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Sample records for pcb degrading fungi

  1. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  2. Study of PCB degradation in real contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšlavá, E.; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Macek, Tomáš; Nováková, H.; Demnerová, K.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 12 (2003), s. 296-301 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA526/01/1292 Grant - others:GA EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Phytoremediation * rhizoremediation * PCB degradation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  3. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  4. Pyrene degradation by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Cristina; Salvioli, Mónica L; Cazau, M Cecilia; Arambarri, A M

    2002-01-01

    The saprotrophic soil fungi Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Cylindrocarpon didymum (Hartig) Wollenw, Penicillium variabile Sopp. and the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresenius) Harrison and Rhodotorula minuta (Saito) Harrison were cultured in mineral medium with pyrene. The remaining pyrene concentrations were periodically determined during 20 incubation days, using HPLC. To assess the metabolism of pyrene degradation we added 0.1 microCi of [4,5,9,10] 14C-pyrene to each fungi culture and measured the radioactivity in the volatile organic substances, extractable, aqueous phase, biomass and 14CO2 fractions. The assays demonstrated that F. solani and R. glutinis metabolized pyrene as a sole source of carbon. Differences in their activities at the beginning of the cultures disappeared by the end of the experiment, when 32 and 37% of the original pyrene concentration was detected, for the soil fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the filamentous fungi, F. solani was highly active and oxidized pyrene; moreover, small but significant degradation rates were observed in C. didymum and P. variahile cultures. An increase in the 14CO2 evolution was observed at the 17th day with cosubstrate. R. glutinis and R. minuta cultures showed similar ability to biotransform pyrene, and that 35% of the initial concentration was consumed at the end of the assay. The same results were obtained in the experiments with or without glucose as cosubstrate.

  5. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  6. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  7. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  8. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-01-01

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 in the presence of potentially volatile [ 14 C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [ 14 C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate

  9. Degradation of PAH by white-rot fungi. Abbau von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen durch Weissfaeulepilze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcherczyk, A [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technische Mykologie; Zeddel, A [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technische Mykologie; Kelschebach, M [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technische Mykologie; Loske, D [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technische Mykologie; Huettermann, A [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technische Mykologie

    1993-04-01

    The reports on exciting good results on degradation of xenobiotic substances by Phanaerochaete chrysosporium obtained in the early eighties in liquid cultures were confirmed for a wide spectrum of white-rot fungi under soil conditions. The substance classes which were successfully degraded were: PAH, PCB and TNT. The results obtained in the laboratory could in the case of PAH be transfered to a larger scale. The addition of known inducers of lignolytic enzymes did not increase the rate of degradation of xenobiotics of the white-rot fungi. The most critical parameter is the oxygen supply. For improving the economics of the process, cheap methods of growing the fungi were developed, such as the treatment of the substrate with detergents or the supplementing with potato pulp. These treatments have the advantage that they do not require expensive thermal activation of the substrate. Both processes provide excellent growth of the fungi without additional treatments. The at present best process for bioremediation of soils with white-rot fungi includes the following steps: liquification of the soil to a slurry, addition of the fungi together with possibly other substances e.g. tensides, solidification of the slurry by the addition of a lignocellulosic substrate which converts the slurry to a crumbly solid which can be well areated. The mass is then transferred to a closed container and incubated under controlled aeration. The problems being unsolved are: upscaling to the cubic meter scale, the lack of bioavailability of the xenobiotics in many soils, the lack of information about the degradation products and the most suitable way of determining the residual toxicity of the treated soils. (orig.)

  10. Marine fungi: Degraders of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate based plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new biosynthetic and biodegradable materials to save nonrenewable resources and reduce global pollution problems is an urgent task. Recently, materials like thermoplastic poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, have been found synthesized by bacteria as storage materials. The major PHAs synthesized are poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHV and their copolymers. They are already commercially produced and used as BIOPOLTM (ICI, England. Their complete degradability by bacteria has already been shown. Today, oceans and estuaries serve as major landfills, and since fungi are an important part of the degrading microbiota, in order to prove their participation in the degradation process, a simple degradation test suitable for fungi and marine conditions had to be developed. Several solid media based on artificial sea water, differing in the content of non-alkanoate organics and supplemented with 0.1% PHA (or BIOPOLTM as a main source of carbon have been tested. The testing principle consists of clearing the turbid medium in test tube or plates caused by suspended granules of PHA. All media tested supported the growth of fungi. For the discrete and transparent clearing of zones, a mineral medium with 0.01% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, and 0.1% PHB or BIOPOLTM was finally chosen where the fine and evenly distributed turbidity is accomplished by a specific procedure. This method allows the investigation of degradability of PHA-based plastic materials as well as screening for fungal ability to depolymerise pure PHA homopolymers. Using this medium, 32 strains of marine yeasts and 102 strains of marine mycelial fungi belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were tested for their ability to degrade PHAs. Only about 4% of the strains were able to degrade BIOPOLTM and about 6% depolymerised pure PHB homopolymer. This is in sharp contrast to the results of our previous experiments with 143 strains of terrestrial fungi

  11. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huszcza, Ewa; Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw

    2008-01-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops

  12. Degradation of natural cellulose by thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, A P; Johri, B N

    1981-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus Friesen, Sporotrichum sp., Thermoascus aurantiacus Miche and Torula thermophila Cooney and Emerson were able to degrade filter paper to an appreciable extent. Absidia corymbifera (Cohn) Saccardo et Trotter, Rhizopus microsporus van Tieghem and R. rhizopodiformis (Cohn) Zopf could not degrade filter paper though they were able to grow on the media supplied. The fungi able to degrade filter paper were also capable of elaborating extracellular cellulase and produced sufficient hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose. The Cx enzyme was stable at 45 degrees C for 25 days. An incubation period of 15 to 25 days was sufficient not only to degrade CMC but even more complex substrates, such as jute, cotton and filter paper. The cellulases of these fungi were inductive in nature. (Refs. 11).

  13. Keratinophilic Fungi: Nature's Keratin Degrading Machines!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    working on his PhD on taxonomic studies on ..... detected in the culture filtrates, then the fungus does not possess the ability to degrade keratin. .... UK, 1995. [5] Y Graser and others, Medical Mycology, Vol. 31, pp lOS-114, 1999. [6] J Kunert ...

  14. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  15. Isolation and characterisation of theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro-Mensah, Daniel; Ocloo, Augustine; Lowor, Sammy T; Bonney, Evelyn Y; Okine, Laud K N A; Adamafio, Naa Ayikailey

    2018-01-01

    Strategies for achieving global food security include identification of alternative feedstock for use as animal feed, to contribute towards efforts at increasing livestock farming. The presence of theobromine in cocoa pod husks, a major agro-waste in cocoa-producing countries, hinders its utilisation for this purpose. Cheap treatment of cocoa pod husks to remove theobromine would allow largescale beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes generated annually. The aim of this study was to isolate theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi that could serve as bioremediation agents for detheobromination of cocoa pod husks. Filamentous fungi were screened for ability to degrade theobromine. The most promising isolates were characterized with respect to optimal environmental conditions for theobromine degradation. Secretion of theobromine-degrading enzymes by the isolates was investigated. Theobromine degradation was monitored by HPLC. Of fourteen theobromine-degrading isolates collected and identified by rDNA 5.8S and ITS sequences, seven belonged to Aspergillus spp. and six were Talaromyces spp. Based on the extent of theobromine utilization, four isolates; Aspergillus niger, Talaromyces verruculosus and two Talaromyces marneffei, showed the best potential for use as bioagents for detheobromination. First-time evidence was found of the use of xanthine oxidase and theobromine oxidase in degradation of a methylxanthine by fungal isolates. Metabolism of theobromine involved initial demethylation at position 7 to form 3-methylxanthine, or initial oxidation at position 8 to form 3,7-dimethyuric acid. All four isolates degraded theobromine beyond uric acid. The data suggest that the four isolates can be applied to substrates, such as cocoa pod husks, for elimination of theobromine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremediation of long-term PCB-contaminated soil by white-rot fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Čvančarová, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Petruccioli, M.; D´Annibale, A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 324, FEB 15 PART B (2017), s. 701-710 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02328S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleurotus ostreatus * Ligninolytic fungi * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  17. Bioremediation of lignosulphonates by lignin-degrading basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, M E; Carbajo, J M; Terrón, M C; González, A E; Villar, J C

    2008-07-01

    The capability of some ligninolytic fungi to degrade lignosulphonates has been studied. Three lignosulphonates concentrations, three culture media and seven different basidiomycetes in solid-cultures have been assayed to select the conditions for further experiments on submerged cultures. The best results of growth and lignosulphonate decolourization in solid-cultures were obtained with Pycnoporus sanguineus, Coriolus pubescens and Trametes sp. I-62 on Kirk's medium and 1% and 2% of lignosulphonate concentrations. In submerged cultures the lignosulphonate decolourization rate was generally higher when it was added on the 6th day, rather than when it was added from the beginning of the incubation and C. pubescens and P. sanguineus showed again the optimum results of decolourization. Extracellular laccase activity increased with lignosulphonate concentration in all assayed fungi, suggesting that lignosulphonate act as inductors of laccase activity.

  18. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry.

  19. Enrichment and Characterization of PCB-Degrading Bacteria as Potential Seed Cultures for Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Hršak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our study was to obtain seed cultures for enhancing the transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in contaminated soil of the transformer station in Zadar, Croatia, damaged during warfare activities in 1991. For enrichment, six soil samples were collected from different polluted areas and microcosm approach, stimulating the growth of biphenyl-degrading bacteria, was employed. Enrichment experiments resulted in the selection of two fast growing mixed cultures TSZ7 and AIR1, originating from the soil of the transformer station and the airport area, respectively. Both cultures showed significant PCB-degrading activity (56 to 60 % of PCB50 mixture was reduced after a two-week cultivation. Furthermore, the cultures displayed similar PCB-degrading competence and reduced di-to tetrachlorobiphenyls more effectively than penta- to hepta-chlorobiphenyls. Strain Z6, identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, was found to be the only culture member showing PCB-transformation potential similar to that of the mixed culture TSZ7, from which it was isolated. Based on the metabolites identified in the assay with the single congener 2,4,4’-chlorobiphenyl, we proposed that the strain Z6 was able to use both the 2,3-and 3,4-dioxygenase pathways. Furthermore, the identified metabolites suggested that beside these pathways another unidentified pathway might also be active in strain Z6. Based on the obtained results, the culture TSZ7 and the strain Z6 were designated as potential seed cultures for bioremediation of the contaminated soil.

  20. The mechanism for enhanced oxidation degradation of dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-77) in the atmosphere by the solvation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mei-Ling; Yang, Jia-Wen; Li, Yu

    2017-07-11

    The reaction pathways of PCB-77 in the atmosphere with ·OH, O 2 , NO x , and 1 O 2 were inferred based on density functional theory calculations with the 6-31G* basis set. The structures the reactants, transition states, intermediates, and products were optimized. The energy barriers and reaction heats were obtained to determine the energetically favorable reaction pathways. To study the solvation effect, the energy barriers and reaction rates for PCB-77 with different polar and nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, and water) were calculated. The results showed that ·OH preferentially added to the C5 atom of PCB-77, which has no Cl atom substituent, to generate the intermediate IM5. This intermediate subsequently reacted with O 2 via pathway A to generate IM5a, with an energy barrier of 7.27 kcal/mol and total reaction rate of 8.45 × 10 -8  cm 3 /molecule s. Pathway B involved direct dehydrogenation of IM5 to produce the OH-PCBs intermediate IM5b, with an energy barrier of 28.49 kcal/mol and total reaction rate of 1.15 × 10 -5  cm 3 /molecule s. The most likely degradation pathway of PCB-77 in the atmosphere is pathway A to produce IM5a. The solvation effect results showed that cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, and benzene could reduce the reaction energy barrier of pathway A. Among these solvents, the solvation effect of benzene was the largest, and could reduce the total reaction energy barrier by 25%. Cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethanol could increase the total reaction rate of pathway A. The increase in the reaction rate of pathway A with benzene was 8%. The effect of solvents on oxidative degradation of PCB-77 in the atmosphere is important. Graphical abstract The reaction pathways of PCB-77 in the atmosphere with •OH, O2, NOx, and 1O2 were inferred based on density functional theory

  1. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  2. Fungal degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and a semiquantitative assay for screening their degradation by terrestrial fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavulj, M; Molitoris, H P

    1992-12-01

    The current problems with decreasing fossile resources and increasing environmental pollution by petrochemical-based plastics have stimulated investigations to find biosynthetic materials which are also biodegradable. Bacterial reserve materials such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been discovered to possess thermoplastic properties and can be synthesized from renewable resources. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is at present the most promising PHA; and BIOPOL, its copolymer with poly-beta-hydroxy-valerate (PHV), is already industrially produced (ICI, UK), and used as packaging material (WELLA, FRG). According to the literature, PHA degradation has so far mainly been observed in bacteria; only under certain environmental conditions has fungal degradation of PHAs been indicated. Since fungi constitute an important part of microbial populations participating in degradation processes, a simple screening method for fungal degradation of BIOPOL, a PHA-based plastic, was developed. Several media with about 150 fungal strains from different terrestrial environments and belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were used. PHA depolymerization was tested on three PHB-based media, each with 0.1% BIOPOL or PHB homopolymer causing turbidity of the medium. The media contained either a comparatively low or high content of organic carbon (beside PHA) or were based on mineral medium with PHA as the principal source of carbon. The degradation activity was detectable due to formation of a clear halo around the colony (Petri plates) or a clear zone under the colony (test tubes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  4. Treatment of colored effluents with lignin-degrading enzymes: An emerging role of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Verma, A.K.

    laccase, manganese-peroxidase and lignin peroxidases are useful in the treatment of colored industrial effluents and other xenobiotics. Free mycelia, mycelial pellets, immobilized fungi or their lignin-degrading enzymes fromterrestrial fungi have been...

  5. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  6. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  7. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  8. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  9. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...... planes in all degraded samples after roughly 20% weight loss, as well as a decrease in the average observed relative peak width at 2¿ = 22.2°. These results may indicate a disruption of the outer most semi-crystalline cellulose chains comprising the wood microfibril. X-ray diffraction analysis of wood...... subjected to biological attack by fungi may provide insight into degradative processes and wood cellulose structure....

  10. Exploring the potential of fungi isolated from PAH-polluted soil as a source of xenobiotics-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Calderón, Andrea; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading fungi adapted to polluted environments for further application in bioremediation processes. In this study, a total of 23 fungal species were isolated from a historically pyrogenic PAH-polluted soil in Spain and taxonomically identified. The dominant groups in these samples were the ones associated with fungi belonging to the Ascomycota phylum and two isolates belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum and Basiodiomycota phylum. We tested their ability to convert the three-ring PAH anthracene in a 42-day time course and analysed their ability to secrete extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes. Among the 23 fungal species screened, 12 were able to oxidize anthracene, leading to the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone as the main metabolite, a less toxic one than the parent compound. The complete removal of anthracene was achieved by three fungal species. In the case of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, extracellular enzyme independent degradation of the initial 100 μM anthracene occurred, whilst in the case of the ligninolytic fungus Fomes (Basidiomycota), the same result was obtained with extracellular enzyme-dependent transformation. The yield of accumulated 9,10-anthraquinone was 80 and 91 %, respectively, and Fomes sp. could slowly deplete it from the growth medium when offered alone. These results are indicative for the effectiveness of these fungi for pollutant removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Ability of some species of fungi of the Basidiomycetes class to degrade cellulose and lignocellulose substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Tagoński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried-out on the ability of 18 strains of 15 white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetons fungi to degrade wood components and to synthesize cellulolytic enzymes and laccase. 28,5% lignin and 26,1% carbohydrates of pine wood meal, 46,2% lignin and 67,8% carbohydrates of beech wood meal was degraded after 6 weeks incubation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochate chrysosporium. The highest activity of laccase was obtained in from fungi Coriotus zonatus and Fomes fomentarius.

  12. Combined use of different Gfp reporters for monitoring single-cell activities of a genetically modified PCB degrader in the rhizosphere of alfalfa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, T.S.; Sørensen, J.; Karlsson, U.

    2004-01-01

    Single-cell localization and activity of Pseudomonas,fluorescens F113, colonizing alfalfa roots, were monitored using fusions of the Escherichia coli rrnBP1 ribosomal promoter and gfp genes encoding green fluorescent protein (Gfp) of different stability. The monitoring systems permitted non...... of chlorinated biphenyl was constructed, using another gfp fusion with the meta-pathway Pin promoter from Pseudomonas putida (TOL plasmid). Expression of this promoter, which is strongly induced by the PCB-2 degradation product, 3-chlorobenzoate, was tested in vitro and subsequently monitored in vivo on alfalfa...... roots using the P. fluorescens F113rifpcb reporter. A small but distinct fraction of the introduced bacteria activated the Pm promoter and thus appeared to sense a PCB-2 degradation product in the alfalfa rhizosphere. The degrading cells, which by design were identical to the sensing cells, were located...

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  14. Differences in crystalline cellulose modification due to degradation by brown and white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Goodell, Barry; Jellison, Jody

    2012-10-01

    Wood-decaying basidiomycetes are some of the most effective bioconverters of lignocellulose in nature, however the way they alter wood crystalline cellulose on a molecular level is still not well understood. To address this, we examined and compared changes in wood undergoing decay by two species of brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Meruliporia incrassata, and two species of white rot fungi, Irpex lacteus and Pycnoporus sanguineus, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The overall percent crystallinity in wood undergoing decay by M. incrassata, G. trabeum, and I. lacteus appeared to decrease according to the stage of decay, while in wood decayed by P. sanguineus the crystallinity was found to increase during some stages of degradation. This result is suggested to be potentially due to the different decay strategies employed by these fungi. The average spacing between the 200 cellulose crystal planes was significantly decreased in wood degraded by brown rot, whereas changes observed in wood degraded by the two white rot fungi examined varied according to the selectivity for lignin. The conclusions were supported by a quantitative analysis of the structural components in the wood before and during decay confirming the distinct differences observed for brown and white rot fungi. The results from this study were consistent with differences in degradation methods previously reported among fungal species, specifically more non-enzymatic degradation in brown rot versus more enzymatic degradation in white rot. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  16. Lignin degrading system of white-rot fungi and its exploitation for dye decolorization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, V.; Nerud, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 857-870 ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lignin degradation * white-rot fungi * laccase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2002

  17. Formation of cellulases and degradation of cellulose by several fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, D; Luck, G; Dellweg, H

    1978-01-01

    Five strains of fungi (Aspergillus niger, Lenzites trabea, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma koningii and Trichoderma lignorum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes on pure glucose and on cellulose media. The most active strains belonging to the genera of Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Myrothecium, also secreting high activities of ..beta..-glucosidase, were grown in a bioreactor under defined conditions. Depending on the strain this procedure resulted in a manifold increase in cellulolytic activities. The culture filtrates were concentrated and standardized with respect to ..beta..-glucosidase activity and used for the hydrolysis of cellulose powder. With Trichoderma-cellulase, 46% conversion of crystalline cellulose to glucose was achieved within 48 h. The ratio of cellobiose to glucose found in the hydrolysate, the amount of high molecular carbohydrates as well as the degree of hydrolysis widely depended on the type of cellulase used.

  18. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-12-31

    Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21%) of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to those normally found in phytopathogens.

  19. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaf-cutting (attine ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. Results We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21% of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Conclusions Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to

  20. Early-branching Gut Fungi Possess A Large, And Comprehensive Array Of Biomass-Degrading Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Kevin V.; Haitjema, Charles; Henske, John K.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Lipzen, Anna; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Regev, Aviv; Thompson, Dawn; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2016-03-11

    The fungal kingdom is the source of almost all industrial enzymes in use for lignocellulose bioprocessing. Its more primitive members, however, remain relatively unexploited. We developed a systems-level approach that integrates RNA-Seq, proteomics, phenotype and biochemical studies of relatively unexplored early-branching free-living fungi. Anaerobic gut fungi isolated from herbivores produce a large array of biomass-degrading enzymes that synergistically degrade crude, unpretreated plant biomass, and are competitive with optimized commercial preparations from Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Compared to these model platforms, gut fungal enzymes are unbiased in substrate preference due to a wealth of xylan-degrading enzymes. These enzymes are universally catabolite repressed, and are further regulated by a rich landscape of noncoding regulatory RNAs. Furthermore, we identified several promising sequence divergent enzyme candidates for lignocellulosic bioprocessing.

