein-Barr Virus transformed 11803840,92.5,91.6,38 GSM922971: NRF2 ChIP vehicle treated rep2; Homo sapiens; ...ChIP-Seq source_name=NRF2 ChIP vehicle treated || biomaterial_provider=Coriell; h

  17. Experiment list: SRX176063 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Carcinoma 11279321,95.5,3.6,13985 GSM984395: LNCAP ACH3 vehicle; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=prostat...e cancer cells || cell line=LNCaP || chip antibody=AcH3 || chip antibody manufacturer=Millipore || treatment=EtOH vehicle

  18. Experiment list: SRX176057 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nosis=Carcinoma 21582823,90.1,7.3,1074 GSM984389: 22RV1 AR vehicle; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=prost...ate cancer cells || cell line=22RV1 || chip antibody=AR || chip antibody manufacturer=Abcam || treatment=EtOH vehicle

  19. Experiment list: SRX176054 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nosis=Carcinoma 13338805,91.2,4.9,792 GSM984386: LNCAP AR vehicle; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=prosta...te cancer cells || cell line=LNCaP || chip antibody=AR || chip antibody manufacturer=Abcam || treatment=EtOH vehicle

  20. Experiment list: SRX176067 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis=Carcinoma 6619400,91.7,7.2,13648 GSM984399: LNCAP H3K4ME3 vehicle; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=pr...ostate cancer cells || cell line=LNCaP || chip antibody=H3K4Me3 || chip antibody manufacturer=Millipore || treatment=EtOH vehicle

  1. Experiment list: SRX144527 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neage=mesoderm|Description=parental cell type to lymphoblastoid cell lines 8704444,92.1,92.5,9 GSM922972: NRF2 ChIP vehicle... treated rep3; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=NRF2 ChIP vehicle treated || biomaterial_pr

  2. Experiment list: SRX144525 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neage=mesoderm|Description=parental cell type to lymphoblastoid cell lines 14487710,85.8,82.8,188 GSM922970: NRF2 ChIP vehicle... treated rep1; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=NRF2 ChIP vehicle treated || biomaterial

  3. Experiment list: SRX144524 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neage=mesoderm|Description=parental cell type to lymphoblastoid cell lines 4766716,6.2,89.4,0 GSM922969: NRF2 ChIP vehicle... treated pilot; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=NRF2 ChIP vehicle treated || biomaterial_pr

  4. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  5. Experiment list: SRX352046 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SM1232564: CSB M CHIP; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=fibroblast_menadione_CSB-ChIP || cell type=fibroblast || treated with=menad...ione || chip antibody=Mouse monoclonal anti-CSB N Terminus (1B1) http://dbarchive.b

  6. Experiment list: SRX262797 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3T3_SAP1_03 || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=SAP-1a || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechnolo...gy http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachDa

  7. Experiment list: SRX262799 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H3T3_SAP1_LAT || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=SAP-1a || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechno...logy http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/each

  8. Experiment list: SRX262781 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _name=NIH3T3_SRF_15 || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=SRF || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotec...hnology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/e

  9. Experiment list: SRX262786 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H3T3_MRTFA_15 || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-A || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechno...logy http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/each

  10. Experiment list: SRX262791 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IH3T3_MRTFB_LAT || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-B || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech...nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea

  11. Experiment list: SRX262782 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available echnology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9...ce_name=NIH3T3_SRF_15 || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=SRF || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biot

  12. Experiment list: SRX262788 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IH3T3_MRTFA_UO || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-A || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotechn...ology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eac

  13. Experiment list: SRX262787 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IH3T3_MRTFA_LAT || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-A || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech...nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea

  14. Experiment list: SRX262780 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chnology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/...e_name=NIH3T3_SRF_03 || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=SRF || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biote

  15. Experiment list: SRX319552 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available embryonic stem cells || genotype/variation=expressing Flag-bio tagged E2F4 || chip beads=Dynabeads MyOne Streptavidin T1 || chip bea...ds vendor=Invitrogen http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/k

  16. Experiment list: SRX112179 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =OS25 ES cells || chip antibody=H5 (MMS-129R, Covance) || chip antibody manufacturer=Covance || chromatin=Fixed || beads=Magnetic bea...ds http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachDa

  17. Experiment list: SRX112176 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=OS25 ES cells || chip antibody=CTD4H8 (MMS-128P, Covance) || chip antibody manufacturer=Covance || chromatin=Fixed || beads...=Magnetic beads http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/e

  18. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...

  19. Solving wood chip transport problems with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; Sharon A. Winsauer

    1976-01-01

    Efficient chip transport operations are difficult to achieve due to frequent and often unpredictable changes in distance to market, chipping rate, time spent at the mill, and equipment costs. This paper describes a computer simulation model that allows a logger to design an efficient transport system in response to these changing factors.