  1. The potential role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the restoration of degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha Asmelash Belay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiences worldwide reveal that degraded lands restoration projects achieve little success or fail. Hence, understanding the underlining causes and accordingly, devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. In doing so, the ever-increasing aspiration and global commitments in degraded lands restoration could be realized. Here we explain that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF biotechnology is a potential mechanism to significantly improve the restoration success of degraded lands. There are abundant scientific evidences to demonstrate that AMF significantly improve soil attributes, increase above and belowground biodiversity, significantly improve tree/shrub seedlings survival, growth and establishment on moisture and nutrient stressed soils. AMF have also been shown to drive plant succession and may prevent invasion by alien species. The very few conditions where infective AMF are low in abundance and diversity is when the soil erodes, is disturbed and is devoid of vegetation cover. These are all common features of degraded lands. Meanwhile, degraded lands harbor low levels of infective AMF abundance and diversity. Therefore, the successful restoration of infective AMF can potentially improve the restoration success of degraded lands. Better AMF inoculation effects result when inocula are composed of native fungi instead of exotics, early seral instead of late seral fungi, and are consortia instead of few or single species. Future research efforts should focus on AMF effect on plant community primary productivity and plant competition. Further investigation focusing on forest ecosystems and carried out at the field condition is highly recommended. Devising cheap and ethically widely accepted inocula production methods and better ways of AMF in-situ management for effective restoration of degraded lands will also remain to be important research areas. Keywords: AMF, ecological restoration, facilitation, inoculation, land degradation

  2. The Potential Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Restoration of Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmelash, Fisseha; Bekele, Tamrat; Birhane, Emiru

    2016-01-01

    Experiences worldwide reveal that degraded lands restoration projects achieve little success or fail. Hence, understanding the underlying causes and accordingly, devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. In doing so, the ever-increasing aspiration and global commitments in degraded lands restoration could be realized. Here we explain that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biotechnology is a potential mechanism to significantly improve the restoration success of degraded lands. There are abundant scientific evidences to demonstrate that AMF significantly improve soil attributes, increase above and belowground biodiversity, significantly improve tree/shrub seedlings survival, growth and establishment on moisture and nutrient stressed soils. AMF have also been shown to drive plant succession and may prevent invasion by alien species. The very few conditions where infective AMF are low in abundance and diversity is when the soil erodes, is disturbed and is devoid of vegetation cover. These are all common features of degraded lands. Meanwhile, degraded lands harbor low levels of infective AMF abundance and diversity. Therefore, the successful restoration of infective AMF can potentially improve the restoration success of degraded lands. Better AMF inoculation effects result when inocula are composed of native fungi instead of exotics, early seral instead of late seral fungi, and are consortia instead of few or single species. Future research efforts should focus on AMF effect on plant community primary productivity and plant competition. Further investigation focusing on forest ecosystems, and carried out at the field condition is highly recommended. Devising cheap and ethically widely accepted inocula production methods and better ways of AMF in situ management for effective restoration of degraded lands will also remain to be important research areas. PMID:27507960

  3. Novel diesel-oil-degrading bacteria and fungi from the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, N R; Masabanda, M; Leiva-Mora, M

    2015-01-01

    Isolating new diesel-oil-degrading microorganisms from crude-oil contaminated sites and evaluating their degradation capacities are vitally important in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and crude-oil exploitation. In this research, new hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi were isolated from the crude-oil contaminated soil of the oil-fields in the Amazon rainforest of north-east Ecuador by using a soil enrichment technique. Degradation analysis was tracked by gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector. Under laboratory conditions, maximum degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 77.34 and 62.62 removal ratios after 30 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil by fungi (isolate-1) and bacteria (isolate-1), respectively. The 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the microorganisms were most closely (99-100%) related to Bacillus cereus (isolate-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (isolate-2), Geomyces pannorum (isolate-1), and Geomyces sp. (isolate-2). Therefore, these strains enable the degradation of hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source, and these findings will benefit these strains in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and oil exploitation.

  4. Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2018-01-01

    been the focus of most ecological research. Some taxa of invertebrate pathogenic fungi have evolved adaptations for utilizing living plants as substrates, and these lifestyles have recently received increased attention from researchers following the initial documentations of such plant associations...

  5. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  6. Plastic degrading fungi Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus nomius isolated from local landfill soil in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, E.; Harefa, R. S. M.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a naturally recalcitrant polymer, once it enters the environment, it will remain there for many years. Accumulation of plastic as wastes in the environment poses a serious problem and causes an ecological threat. Alternative strategies to reduce accumulation of plastic wastes have been initiated and implemented from a different aspect including from microbiological view point. The study to obtain potential fungi in degrading plastic molecule has been initiated in our laboratory. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic was used as a tested material. Candidate fungi were isolated from local landfill soil. The fungi were cultured in mineral salt medium broth containing LDPE powder. Two of nine isolates showed best growth response in broth media containing LDPE. These isolates (RH03 and RH06) were used in degradation test. Results showed that isolate RH03 and RH06 reduced the weight of LDPE film by 5.13% and 6.63%, respectively after 45 days of cultivation. The tensile strength of treated film even reduced significantly by 58% and 40% of each isolate. Analyses of electron micrograph exhibited grove ands rough were formed on the surface of LDPE film. These were not found in the untreated film. Furthermore, molecular analysis through polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing indicated that RH03 is Trichoderma viride and RH06 is Aspergillus nomius with 97% and 96% similarities, respectively.

  7. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2012-08-02

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions.

  8. Degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Serrano, C; Pires, T; Mestrinho, E; Dias, L; Teixeira, D Martins; Caldeira, A T

    2012-10-01

    Contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating European water resources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus oryzae, Lentinula edodes, Penicillium brevicompactum and Lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. These pesticides are common soil and water contaminants and terbuthylazine is considered the most persistent triazine herbicide in surface environments. P. brevicompactum and L. saksenae were achieved by enrichment, isolation and screening of fungi capable to metabolize the pesticides studied. The isolates were obtained from two pesticide-primed materials (soil and biomixture). Despite the relatively high persistence of terbuthylazine, the results obtained in this work showed that the fungi species studied have a high capability of biotransformation of this xenobiotic, comparatively the results obtained in other similar studies. The highest removal percentage of terbuthylazine from liquid medium was achieved with A. oryzae (~80%), although the major biodegradation has been reached with P. brevicompactum. The higher ability of P. brevicompactum to metabolize terbuthylazine was presumably acquired through chronic exposure to contamination with the herbicide. L. saksenae could remove 99.5% of the available pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. L. edodes proved to be a fungus with a high potential for biodegradation of pesticides, especially difenoconazole and pendimethalin. Furthermore, the metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine was detected in L. edodes liquid culture medium, indicating terbuthylazine biodegradation by this fungus. The fungi strains investigated could prove to be valuable as active pesticide-degrading microorganisms, increasing the efficiency of biopurification systems containing

  9. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  10. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  11. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI JAMUR PENDEGRADASI ZAT PEWARNA TEKSTIL (Isolation and Characterization of dye-degrading Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Martani

    2011-07-01

    . ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate textile dye degrading fungi from many kinds of sample. Isolation was done using surface plating method on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. Degradation ability was measured based on dye decolorization of agar medium. The selection of isolates was based on ability to decolorize some types of dye, rate of decolorization, and tolerance to dye concentration, respectively. Six kinds dye, namely Basic fuchsin, Crystal violet, Direct blue, Methylene blue, Rhodamine B, and Safranine were used in this study. Six species of lignin degrading white rot fungi were used as positive controls. More than 100 fungal strains could be isolated from waste water and solid wastes of textile and pulp & paper industries, peat soils from Central Kalimantan and Riau, and forest soil. Examination on dye decolorization resulted in 6 selected isolates (coded as JKNT-1, JKSC-1, KRMS 5, TPA-4, TPA-10, and JYGC-1; and 2 species of lignin degrading white rot fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus. Decolorization of dye was depended on the fungal species and type of dye, i.e. one species decolorized some dyes but not the others. Methylene Blue was decolorized more readily than other dyes. In general, dye decolorization activity of fungal isolates was lower than the lignin degrading fungi. Microscopic examination indicated that the isolates of JKNT 1 and KRMS-5 were come from the genus Penicillium, the genus of JKSC-1 was Stachybotrys, the TPA-4 and JYGC-1 were Cladosporium, and TPA-10 isolate was included in genus of Aspergillus.

  12. Physiological and molecular aspects of degradation of plant polysaccharides by fungi: What have we learned from Aspergillus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culleton, H.; McKie, V.; de Vries, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass is the most abundant and usable carbon source for many fungal species. Due to its diverse and complex structure, fungi need to produce a large range of enzymes to degrade these polysaccharides into monomeric components. The fine-tuned production of such diverse enzyme sets requires

  13. Gene expression patterns of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are influenced by wood substrate composition during degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandr Skyba; Daniel Cullen; Carl J. Douglas; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the specific genes and enzymes involved in the fungal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass derived from feedstocks with various compositions is essential to the development of improved bioenergy processes. In order to elucidate the effect of substrate composition on gene expression in wood-rotting fungi, we employed microarrays based on the...

  14. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  15. Isolamento de fungos degradadores de carbendazim Isolation of carbendazim degrading fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Maganhotto de Souza Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Os fungicidas sistêmicos do grupo dos benzimidazóis são amplamente utilizados no controle de muitas doenças de plantas, tanto no solo como na parte aérea, e isso tem sido causa de contaminação ambiental. A ação de alguns microorganismos contribui para degradação e perda da atividade biológica desses fungicidas, podendo reduzir, dessa forma, o risco de impactos negativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar fungos com potencial para degradar benomil e seu produto de hidrólise, carbendazim, e quantificar o potencial de degradação. Fungos foram isolados de três diferentes solos da região de agricultura irrigada do município de Guaíra, SP, com histórico de aplicação intensiva de fungicidas benzimidazóis. Dentre os fungos isolados, Alternaria alternata foi a linhagem menos afetada pelo aumento na concentração de benomil no meio de cultura. Na concentração máxima (100 mig mL-1 a inibição da taxa de crescimento de A. alternata foi 22%, enquanto nas demais linhagens foi superior a 45%. Em meio de cultura líquido suplementado com carbendazim, a taxa de crescimento em biomassa de A. alternata foi 43% maior do que a no meio sem carbendazim, o que indica o consumo do fungicida como fonte de carbono. A. alternata degradou rapidamente o fungicida, chegando a 66,21% de desaparecimento do produto em dois dias. A meia-vida de carbendazim nessas condições foi de 1,16 dias.The systemic fungicides belonging to the benzimidazoles group are widely used in agricultural practice and its indiscriminate use has been cause of environmental contamination. The dissipation and the loss of the pesticide biological activity depends, most of the time, on the microorganisms action. The present research was carried out with the objective to select fungi with potential to degrades benomyl and its hydrolysis product, carbendazim, and to quantify its degradation potential. The fungi were isolated from three different kinds of soils collected in

  16. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  17. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  18. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, S.; Nair, L.M.; Kuhad, R.C. [Delhi Univ., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Microbiology, Lignocellulose Biotechnology Laboratory

    2008-04-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant energy resource in the world and is a potential source of carbon substrate for the production of ethanol via fermentation. However, the presence of lignin restricts access to holocellulose. It is necessary to break or remove the lignin in plant residues prior to their hydrolysis. Pretreatment is needed to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from the lignins. This paper discussed a biological delignification method that avoided the use of toxic and corrosive chemicals. The in situ microbial delignification process used white rot fungi as a basidiomycetes for biological pretreatment. The study examined the capability of 4 basidiomycetes fungi, notably: (1) Phanerochaete chrysosporium; (2) Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; (3) fungal isolate RCK-1; and (4) fungal isolate RCK-3. The fungi were used to delignify wheat straw and improve hydrolysis procedures. Attempts were also made to ferment the acid hydrolysates from fungal-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. Results of the experiment showed that higher yields of ethanol were obtained using selective lignin-degrading fungi as a pretreatment method. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Sampling methodology and PCB analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominelli, N.

    1995-01-01

    As a class of compounds PCBs are extremely stable and resist chemical and biological decomposition. Diluted solutions exposed to a range of environmental conditions will undergo some preferential degradation and the resulting mixture may differ considerably from the original PCB used as insulating fluid in electrical equipment. The structure of mixtures of PCBs (synthetic compounds prepared by direct chlorination of biphenyl with chlorine gas) is extremely complex and presents a formidable analytical problem, further complicated by the presence of PCBs as contaminants in oils to soils to water. This paper provides some guidance into sampling and analytical procedures; it also points out various potential problems encountered during these processes. The guidelines provided deal with sample collection, storage and handling, sample stability, laboratory analysis (usually gas chromatography), determination of PCB concentration, calculation of total PCB content, and quality assurance. 1 fig

  20. Energy balance associated with the degradation of lignocellulosic material by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Delphine; Bédu, Hélène; Buée, Marc; Kohler, Annegret; Goodell, Barry; Gelhaye, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Forest soils cover about 30% of terrestrial area and comprise between 50 and 80% of the global stock of soil organic carbon (SOC). The major precursor for this forest SOC is lignocellulosic material, which is made of polysaccharides and lignin. Lignin has traditionally been considered as a recalcitrant polymer that hinders access to the much more labile structural polysaccharides. This view appears to be partly incorrect from a microbiology perspective yet, as substrate alteration depends on the metabolic potential of decomposers. In forest ecosystems the wood-rotting Basidiomycota fungi have developed two different strategies to attack the structure of lignin and gain access to structural polysaccharides. White-rot fungi degrade all components of plant cell walls, including lignin, using enzymatic systems. Brown-rot fungi do not remove lignin. They generate oxygen-derived free radicals, such as the hydroxyl radical produced by the Fenton reaction, that disrupt the lignin polymer and depolymerize polysaccharides which then diffuse out to where the enzymes are located The objective of this study was to develop a model to investigate whether the lignin relative persistence could be related to the energetic advantage of brown-rot degradative pathway in comparison to white-rot degradative pathway. The model simulates the changes in substrate composition over time, and determines the energy gained from the conversion of the lost substrate into CO2. The energy cost for the production of enzymes involved in substrate alteration is assessed using information derived from genome and secretome analysis. For brown-rot fungus specifically, the energy cost related to the production of OH radicals is also included. The model was run, using data from the literature on populous wood degradation by Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown-rot fungus. It demonstrates that the brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) was more efficient than the white

  1. Fungi as the main factor in the degradation of the floor finish „Lentex"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Milewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycological analysis of samples of the floor finish Lentex was performed. The isolation layer from natural fibers and the outer layer of polyvinyl chloride (PVC were analyzed. The mechanism of infection of this material by soil fungi was determined and a considerable risk to human health from thc isolated species was found.

  2. Degradation of contrasting pesticides by white rot fungi and its relationship with ligninolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Friloux, Maxime; Walker, Allan

    2002-06-18

    The capacity of nine species of white rot fungus from a variety of basidiomycete orders to degrade contrasting mono-aromatic pesticides was investigated. There was no relationship between degradation of the dye Poly R-478, a presumptive test for ligninolytic potential, and degradation of the highly available pesticides diuron, metalaxyl, atrazine or terbuthylazine in liquid culture. However, there were significant positive correlations between the rates of degradation of the different pesticides. Greatest degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by Coriolus versicolor, Hypholoma fasciculare and Stereum hirsutum. After 42 days, maximum degradation of diuron, atrazine and terbuthylazine was above 86%, but for metalaxyl less than 44%. When grown in the organic matrix of an on-farm "biobed" pesticide remediation system, relative degradation rates of the highly available pesticides by C. versicolor, H. fasciculare and S. hirsutum showed some differences to those in liquid culture. While H. fasciculare and C. versicolor were able to degrade about a third of the poorly available compound chlorpyrifos in biobed matrix after 42 days, S. hirsutum, which was the most effective degrader of the available pesticides, showed little capacity to degrade the compound.

  3. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  4. Tow-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wische, C. in der; Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14 C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [ 14 C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO 2 and 14 CO 2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of soil microorganisms on respiration and [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization in different periods of fungal development, the fungal substrate was covered with soil at different times of incubation (after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 weeks). The two fungi showed contrasting ecological behaviour in competition with the soil microflora. Pleurotus sp. was highly resistant to microbial attack and had the ability to penetrate the soil. D. squalens was less competitive and did not colonize the soil. The resistance of the fungus was dependent on the duration of fungal preincubation. Mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene by mixed cultures of D. squalens and soil microorganisms was higher than by the fungus or the soil microflora alone when soil was added after 3 weeks of incubation or later. With Pleurotus sp., the mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene was enhanced by the soil microflora irrespective of the time of soil application. With D. squalens, which in pure culture mineralized less [ 14 C]pyrene than did Pleurotus sp., the increase of [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization caused by soil application was higher than with Pleurotus sp. (orig.)

  5. The Lignin-Degrading Enzyme, Laccase from Marine Fungi : Biochemical and Molecular Approaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.

    system that provides a good environment for the fungus to thrive in. Fungi decay the woody substrate to alter the lignin in the cell walls of the wood, which therefore ‘softens’ the wood chips. This process is non-polluting since it is chemical-free... % it also saves about $ 9 - $ 20 per ton of pulp (http://www.biopulping.com/2.html). The paper-pulp is then subjected to alkali-treatment to free the cellulose fibers from the hemicellulose and lignin. This is then bleached to reduce the colour due...

  6. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  7. Chemical Characterization of the Degradation of Necromass from Four Ascomycota Fungi: Implications for Soil Organic Carbon Turnover and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, V. J.; Schreiner, K. M.; Blair, N. E.; Egerton, L.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial soils store vast amounts of organic carbon, approximately twice as much carbon as is currently in the atmospheric CO2 pool. Despite its importance in the global carbon cycle, much is still unknown about the source, turnover, and stability of this soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. For example, fungi are known to play an important role in shaping the chemistry of SOC by degrading common biopolymers, and fungal biomass has been found to be a significant portion of living microbial SOC, dominating over bacteria in some soils by as much as 90%. And yet, despite growing evidence that microbial necromass may be larger contributors to SOC than previously thought, very little is known about the specific degradation patterns of fungal necromass and subsequently its potential chemical contributions to long-lived SOC pools. This study addresses these knowledge gaps through a time-series analysis of the degradation patterns of fungal tissue from four different saprotrophic Ascomyota species in temperate restored prairie soils. Fungal tissue was buried in soils both within a temperature- and light-controlled laboratory environment, and in a field environment, and harvested at intervals from 1 day to two months. After harvest, chemical analysis of the dried tissue by thermochemolysis pyrolysis-GCMS was used for relative quantitation of a variety of common biomolecules and biopolymers within the fungal tissue that may be long lived in soils, including chitin, glucan, mannan, ergosterol, and melanin. The degradation of these specific molecules, bulk fungal tissue, and bulk C and N within the tissue, is modeled to (1) show that a small portion of fungal necromass persists in the environment even after the period of the experiment and could serve as a contributor to long-lived SOC, and (2) provide quantitative information on the contribution of fungal tissue to global SOC pools.

  8. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2012-01-01

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth ind...

  9. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  10. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sarika; Nair, Lavanya M; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2008-04-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus,and fungal isolates RCK-1 and RCK-3 were tested for their lignin degradation abilities when grown on wheat straw (WS) and Prosopis juliflora (PJ) under solid-state cultivation conditions. Fungal isolate RCK-1 degraded more lignin in WS (12.26% and 22.64%) and PJ (19.30% and 21.97%) and less holocellulose in WS (6.27% and 9.39%) and PJ (3.01% and 4.58%) after 10 and 20 days, respectively, than other fungi tested. Phanerochaete chrysosporium caused higher substrate mass loss and degraded more of holocellulosic content (WS: 55.67%; PJ: 48.89%) than lignin (WS: 18.89%; PJ: 20.20%) after 20 days. The fungal pretreatment of WS and PJ with a high-lignin-degrading and low-holocellulose-degrading fungus (fungal isolate RCK-1) for 10 days resulted in (i) reduction in acid load for hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides (from 3.5% to 2.5% in WS and from 4.5% to 2.5% in PJ), (ii) an increase in the release of fermentable sugars (from 30.27 to 40.82 g L(-1) in WS and from 18.18 to 26.00 g L(-1) in PJ), and (iii) a reduction in fermentation inhibitors (total phenolics) in acid hydrolysate of WS (from 1.31 to 0.63 g L(-1)) and PJ (from 2.05 to 0.80 g L(-1)). Ethanol yield and volumetric productivity from RCK-1-treated WS (0.48 g g(-1) and 0.54 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and PJ (0.46 g g(-1) and 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) were higher than untreated WS (0.36 g g(-1) and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and untreated PJ (0.42 g g(-1) and 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively).

  12. Aggregation of surface mine soil by interaction between VAM fungi and lignin degradation products of lespedeza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, F.M. (USDA Forest Service, Berea, KY (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory)

    1984-01-01

    The external mycelium of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus was effective in aggregating a sandy loam minesoil. The polysaccharide nature of the soil binding agent on hyphal surfaces and on the surfaces of sand particles in contact with the hyphae within the aggregate was demonstrated with the periodic acid-Schiff reagent staining reaction. A possible stabilizing mechanism for macroaggregates was proposed that involves a coupling reaction between glucosamines in the hyphal walls of the fungus with phenolic compounds released during lignin degradation of sericea lespedeza root tissue. 28 refs.

  13. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3, A. sydowii (SBCM7 and A. fumigatus (SBC4. The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g. For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g and 4.0 (573 U/g, respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

  14. Potential use of soil-born fungi isolated from treated soil in Indonesia to degrade glyphosate herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arfarita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glyphosate herbicide is the most common herbicides used in palm-oil plantations and other agricultural in Indonesial. In 2020, Indonesian government to plan the development of oil palm plantations has reached 20 million hectares of which now have reached 6 million hectares. It means that a huge chemicals particularly glyphosate has been poured into the ground and continues to pollute the soil. However, there is no report regarding biodegradation of glyphosate-contaminated soils using fungal strain especially in Indonesia. This study was to observe the usage of Round Up as selection agent for isolation of soil-born fungi capable to grow on glyphosate as a sole source of phosphorus. Five fungal strains were able to grow consistently in the presence of glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source and identified as Aspergillus sp. strain KRP1, Fusarium sp. strain KRP2, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3, Acremoniumsp. strain GRP1 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2. This indicates as their capability to utilize and degrade this herbicide. We also used standard medium as control and get seventeen fungal strains. The seventeen fungal strains were identified as species of Botrytis, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Verticillium, Trichoderma and Paecilomyces. These results show the reduction in the number of fungal strains on solid medium containing glyphosate. Of the five isolated fungal species, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2 were selected for further study based on their highest ratio of growth diameter. This study indicates that treatment of soil with glyphosate degrading fungus would be useful in some areas where this herbicide is extensively used.

  15. Decontamination of PAH polluted soils by fungi. Subproject: PAH degradation balance and testing of the extended laboratory process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.; Wolter, M.; Bahadir, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research project was first to select a fungus with a high potential for mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and a good ability to colonize different soils. The application of this fungus for a degradation of PAH in soil had to be tested. In a screening of 57 white rot fungi the fungus Pleurotus sp. Florida fulfilled these requirements best. In pure culture it was able to metabolize and mineralize highly condensed 4-6 ring PAH to a great extent. For instance, up to 50% of 14 C-pyrene or 39% of 14 C-benzo(a)pyrene was mineralized to 14 CO 2 within 15 weeks. If different carriers for 14 C-pyrene were used the mineralization correlated with the bioavailability, which was characterized by the desorption of the compound from the carriers with water. The mineralization of 14 C-pyrene, 14 C-benz(a)anthracene; 14 C-benzo(a)-pyrene and 14 C-dibenz(a, h)anthracene in native soils showed that a colonization with Pl. sp Florida inhibited the degradation of the less recalcitrant 14 C-pyrene by the indigenous soil microflora. However, the mineralization of the carcinogenic, very recalcitrant and high condensed 14 C-PAH was considerably supported by the fungus. Therefore this capabilities of the fungus could not be proven in a joint medium-scale soil experiment (0.8 m 3 soil) which had been conducted within a parmership with scientists in Jena and an industriell firm. Because of safety aspects only the low condensed less recalcitrant PAH could be applied in this experiment. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Regulation of cuticle-degrading subtilisin proteases from the entomopathogenic fungi, Lecanicillium spp: implications for host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Natasha J; Charnley, A Keith

    2008-01-01

    The ability to produce cuticle-degrading proteases to facilitate host penetration does not distinguish per se entomopathogenic fungi from saprophytes. However, adapted pathogens may produce host-protein specific enzymes in response to cues. This possibility prompted an investigation of the regulation of isoforms of the subtilisin Pr1-like proteases from five aphid-pathogenic isolates of Lecanicillium spp. Significant differences were found in substrate specificity and regulation of Pr1-like proteases between isoforms of the same isolate and between different isolates. For example, the pI 8.6 isoform from KV71 was considerably more active against aphid than locust cuticle and was induced specifically by N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). Isoform pI 9.1 from the same isolate was only produced on insect cuticle while most other isoforms were more prominent on chitin containing substrates but not induced by NAG. The ability to regulate isoforms independently may allow production at critical points in host penetration. Appearance of proteases (not subtilisins) with pI 4.2 and 4.4 only on aphid cuticle was a possible link with host specificity of KV71. The absence of C or N metabolite repression in subtilisins from KV42 is unusual for pathogen proteases and may help to account for differences in virulence strategy between aphid-pathogenic isolates of Lecanicillium longisporum (unpublished data).

  17. Mn(II) regulation of lignin peroxidases and manganese-dependent peroxidases from lignin-degrading white rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnarme, P.; Jeffries, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two families of peroxidases-lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase (MnP)-are formed by the lignin-degrading white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other white rot fungi. Isoenzymes of these enzyme families carry out reactions important to the biodegradation of lignin. This research investigated the regulation of LiP and MnP production by Mn(II). In liquid culture, LiP titers varied as an inverse function of and MnP titers varied as a direct function of the Mn(II) concentration. The extracellular isoenzyme profiles differed radically at low and high Mn(II) levels, whereas other fermentation parameters, including extracellular protein concentrations, the glucose consumption rate, and the accumulation of cell dry weight, did not change significantly with the Mn(II) concentration. In the absence of Mn(II), extracellular LiP isoenzymes predominated, whereas in the presence of Mn(II), MnP isoenzymes were dominant. The release of 14 CO 2 from 14 C-labeled dehydrogenative polymerizate lignin was likewise affected by Mn(II). The rate of 14 CO 2 release increased at low Mn(II) and decreased at high Mn(II) concentrations. This regulatory effect of Mn(II) occurred with five strains of P. chrysosporium, two other species of Phanerochaete, three species of Phlebia, Lentinula edodes, and Phellinus pini

  18. Kemampuan Beberapa Jamur Tanah Dalam Menguraikan Pestisida Deltametrin Dan Senyawa Lignoselulosa [the Ability of Some Soil Fungi on Degradation of Deltamethrin and Lignocelluloses

    OpenAIRE

    Subowo, YB

    2013-01-01

    Some of soil fungi capable in degrading pesticide deltamethrin, therefore they can be used as fertilizer in organic farming. As a biofertilizer ,fungus also must be able to provide nutrients for plants. The purpose of the study was to obtain fungal isolates that have the ability to decompose pesticides deltamethrin and lignocellulose compounds, dissolved inorganic phosphate compounds and produce growth hormone IAA (Indole Acetic Acid) . The fungal isolates will then be used in the manufacture...

  19. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  20. HONGOS NATIVOS CON POTENCIAL DEGRADADOR DE TINTES INDUSTRIALES EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA NATIVE FUNGI WITH INDUSTRIAL DYE DEGRADING POTENTIAL IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Chanagá Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Los colorantes industriales poseen estructuras químicas estables que dificultan su tratamiento mediante procesos fisicoquímicos convencionales. En los últimos años, como una alternativa biotecnológica para la degradación de compuestos recalcitrantes, se han utilizado hongos ligninolíticos de diferentes grupos taxonómicos, que producen enzimas oxidantes de dichas moléculas. El aislamiento e identificación de especies fúngicas nativas con potencial decolorante, resulta promisorio para biorremediar efluentes provenientes de industrias textiles. En esta investigación se identificaron, con base en análisis de secuencias de las regiones ITS1 e ITS2 y 28S del ADNr, y por sus características morfológicas, cuatro hongos nativos aislados de material lignocelulósico colectado en el Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia, Colombia. Los aislamientos fueron identificados como el ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., y los hongos anamórficos Trichoderma viride (dos cepas y Aspergillus niger.Abstract. Synthetic dyes have stable chemical structures that hinder their treatment by conventional physicochemical processes. In recent years, as a biotechnological alternative for degradation of these recalcitrant compounds, wood degrading fungi of different taxonomic groups have been used. These fungi produced enzymes with oxidative potential for those molecules. The isolation and identification of ligninolytic fungi with potential for discoloration is promising for bioremediation of effluents from textile industries. In this research, we identified four native fungi isolated from lignocellulosic material in the Aburra Valley (Antioquia, Colombia. Identification was made based on sequence analysis of ITS1-ITS2 regions and 28S rDNA as well as morphological characteristics. The fungi were identified as the ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., and the anamorphic species Trichoderma viride (two strains and Aspergillus niger.

  1. Thermal dechlorination of PCB-209 over Ca species-doped Fe₂O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Ruifang; Liu, Yexuan; Lu, Huijie; Zhao, Yuyang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-02-01

    Degradation reaction of decachlorobiphenyl (PCB-209) was investigated over the synthesized Ca species-doped Fe2O3 at 300 °C. The 1%Ca-Fe2O3 exhibited the highest activity among the four catalysts prepared with the pseudo-first order reaction at k(obs) = 0.103 min(-1). PCB-207, PCB-197, PCB-176, PCB-184, PCB-150, PCB-136, PCB-148, PCB-104, PCB-96, PCB-54, PCB-19, PCB-4 and PCB-1 were identified as the dominant isomers in their respective nonachlorobiphenyl (NonaCB) to monochlorobiphenyl (MonoCB) homologue groups. Analysis of the hydrodechlorination products indicated that dechlorination was much more favored on meta- and para-than on ortho-positions. The formation of significantly predominant NonaCB and octachlorobiphenyl (OctaCB) isomers was attributed to lower energy principles and to the 90° dihedral angles of two aromatic rings which prevented the hydrodechlorination at ortho-positions. When the number of chlorine atoms is not more than 7, the steric effect supports the formation of predominant PCB isomers having chlorines at four ortho-positions. During the dechlorination of tetrachlorobiphenyl (TetraCB) formed to generate monochlorobiphenyl (MonoCB) isomers, the chlorine atoms fully substituted at the ortho-positions have to be successively removed, with the first two dechlorinations preferentially occurring at the two different benzene rings. This is dissimilar to that of octachloronaphthalene (PCN-75) in which the hydrodechlorination reaction happened preferentially at ortho-position due to the existence of steric effects. The opposite roles of the steric effect in ortho-position between PCB-209 and PCN-75 might be due to the difference of the π-conjugated plane caused by the dihedral angle of 90° and 0° of the two aromatic rings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  3. Microbial ecology of bacterially mediated PCB biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, C.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The roles of plasmid mediated and consortia mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation by bacterial populations isolated from PCB contaminated freshwater sediments were investigated. PCB degrading bacteria were isolated by DNA:DNA colony hybridization, batch enrichments, and chemostat enrichment. Analysis of substrate removal and metabolite production were done using chlorinated biphenyl spray plates, reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, Cl - detection, and 14 C-labeled substrate mineralization methods. A bacterial consortium, designated LPS10, involved in a concerted metabolic attack on chlorinated biphenyls, was shown to mineralize 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4' CB). The LPS10 consortium was isolated by both batch and chemostat enrichment using 4CB and biphenyl (BP) as sole carbon source and was found to have tree bacterial isolates that predominated; these included: Pseudomonas, testosteroni LPS10A which mediated the breakdown of 4CB and 4,4' CB to the putative meta-cleavage product and subsequently to 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA), an isolate tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp. LPS10B which mediated 4CBA degradation, and Pseudomonas putida by A LPS10C whose role in the consortium has not been determined

  4. Characterization of native fungi responsible for degrading crude oil from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL-Mooti EL-Hanafy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 15 fungal isolates were obtained from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea in the Yanbu region. Based on the preliminary DCPIP (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol assay, three isolates showed promising oil degrading ability. The next-generation sequencing of the ITS-I and ITS-II internal transcribed spacer regions assigned the isolates to Aspergillus and Penicillium. Among these three strains, Y2 (Aspergillus oryzae was the most efficient, degrading about 99% of the crude oil. The degradation rates were corroborated using spectrophotometric and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. All the three strains proved to be potent oil-degrading strains and, hence, can be utilized to degrade oil contaminants.

  5. Microbial decomposition of PCB. PCB no biseibutsu bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1993-08-01

    This paper generalizes knowledges acquired so far on bio-remediation of PCB. Aerobic PCB decomposition using soil bacteria generally goes through introduction of O2 into second and third orders of a biphenyl ring, ring cleavage, and hydrolysis, and generates benzoate finally. PCB that is decomposed in this 2, 3-dioxygenaze path requires at least one of the second and third orders to be open. The decomposition through this path becomes difficult when the number of displaced Cl increases, and PCB with Cl displaced in only one of the rings decomposes more easily than PCB with the same number of Cl in both rings. A group in GE, Inc. has searched for two kinds of bacteria stocks that introduce O2 preferentially into the third and fourth orders. These stocks decompose third and fourth ordered open high-chlorine PCB. Groups in GE, Inc. and other companies have isolated bacteria that dechlorinate PCB decreasingly under an anaerobic condition. These bacteria desorb metha-ordered chlorine. Discussions are being made on cloning of PCB decomposing genes, and breeding of decomposing bacteria that have wide PCB decomposing spectra. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Physiological Studies on Phytate-Degrading Enzymes Produced by Some Fungi with Special Reference to the Effect of Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Kh.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi isolated from soil and compost samples collected from different localities in Sharkia and Dakahlia governorates were screened for phytase production. Fifty isolates showed varying phytase activities depending on strain type. Three isolates identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride proved to be the most potent regarding phytase production. Factors affecting phytase production aiming to optimize submerged fermentation conditions to achieve maximum phytase production by the three selected fungi were studied. Maximum phytase production was reached after 6 days incubation of fermentation medium having initial ph 6.0 inoculated with 1 ml inocula of spore suspensions (104/ml) of selected fungi and incubated at 30 degree C. Sucrose proved to be the best carbon source enhancing phytase production by the three selected fungi. Sucrose concentration 1.5% (w/v) recorded highest phytase activities (11.72, 11.21 and 11.12 u/ml) in case of A. niger, A. oryzae and T. viride, respectively. Regarding nitrogen source, yeast extract yielded maximum phytase production by A. niger and A.oryzae and NH_4NO_3 was the best for T.viride. Upon studying the effect of different phosphate sources and concentrations, maximum phytase production by A.niger and A.oryzae was observed in fermentation medium supplemented by NH_4H_2PO_4 while Na_2HPO_4 was the best for T.viride. Subjecting the three tested fungi to increase doses of gamma irradiation revealed activation of phytase production by all tested fungi at 0.5 kGy followed by slight decrease at 0.75 and 1.0 kGy but still above the control. Meanwhile dose levels 3 and 3.5 kGy completely inhibited phytase production by A. niger and (A. oryzae and T. virde), respectively. The recorded D10 values for A. niger, A. oryzae and T. viride were 0.639, 0.886 and 0.947 confirming higher radioresistance of T. viride. Phytase production during solid state fermentation (SSF) of mean feed stuffs (corn meal cotton seed meal

  7. The Engineering Of PCB Processing Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handoyo, Demon; Satmoko, Ari; T, Sapta; Heru, G. B.

    2001-01-01

    The engineering of PCB processing machine had been done. Purposes of the engineering of PCB processing machine are used to process PCB and to get the data's of characteristic of PCB processing. Further, these data's will be used as setting point when processing of PCB is done with manual and automatic control. The method of processing of PCB are inserting and pulling of the PCB rack to and from Ferro chlorite using electrical motor to corrosive Cu shield parts witch is not used. The experiment have result that the characteristic of operation of PCB processing machine as we hope when designing

  8. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension suppleme......The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...... hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass...

  9. Degradation of olive mill wastewater by the induced extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of two wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerva, Anastasia; Zervakis, Georgios I; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a major problem in olive oil - producing countries, due to its high organic load and concentration in phenols that are toxic for marine life, plants and soil microorganisms. In the present study, two mushroom species were tested in regard to their OMWW's oxidative capacity, Pleurotus citrinopileatus LGAM 28684 and Irpex lacteus LGAM 238. OMWW (25% v/v) degradation was investigated for several culture conditions, namely pH, agitation speed, nitrogen-based supplements and their concentration. The selected values were pH 6, agitation rate 150 rpm, 30 g L -1 corn steep liquor as nitrogen source for P. citrinopileatus and 20 g L -1 diammonium tartrate for I. lacteus. The two strains performed well in cultures supplemented with OMWW, generating very high titers of oxidative enzymes and achieving more than 90% color and phenols reduction within a 24 days cultivation period. In addition, the amount of glucans present in the fungal biomass was assessed. Hence, P. citrinopileatus and I. lacteus appear as potent degraders of OMWW with the ability to use the effluent as a substrate for the production of biotechnologically important enzymes and valuable fungal glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Total destruction of PCB transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that if elimination of PCB liability, including lingering liabilities, is the goal, then landfilling cannot be and option. The law is clear that the generator of PCB waste is responsible for that waste until this destruction. Landfilling is not destruction. Retrofilling as askarel units will not get rid of all PCB liabilities, either. Askarel retrofilling can only make this claim when it can give a lifetime guaranty of no detectable PCBs. States like Washington and California regulate, as hazardous waste, fluids which contain greater than 2 and 5 ppm PCB, respectively. There is no guarantee that your state will not so regulate PCBs in the future or that the federal laws might tighten up. Therefore, replacement and disposal by Resource Recovery constitutes the only lifetime guarantee on the market that the PCBs in your askarel transformers will never come back to haunt you

  12. Dechlorination of PCB by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu

    1978-01-01

    On the PCB poisoning accident in Japan occurred in 1968, Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center started to investigate the decomposition of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) on the request of Metropolitan government. The research center has found that if PCB is dissolved or extracted in alkaline 2-propanol solution and then irradiated with γ-ray, PCB is dechlorinated in chain-reactive manner, and biphenyl and salts (KCl or NaCl) are formed. Afterwards, it has been found that photolysis has also similar effect on PCB. Then, the basic design of a disposal pilot plant using ultraviolet ray and its economic evaluation have been performed, which is composed of photolysis reaction process, refining process and waste disposal process. However, its disposal cost only has reached the value three times as high as that of incineration process. If this is conducted by radiolysis, its disposal cost can be reduced to about 1/12 of that of ultraviolet ray system when an electron accelerator is employed. Cs-137 source gives better results than Co-60. Dechlorination process of PCB has been thus established. Further reduction of total cost will be the keypoint of radiolysis system to be adopted. If the application of electron accelerators to sludge treatment in the future, the effective use of recovered products, and the possibility of using Cs-137 large sources are considered, it is expected that the disposal cost of radiolysis process system becomes comparable with the incineration process. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. PCB138, but not PCB153 and PCB180, acts as a weak antiandrogen in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2000-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a group of persistent environmental chemicals including 209 possible congeners exhibiting a variety of chlorine substitution patterns. Due to their lipophilic nature and resistance toward biotransformation, PCBs accumulate in the food chain and all...... environmental matrixes including human adipose tissue, blood and milk. In most biological extracts PCB#138 (2,2',3,4,4',5-hexaCB), PCB#153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB), and PCB#180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptaCB) are the dominating components. Depending on the position and number of chlorine substitutions, different...... classes of PCB congeners elicit a complex spectrum of biological and toxic responses in in vivo and in vitro models. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah receptor) giving rise to health risk such as organ toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although reports...

  14. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  15. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  17. Treating PCB contaminated light ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    Development and salient features of CON TECH PCB, a light ballast reduction process to allow PCB waste owners to best utilize storage space for the long-term regulated storage of PCBs, or to prepare them for final destruction and to reduce destruction costs, was reviewed. The essence of the process is ballast splitting, i.e. the breaking of the ballast and removing the capacitor containing the toxic PCBs. The work is done in a specially fitted mobile processing unit, thus reducing the storage requirements by better than 50 per cent. Details of the process and some cost and storage facility estimates were provided

  18. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  19. PCB eksponering i Farum Midtpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    I marts og april 2011 blev i alt 104 lejligheder og 289 beboere fra Farum Midtpunkt undersøgt for niveauer af PolyChlorerede Biphenyler (PCB) i henholdsvis fuger og indeluft i lejligheder-ne, og i blodplasma. Til analyserne i denne rapport indgik 273 beboere, 139 fra PCB-forurenede lejligheder og...... 134 fra ikke-forurenede lejligheder. Der blev indsamlet luftprøver fra 83 forure-nede og 21 ikke-forurenede lejligheder og fugeprøver fra 20 forurenede lejligheder. Ni ud af 24 målte PCB-kongenere var under detektionsgrænsen i luften, inkl. de to mest toksiske kongenere nr. 126 og 169. For de...... forurenede lejlig-heder, undtagen for nr. 183 og 190, samt for nr. 182 som alle lå under detektionsgrænsen. For ni ud af tolv dioxin-lignende PCB-forbindelser var alle, eller næsten alle prøver under detektions-grænsen. For nr. 105 og 118 sås signifikant højere niveau blandt eksponerede. Mænd havde et lidt...