  20. Experiment list: SRX185915 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MCF-7 |...| cell_type=ER-positive breast adenocarcinoma cells || treatment=DMSO || chip_tar

  1. Experiment list: SRX153147 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Seq source_name=Human breast adenocarcinoma cell-line MCF7 || cell-line=MCF7 || passage=5 || chip antibody=...on=Pleura|Tissue Diagnosis=Adenocarcinoma 64054379,98.7,5.2,764 GSM946851: MCF7 H3K27me3; Homo sapiens; ChIP

  2. Experiment list: SRX153146 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Seq source_name=Human breast adenocarcinoma cell-line MCF7 || cell-line=MCF7 || passage=5 || chip antibody=...n=Pleura|Tissue Diagnosis=Adenocarcinoma 60170246,98.4,5.7,16756 GSM946850: MCF7 H3K27ac; Homo sapiens; ChIP

  3. Experiment list: SRX185909 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MCF-7 ...|| cell_type=ER-positive breast adenocarcinoma cells || treatment=DMSO || chip_ta

  4. Experiment list: SRX153148 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Seq source_name=Human breast adenocarcinoma cell-line MCF7 || cell-line=MCF7 || passage=5 || chip antibody=...n=Pleura|Tissue Diagnosis=Adenocarcinoma 57306360,95.7,15.1,2666 GSM946852: MCF7 H3K9me3; Homo sapiens; ChIP

  5. Experiment list: SRX185917 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MCF-7 ...|| cell_type=ER-positive breast adenocarcinoma cells || treatment=DMSO || chip_ta

  6. Experiment list: SRX150568 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is=Adenocarcinoma 59265240,72.4,16.4,4779 GSM935489: Harvard ChipSeq HeLa-S3 RPC155 std source_name=HeLa-S3 ...|| biomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipS

  7. Experiment list: SRX150661 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is=Adenocarcinoma 59396606,71.7,11.1,1200 GSM935582: Harvard ChipSeq HeLa-S3 BRF1 std source_name=HeLa-S3 ||... biomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq

  8. Experiment list: SRX150495 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is=Adenocarcinoma 62508352,67.6,8.4,1556 GSM935416: Harvard ChipSeq HeLa-S3 ZZZ3 std source_name=HeLa-S3 || ...biomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq

  9. Experiment list: SRX150565 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Adenocarcinoma 54953593,74.3,12.2,1703 GSM935486: Harvard ChipSeq HeLa-S3 BDP1 std source_name=HeLa-S3 || b...iomaterial_provider=ATCC || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq |

  10. Experiment list: SRX150586 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Barr Virus 33195472,90.4,25.9,15633 GSM935507: Harvard ChipSeq GM12878 NF-YB IgG-mus source_name=GM12878 ||...?PgId=165&q=GM12878 || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq || dat

  11. Experiment list: SRX150496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ein-Barr Virus 63040797,85.0,19.7,1435 GSM935417: Harvard ChipSeq GM12878 SPT20 std source_name=GM12878 || b...gId=165&q=GM12878 || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq || datat

  12. Experiment list: SRX150585 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Barr Virus 32926476,94.0,12.0,2668 GSM935506: Harvard ChipSeq GM12878 NF-YA IgG-mus source_name=GM12878 || ...PgId=165&q=GM12878 || lab=Harvard || lab description=Struhl - Harvard University || datatype=ChipSeq || data

  13. Power and Thermal Management of System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei

    , are necessary at the chip design level. In this work, we investigate the power and thermal management of System-on- Chips (SoCs). Thermal analysis is performed in a SPICE simulation approach based on the electrical-thermal analogy. We investigate the impact of inter- connects on heat distribution...

  14. SNP typing on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Morling, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We describe a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray. The NanoChip array consists of 100 electrodes covered by a thin hydrogel layer containing streptavidin. An electric currency can be applied to one, several, or all electrodes...

  15. Exploration within the Network-on-Chip Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    A general purpose processor used to consist of a single processing core, which performed and controlled all tasks on the chip. Its functionality and maximum clock frequency grew steadily over the years. Due to the continuous increase of the number of transistors available on-chip and the operational

  16. Experiment list: SRX119679 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8,18360 GSM874985: ES.H3K27me3; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=H1 human Embryonic stem cells || cell line=H1 || treatment=diagnos...tic sample (pre-treatment) || chip antibody=H3K27me3 || chip antibody manufacturer=

  17. Experiment list: SRX119684 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2,13603 GSM874990: ES.H3K79me2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=H1 human Embryonic stem cell || cell line=H1 || treatment=diagnost...ic sample (pre-treatment) || chip antibody=H3K79me2 || chip antibody manufacturer=A