  20. Dynamics of PCB removal and detoxification in historically contaminated soils amended with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyeva, Galina K., E-mail: gkvasilyeva@issp.psn.r [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Strijakova, Elena R. [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Nikolaeva, Svetlana N.; Lebedev, Albert T. [Chemistry Department of Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shea, Patrick J. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Lincoln, NE 68583-0817 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Activated carbon (AC) can help overcome toxicity of pollutants to microbes and facilitate soil bioremediation. We used this approach to treat a Histosol and an Alluvial soil historically contaminated with PCB (4190 and 1585 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively; primarily tri-, tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners). Results confirmed PCB persistence; reductions in PCB extractable from control and AC-amended soils were mostly due to a decrease in tri- and to some extent tetrachlorinated congeners as well as formation of a bound fraction. Mechanisms of PCB binding by soil and AC were different. In addition to microbial degradation of less chlorinated congeners, we postulate AC catalyzed dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. A large decrease in bioavailable PCB in AC-amended soils was demonstrated by greater clover germination and biomass. Phytotoxicity was low in treated soils but remained high in untreated soils for the duration of a 39-month experiment. These observations indicate the utility of AC for remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB. - Activated carbon promotes remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB.

  1. Dynamics of PCB removal and detoxification in historically contaminated soils amended with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyeva, Galina K.; Strijakova, Elena R.; Nikolaeva, Svetlana N.; Lebedev, Albert T.; Shea, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) can help overcome toxicity of pollutants to microbes and facilitate soil bioremediation. We used this approach to treat a Histosol and an Alluvial soil historically contaminated with PCB (4190 and 1585 mg kg -1 , respectively; primarily tri-, tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners). Results confirmed PCB persistence; reductions in PCB extractable from control and AC-amended soils were mostly due to a decrease in tri- and to some extent tetrachlorinated congeners as well as formation of a bound fraction. Mechanisms of PCB binding by soil and AC were different. In addition to microbial degradation of less chlorinated congeners, we postulate AC catalyzed dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. A large decrease in bioavailable PCB in AC-amended soils was demonstrated by greater clover germination and biomass. Phytotoxicity was low in treated soils but remained high in untreated soils for the duration of a 39-month experiment. These observations indicate the utility of AC for remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB. - Activated carbon promotes remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB.

  2. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  3. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Assessment of LANL PCB waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) to determine if it meets applicable DOE and Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements. DOE Order 5820.2A and 40 CFR 761 (Polychlorinated Biphenyls Manufacturing, Processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use Prohibitions) set forth requirements and guidelines for the establishment of Waste Acceptance Criteria. The primary purpose of a PCB WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before PCB wastes can be accepted for treatment, storage, and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic PCB WAC was developed based on the requirements of 5820.2A and 40 CFR 761. The major elements that should be addressed by a PCB WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container, Waste Forms, PCB Concentrations, Labeling, and Data Package Certification

  5. Recent changes in federal PCB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, H.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the federal regulations dealing with PCBs, the draft PCB Transformer Decontamination Standards and Protocols, and the Practice of Ballast Splitting was given. Answers were provided to practical questions concerning the regulations, specifically, responsibility for storage, labelling requirements, waste export regulations, treatment and destruction standards, transformer decontamination, decontamination standards, and the practice of ballast splitting into PCB and non-PCB materials. Details of sampling procedures and sample handling were also described

  6. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  7. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  8. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  9. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  10. PCB Fault Detection Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Jithendra P. R.; Anitha, K.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Rashmi, P.

    2017-08-01

    The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. Printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication is a multidisciplinary process, and etching is the most critical part in the PCB manufacturing process. The main objective of Etching process is to remove the exposed unwanted copper other than the required circuit pattern. In order to minimize scrap caused by the wrongly etched PCB panel, inspection has to be done in early stage. However, all of the inspections are done after the etching process where any defective PCB found is no longer useful and is simply thrown away. Since etching process costs 0% of the entire PCB fabrication, it is uneconomical to simply discard the defective PCBs. In this paper a method to identify the defects in natural PCB images and associated practical issues are addressed using Software tools and some of the major types of single layer PCB defects are Pattern Cut, Pin hole, Pattern Short, Nick etc., Therefore the defects should be identified before the etching process so that the PCB would be reprocessed. In the present approach expected to improve the efficiency of the system in detecting the defects even in low quality images

  11. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  12. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  13. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal production planning for PCB assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, William

    2006-01-01

    Focuses on the optimization of the Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly lines' efficiency. This book integrates the component sequencing and the feeder arrangement problems together for the pick-and-place machine and the chip shooter machines.

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  16. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  17. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a chrono-sequence of alluvial and degraded soils due to mining processes in bajo cauca antioqueno, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina S, Marisol; Orozco P, Francisco H; Marquez F, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typical Dystropept, and Typical Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glass house conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P?0,001) respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morpho types. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morpho types with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morpho types belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  19. Test of Lignin and Cellulose Decomposition and Phosphate Solubilization by Soil Fungi of Gunung Halimun

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih, Suciatmih

    2001-01-01

    In order to know the capability of lignin and cellulose degradation and phosphate solubilization by soil fungi of Gunung Halimun National Park, a study was carried out to qualitatively analyse its physiological properties. Out of 35 soil fungi tested, 1 species that belonged to Basidiomycetes degraded lignin, 32 species degraded cellulose, and 31 species dissolved inorganic phosphate.The presence of soil fungi that degraded cellulose and dissolved phosphate could be used as a candidate for bi...

  20. Construction and applications of DNA probes for detection of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading genotypes in toxic organic-contaminated soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, S.; Khan, A.; Rosenthal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Several DNA probes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading genotypes were constructed from PCB-degrading bacteria. These laboratory-engineered DNA probes were used for the detection, enumeration, and isolation of specific bacteria degrading PCBs. Dot blot analysis of purified DNA from toxic organic chemical-contaminated soil bacterial communities showed positive DNA-DNA hybridization with a 32P-labeled DNA probe (pAW6194, cbpABCD). Less than 1% of bacterial colonies isolated from garden topsoil and greater than 80% of bacteria isolated from PCB-contaminated soils showed DNA homologies with 32P-labeled DNA probes. Some of the PCB-degrading bacterial isolates detected by the DNA probe method did not show biphenyl clearance. The DNA probe method was found to detect additional organisms with greater genetic potential to degrade PCBs than the biphenyl clearance method did. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of DNA probes in detecting specific PCB-degrading bacteria, abundance of PCB-degrading genotypes, and genotypic diversity among PCB-degrading bacteria in toxic chemical-polluted soil environments. We suggest that the DNA probe should be used with caution for accurate assessment of PCB-degradative capacity within soils and further recommend that a combination of DNA probe and biodegradation assay be used to determine the abundance of PCB-degrading bacteria in the soil bacterial community

  1. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  2. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  3. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  4. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  5. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase...

  6. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61 PCB remediation waste. This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this section...

  7. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  8. Kwantificatie van PCB-componenten in krachtvoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazijk, van R.J.; Munsteren, van A.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1981-01-01

    Met behulp van individuele chloorbifenylstandaarden is het PCB-gehalte van een aantal krachtvoeders bepaald, waarbij voor de onbekende componenten een geschatte waarde is gebruikt. Uit deze gehalten is met behulp van omrekeningsfactoren de theoretische DCB-opbrengst bij perchloreren berekend. Dit

  9. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  10. Decontamination of PAH polluted soils by fungi. Subproject: PAH degradation balance and testing of the extended laboratory process. Final report; Dekontamination von PAK belasteten Boeden durch Pilze. Teilprojekt: Bilanzierung des PAK-Abbaus und Erprobung des erweiterten Laborverfahrens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.; Wolter, M.; Bahadir, M.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the research project was first to select a fungus with a high potential for mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and a good ability to colonize different soils. The application of this fungus for a degradation of PAH in soil had to be tested. In a screening of 57 white rot fungi the fungus Pleurotus sp. Florida fulfilled these requirements best. In pure culture it was able to metabolize and mineralize highly condensed 4-6 ring PAH to a great extent. For instance, up to 50% of {sup 14}C-pyrene or 39% of {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene was mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 15 weeks. If different carriers for {sup 14}C-pyrene were used the mineralization correlated with the bioavailability, which was characterized by the desorption of the compound from the carriers with water. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-pyrene, {sup 14}C-benz(a)anthracene; {sup 14}C-benzo(a)-pyrene and {sup 14}C-dibenz(a, h)anthracene in native soils showed that a colonization with Pl. sp Florida inhibited the degradation of the less recalcitrant {sup 14}C-pyrene by the indigenous soil microflora. However, the mineralization of the carcinogenic, very recalcitrant and high condensed {sup 14}C-PAH was considerably supported by the fungus. Therefore this capabilities of the fungus could not be proven in a joint medium-scale soil experiment (0.8 m{sup 3} soil) which had been conducted within a parmership with scientists in Jena and an industriell firm. Because of safety aspects only the low condensed less recalcitrant PAH could be applied in this experiment. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, zunaechst aus einer groesseren Zahl von Weissfaeulepilzen Pilze zu selektieren, die ein hohes Abbaupotential fuer PAK besitzen. Fuer die effektive Bildung der fuer den Xenobiotika-Abbau wahrscheinlich verantwortlichen lignolytischen Enzyme sollten die Pilze auf Stroh mit einer Kontamination von {sup 14}C-Pyren angezogen werden. An Hand der Freisetzung von {sup 14

  11. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  12. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares como indicadores da recuperação de áreas degradadas no nordeste do Brasil Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as indicators of the recovery of degraded areas in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Francisco Vieira Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se atributos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na região sob desertificação de Gilbués, PI, Brasil, objetivando monitorar áreas sob diferentes níveis de degradação e recuperação do solo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na camada de 0-0,2 m, durante o período seco de 2009 em quatro áreas pertencentes a um Argissolo, visualmente definidas como: REC - área em recuperação por contenção da erosão e plantio de gramíneas e leguminosas exóticas; DEG- área altamente degradada; IDEG - área moderadamente degradada; MN - área de vegetação nativa. Foram analisados a colonização radicular, o número mais provável de propágulos infectivos (NMP, índices de diversidade (Shannon-Wiener, diversidade e dominância de Simpson, equitabilidade de Pielou e Margalef e os atributos químicos do solo pH, H+Al, fósforo e matéria orgânica, usados como variáveis explicativas da variabilidade de atributos dos FMAs por meio de análises multivariadas. A colonização radicular e o NMP de propágulos foram superiores em REC. Os índices de Shannon-Wiener, dominância de Simpson e Margalef foram menores na área DEG, demonstrando serem bons indicadores de alterações na comunidade de FMAs em áreas degradadas. Pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico, a área DEG teve maior dissimilaridade em relação às demais. Pela análise por componentes principais, os índices de Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, de Simpson, a dominância de Simpson e os teores de fósforo foram os parâmetros que mais explicaram a variância total.Attributes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in a region in the process of desertification at Gilbués, Piauí, Brazil, with the objective of monitoring areas with different levels of soil degradation and recovery. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 0.2 m during the dry season of 2009 in four areas of ultisol, which were visually defined as: REC - an area under recovery by erosion

  13. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  14. Utilization of fungi for biotreatment of raw wastewaters | Coulibaly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the detoxification rates seem to be dependent on media and culture conditions. The postreatement by anaerobic bioprocesses of effluents that have been pretreated with fungi can lead to higher biogas than the original effluents. In addition to the degradation of organic pollutants, fungi produce added-value ...

  15. Planar PCB Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Belisle, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on biologically active congeners and fish and wildlife. Subtopics include sources and uses, chemical and biochemical properties, concentrations in field collections, lethal and sublethal effects, and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources. All production of PCBs in the United States ceased in 1977. Of the 1.2 million tons of PCBs manufactured to date, about 65% are still in use in electrical equipment and 31% in various environmental compartments, and 4% were degraded or incinerated. The 209 PCB congeners and their metabolites show wide differences in biological effects. A significant part of the toxicity associated with commercial PCB mixtures is related to the presence of about 20 planar congeners, i.e., congeners without chlorine substitution in the ortho position. Toxic planar congeners, like other PCB congeners, have been detected in virtually all analyzed samples, regardless of collection locale. Planar PCB concentrations were usually highest in samples from near urban areas and in fat and liver tissues, filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, fish-eating birds, and carnivorous marine mammals. Adverse effects of planar PCBs on growth, survival, and reproduction are highly variable because of numerous biotic and abiotic modifiers, including interaction with other chemicals. In general, embryos and juveniles were the most sensitive stages tested to planar PCBs, and the chinook salmon, domestic chicken, mink, rhesus macaque, and laboratory white rat were among the most sensitive species. for protection of natural resources, most authorities now recommend (1) analyzation of environmental samples for planar and other potentially hazardous congeners; (2) exposure studies with representative species and specific congeners, alone and in combination with other environmental contaminants; (3) clarification of existing structure

  16. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  17. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  18. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  19. Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from degraded wood and industrial samples. Abreham Bekele, Tariku Abena, Adane Habteyohannes, Addisalem Nugissie, Fitala Gudeta, Tigist Getie, Musin Kelel, Admas Berhanu ...

  20. Keratinophilic Fungi: Nature's Keratin Degrading Machines!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differen t functions: the claws and armour of reptiles, the feather and beaks of birds, and the hooves, horns, skin, hair and nails of mammals. Keratin is a scleroprotein and is mechanically hard and chemically unreactive, owing its strength to the numerous cross-links of disulfide bonds, which hold together the molecu-.

  1. Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Valášková, Vendula

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2008), s. 501-521 ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MZe QH72216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cellobiohydrolase * cellulose dehydrogenase * basidiomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.963, year: 2008

  2. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  3. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  4. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo-metabolome...

  5. Screening of fungi for soil remediation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Lamar; Laura M. Main; Diane M. Dietrich; John A. Glaser

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if physiological and/or biochemical factors such as growth rate, tolerance to and ability to degrade PCP or creosote have use for predicting the potential bioremediation performance of fungi. Because we have focused the initial development of a fungal-based soil remediation technology on PCP- and/or creosote-...

  6. Machine Vision Implementation in Rapid PCB Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafat Surya Murijanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality. 

  7. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  8. PCB i bygninger - afhjælpning, renovering og nedrivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    SBi-anvisning 268 beskriver, hvordan PCB-forurening af indeluften afhjælpes, og hvordan PCB håndteres, når man renoverer eller nedriver bygninger med PCB. Uanset om der er tale om afhjælpning, renovering eller nedrivning, kan arbejdet generere PCB-holdigt affald. Anvisningen forklarer derfor......, hvordan affaldet skal håndteres, og hvordan man beskytter mennesker og miljø under arbejdet. Anvisningen er baseret på byggebranchens erfaringer og den aktuelle forskningsbaserede viden om PCB i bygninger. SBi-anvisning 268 afløser den snart fire år gamle SBi-anvisning 242 om renovering af bygninger med...... PCB, som ikke behandlede spørgsmålet om affaldshåndtering....

  9. [Promotion effects of vitamin B12 on the degradation of 2, 4, 4'-trichlorobiphenyl by Nostoc PD-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are typical persistent chlorinated organic compounds in the environment. Bioremediation of PCB-contaminated environment has become one of the hot issues. In this study, vitamin B12 (VB12) and chlorine-free culture medium were applied to study the effects of VB12 on the degradation of 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) by Nostoc PD-2 and the gene expression during the PCB-degradation process. Results showed that addition of different concentrations of vitamin B12 could improve the PCB-biodegradation rates by Nostoc PD-2. Compared with the control group, the 7-day degradation rate in 10 microg x L(-1), 100 microg x L(-1), and 1 000 microg x L(-1) VB12-treated groups increased by 11.0%, 19.7%, and 21.9% , respectively. The degradation half-time decreased from 5.53 days (treated with 10 microg x L(-1) VB12) to 3.08 days (treated with 100 microg x L(-1) VB12). The expression of cytochrome b6f complex iron-sulfur protein gene and dioxygenase gene showed significant correlation with PCB28-degradation by Nostoc PD-2. While the expression of iron-sulfur protein gene showed more significant correlation with PCB28-degradation. Results in this study indicated that adding VB12 could promote PCB28-degradation by Nostoc PD-2. Moreover, VB12 addition improved the PCB-degradation activity of Nostoc PD-2 at the gene level. The above conclusions could provide a new choice for developing efficient bioremediation technology for PCB-contaminated environment and a new insight into the PCB-biodegradation mechanism by Nostoc PD-2.

  10. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  11. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and PCB editor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2009-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Editor. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Editor is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need in-depth instruction on how to use the software, and who need background knowledge of the PCB design process. KEY FEATURES:* Beginning to end cove

  12. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB. Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT)

  13. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  14. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  15. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    of higher marine fungi which included 23 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 17 Deuteromycetes (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Hyde (1990a) listed 120 species from 29 mangroves from all over the World this includes 87 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 31...

  16. Molecular Characterization of 2-Chlorobiphenyl Degrading Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GS-103

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somaraja, P.K.; Gayathri, D.; Ramaiah, N.

    York 2013 Abstract The catabolic potential of transformer oil con- taminated soil bacteria in aerobic degradation of poly- chlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were assessed. Transformer oil contaminated soil sample was subjected to microcosm enrichment..., high insulation property, high fat solubility and low volatility, PCB have been used for several decades in a wide range of industrial applications such as oil in transformers, Con- ductor of heat, dielectrics in capacitors, solvents for paints...

  17. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  18. Optimization of Cvd Diamond Coating Type on Micro Drills in Pcb Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X. L.; He, Y.; Sun, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    The demand for better tools for machining printed circuit boards (PCBs) is increasing due to the extensive usage of these boards in digital electronic products. This paper is aimed at optimizing coating type on micro drills in order to extend their lifetime in PCB machining. First, the tribotests involving micro crystalline diamond (MCD), nano crystalline diamond (NCD) and bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co) against PCBs show that NCD-PCB tribopair exhibits the lowest friction coefficient (0.35) due to the unique nano structure and low surface roughness of NCD films. Thereafter, the dry machining performance of the MCD- and NCD-coated micro drills on PCBs is systematically studied, using diamond-like coating (DLC) and TiAlN-coated micro drills as comparison. The experiments show that the working lives of these micro drills can be ranked as: NCD>TiAlN>DLC>MCD>bare WC-Co. The superior cutting performance of NCD-coated micro drills in terms of the lowest flank wear growth rate, no tool degradation (e.g. chipping, tool tipping) appearance, the best hole quality as well as the lowest feed force may come from the excellent wear resistance, lower friction coefficient against PCB as well as the high adhesive strength on the underneath substrate of NCD films.

  19. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Spongberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the north- western coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of air-borne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprisingSe analizó los bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 31 muestras de sedimentos colectadas entre 1996 -2003 en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa noroeste de Costa Rica. Esto es parte de un primer estudio para evaluar la contaminación por PCB en aguas costeras de Costa Rica. En general, las concentraciones fueron bajas especialmente cuando se les compara con sedimentos de climas templados y / o sedimentos de areas altamente industrializadas. Los valores promedio son inferiores a 3 ng / dw (peso seco de sedimento. Sin embargo, unas pocas muestras contienen hasta 7 ng/ g dw de sedimento. Los sedimentos con las concentraciones más altas están localizados en el area de Punta Morales, en cienos de entre raíces de mangle. Las

  20. Co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB (PCB 153) and methylmercury enhances developmental neurotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A.; Eriksson, P. [Dept. Environment. Toxicol., Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    In our environment there are innumerable hazardous contaminants. Many of these compounds are the well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCB and DDT. Another persistent agent in our environment is methylmercury (MeHg). These agents are known to be neurotoxic in laboratory animals and humans. Fetuses and neonates are known to be high-risk groups for exposure to these agents. A naturally occurring circumstance is the exposure to a combination of different persistent compounds. The knowledge of interaction between different toxic agents during development is sparse. In several studies we have shown that low-dose exposure of environmental toxic agents such as PCBs, DDT, BFRs (brominated flame retardants) as well as well-known neurotoxic agents such as nicotine, organophosphorous compounds and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), during the ''BGS'', in neonatal mice can lead to disruption of the adult brain function, and to an increased susceptibility to toxic agents as adults. Our studies concerning developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to single PCB congeners have shown that some orthosubstituted PCBs (such as PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 153) and some co-planar PCBs (such as PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169) cause derangement of adult behaviour that can worsen with age. Furthermore, the cholinergic receptors in the brain were also found to be affected8. Just recently we have seen that neonatal co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), together with a brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE 99), can enhance developmental neurotoxic effects when the exposure occurs during a critical stage of neonatal brain development. The present study was carried out in order to see whether PCB and MeHg could interact to cause enhanced developmental neurotoxic effects on spontaneous behaviour and habituation capability when given to neonatal mice.

  1. Perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, alters bone tissue composition in female goat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Rebecca; Lyche, Jan L.; Ropstad, Erik; Aleksandersen, Mona; Roenn, Monika; Skaare, Janneche U.; Larsson, Sune; Orberg, Jan; Lind, P. Monica

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if environmentally relevant doses of the putative estrogenic non dioxin-like PCB 153 and the dioxin-like PCB 126 caused changes in bone tissue in female goat offspring following perinatal exposure. Goat dams were orally dosed with PCB 153 in corn oil (98 μg/kg body wt/day) or PCB 126 (49 ng/kg body wt/day) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The offspring were exposed to PCB in utero and through mother's milk. The suckling period lasted for 6 weeks. Offspring metacarpal bones were analysed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) after euthanisation at 9 months of age. The diaphyseal bone was analysed at a distance of 18% and 50% of the total bone length, and the metaphyseal bone at a distance of 9%. Also, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the mid-diaphyseal pQCT measure point (50%). PCB 153 exposure significantly decreased the total cross-sectional area (125 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (142 mm 2 ± 5), decreased the marrow cavity (38 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (50 mm 2 ± 3) and decreased the moment of resistance (318 mm 3 ± 10) versus non-exposed (371 mm 3 ± 20) at the diaphyseal 18% measure point. At the metaphyseal measure point, the trabecular bone mineral density (121 mg/cm 3 ± 5) was increased versus non-exposed (111 mg/cm 3 ± 3). PCB 126 exposure did not produce any observable changes in bone tissue. The biomechanical testing of the bones did not show any significant changes in bone strength after PCB 153 or PCB 126 exposure. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, resulted in altered bone composition in female goat offspring

  2. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  3. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer to be a PCB Transformer. (4) Any person must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is...

  4. Measurement of PCB concentrations in waters using a biomonitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The book describes a PCB biomonitoring programme which was developed for measuring instantaneous PCB concentrations and permits the compilation of PCB action cadastres for different types of waters and subsequent derivation of current trends. Six representative congeners were selected as a basis for the quantitative routine analysis. The fish species bream (abramis brama) and roach (rutilus rutilus) were used as indicators in the PCB biomonitoring programme on account of their distribution and ecological demands. The age and growth rate of each fish destined for analysis was determined so as to ensure that only healthy fish would be used. In both fish species the dorsal musulature with its low scatter of test results and consistent PCB pattern (internal quantification) proved a representative body region. (orig.) [de

  5. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  6. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  7. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  8. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  9. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  10. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  11. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of PCB...

  12. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  13. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Polycyclic aromatic ... production of paper, feeds, chemicals and fuels there is ... microbes with the production of lignin-modifying enzymes ... enable white rot fungi to degrade a variety of toxic.

  15. Theoretical perspectives on the mechanism and kinetics of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase oxidation of PCB126 in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) primarily exist in the gas phase in air and may undergo atmospheric oxidation degradations, particularly the oxidation reaction initiated by OH radicals. In this work, the mechanism of the OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of the most toxic PCB congener 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) was investigated by using quantum chemistry methods. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were estimated by the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory. The oxidation products of the reaction of PCB126 with OH radicals include 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl-ols, chlorophenols, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,6,7-pentachlorodibenzofuran, dialdehydes, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachloro-5′-nitro-biphenyl, and 4,5-dichloro-2-nitrophenol. Particularly, the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the atmospheric oxidation of PCBs is revealed for the first time. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 2.52 × 10 −13 cm 3 molecule −1 s −1 at 298 K and 1 atm. The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days which indicates that PCB126 can be transported long distances from local to global scales. - Highlights: • A comprehensive mechanism of OH-initiated oxidation of PCB126 was investigated. • The formation of PCDFs from the oxidation of PCBs is determined for the first time. • The rate constants for key elementary reactions were estimated by the RRKM theory. • The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days

  16. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmina Halis,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were first inoculated with each fungus separately using corn steep liquor as a fungal growth promoter. The kenaf chips were inoculated with white rot fungus for a period of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, after which they were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Chemical analyses were conducted following TAPPI Standard Methods and Fourier Transmission Infra Red (FTIR. SEM observations showed evidence of fungal colonization. When calculating weight loss, both P. sanguineus and O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 showed the greatest reduction. Amounts by mass of cellulose, hemicelluloses, extractives, and lignin in the treated kenaf chips all were lowered. The results show that O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 had a greater ability to degrade lignin when compared to P. sanguineus.

  17. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  18. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  19. Economical weight loss program for PCB-contaminated ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    A PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) reduction process for PCB-contaminated ballasts was described. The process was developed by such organizations and programs as PCB Containment Technology Inc, and the Contech Ballast Reduction Program, and was claimed to include waste reduction of lighting ballasts down to their smallest PCB contaminated components. Particular attention was paid to the two most contaminated main components, i.e. the capacitor and the tar potting material. Development of the process and the government's role and participation therein was explained. The process of ballast reduction was said to utilize the old 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' theory; it was considered to be a cost effective waste reduction, recycling, and auditing alternative to incineration of PCBs

  20. Laboratory test of source encapsulation for decreasing PCB concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Markowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of encapsulation of tertiary PCB sources with PERMASORB™ Adsorber Wallpaper and the surface emissions trap (cTrap) on indoor air concentration of PCBs and on the PCB content in the source. The 40 weeks long laboratory investigation shows reduction of the air...... concentration by approx. 90% for both wallpapers, a level comparable to source removal. The potential for extraction of PCBs from the contaminated materials stays unclear for both wallpapers. The cTrap has shown potential to accumulate PCBs, however the total content of PCB in investigated sources has...... apparently increased. The opposite was observed for the PERMASORB™, where the total PCB content in the sources has decreased, with however only small concentration of PCBs in the wallpaper measured at the end of the experiment....

  1. New EPA ban stymies Canadian exports of PCB waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    With reference to a 1996 EPA ruling permitting the importation to the USA of PCBs for incineration, a unanimous three-judge panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth District in San Francisco ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) did not have the authority to permit the import of PCB wastes into the USA for disposal. Prior to the decision, 35 applications from Canada to export some 37,000 tonnes of PCB to the USA for disposal have been approved. Canadian brokers are upset with the decision, claiming that the decision will create a virtual monopoly for Bovar Inc., of Calgary, the only PCB-disposal facility in Canada. The loss (at least for the time being) of the alternate disposal opportunity will likely have the effect of forcing Canadian customers to pay more for PCB disposal. The Canadian government is monitoring the situation and is waiting to see whether an appeal is filed against the ruling

  2. Analysis of a PCB In-Circuit Test and Its Optimized Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    KHNP performs subcomponent performance tests of the PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) installed in safety-related systems or plant trip-related systems with every outage. The characteristics of each subcomponent are measured by test equipment. The tests are known as an ICT (In-Circuit Test). If a degraded condition is detected by this test, the affected subcomponents are replaced. This test has been conducted for 17 years, since 1994, and its results have been compiled into a test system database. As part of the reliability improvement plan of critical PCBs, KHNP developed a program that analyzes the performance of various key PCBs based on this test data. Thus, it became possible to evaluate the performance trends related to PCBs by tracing the test history of the PCB subcomponents through the ICT over many years. The present study also estimates an optimized ICT cycle that can be implemented to prevent the degradation of PCBs before they fail due to aging

  3. Lysimeter studies on the behavior of persistant organic pollutants in the soil-plant-system (1989-1994). Vol. 2. The behavior of 14C fluoranthene and 14C benzo(a)pyrene and also 14C PCB 28 and 14C PCB 52 in the agroecosystem - lysimeter experiments with an orthic luvisol. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeder, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.; Fuehr, F.

    1995-11-01

    14 C-labelled PAH and PCB (benzo(a)pyrene/fluoranthene resp. PCB 28/PCB 52) were mixed into the A n horizon of the lysimeters containing soil cores of an Orthic Luvisol which had been removed undisturbed. Carrots (1990), winter wheat and spinach (1991), potatoes and kale (1992) were grown to harvest maturity. Radio-HPLC enabled the selective enrichment of radioactive substances from extracts of soil, plant and leachate samples in high-purity fractions for GC/MS analyses. Additionally degradation studies with benzo(a)pyrene and fluoranthene have been carried out. In the PAH-lysimeter the concentration of radioactivity in the soil dropped to less than 50% of the initial value after 4 months and after 28 months to about 30%. This can be attributed to mineralisation of fluoranthene. An increasing formation of bound residues was determined either in lysimeter as well as in the degradation study, which finally amounted to more than 50% of the 14 C activity persisting in the soil, of which 2/3 was located in the humin fraction and roughly equal fraction of the remainder in the fulvic and humic acids. Apart from the parent substances both in the lysimeter and degradation study three benzo(a)pyrene quinones were characterised and a non-polar metabolite of benzo(a)pyren with unknown structure was isolated. In the PCB-lysimeter the concentration of the radioactivity in the soil remained almost unchanged throughout 28 months. Metabolites of PCB could not be detected. A total of 0.58% (PCBs) and 0.16% (PAHs) of the radioactivity applied was recovered in the plants. The highest concentration has been determined in carrots, lower concentrations have been found in the subsequent crops and only the PCB cogeneres were detectable in small quantities ( [de

  4. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  6. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  7. Application of tritium-labeled complex technical mixture of PCB congeners as radiotracer in ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    methods: A method of a quantitative estimation of completeness of PCBs extraction from soil and biological samples. The complex of simple, effective and relatively inexpensive methods of research of PCB- destructive activity of soil bacteria. - The method of definition of accumulation and degradation pkhb in soil bacteria in culture allows to determine quantitative characteristics of bacteria strains at research of ability bacteria strains to use PCBs as alone source of carbon and energy. - The method of definition of degradation of PCBs by soil bacteria strains in model conditions in the ground allows to estimate PCB-destructive activity of strains after their introducing in the ground. - The method of direct determination of PCB-destructive of own soil microbiota. The developed methods have been effectively applied for researches at creation of a collection of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics active soil bacteria strains have been determined. It is shown, that investigated strains possess the ability to accumulate and destroy of PCBs in culture and in model conditions in ground. Thus, the developed complex of radiochemical methods allows to determine PCB-destructive activity of bacteria at primary screening, selection and research of soil bacteria strains. Thus we suppose that developed approach of use of tritium labeled complex technical mix PCBs congeners as radiotracer allows obtaining valuable additional information, inaccessible for gas chromatography analysis. The main advantage of developed approach is the possibility of direct precise quantitative measurement of PCBs. The developed approach can be applied with success for the quantitative analysis of' similar complex mixes of congeners of other organic compounds, such as dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  8. PCB management and the environmental movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1995-01-01

    Some key issues of public concern about hazardous waste incinerators and, in general, the management of toxic wastes, have been identified with a view to counter arguments brought forward by environmentalists and to offer reassurance based on scientific evidence. The case in point is the long-term management of London's (Ontario) PCB inventory, extensively studied by Proctor and Redfern Ltd., a consultant group. They recommended thermal destruction of the PCBs as the most effective and permanent solution. Their report was subsequently attacked by Greenpeace, whose main concern was the consultants's recommendation to rely on destruction by incineration and removal efficiency values. Greenpeace also raised doubts about recommended measures against emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the incineration of metal containing waste, and the validity of health risk assessment. Evidence from Proctor and Redfern's own consulting experience, and other published scientific studies were used to show the fallacy of Greenpeace's arguments, claiming that they were based on unscientific, outdated and seemingly selective information, resulting in completely misleading assessment of incineration as an effective means of toxic waste management. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  10. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative transcriptome and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber J. Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Diego Martinez; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi, such as Postia placenta, is poorly understood relative to the phylogenetically related white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. To elucidate the number, structure, and regulation of genes involved in lignocellulosic cell wall attack, secretome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both wood decay fungi...

  14. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. In vitro reduction of coplanar PCB congeners by ABTS oxidases from the culture of Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoki, S. [High-Tech Research Center, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Sue, T.; Hisamatsu, S. [Graduate School of Environmental Health, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Nagasaka, H. [Inst. of Environmental Ecology, Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co., Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, the environmental contamination by the harmful polluted chemicals becomes more serious. Among them, especially, the dioxins such as coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs) and PCDDs are hard to be decomposed due to their stability and hydrophobic nature, leading to the world-wide contamination. To clean up the polluted environment, bioremediation using a microorganism is expected to solve the environmental pollution problem because of cost-effective alternative to the more established engineering method. There are some reports on the biodegradation of dioxins using various organisms, in which basidiomycetes, so-called white-rot fungi, have been extensively studied in the process of lignin degradation. As a result unique extracellular oxidative lignindegrading enzymes, such as lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were supposed to be responsible for degrading dioxins. Overall many studies on biodegradation of dioxins or other chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have focused on using white-rot fungi; however, few reports referred to the metabolism of these environmental pollutants in the in vitro reaction by use of lignin-degrading enzymes produced by white-rot fungi. In this study, we reported the reduction of levels of Co-PCBs in the in vitro incubation with the fractions which had the oxidase activity toward 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in the culture fluid of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor.

  16. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  17. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  18. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIV ARBELI

    2009-01-01

    remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible strategies to stimulate these processes. The degradation of the other POPs would be reviewed in additional texts. Key words: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB; Biodegradation; Bioremediation.

  19. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Wingfield, M.J.; Akulov, A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Gramaje, D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Guarnaccia, V.; Halleen, F.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Marincowitz, S.; Moslemi, A.; Mostert, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Schumacher, R.K.; Spies, C.F.J.; Thangavel, R.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Wilson, A.M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA

  20. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  1. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  2. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  3. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  4. PCB management at Manitoba Hydro's Waverley Service Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, R.G.; Engstrom, T.

    1996-01-01

    Manitoba Hydro was the first Canadian utility to initiate a program to decontaminate insulating oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's recovery, reuse and recycling program, operated out of the utility's Waverley Service Centre (WSC). The WSC is a central facility serving to phase out and and destroy PCBs which remain in Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Several hundred thousand litres of PCB-contaminated insulating oil are decontaminated annually at the WSC. The decontaminated oil is then reconditioned for reuse within the system operations. A PCBX unit was purchased from Sun Ohio for the decontamination of insulating oils containing PCBs. PCB decontamination is achieved through a chemical dechlorination treatment process. The PCBX treatment unit and the PCB storage building were described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  5. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  6. PCB and Dioxin content of Swedish waste fuels; PCB- och dioxininnehaall i svenska avfallsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, Evalena (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Reported dioxin data in the literature presents a rather large variation, 1-255 ng I-TEQ/kg, among different municipal solid waste (MSW) mixture samples taken within different countries. However the variation is not only large between different countries, a significant variation is reported within each study as well. Results that shows the importance of using reliable and representative sampling methods. The majority of the reported dioxin levels is within 4 to 45 ng I-TEQ/kg waste. In some of the reported studies the dioxin content has as well been analysed in sources-sorted fractions. The majority, 90-95%, of the detected dioxins were found in the fraction consisting of textiles and leather. This study aims to analyse the amount and variations, of the toxic dioxin and PCB congeners within a typical MSW mixture in Sweden, before it is energy recovered in a waste incineration plant. The study includes 20 samples, taken from two different plants in Sweden i.e. Renova and Boraas Energi och Miljoe, during 2007/2008. A well evaluated sampling method were used at both plants to achieve representative samples. Each sampling campaign resulted in a 30 kg sample that was transported in sealed containers to a laboratory. The heat value and a complete determination of the elementary content was analysed as well as the levels of toxic dioxins and PCBs in all samples. All results, both organic and inorganic, were rather similar between the two incineration plants. The resemblance within the results is an outcome of that good and representative sampling method has been used during the sampling campaigns. The average value (+/- standard deviation) of all 20 samples is 29 +/-15 ng I-TEQ per kilo of dry MSW. An average value which is within the lower range of the previous reported levels in the literature. The lower dioxin content within Swedish MSW mixtures is most likely due to the relative well-controlled waste management and sorting system in Sweden. The majority of the

  7. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  9. PCB Embedded Inductor for High-Frequency ZVS SEPIC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Yi; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thummala, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    The volume and temperature rise of passive components, especially inductors, limit the momentum toward high power density in high-frequency power converters. To address the limitations, PCB integration of passive components should be considered with the benefit of low profile, excellent thermal...... characteristic and cost reduction. This paper investigates an embedded structure of inductors to further increase the power density of a low power DC-DC converter. A pair of coupling inductors have been embedded into the PCB. The detailed embedded process has been described and the characteristics of embedded...

  10. Mass-selective Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants by GC/MS Isolation, Concentration, Identification and Determination of Isomeric Spesific Composition of PCB in Natural and Drinking Waters of Dnieper River Basin in Kiev Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milyukin, Mikhail V.

    2002-01-01

    In concentrates of natural and drinking waters of Dnieper river basin in Kiev region with enrichment factor of 2,0⋅105–4,0⋅105 PCB (PCB524, PCB664, PCB1015, PCB1185, PCB1055, PCB1536, PCB1386, PCB1807, PCB2008) have been identified and their isomeric-specific composition (tetrachloro- – heptachloroisomers) has been determined at MDL level as low as 10–400 pg/L

  11. Computerization of the Electronic Scheme Drawing Equipment on Printed-Circuit-Board (PCB) Surface (Phase One)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon H; Kussigit S; Paidjo; Riswan Dj; Natsir, M.; Dedy H; Edy Karyanta; Edy S

    2003-01-01

    To increase the capability of the PCB immersion machine developed previous a computerized drawing machine on PCB surface is proposed for drawing the schematic electronic, PROTEL software is used Used is Roland DXY 1100 type which had been modified to accommodate the PCB characteristic, because it is used originally for paper. Concerning, the plotter ink, the waterproof type must be used. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  13. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100...

  14. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  15. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun County.... Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4...

  16. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... FR 11533 (FRL-9637-7), EPA posted a Notice of Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB... the settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB...

  17. Effect van PCB's op de energiekosten van migratie en bloedparameters van Europese aal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Nieveen, M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Er zijn nog steeds PCB's aanwezig in het ecosysteem (water en land). Als palingen 6000 km migreren, zullen ze hun vetreserves aanspreken en komen er giftige PCB's vrij in het lichaam. Daarnaast kan de embryonale ontwikkeling nadelig beïnvloed worden door ophoping van PCB's in dooiermateriaal.

  18. Radioactive and non-radioactive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, W.W.; Gretzinger, R.F.; Cox, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Conformance to all state and federal regulations is the goal of Rockwell in the management of both radioactive and non-radioactive PCB's at Hanford. A continuing effort is being made to locate, remove, and properly dispose of all PCB's. As improved methods of management are developed, consideration will be given to them for their adaptation into the Hanford Site PCB Management Plan

  19. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  20. PCB in soils and estimated soil-air exchange fluxes of selected PCB congeners in the south of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, Cecilia; Cousins, Ian T.; Larsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    PCB concentrations were studied in different soils to determine the spatial variation over a region of approximately 11 000 km 2 . PCB congener pattern was used to illustrate the spatial differences, as shown by principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship to different soil parameters was studied. PCB concentrations in soil showed a large variation between sampling-areas with median concentrations ranging between 2.3 and 332 ng g -1 (dw). Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with extremely high organic carbon content. Both sites were located on the west coast of southern Sweden. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with congener patterns almost site-specific. PCB in air and precipitation was measured and the transfer of chemicals between the soil and air compartments was estimated. Soil-air fugacity quotient calculations showed that the PCBs in the soil consistently had a higher fugacity than the PCBs in the air, with a median quotient value of 2.7. The gaseous fluxes between soil and air were estimated using standard modelling equations and a net soil-air flux estimated by subtracting bulk deposition from gaseous soil-air fluxes. It was shown that inclusion of vertical sorbed phase transport of PCBs in the soil had a large effect on the direction of the net soil-air exchange fluxes. - Soil-air exchange of PCBs is investigated and modelled across Sweden

  1. Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupcik, J. (Slovak Technical Univ., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Kocan, A. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Petrik, J. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Leclercq, P.A. (Eindhoven University of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lab. of Instrumental Analysis (Netherlands)); Ballschmiter, K. (University of Ulm, Dept. of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    The composition of any technical PCB formulation can be determined directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative molecular masses of the components are known. The response of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors can then be calibrated for individual PCB congeners by correlation of the chromatographic patterns with those of concentrated PCB samples obtained by GC-FID. This procedure, which uses a given technical PCB formulation as a secondary reference standard mixture, is to be preferred over existing calibration methods, when results with [+-]10% errors are acceptable because commercial PCB formulations cover the whole range of chlorination products. (orig.)

  2. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L; Billsson, K; Berg, A H [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S J; Hinton, D E [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  3. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, ... basic structure of PCB according to Wiegel and Wu. (2000), is as shown in Figure. 1. ..... inability to understand the interaction between complex chemicals in addition to physical and ...