  18. Experiment list: SRX037432 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s from PBMC, normal || gender=male || cell type=aTconv cells || chip antibody=H3K4me1 || chip antibody vendo...=peripheral blood mononuclear cells 14792460,17.0,2.9,5804 GSM648494: aTconv-H3K4me1 source_name=aTconv cell

  19. Experiment list: SRX485219 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 56 GSM1346560: RNA Polymerase II ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries; Drosophila melanogaster; ChI...P-Seq source_name=RNA Polymerase II ChIP from control germline knock-down ovaries || developmental stage=4-6... days old adult || Sex=female || tissue=ovary || germline knock-down=control || c

  20. Experiment list: SRX107410 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma 37378122,96.3,56.7,376 GSM838388: h3k36me3 si23 ChIP-Seq; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=Hela cells knock...down Med23 || chip antibody=H3K36me3 || treatment=knockdown Med23 || cell line=HeLa || chip

  1. On-chip integrated lasers for biophotonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Wienhold, Tobias; Bog, Uwe

    Meeting the need of biomedical users, we develop disposable Lab-on-a-Chip systems based on commercially available polymers. We are combining passive microfluidics with active optical elements on-chip by integrating multiple solid-state and liquid-core lasers. While covering a wide range of laser ...

  2. Experiment list: SRX160914 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M970829: IgG for KSHV LANA; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=BCBL1 pleural effusion lymphoma, IgG ChIP || ...cell line=BCBL1 || cell type=KSHV-infected pleural effusion lymphoma cells || chip antibody=Rabbit IgG [Sant

  3. Experiment list: SRX151246 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11: SMC1 ChIPSeq; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=BCBL1 pleural effusion lymphoma, SMC1 ChIP || cell line...=BCBL1 || cell type=KSHV-infected pleural effusion lymphoma cells || chip antibody=rabbit anti-SMC1 || antib

  4. Experiment list: SRX160915 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M970828: IgG for CTCF SMC1; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=BCBL1 pleural effusion lymphoma, IgG ChIP || ...cell line=BCBL1 || cell type=KSHV-infected pleural effusion lymphoma cells || chip antibody=Mouse IgG [Santa

  5. Experiment list: SRX151245 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0: CTCF ChIPSeq; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=BCBL1 pleural effusion lymphoma, CTCF ChIP || cell line=...BCBL1 || cell type=KSHV-infected pleural effusion lymphoma cells || chip antibody=rabbit anti-CTCF || antibo

  6. Cassava chips quality as influenced by cultivar, blanching time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, fried cassava chips and crisps are increasingly being consumed as snacks; and fried cassava chips are produced by street processors. The quality and safety of these products is not known, therefore, the current study was to establish the influence of cassava cultivar, blanching time and slice thickness on quality ...

  7. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA: comparison of one-stage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with nested-set PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Gretch, D R; Wilson, J J; Carithers, R L; dela Rosa, C; Han, J H; Corey, L

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated a new hepatitis C virus RNA assay based on one-stage PCR followed by liquid hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and compared it with nested-set PCR. The one-stage and nested-set PCR assays had identical sensitivities in analytical experiments and showed 100% concordance when clinical specimens were used. One-stage PCR may be less prone to contamination than nested-set PCR.

  8. Decapsulation Method for Flip Chips with Ceramics in Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.; Duh, J. G.

    2008-06-01

    The decapsulation of flip chips bonded to ceramic substrates is a challenging task in the packaging industry owing to the vulnerability of the chip surface during the process. In conventional methods, such as manual grinding and polishing, the solder bumps are easily damaged during the removal of underfill, and the thin chip may even be crushed due to mechanical stress. An efficient and reliable decapsulation method consisting of thermal and chemical processes was developed in this study. The surface quality of chips after solder removal is satisfactory for the existing solder rework procedure as well as for die-level failure analysis. The innovative processes included heat-sink and ceramic substrate removal, solder bump separation, and solder residue cleaning from the chip surface. In the last stage, particular temperatures were selected for the removal of eutectic Pb-Sn, high-lead, and lead-free solders considering their respective melting points.

  9. Modelling, Synthesis, and Configuration of Networks-on-Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo

    This thesis presents three contributions in two different areas of network-on-chip and system-on-chip research: Application modelling and identifying and solving different optimization problems related to two specific network-on-chip architectures. The contribution related to application modelling...... is an analytical method for deriving the worst-case traffic pattern caused by an application and the cache-coherence protocol in a cache-coherent shared-memory system. The contributions related to network-on-chip optimization problems consist of two parts: The development and evaluation of six heuristics...... for solving the network synthesis problem in the MANGO network-on-chip, and the identification and formalization of the ReNoC configuration problem together with three heuristics for solving it....