  5. Automatic extraction of via in the CT image of PCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Hu, Yuwei

    2018-04-01

    In modern industry, the nondestructive testing of printed circuit board (PCB) can prevent effectively the system failure and is becoming more and more important. In order to detect the via in the PCB base on the CT image automatically accurately and reliably, a novel algorithm for via extraction based on weighting stack combining the morphologic character of via is designed. Every slice data in the vertical direction of the PCB is superimposed to enhanced vias target. The OTSU algorithm is used to segment the slice image. OTSU algorithm of thresholding gray level images is efficient for separating an image into two classes where two types of fairly distinct classes exist in the image. Randomized Hough Transform was used to locate the region of via in the segmented binary image. Then the 3D reconstruction of via based on sequence slice images was done by volume rendering. The accuracy of via positioning and detecting from a CT images of PCB was demonstrated by proposed algorithm. It was found that the method is good in veracity and stability for detecting of via in three dimensional.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  7. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  8. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  9. Decolorization and degradation of malachite green by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation using a variety of microbes for the degradation of xenobiotics seems a green solution to the problem of environmental pollution. Microbes have been gifted by nature with the ability of degrading a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants. Different fungi have the potentials to degrade complex and ...

  10. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposing Fungi Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to obtain the isolates of soil borne fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere which were capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. The soil samples were collected from South Sumatra mangrove forest which was contaminated by petroleum. The isolates obtained were selected based on their ability to survive, to grow and to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in medium containing petroleum residue. There were 3 isolates of soil borne hydrocarbonoclastic fungi which were able to degrade petroleum in vitro. The 3 isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigates, A. parasiticus, and Chrysonilia sitophila. C. sitophila was the best isolate to decrease total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH from medium containing 5-20% petroleum residue.

  11. The effect of anthropogenic contaminations (PAH, PCB) on terrestrial annelids in conurban ecosystems. Final report; Einfluss von anthropogenen Schadstoffen (PAK und PCB) auf terrestrische Invertebraten urbaner Oekosysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achazi, R.K.; Beylich, A.; Chroszcz, G.; Dueker, C.; Heck, M.; Henneken, M.; Flenner, C.; Froehlich, E.; Garbers, U.; Khan, M.A.; Kreibich, M.; Kronshage, J.; Philippe, L.; Pilz, C.; Rothe, B.; Schabedoth, E.; Schaub, K.; Scheiwe, E.; Schmid, C.; Steudel, I.; Struwe, M.; Throl, C.; Wuertz, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Back, H.; Naehring, D.; Thielemann, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Oekologie und Umweltplanung mbH, Nussloch (Germany)

    1997-09-23

    The project was conducted from August 1993 until May 1997. The objectives were (a) an elaboration of effect concentrations and index values for organic contaminants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals in soil of conurbations for the community of decomposers, (b) the improvement of a biotest system for the evaluation of the habitat function of contaminated soils and (c) to obtain informations concerning a controlled utilization of contaminated areas. For that purpose field investigations in former sewage water irrigation areas of Berlin, Germany, concerning the abundance, species composition and dominance structure of terrestrial annelids (Enchytraeids, Lumbricids) were performed, as well as bioassays using contaminated soils of these sites and soils spiked with bezo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, PCB 52, Cd and Cu and experiments on accumulation, elimination and biotransformation in annelids. 12 of the 17 sites investigated lacked earthworms, while only 2 sites lacked enchytraeids. The abundance of enchytraeids was in the range of 500 to 12.500/m{sup 2}, compared to 25.000 to 280.000/m{sup 2} on reference sites. The hostility of the soils of former irrigation fields to annelids was confirmed by lamina bait tests and by bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus, E. albidus, E. buchholzi and Eisenia f. fetida. The ecotoxicity of the combined contaminants was enforced by the acidity and the degradation of the soils. The toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants to terrestrial annelids was definitely proved by reproduction tests in the agar test system. The applied methods of investigation can be used for evaluation of contaminated soils. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Projekt wurde von August 1993 bis Mai 1997 durchgefuehrt. Ziele waren die Erarbeitung (a) von Wirkschwellen fuer organische Schadstoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetalle im Boden fuer Destruenten urbaner Oekosysteme, (b) von Biotestsystemen zur Bewertung der Lebensraumfunktion belasteter Boeden und (c) von Hinweisen zur

  12. PCB dechlorination hotspots and reductive dehalogenase genes in sediments from a contaminated wastewater lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Timothy E; Ewald, Jessica M; Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Awad, Andrew; Richards, Patrick; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2017-08-12

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are distributed worldwide. Although industrial PCB production has stopped, legacy contamination can be traced to several different commercial mixtures (e.g., Aroclors in the USA). Despite their persistence, PCBs are subject to naturally occurring biodegradation processes, although the microbes and enzymes involved are poorly understood. The biodegradation potential of PCB-contaminated sediments in a wastewater lagoon located in Virginia (USA) was studied. Total PCB concentrations in sediments ranged from 6.34 to 12,700 mg/kg. PCB congener profiles in sediment sample were similar to Aroclor 1248; however, PCB congener profiles at several locations showed evidence of dechlorination. The sediment microbial community structure varied among samples but was dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of putative dechlorinating Chloroflexi (including Dehalococcoides sp.) was 0.01-0.19% among the sediment samples, with Dehalococcoides sp. representing 0.6-14.8% of this group. Other possible PCB dechlorinators present included the Clostridia and the Geobacteraceae. A PCR survey for potential PCB reductive dehalogenase genes (RDases) yielded 11 sequences related to RDase genes in PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CG5 and PCB-dechlorinating D. mccartyi strain CBDB1. This is the first study to retrieve potential PCB RDase genes from unenriched PCB-contaminated sediments.

  13. Relationships between Atmospheric Transport Regimes and PCB Concentrations in the Air at Zeppelin, Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-09-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent hazardous chemicals that are still detected in the atmosphere and other environmental media, although their production has been banned for several decades. At the long-term monitoring site, Zeppelin at Spitsbergen, different PCB congeners have been continuously measured for more than a decade. However, it is not clear what factors determine the seasonal and interannual variability of different (lighter versus heavier) PCB congeners. To investigate the influence of atmospheric transport patterns on PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations at Zeppelin, we applied the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART and calculated "footprints" that indicate the potential source regions of air arriving at Zeppelin. By means of a cluster analysis, we assigned groups of similar footprints to different transport regimes and analyzed the PCB concentrations according to the transport regimes. The concentrations of both PCB congeners are affected by the different transport regimes. For PCB-101, the origin of air masses from the European continent is primarily related to high concentrations; elevated PCB-101 concentrations in winter can be explained by the high frequency of this transport regime in winter, whereas PCB-101 concentrations are low when air is arriving from the oceans. For PCB-28, in contrast, concentrations are high during summer when air is mainly arriving from the oceans but low when air is arriving from the continents. The most likely explanation of this finding is that local emissions of PCB-28 mask the effect of long-range transport and determine the concentrations measured at Zeppelin.

  14. Removal of PCB from indoor air and surface materials by introduction of additional sorbing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Lyng, Nadja; Kolarik, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Alleviation of indoor PCB contamination is extremely expensive because PCB from old primary sources has redistributed to most other surfaces over time. This study investigates the introduction of new removable sorbing materials as a method instantly lowering the concentration of PCB in indoor air...... and slowly decontaminating old surface materials. In three bedrooms of a contaminated apartment respectively new painted gypsum boards, sheets of flexible polyurethane foam and activated carbon fabric were introduced. The PCB concentrations in room air were monitored before the intervention and several times...... during the following 10 months. The PCB concentrations in the old surface materials as well as the new materials were also measured. An immediate reduction of PCB concentration in indoor air, a gradual increase of PCB in new material and as well a gradual reduction in old surface materials were...

  15. Studies on the distribution of 14C-labelled PCB in the body, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Hosoya, Hideo

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report of 14 C-PCB distribution series in animals. We reported the results of the distribution of 14 C-PCB from birds, fish and shell in the previous experiments, and we have obtained some results from present experiment. This time interperito neal injection of 14 C-PCB solution was carried to mice, and the results were as follows; Excretion of 14 C-PCB as radioactivity was at its maximum about 6 hr. after medication. Excretive ratio was 87.20% for 24 hr, but 72.43% of radioactivity was excreted within 12hr. The result of radiopaperchromatography showed that 14 C-PCB was not changeable in the fecus after medication, being Rf = 0.92 in comparison with standard 14 C-PCB. 14 C-PCB distributed throughout the body of mice in 24 hr. and at least remained over till 480 hr. in adipose tissues of mice after single medication. (auth.)

  16. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    Full Text Available Copper sulfates (CuSO4 are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g. In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4 application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1 also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  17. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  18. Contribuição de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones no crescimento de Guazuma ulmifolia em solo de cerrado degradado Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the growth of Guazuma ulmifolia in degraded 'cerrado' soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli da Silva Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios foram conduzidos, em casa de vegetação, com solos de pastagem degradada reflorestada e cerrado preservado (controle visando avaliar a contribuição de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA autóctones no crescimento de mutambo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamb.. As mudas foram transplantadas para sacos de plástico (2 kg com substratos esterilizados na proporção 4:1 (solo:areia, e o tratamento inoculado recebeu 300 esporos de FMA por saco. A inoculação não proporcionou aumento significativo na produção da matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria fresca das raízes e altura da planta, sugerindo que a G. ulmifolia não é responsiva à micorrização.Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, using reforested degraded pasture and preserved 'cerrado' (control soil with the objective to evaluate the contribution of autoctone arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the Guazuma ulmifolia Lamb. growth. Seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags with 2 kg of sterilized soil: sand substrate (4:1. Plants were inoculated with ca. 300 spores of AMF per replication; noninoculated plants served as control. AMF did not improve significantly canopy dry matter, root fresh matter and plant height. G. ulmifolia showed no response to mycorrhizae.

  19. Degradation of Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II in the Aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... The rate of degradation of the a and b isomers of endosulfan, endosulfan I and endosulfan II in distilled ... quality and quantity of the biomass (fungi, bacteria). ... and sediment contained in plastic drums covered with a clear.

  20. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  1. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  2. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the domin...

  3. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by marine-derived basidiomycetes: optimization of the degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gabriela A L; Magrini, Mariana Juventina; Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Rodrigues, Marili V N; Sette, Lara D

    2018-05-03

    Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08mgmL -1 ) after 48h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Environmental degradation impact on native communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in an urban fragment of semideciduous plateau forest Impacto da degradação ambiental sobre as comunidades nativas de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em um fragmento urbano de floresta estacional semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Three forest reserves, with highly degraded areas, are open to visitors in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Impact caused by tree cutting, heavy traffic and visitors on the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in two areas with different degradation stages of the Dr. Luis Teixeira Mendes Forest Garden, a remnant of semideciduous forest. Soil samples were removed from three locations within each area; spores were isolated from the soil by wet sieving and sucrose centrifugation and mounted on permanent slides. Spores were counted and identified taxonomically under a microscope. Diversity, dominance, equitability and similarity indexes were calculated from abundance data. The degraded area had the highest number of spores and featured communities with the lowest rates in richness, diversity and equitability. However, high spore density was caused by the frequent presence of G. sinuosum sporocarps. Ten to 12 species were verified in each site from the preserved area while this number varied from 6 to 12 in the degraded area. In the degraded area, Site II, lying in the most protected area of the forest fragment, diversified and equilibrated communities existed, similar to sites in the preserved area. Results suggest that environmental degradation had negative effects on the establishment and diversity of AMF.No município de Maringá (PR existem três parques abertos à visitação, todos com áreas degradadas. O impacto causado pelo corte de árvores, tráfego de automóveis e visitação sobre o estabelecimento de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi avaliado em duas áreas do Horto Florestal Dr. Luis Teixeira Mendes, remanescente de floresta estacional semidecídua. Amostras de solo foram retiradas de três pontos em cada área. Os esporos foram isolados do solo via peneiramento úmido e centrifugação em sacarose, e montados em lâminas permanentes. Sob microscópio foram quantificados e identifi cados

  6. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  7. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  8. Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupcik, J.; Kocan, A.; Petrik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1993-01-01

    The compn. of any tech. PCB formulation can be detd. directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatog. with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative mol. masses of the components are known. The responses of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors

  9. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  10. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  12. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  13. Eco Logic signs deal to destroy Japanese PCB stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    According to a recent announcement, Eco Logic of Rockwood, Ontario, has entered into a partnership with the Japanese companies Tokyo Boeki and Nippon Sharyo for the destruction of stockpiled PCB materials in Japan, using Eco Logic's non-incineration technology. The deal is reported to be worth about $50 million in revenues to Eco Logic, spread over the next few years. The agreement includes provisions for the Japanese companies to purchase, or manufacture under licence, a number of Eco Logic's gas phase chemical reduction processing units to serve the Japanese market. In exchange for exclusive rights to the Japanese market, Eco Logic will receive license fees and royalties of up to nine per cent for the use of its process. Eco Logic is currently building a demonstration unit under contract with the two Japanese companies. The Japanese PCB waste destruction market is estimated to be worth as much as $400 million. Incineration, the conventional form of disposal, is strongly opposed by local governments

  14. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  15. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with PCB-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals, and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic, thus it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation and elimination of PCBs in fish, since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

  16. Potential Impact of PCB's on Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, Management

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge, Peter J.; Meaburn, G. Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    Since 1979, anglers along the U.S. Atlantic coast have landed by weight more bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, than any other marine species. A fishery management plan has been developed jointly by three fishery management councils and the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission to preserve the bluefish resource. Major objectives of the plan include prevention of recruitment overfishing and reduction in waste of bluefish. In 1985, a Federal survey found PCB concentrations in larger bluefish ...

  17. PCB transformer fires: the risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmon, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is estimated that 1/2 of the present nuclear power plants operate with PCB-filled transformer equipment. In an attempt to obtain better estimates of clean-up costs in a nuclear power plant under reasonable-loss scenarios, a study was commissioned. This study was a joint venture between Blackmon-Mooring Steamatic Technologies, Inc., (BMS-TECH) and M and M Protection Consultants. This joint study was conducted at a typical pressurized-water reactor plant consisting of two 1000-MW units. Three specific scenarios were selected and analyzed for this typical power plant. These scenarios were: (1) an electrical failure of a transformer in an isolated switch gear room; (2) a transformer exposed to a 55-gallon transient combustion oil fire in the auxiliary building; and (3) a PCB transformer involved in a major turbine lube fire in the turbine building. Based on results of this study, the insurance carriers for this industry implemented an adjustment in their rate structures for nuclear power plants that have PCB equipment

  18. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.

    2007-01-01

    A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K OW . The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. - The bioaccumulation behaviour of PCB congeners in a Baltic food web is studied using a novel mechanistic model

  19. Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martin, Juan F

    2003-06-01

    The presence of some fungi on a variety of food products, like cheeses or cured meat products, is beneficial for the ripening of the product and for the development of specific flavour features. The utilization of these fungi as starters, which are inoculated normally as asexual spores on the food products at the beginning of the ripening process, is becoming a usual procedure in the food industry. The starter culture also prevents undesirable fungi or bacteria from growing on the product. Penicillium nalgiovense is the most frequently used starter for cured and fermented meat products, but the fact that this fungus can secrete penicillin to the meat product makes it important to get strains unable to synthesize this antibiotic. In this work we report that P. nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production can be obtained by disruption of the pcbAB gene (the first gene of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway). When applied as starter on cecina (a salted, smoke-cured beef meat product from the region of León, Spain), the pcbAB-disrupted strain showed no differences with respect to the parental penicillin-producing strain in its ability to colonize the meat pieces and to control their normal mycoflora. Both strains exerted a similar control on the presence of bacteria in cecina. A similar proportion of penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant bacteria were isolated from pieces inoculated with the penicillin-producing or the non-producing P. nalgiovense strains. The decrease of the bacterial population on the surface of cecina seems to be due to the higher competition for nutrients as a consequence of the inoculation and development of the P. nalgiovense mycelium and not due to the production of penicillin by this fungus. Penicillin production was less affected than growth in a solid medium with high NaCl concentrations; this suggests that the high salt concentration present in cecina is not a limiting factor for penicillin production by P. nalgiovense.

  20. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  1. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  2. Assessment of questionnaire-based PCB exposure focused on food frequency in birth cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Otake, Masae; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels of mothers and fathers recruited from the Chiba Regional Center, which is one of the 15 regional centers of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (mothers: n = 1477, fathers: n = 219). The expected PCB values were estimated from the participants' FFQ answers and medical records (age, body mass index and number of deliveries). Based on the stepwise forward selection results of Bayesian regression models, age and fish and egg consumption were positively associated with PCB concentrations and a number of deliveries were negatively associated with PCB concentrations in mothers, whereas only age was positively associated with PCB concentrations in fathers.These findings indicated that the estimation of daily dietary intake may be useful for the prediction of PCB concentration for mothers.

  3. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used...... as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two...

  4. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Biodegradation of mixtures of pesticides by bacteria and white rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gouma, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential for degradation of mixtures of pesticides (chlorpyrifos, linuron, metribuzin) by a range of bacteria and fungi and to relate this capability to enzyme production and quantify the rates of degradation of the components of the mixture of xenobiotic compounds. Overall, although bacteria (19 Bacillus and 4 Pseudomonas species) exhibited tolerance to the individual and micture of pesticides actual degradation was not eviden...

  6. Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai.; K, Vignesh.; J, Sangeetha.

    2011-01-01

    Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was t...

  7. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications... residues of PCB's as unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient...

  8. Silicon photonic IC embedded optical-PCB for high-speed interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallega, Rakshitha; Nambiar, Siddharth; Kumar, Abhai; Ranganath, Praveen; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Optical-Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an emerging optical interconnect technology to bridge the gap between the board edge and the processing module. The technology so far has been used as a broadband transmitter using polymer waveguides in the PCB. In this paper, we report a Silicon Nitride based photonic IC embedded in the PCB along with the polymers as waveguides in the PCB. The motivation for such integration is to bring routing capability and to reduce the power loss due to broadcasting mode.

  9. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility

  10. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  12. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  13. Cellulolytic activity of some cellulose-decomposing fungi in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Badran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum evolution of CO2 was marked in control soil inoculated by tested fungi but its rate decreased with the increasing salinity. The period of 10 days was most suitable for cellulose degradation by A. niger and P. chrysoecnum and 15 days by A. flavus and C. globosum in control soil. High salinity levels affected greatly the cellulolylic activities of tesled fungi. Carbon content of saline soils increased white the nitrogen content decreased.

  14. White-rot fungi in phenols, dyes and other xenobiotics treatment – a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Tišma, Marina; Zelić, B.; Vasić-Rački, Đurđa

    2010-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive technology that utilizes the metabolic potential of microorganisms in order to clean up the environmental pollutants to the less hazardous or non-hazardous forms with less input of chemicals, energy and time. White-rot fungi are unique organisms that show the capacities of degrading and mineralizing lignin as well as organic, highly toxic and recalcitrant compounds. The key enzymes of their metabolism are extracellular lignolytic enzymes that enable fungi to to...

  15. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  16. Bioconversion of dieldrin by wood-rotting fungi and metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Dieldrin is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticides, listed as one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. Although microbial degradation is an effective way to remediate environmental pollutants, reports on aerobic microbial degradation of dieldrin are limited. Wood-rotting fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants, and an attempt has been made to select wood-rotting fungi that can degrade dieldrin, and to identify the metabolite. Thirty-four isolates of wood-rotting fungi were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Strain YK543 degraded 39.1 +/- 8.8% of dieldrin during 30 days of incubation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that strain YK543 was closely related to the fungus Phlebia brevispora Nakasone TMIC33929, which has been reported as a fungus that can degrade chlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. 9-Hydroxydieldrin was detected as a metabolite in the cultures of strain YK543. It is important to select the microorganisms that degrade organic pollutants, and to identify the metabolic pathway for the development of bioremediation methods. Strain YK543 was selected as a fungus capable of degrading dieldrin. The metabolic pathway includes 9-hydroxylation reported in rat's metabolism catalysed by liver microsomal monooxygenase. This is the first report of transformation of dieldrin to 9-hydroxydieldrin by a microorganism. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Fast and parallel determination of PCB 77 and PCB 180 in plasma using ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: A pharmacokinetic study in Swiss albino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, N; Sivaselvakumar, M; Ramalingam, S

    2017-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 77 and PCB 180 in mouse plasma. The sample preparation was performed by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique. The analytes were chromatographed on a Waters Acquity H class UPLC system using isocratic mobile phase conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP 18 column maintained at 35°C. Quantification was performed on a photodiode array detector set at 215 nm and PCB 101 was used as internal standard (IS). PCB 77, PCB 180, and IS retention times were 2.6, 4.7 and 2.8 min, respectively, and the total run time was 6 min. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, recovery, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 10-3000 ng/mL for PCB 77 and PCB 180. Intra- and inter-day precisions for PCBs 77 and 180 were found to be good with CV <4.64%, and the accuracy ranged from 98.90 to 102.33% in mouse plasma. The validated UPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of PCBs 77 and 180 in mouse plasma. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cellulases from Thermophilic Fungi: Recent Insights and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo-Chuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic fungal cellulases are promising enzymes in protein engineering efforts aimed at optimizing industrial processes, such as biomass degradation and biofuel production. The cloning and expression in recent years of new cellulase genes from thermophilic fungi have led to a better understanding of cellulose degradation in these species. Moreover, crystal structures of thermophilic fungal cellulases are now available, providing insights into their function and stability. The present paper is focused on recent progress in cloning, expression, regulation, and structure of thermophilic fungal cellulases and the current research efforts to improve their properties for better use in biotechnological applications.

  19. EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

  20. White-rot fungi in phenols, dyes and other xenobiotics treatment – a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zelić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive technology that utilizes the metabolic potential of microorganisms in order to clean up the environmental pollutants to the less hazardous or non-hazardous forms with less input of chemicals, energy and time. White-rot fungi are unique organisms that show the capacities of degrading and mineralizing lignin as well as organic, highly toxic and recalcitrant compounds. The key enzymes of their metabolism are extracellular lignolytic enzymes that enable fungi to tolerate a relatively high concentration of toxic substrates. This paper gives a brief review of many aspects concerning the application of white-rot fungi with the purpose of the industrial contaminants removal.

  1. Cnidarian-derived filamentous fungi from Brazil: isolation, characterisation and RBBR decolourisation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, M; Passarini, M R Z; Bonugli, R C; Sette, L D

    2008-12-01

    Marine-derived fungi represent a valuable source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites of industrial interest. They also have drawn attention for their capacity to degrade several pollutants, including textile dyes, organochlorides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. The fungal tolerance to higher concentrations of salt might be considered an advantage for bioremediation processes in the marine environment. Therefore, filamentous fungi were isolated from cnidarians (scleractinian coral and zoanthids) collected from the north coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 144 filamentous fungi were morphologically and molecularly characterised. Among them there were several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, in addition to Cladosporium spp., Eutypella sp., Fusarium spp., Khuskia sp., Mucor sp., Peacilomyces sp., Phoma sp. and Trichoderma spp. These fungi were tested regarding their decolourisation activity for Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), a textile dye used as an initial screening for PAH-degrading fungi. The most efficient fungi for RBBR decolourisation after 12 days were Penicillium citrinum CBMAI 853 (100%), Aspergillus sulphureus CBMAI 849 (95%), Cladosporium cladosporioides CBMAI 857 (93%) and Trichoderma sp. CBMAI 852 (89%). Besides its efficiency for dye decolourisation within liquid media, C. cladosporioides CBMAI 857 also decolourised dye on solid media, forming a decolourisation halo. Further research on the biotechnological potential, including studies on PAH metabolism, of these selected fungi are in progress.

  2. Skin Fungi from Colonization to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Sybren; Monod, Michel; Dawson, Tom; Boekhout, Teun; Mayser, Peter; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system. In a response-damage framework, all fungi are potentially able to cause disease, as a balance between their natural predilection and the immune status of the host. For this reason, we will not attribute a fixed ecological term to each species, but rather describe them as growing in a commensal state (A) or in a pathogenic state (B).

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: mattace@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: meli@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  5. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  6. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  7. PCB 28 metabolites elimination kinetics in human plasma on a real case scenario: Study of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) metabolites of PCB 28 in a highly exposed German Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Esser, André; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas

    2017-07-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects in animals and humans. Although background levels of PCBs have been slowly decreased after their ban, they are still among the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, remaining the subject of great concern. PCB 28 is a trichlorinated PCB found in high concentrations not only in human plasma but also in indoor air in Europe, yet little is known about its metabolic pathway and potential metabolites in humans. The present study aims to elucidate the kinetics of metabolite formation and elimination by analyzing four hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in human plasma as potential metabolites of the PCB 28 congener. For this purpose, the study was conducted in plasma samples of highly PCB-exposed individuals (N=268), collected from 2010 to 2014 as a representation of a real case scenario with longitudinal data. OH-PCBs have been predicted, synthesized in the course of this study and further identified and quantitated in human plasma. This is the first time that previously unknown PCB 28 metabolites have been measured in human plasma and half-lives have been estimated for PCB metabolites, which could then provide further understanding in the toxicological consequences of exposure to PCBs in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  9. Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ''did what he/she was told.'' The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician's office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface

  11. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  12. 24-71 GHz PCB Array for 5G ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave 5G mobile architectures need to consolidate disparate frequency bands into a single, multifunctional array. Existing arrays are either narrow-band, prohibitively expensive or cannot be scaled to these frequencies. In this paper, we present the first ultra-wideband millimeter wave array to operate across six 5G and ISM bands spanning 24-71 GHz. Importantly, the array is realized using low-cost PCB. The paper presents the design and optimized layout, and discusses fabrication and measurements.

  13. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  14. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded...... in three phases combining a literature review, laboratory experiments and measurements in buildings potentially containing PCBs in indoor air. The laboratory experiments showed a strong influence of air velocity on the PCB partitioning between air and the passive sampler. Based on the results of the first...

  15. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir pith by ... of the culture filtrate appears to be non toxic in the tested animals @ JASEM. Coir pith is a highly ... degradation of coir pith by fungi and bacteria were already reported, ... no.1 filter paper and used as feed for the experimental ...

  16. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  17. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  18. An improved inventory of polychlorinated biphenyls in China: A case study on PCB-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Ma, Jianmin; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-06-01

    Emission inventory of pollutants is essential for the environmental fate study and management of the pollutant. To construct a reasonable PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) inventory in China, this study estimates PCB usage and emission using power generating capacity, installed capacity of power plants and transformer substations, population density and GDP as surrogates. Inventory of representative PCB (PCB-153) with a resolution of 1/4° latitude × 1/4° longitude in China from 1952 to 2005 was generated and assessed as an example. Totally, about 20.3 kt PCBs were applied in China, of which 179 t were PCB-153. By the end of 2005, most of them (56.4%) were emitted into the soil, 2.7% entered the air, and about 20.8% was sealed in storage site or still in service. Historical emissions exhibited increasing trends after 1968, 1984 and 1994, which were mainly associated with usage or disposal processes. Although primary emission has been declined since 2005, the influence of secondary emission from soils, unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCB), and reemission from storage sites could be a long-lasting issue in the future. This new emission inventory improves previous PCB emission inventory significantly, which underestimated PCB emission in China considerably.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  1. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein.

  2. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  3. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  4. Microbial degradation of coconut coir dust for biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyenco, F.R.; Ochoa, J.A.K.

    Several species of white-rot fungi were studied for its ability to degrade the lignocellulose components of coir dust at optimum conditions. The most effective fungi was Phanerochaeta chrysosporium UPCC 4003. This organism degraded the lignocellulose complex of coir dust at a rate of about 25 percent in 4 weeks. The degradation process was carried on with minimal nitrogen concentration, coconut water supplementation and moisture levels between 85-90 percent. Shake flask cultures of the degraded coir dust using cellulolytic fungi were not effective. In fermentor cultures with Chaetomium cellulolyticum UPCC 3934, supplemented coir dust was converted into a microbial biomass product (MBP) with 15.58 percent lignin, 19.20 percent cellulose and 18.87 percent protein. More work is being done on the utilization of coir dust on a low technology.

  5. Monitoring OH-PCBs in PCB transport worker's urine as a non-invasive exposure assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato; Okuno, Toshihiro; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Fujimori, Kazuo; Kannan, Narayanan; Weber, Roland; Nakano, Takeshi

    2018-04-14

    In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (PCB storage area. In the second sampling, after recommended PCB exposure reduction measures had been enacted, the worker's PCB levels did not increase during handling of PCB equipment. This suggests that applied safety measures improved the situation. Hydroxylated trichlorobiphenyls (OH-TrCBs) were identified as a major homolog of OH-PCBs in urine. Also, hydroxylated tetrachlorobiphenyls (OH-TeCBs) to hydroxylated hexachlorobiphenyls (OH-HxCBs) were detected. For the sum of ten selected major indicators, a strong correlation to total OH-PCBs were found and these can possibly be used as non-invasive biomarkers of PCB exposure in workers managing PCB capacitors and transformer oils. We suggest that monitoring of OH-PCBs in PCB management projects could be considered a non-invasive way to detect exposure. It could also be used as a tool to assess and improve PCB management. This is highly relevant considering the fact that in the next 10 years, approx. 14 million tons of PCB waste need to be managed. Also, the selected populations could be screened to assess whether exposure at work, school, or home has taken place.

  6. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets conta...

  7. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  8. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  9. Radiation dechlorination of PCE and PCB in the quarter operation flow apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.; Silber, R.; Pospisil, M.; Camra, M.; Bartonicek, B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify practical possibilities of radiation dechlorination of liquid chlorinated substrates [perchloroethylene (PCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)] in the quarter operation flow apparatus. In this apparatus may be disposable work over 50 dm 3 of media. Radiation dechlorination of PCE proceeds more effectively as dechlorination of PCB in flow regimes, too. Radiation chemical yield of G(-OH - ) decrease with increasing applied radiation dose and at the dose 5 kGy for PCE it is 200 · 10 -2 eV -1 and for PCB this value is 55 · 10 -2 eV -1 . At increasing original concentration of PCE or PCB the G-values decreases. The radical chain mechanism of dechlorination of PCE and PCB was proposed

  10. Inspection of power and ground layers in PCB images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyak, Filiz; Ercal, Fikret

    1998-10-01

    In this work, we present an inspection method for power and ground (P&G) layers of printed circuit boards (PCB) also called utility layers. Design considerations for the P&G layers are different than those of signal layers. Current PCB inspection approaches cannot be applied to these layers. P&G layers act as internal ground, neutral or power sources. P&G layers are predominantly copper with occasional pad areas (without copper) called clearance. Defect definition is based on the spacing between the holes that will be drilled in clearances and the surrounding copper. Overlap of pads of different sizes and shapes are allowed. This results in complex, hard to inspect clearances. Our inspection is based on identification of shape, size and position of the individual pads that contribute to an overlapping clearance and then inspection of each pad based on design rules and tolerances. Main steps of our algorithm are as follows: (1) extraction and preprocessing of clearance contours; (2) decomposition of contours into segments: corner detection and matching lines or circular arcs between two corners; (3) determination of the pads from partial contour information obtained in step (2), and (4) design rules checking for each detected pad.

  11. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  12. Mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls (PCB 1-PCB 39) in the indoor air of office rooms and their relevance on human blood burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M; Sievering, S; Grün, L; Rauchfuss, K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years. The median concentration of total PCB in the indoor air was 479 ng/m 3 . The most prevalent PCBs in the indoor air samples were the trichlorinated congeners PCB 31, PCB 18, and PCB 28, with median levels of 39, 31, and 26 ng/m 3 , respectively. PCB 8 was the most prevalent dichlorinated congener (median: 9.1 ng/m 3 ). Monochlorinated biphenyls were not detected in relevant concentrations. In the blood samples, the most abundant congener was PCB 28; nearly 90% of all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated congeners were attributed to this congener (median: 12 ng/g blood lipid). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels and trends of PCB 28, PCB 153 and DDE in breast milk from primiparae women in Uppsala County, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Atuma, S.; Aune, M.; Glynn, A. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Since 1996, the Swedish NFA has made recurrent measurements of levels of selected POPs, chiefly PCBs, dioxins and persistent pesticides (e.g. DDTs), in human breast milk. The analyses were made on individual basis, which offer possibility to adjust the time trends in POP levels for differences among the participating women in life-style or other factors that could affect the levels in breast milk. The ambition with the NFA sampling is to follow changes in the levels of these environmental contaminants in human breast milk and to continue the Swedish time trend measurements that was started in the 1970s. The measured levels will be used as base for evaluation of possible health risks for the mother and in particular for the breastfed infant. This report presents breast milk results from 1996 to 2003, concentrating on the selected PCB congeners (PCB 28 and 153) and p,p'-DDE. The reason for selecting these compounds are the data showing differences in e.g. sources and persistence, which could make them interesting type substances for larger groups of compounds.

  16. Dual Two-Component Regulatory Systems Are Involved in Aromatic Compound Degradation in a Polychlorinated-Biphenyl Degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Hisashi; Shimodaira, Jun; Yukawa, Kiyoshi; Hara, Naho; Kasai, Daisuke; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Masai, Eiji; Fukuda, Masao

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive polychlorinated-biphenyl (PCB) degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, degrades PCBs by cometabolism with biphenyl. A two-component BphS1T1 system encoded by bphS1 and bphT1 (formerly bphS and bphT) is responsible for the transcription induction of the five gene clusters, bphAaAbAcAdC1B1, etbAa1Ab1CbphD1, etbAa2Ab2AcD2, etbAdbphB2, and etbD1, which constitute multiple enzyme systems for biphenyl/PCB degradation. The bphS2 and bphT2 genes, which encode BphS2 and BphT2, virtually ide...

  17. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  18. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  19. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  20. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  1. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  2. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  3. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  4. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Stereoselective bioaccumulation of chiral PCB 91 in earthworm and its metabolomic and lipidomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Yuehua; Zhang, Yanwei; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2018-07-01

    Stereoselective bioaccumulation, elimination, metabolomic and lipidomic responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 91 in an earthworm-soil system were investigated. Preferential bioaccumulation of (-)-PCB 91 and elimination of (+)-PCB 91 were observed following 50 and 500 μg/kg dwt exposures. Enantiomer fraction (EF) values decreased over time during the uptake and elimination periods. Metabolomics and lipidomics techniques based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) revealed significant changes in 108 metabolites after earthworms exposure to (+)-, (-)-, and (±)-PCB 91, compared to control groups. Forty two of these metabolites were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, vitamins or others. Lysophospholipids including six lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), six lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), eight lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and five lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) were also differentially expressed between exposure and control groups. Alterations in the levels of metabolites and lipids indicated stereoselective effects of chiral PCB 91 on earthworm amino acid, energy, and nucleotide metabolism, neurodevelopment and gene expression. Overall, the effects of (+)-PCB 91 were more pronounced than that of (-)- and (±)-PCB 91. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wei, Dongfeng [Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Xie, Xiaoyun [College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiaohua [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Fei, Dongqing [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: zhaochy07@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum.

  7. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Børja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  8. Fight Fungi with Fungi: Antifungal Properties of the Amphibian Mycobiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Kearns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases caused by fungal taxa are increasing and are placing a substantial burden on economies and ecosystems worldwide. Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd is linked to global amphibian declines. Amphibians have innate immunity, as well as additional resistance through cutaneous microbial communities. Despite the targeting of bacteria as potential probiotics, the role of fungi in the protection against Bd infection in unknown. We used a four-part approach, including high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities, cultivation of fungi, Bd challenge assays, and experimental additions of probiotic to Midwife Toads (Altyes obstetricans, to examine the overlapping roles of bacterial and fungal microbiota in pathogen defense in captive bred poison arrow frogs (Dendrobates sp.. Our results revealed that cutaneous fungal taxa differed from environmental microbiota across three species and a subspecies of Dendrobates spp. frogs. Cultivation of host-associated and environmental fungi realved numerous taxa with the ability to inhibit or facilitate the growth of Bd. The abundance of cutaneous fungi contributed more to Bd defense (~45% of the fungal community, than did bacteria (~10% and frog species harbored distinct inhibitory communities that were distinct from the environment. Further, we demonstrated that a fungal probiotic therapy did not induce an endocrine-immune reaction, in contrast to bacterial probiotics that stressed amphibian hosts and suppressed antimicrobial peptide responses, limiting their long-term colonization potential. Our results suggest that probiotic strategies against amphibian fungal pathogens should, in addition to bacterial probiotics, focus on host-associated and environmental fungi such as Penicillium and members of the families Chaetomiaceae and Lasiosphaeriaceae.

  9. The RNAi Universe in Fungi: A Varied Landscape of Small RNAs and Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2017-09-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.

  10. DecoFungi: a web application for automatic characterisation of dye decolorisation in fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, César; Heras, Jónathan; Mata, Eloy; Pascual, Vico

    2018-02-27

    Fungi have diverse biotechnological applications in, among others, agriculture, bioenergy generation, or remediation of polluted soil and water. In this context, culture media based on color change in response to degradation of dyes are particularly relevant; but measuring dye decolorisation of fungal strains mainly relies on a visual and semiquantitative classification of color intensity changes. Such a classification is a subjective, time-consuming and difficult to reproduce process. DecoFungi is the first, at least up to the best of our knowledge, application to automatically characterise dye decolorisation level of fungal strains from images of inoculated plates. In order to deal with this task, DecoFungi employs a deep-learning model, accessible through a user-friendly web interface, with an accuracy of 96.5%. DecoFungi is an easy to use system for characterising dye decolorisation level of fungal strains from images of inoculated plates.

  11. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  12. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  13. Prenatal and postnatal serum PCB concentrations and cochlear function in children at 45 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Sisto, Renata; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Moleti, Arturo; Wimmerová, Sonˇa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Sovčiková, Eva; Drobná, Beata; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Jurečková, Dana; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Verner, Marc-André; Sonneborn, Dean; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    Some experimental and human data suggest that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may induce ototoxicity, though results of previous epidemiologic studies are mixed and generally focus on either prenatal or postnatal PCB concentrations exclusively. Our aim was to evaluate the association between pre- and postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to cochlear status, assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and to further clarify the critical periods in development where cochlear status may be most susceptible to PCBs. A total of 351 children from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia underwent otoacoustic testing at 45 months of age. Maternal pregnancy, cord, and child 6-, 16-, and 45-month blood samples were collected and analyzed for PCB concentrations. At 45 months of age, DPOAEs were assessed at 11 frequencies in both ears. Multivariate, generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations between PCB concentrations at different ages and DPOAEs, adjusting for potential confounders. Maternal and cord PCB-153 concentrations were not associated with DPOAEs at 45 months. Higher postnatal PCB concentrations at 6-, 16-, and 45-months of age were associated with lower (poorer) DPOAE amplitudes. When all postnatal PCB exposures were considered as an area-under-the-curve metric, an increase in PCB-153 concentration from the 25th to the 75th percentile was associated with a 1.6-dB SPL (sound pressure level) decrease in DPOAE amplitude (95% CI: -2.6, -0.5; p = 0.003). In this study, postnatal rather than maternal or cord PCB concentrations were associated with poorer performance on otoacoustic tests at age 45 months.

  14. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (PPCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Developmental exposure to an environmental PCB mixture delays the propagation of electrical kindling from the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L; Gilbert, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle 4 weeks prior to mating and continued through gestation and up until postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200μA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression in the amygdala stands in contrast to our previous finding of increased susceptibility to brainstem-mediated audiogenic seizures in PCB-exposed animals in response to a an intense auditory stimulus. These seemingly divergent results are not unexpected given the distinct source, type, and mechanistic underpinnings of these different seizure models. A delay in epileptogenesis following focal amygdala stimulation may reflect a decrease in neuroplasticity following developmental PCB exposure consistent with reductions in use-dependent synaptic plasticity that

  16. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  17. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David

    2004-10-01

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD), and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved emission inventories. Consequently and as an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Environmental Research Institute has undertaken a comprehensive study focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, 3 fuel oil samples and 3 lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different 'real-world' operating conditions. The measured emissions correspond reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggests however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are probably too high. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using the revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37 - 0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  18. PCDD, PCDF, and PCB contamination of air and inhalable particulate in Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, L.; Carere, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Fuselli, S.; Iacovella, N.; Rodriguez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The isomer specific determination of PCDD, PCDF and PCB was carried out on samples of air and inhalable particulate from Rome. Samples were taken daily for six months and pooled to yield two samples per month. Normal PCDD + PCDF concentrations expressed in TEQ ranged from 48 to 87 fg/m 3 , while total PCB ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/m 3 . The 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted PCDD and PCDF congener pattern is shown together with the PCB congener pattern. (orig.)

  19. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2015-01-01

    and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative...... increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure...