  10. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F.; Lei, Y.; Yu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  11. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices

  12. A miniaturized and integrated gel post platform for multiparameter PCR detection of herpes simplex viruses from raw genital swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Atrazhev, Alexey; Morrissey, Yuen C; Edwards, Ann L; Stickel, Alexander J; Crabtree, H John; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Zahariadis, George; Yanow, Stephanie K; Pilarski, Linda M

    2012-05-07

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most prevalent viruses, with acute and recurrent infections in humans. The current gold standard for the diagnosis of HSV is viral culture which takes 2-14 days and has low sensitivity. In contrast, DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be performed within 1-2 h. We here describe a multiparameter PCR assay to simultaneously detect HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA templates, together with integrated positive and negative controls, with product detection by melting curve analysis (MCA), in an array of semi-solid polyacrylamide gel posts. Each gel post is 0.67 μL in volume, and polymerized with all the components required for PCR. Both PCR and MCA can currently be performed in one hour and 20 min. Unprocessed genital swabs collected in universal transport medium were directly added to the reagents before or after polymerization, diffusing from atop the gel posts. The gel post platform detects HSV templates in as little as 2.5 nL of raw sample. In this study, 45 genital swab specimens were tested blindly as a preliminary validation of this platform. The concordance of PCR on gel posts with conventional PCR was 91%. The primer sequestration method introduced here (wherein different primers are placed in different sets of posts) enables the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens for the same sample, together with positive and negative controls, on a single chip. This platform accepts unprocessed samples and is readily adaptable to detection of multiple different pathogens or biomarkers for point-of-care diagnostics.

  13. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  14. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  15. Biosensors-on-chip: a topical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sensen; Shamsi, Mohtashim H

    2017-01-01

    This review will examine the integration of two fields that are currently at the forefront of science, i.e. biosensors and microfluidics. As a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology, microfluidics has been enriched by the integration of various detection tools for analyte detection and quantitation. The application of such microfluidic platforms is greatly increased in the area of biosensors geared towards point-of-care diagnostics. Together, the merger of microfluidics and biosensors has generated miniaturized devices for sample processing and sensitive detection with quantitation. We believe that microfluidic biosensors (biosensors-on-chip) are essential for developing robust and cost effective point-of-care diagnostics. This review is relevant to a variety of disciplines, such as medical science, clinical diagnostics, LOC technologies including MEMs/NEMs, and analytical science. Specifically, this review will appeal to scientists working in the two overlapping fields of biosensors and microfluidics, and will also help new scientists to find their directions in developing point-of-care devices. (topical review)

  16. Nano technologies for Biosensor and Bio chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.M.; Park, T.J.; Paskaleva, E.E.; Sun, F.; Seo, J.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The bio sensing devices are characterized by their biological receptors, which have specificity to their corresponding analytes. These analytes are a vast and diverse group of biological molecules, DNAs, proteins (such as antibodies), fatty acids, or entire biological systems, such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, or other living organisms. A main challenge in the development of biosensor applications is the efficient recognition of a biological signal in a low signal-to-noise ratio environment, and its transduction into an electrochemical, optical, or other signals. The advent of nano material technology greatly increased the potential for achieving exquisite sensitivity of such devises, due to the innate high surface-to-volume ratio and high reactivity of the nano material. The second major challenge facing the biosensor application, that of sca lability, is addressed by multiplexing and miniaturizing of the biosensor devises into a bio chip. In recent years, biosensor and bio chip technologies have made significant progress by taking advantages of diverse kinds of nano materials that are derived from nano technology

  17. 75 FR 16149 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-April 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-2312-N] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- April 26, 2010 AGENCIES: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of...

  18. 75 FR 30046 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-June 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., Employee Benefits Security Administration, DOL at (202) 693-8335. News media representatives must contact... eligible for benefits under titles XIX or XXI of the Social Security Act (the Act) to enable them to enroll...] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP...

  19. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Maheshwari

    Full Text Available Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative PCR (qPCR for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR.

  20. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Ahsani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen that provokes numerous different diseases. This bacterium is classified into five different types, each of which capable of causing a different disease. There are various methods for the bacterial identification, many are labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive and also present low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens using PCR molecular method. In this study, 130 sheep-dung samples were randomly collected from areas around the city of Kerman, southeastern Iran. After processing and culturing of samples, the produced colonies were morphologically studied, gram stain test was also carried out and the genera of these bacteria were identified through biochemical tests. DNA extracted from isolated bacteria for genotyping was tested by multiplex PCR with specific primers. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin types and bacterial strains were detected. C. perfringens isolated types were divided as follows: 17.39% type A, 21.74% type B, 34.78% type C and 26.09% type D. It should be emphasized that, up to the present moment, C. perfringens type A has not been reported in Iran.