  20. Tripartite symbiosis of Sophora tomentosa, rhizobia and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Maíra Akemi; Soares de Carvalho, Teotonio; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Martins da Costa, Elaine; Savana da Silva, Jacqueline; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    Sophora tomentosa is a pantropical legume species with potential for recovery of areas degraded by salinization, and for stabilization of sand dunes. However, few studies on this species have been carried out, and none regarding its symbiotic relationship with beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Sophora tomentosa, and to analyze the occurrence of colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of this legume in seafront soil. Thus, seeds, root nodules, and soil from the rhizosphere of Sophora tomentosa were collected. From the soil samples, trap cultures with this species were established to extract spores and to evaluate arbuscular mycorhizal fungi colonization in legume roots, as well as to capture rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated from nodules collected in the field or from the trap cultures. Representative isolates of the groups obtained in the similarity dendrogram, based on phenotypic characteristics, had their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. The legume species showed nodules with indeterminate growth, and reddish color, distributed throughout the root. Fifty-one strains of these nodules were isolated, of which 21 were classified in the genus Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and especially Sinorhizobium. Strains closely related to Sinorhizobium adhaerens were the predominant bacteria in nodules. The other genera found, with the exception of Rhizobium, are probably endophytic bacteria in the nodules. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was observed colonizing the roots, but arbuscular mycorhizal fungi spores were not found in the trap cultures. Therefore Sophora tomentosa is associated with both arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  2. 2,2′,3,5′,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:22974126

  3. Cyanide utilization and degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C J

    1988-01-01

    Various microorganisms can produce (cyanogenesis) or degrade cyanide. They degrade cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Significant amounts of cyanide are formed as a secondary metabolite by a wide range of fungi and a few bacteria by decarboxylation of glycine. When cyanide has been formed by the snow mould fungus it is degraded by conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia via an unknown pathway. In contrast, cyanogenic bacteria either do not further catabolize cyanide or they convert it into beta-cyanoalanine by addition to cysteine or O-acetylserine. Several non-cyanogenic fungi that are pathogens of cyanogenic plants are known to degrade cyanide by hydration to formamide by the enzyme cyanide hydratase. Such fungi can be immobilized and used in packed-cell columns to continuously detoxify cyanide. ICI Biological Products Business market a preparation of spray-dried fungal mycelia, 'CYCLEAR', to detoxify industrial wastes. Novo Industri have also introduced a cyanidase preparation to convert cyanide directly into formate and ammonia. Bacteria have been isolated that use cyanide as a source of nitrogen for growth. Because cyanide, as KCN or NaCN, is toxic for growth, the bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) have to be grown in fed-batch culture with cyanide as the limiting nutrient. Cyanide is converted to carbon dioxide and ammonia (which is then assimilated) by an NADH-linked cyanide oxygenase system.

  4. Effect of different concentrations of phenol on growth of some fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... that C. tropicalis could degrade 2,000 mg l-1 phenol alone and 350 mg l-1 ... sterile bottles (100 ml) and in plastic bags, respectively, transferred directly to ..... bolism of aromatic compounds in bacteria and fungi has revealed ...

  5. Atropisomers of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) exhibit stereoselective effects on activation of nuclear receptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Brenerová, Petra; Svržková, Lucie; Hrubá, Eva; Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Machala, Miroslav

    2017-11-09

    PCB 136 is an environmentally relevant chiral PCB congener, which has been found in vivo to be present in form of rotational isomers (atropisomers). Its atropselective biotransformation or neurotoxic effects linked with sensitization of ryanodine receptor suggest that it might interact also with other intracellular receptors in a stereospecific manner. However, possible atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptor transactivation remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptors controlling endocrine signaling and/or expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone catabolism were investigated. PCB136 atropisomers were found to exert differential effects on estrogen receptor (ER) activation; (+)-PCB 136 was estrogenic, while (-)-PCB 136 was antiestrogenic. In contrast, inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) activity was not stereospecific. Both PCB136 stereoisomers induced the constitutive androgen receptor (CAR)-dependent gene expression; however, no significant stereospecificity of PCB 136 atropisomers was observed. PCB136 was a partial inducer of the pregnane X receptor (PXR)-dependent gene expression. Here, (-)-PCB 136 was a significantly more potent inducer of PXR activity than (+)-PCB 136. Taken together, the present results indicate that at least two nuclear receptors participating in endocrine regulation or metabolism, ER and PXR, could be regulated in an atropselective manner by chiral PCB 136. The enantioselective enrichment of PCB atropisomers in animal and human tissues may thus have significant consequences for endocrine-disrupting effects of chiral ortho-substituted PCB congeners.

  6. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  7. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 mu g kg-1 was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using...... different amounts of iron nanoparticles in both setups A and B. A PCB removal of 83% was obtained in setup A compared with 58% of setup B. Setup A also showed additional advantages, such as a higher PCB dechlorination, in a shorter time, with lower nZVI consumption, and with the use of half of the voltage...

  8. PCB contamination and effects on benthic invertebrate communities at the Irving Whale salvage site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernst, W

    2000-01-01

    ... patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition, snow crab tissue sampling, toxicity testing of sediments as well as analysis of the integrity of benthic biological communities was conducted around the Irving Whale footprint...

  9. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  10. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D and D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low

  11. Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-06

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs.

  12. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  13. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo, F.O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil was observed spectrophotometrically using the broth culture (non- harvested cells and harvested cells of the fungi isolated from the contaminated sites for a period of 20 days on minimal salt broth. Mycotypha microspora, Penicllium italicum, Botryris cinerea, Gliocladium deliquescence, Verticillium albo–atrum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the contaminated site while Neurospora crassa, A. parasiticus, A. niger and Gonatobotryum apiculatum were isolated from uncontaminated sites. All the fungal isolates were capable of active degradation in varying degrees.Conclusion: The study shows that all the isolated fungi were capable of degrading the crude oil in varying degrees. The active crude oil utilizing fungi in this study were Aspergillus niger (both harvested and non harvested cells and Gliocladium deliquescence (non harvested cells and Penicillium italicum (harvested cells. Aspergillus niger has best degrading ability than other fungi in non harvested and harvested cell condition. However, non harvested cells recorded the higher degradative ability than harvested cells. Therefore, non harvested cells can be employed in bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil.Significance and Impact of Study: The fungi isolated from automobile mechanic workshops contaminated soil can be exploited in the bioremediation of Bonny Light crude oil.

  16. Investigating Intergenerational Differences in Human PCB Exposure due to Variable Emissions and Reproductive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cristina L.; Wania, Frank; Czub, Gertje; Breivik, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Background Reproductive behaviors—such as age of childbearing, parity, and breast-feeding prevalence—have changed over the same historical time period as emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and may produce intergenerational differences in human PCB exposure. Objectives Our goal in this study was to estimate prenatal, postnatal, and lifetime PCB exposures for women at different ages according to year of birth, and to evaluate the impact of reproductive characteristics on intergenerational differences in exposure. Methods We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to calculate human bioaccumulation of PCBs, assuming both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant emissions. Results Although exposure primarily depends on when an individual was born relative to the emission history of PCBs, reproductive behaviors can have a significant impact. Our model suggests that a mother’s reproductive history has a greater influence on the prenatal and postnatal exposures of her children than it does on her own cumulative lifetime exposure. In particular, a child’s birth order appears to have a strong influence on their prenatal exposure, whereas postnatal exposure is determined by the type of milk (formula or breast milk) fed to the infant. Conclusions Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be delayed relative to the time of PCB emissions, particularly among those born after the PCB production phaseout. Consequently, the health repercussions of environmental PCBs can be expected to persist for several decades, despite bans on their production for > 40 years. PMID:21156396

  17. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  18. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  19. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.; Peterson, M.J.; McCarthy, J.F.; Milne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995

  20. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  1. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  2. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  3. Biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated fungi in solid waste medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, Sahebnazar; Abbas, Shojaosadati Seyed; Mahsa, Mohammad-Taheri; Mohsen, Nosrati

    2010-01-01

    In this study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated landfill-source fungi was evaluated in a controlled solid waste medium. The fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium solani, were isolated from samples taken from an aerobic aged municipal landfill in Tehran. These fungi could degrade LDPE via the formation of a biofilm in a submerged medium. In the sterilized solid waste medium, LPDE films were buried for 100 days in a 1-L flask containing 400 g sterile solid waste raw materials at 28 deg. C. Each fungus was added to a separate flask. The moisture content and pH of the media were maintained at the optimal levels for each fungus. Photo-oxidation (25 days under UV-irradiation) was used as a pretreatment of the LDPE samples. The progress of the process was monitored by measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), pH, temperature and moisture. The results obtained from monitoring the process using isolated fungi under sterile conditions indicate that these fungi are able to grow in solid waste medium. The results of FT-IR and SEM analyses show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus, despite the availability of other organic carbon of materials, could utilize LDPE as carbon source. While there has been much research in the field of LDPE biodegradation under solid conditions, this is the first report of degradation of LDPE by A. fumigatus.

  4. Bioavailability of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB52) from soils using a rat model and a physiologically based extraction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Xinzhu; Lee, Linda S.; Galinsky, Raymond E.; Carlson, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    The bioavailability of coplanar 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) and nonplanar 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB52) from soils representing a range in organic carbon (OC), clay content and pH were investigated using an in vivo rat model and an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) to assess the role of soil and chemical properties on bioavailabilty. Affinity to soil and persistence of PCBs have been shown to increase with increasing soil organic carbon (OC) content, PCB chlorination, and PCB coplanarity. In the in vivo tests for both PCB118 and PCB52, the AUCs following iv injection were significantly higher than the AUCs for all soil groups, indicating that the soil matrix can reduce the absolute bioavailability of PCB118 and PCB52. However, no significant differences were detected between soils of different properties. In the in vitro PBET, significant differences in the mobilization of PCB118 and PCB52 were observed among soils, and PCBs had the least mobilization from the soil with the highest OC content consistent with hydrophobic partitioning theory. Also, significantly less PCB118 was mobilized relative to PCB52 in the PBET assay, showing the potential impact of spatial orientation and chlorine content on bioavailability. No correlation between the in vitro PBET and the in vivo rat model was observed for the PCBs. Although the in vitro PBET and related assays may serve as an indicator of bioavailability, it is likely to underestimate what can be released from a soil in an in vivo assay

  5. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  6. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  7. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  8. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems (GPRSS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Quinn, Jacqueline; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    An ongoing problem facing the global environment community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were commonly used in a variety of materials including paints, caulking, and adhesives due to the advantageous physical and chemical properties that PCBs imparted to these various materials. Unfortunately, these properties have made the treatment of sites contaminated with these chemicals extremely difficult to deal with, due to their inherent chemical stability. The remediation of sediments contaminated with PCBs is especially difficult, primarily due to the risk of releasing the contaminant into the environment during the treatment process. Traditional treatment options involve the use of dredging and incineration of the contaminated soils/sediments, in which the chance of releasing the contaminants is greatly increased. The purpose of this project is to develop cleanup technology capable of remediating contaminated sediments in-situ, with minimum intrusion. This allows for the minimization of any potential contaminant release during the treatment process, providing a safer method for cleanup operations (as opposed to dredging/incineration) and still treating the basic problem of PCB contamination (as opposed to capping).

  9. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    Umbilical Tower at KSC. Additionally, main engine test stands at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were tested for PCB removal and destruction using...test stands at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were tested for PCB removal and destruction using BTS. The original BTS formulation developed...as on an island , or in the arctic. All the scenarios evaluated in the costs model have assumed the treatment of PCB -containing materials down to

  10. Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners Produce Tissue- and Gene-Specific Effects on Thyroid Hormone Signaling during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Stefanie; Bansal, Ruby; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa M.; Taub, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are industrial chemicals linked to developmental deficits that may be caused in part by disrupting thyroid hormone (TH) action by either reducing serum TH or interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). Individual PCB congeners can activate the TR in vitro when the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is induced, suggesting that specific PCB metabolites act as TR agonists. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we compared two combinations of PCB congeners that either activate the TR (PCB 105 and 118) or not (PCB 138 and 153) in the presence or absence of a PCB congener (PCB 126) that induces CYP1A1 in vitro. Aroclor 1254 was used as a positive control, and a group treated with propylthiouracil was included to characterize the effects of low serum TH. We monitored the effects on TH signaling in several peripheral tissues by measuring the mRNA expression of well-known TH-response genes in these tissues. Aroclor 1254 and its component PCB 105/118/126 reduced total T4 to the same extent as that of propylthiouracil but increased the expression of some TH target genes in liver. This effect was strongly correlated with CYP1A1 expression supporting the hypothesis that metabolism is necessary. Effects were gene and tissue specific, indicating that tissue-specific metabolism is an important component of PCB disruption of TH action and that PCB metabolites interact in complex ways with the TR. These are essential mechanisms to consider when evaluating the health risks of contaminant exposures, for both PCB and other polycyclic compounds known to interact with nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:21540284

  11. Dioxin-like (PCB 126) and non dioxin-like (PCB 153) action on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoraszczuk, E.L.; Wojtowicz, A. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Kapiszewska, M.; Magnowska, Z. [Dept. of General Biochemistry, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Approximately 60-90% of all cancer cases are now generally believed to be due to environmental factors, to which humans are exposed by taking food, and water or inhaling air. These chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be subdivided into different classes. TCDD was classified as group (documented carcinogen in humans) Benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were included into group 2A (probably carcinogen in humans). PCB is not mentioned in this list. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) maintains a register of human carcinogens and suspected human carcinogens. The capacity of PCBs to induce DNA strand breaks has been studied to a lesser degree and is quite controversial. DNA strand breaks are the potentially mutagenic lesions that have been proposed as a genotoxicity biomarker for the biomonitoring of environmental pollutants. The mutations induced by these lesions in pollutant-exposed populations are believed to be induced by chemical carcinogens. The formation of PCB adducts has been demonstrated and measured in vitro and in vivo 3. The capacity of PCBs to form DNA adducts depends on their metabolic rate, which is determined by the degree of chlorination. The aim of the presented preliminary data was to evaluate the follicular stage-specific action of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

  12. Adsorption of aldrin and its metabolites by soil fungi, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Cainelli, V.C.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of fungi isolated from Brazilian soils to adsorb and degrade 14 C-aldrin and its metabolites was assayed in culture growth medium after 76 days of incubation. All the 14 isolates incorporated the radiocarbon as demonstrated by wet combustion of the mycelium. Eight of them adsorbed 20 to 40% of the total radioactivity added to the medium. Four of the fungi were able to further metabolize one of the compounds added to the medium, as shown by chloroform extraction of the mycelia. (Author) [pt

  13. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intestinal exposure to PCB 153 induces inflammation via the ATM/NEMO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Dheer, Rishu; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Davies, Julie M; Burgueño, Juan; Lang, Jessica K; Toborek, Michal; Abreu, Maria T

    2018-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred. Mice were orally exposed to PCB 153 and gut permeability was assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were collected and evaluated for evidence of genotoxicity and inflammation. A human IEC line (SW480) was used to examine the direct effects of PCB 153 on epithelial function. NF-кB activation was measured using a reporter assay, DNA damage was assessed, and cytokine expression was ascertained with real-time PCR. Mice orally exposed to PCB 153 had an increase in intestinal permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression in their IECs; inhibition of NF-кB ameliorated both these effects. This inflammation was associated with genotoxic damage and NF-кB activation. Exposure of SW480 cells to PCB 153 led to similar effects as seen in vivo. We found that activation of the ATM/NEMO pathway by genotoxic stress was upstream of NF-kB activation. These results demonstrate that oral exposure to PCB 153 is genotoxic to IECs and induces downstream inflammation and barrier dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216 degree C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80 degree C, and at 200 degree C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800 degree C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200 degree C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies

  17. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  19. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  1. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  2. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  4. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need...

  5. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  6. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  7. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute to this difference. To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977). PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years and 143 mothers living in an urban and a rural area in Denmark and participating in the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). In Denmark, PCBs were used in construction in the period 1950-1977, and year of construction or renovation of the homes and schools was used as a proxy for indoor PCB exposure. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between potential PCB exposure from building materials and lipid adjusted concentrations of PCB 28 in plasma, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Among the 116 children and 143 mothers, we were able to specify home construction period in all but 4 children and 5 mothers leaving 111 children and 138 mothers for our analyses. The median lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentration was 3 (range: 1-28) ng/g lipid in the children and 2 (range: 1-8) ng/g lipid in the mothers. Children living in homes built in the PCB period had significantly higher lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentrations compared to children living in homes built before or after the PCB period. Following adjustment for covariates, PCB 28 concentrations in children were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB

  8. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pcolloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pinsulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  9. PCB congener concentrations in a municipal sewer system in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, B. [Murray State Univ., Murray, KY (United States); Botts, J.A. [Aquatic Sciences Consulting, Woodbine, MD (United States); Spadone, J.; McKenna, B. [Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority, Linden, NJ (United States); Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided details of a water sampling pilot study conducted in the Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority (LRSA) region in New Jersey. The pilot study was conducted as part of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) monitoring program. Total PCB concentrations in whole water samples in both dissolved and particulate phases were collected at selected locations in the LRSA. PCB loading estimates for dry weather were also provided. Automatic composite sampler equipped with peristaltic pump mechanisms were used to collect the samples in a series of 4 rounds. Sample extracts were then purified and analyzed using a gas chromatograph electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results showed that in dry weather, total PCBs were between 2.6 to 6.0-fold higher in the western sampling area than in the Roselle Flue, which received sewage flows from residential and commercial sources in the northwest area of the LRSA. Wet weather samples showed only slightly higher total PCBs. Data indicated a source of PCBs in the western portion of the sewershed. In dry weather, higher PCB levels were found in the whole primary influent samples. It was concluded that increased PCB levels were attributed to grit and sludge processing waste streams within a waste water treatment plant. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Low consumption single-use microvalve for microfluidic PCB-based platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, G; Aracil, C; Perdigones, F; Quero, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a single-use and unidirectional microvalve with low consumption of energy for PCB-based microfluidic platforms is reported. Its activation is easy because it works as a fuse. The fabrication process of the device is based on PCB technology and a typical SU-8 process, using the PCB as a substrate and SU-8 for the microfluidic channels and chambers. The microvalve is intended to be used to impulse small volumes of fluids and it has been designed to be highly integrable in PCB-based microfluidic platforms. The proposed device has been fabricated, integrated and tested in a general purpose microfluidic circuit, resulting in a low activation time, of about 100 μs, and a low consumption of energy, with a maximum of 27 mJ. These results show a significant improvement because the energy consumption is about 84% lower and the time response is about four orders of magnitude shorter if compared with similar microvalves for impulsion of fluids on PCB-based platforms. (paper)

  11. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  12. Isolation, identification and application in lignin degradation of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to isolate an ascomycete producing ligninolytic enzyme and characterize its lignin degradation capability. Among 20 isolates, GHJ-4 was isolated from decayed wood of Salix matsudana Koidz in Mount Tai, China, by different indicator compounds assay. The taxonomy of the fungi was ...

  13. A molecular analysis of (hemi-)cellulose degradation by Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, M.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Glycosylhydrolases like cellulases and xylanases are of great importance for the ecological recycling of biomass. The saprophytic fungi, e.g Aspergillus niger , are capable of degrading plant cell wall material by secreting these enzymes. Because of their properties, a

  14. Chapter 5: Organopollutant Degradation by Wood Decay Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak Hadar; Daniel Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Wood decay fungi are obligate aerobes, deriving nutrients from the biological ‘combustion’ of wood, using molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Blanchette 1991). Non-specific extracellular enzymes are generally viewed as key components in lignin depolymerization. The major enzymes implicated in lignin degradation are lignin peroxidase (...

  15. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel González-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  16. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Jongchun

    2008-07-01

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  17. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [KBSI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchun [Seonam Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  18. Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge A; Mahboubi, Amir; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  20. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-11-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  1. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...... potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  2. Fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes isolated from affected leaves of rhododendron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes occurring on affected leaves of rhododendron Rhododendron L. Mycological analyses were carried out on 200 leaves collected from green areas of Kraków from May till September 2005. Isolated fungi-like Oomycetes belonged to 67 taxa. The most frequently found fungi included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Coelophoma empetri, Nigrospora sphaerica, Pestalotia sydowiana, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phomopsis archeri, Septoria azalea and Sordaria fimicola. Among fungi-like organisms Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola were isolated.

  3. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment.

  4. Quantitative inhibition of soil C and N cycling by ectomycorrhizal fungi under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) ecosystems store more carbon than non-ectomycorrhizal ecosystems at global scale. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests the presence of ECM fungi allows plants to compete directly with decomposers for soil nitrogen (N) via exo-enzyme synthesis. Experimental ECM exclusion often results in a release from competition of saprotrophic decomposers, allowing for increased C-degrading enzyme production, increased microbial biomass, and eventually declines in soil C stocks. Our knowledge of this phenomenon is limited, however, to the presence or absence of ECM fungi. It remains unknown if competitive repression of saprotrophic microbes and soil C cycling by ECM fungi varies with ECM abundance. This is particularly relevant to global change experiments when manipulations alter plant C allocation to ECM symbionts. To test if variation in ECM abundance alters the competitive inhibition of saprotrophic soil microbes (quantitative inhibition) we established experimental ECM exclusion treatments along an ECM abundance gradient. We dug trenches to experimentally exclude ECM fungi, allowing us to test for competitive release of soil saprotrophs from competition. To control for disturbance we placed in-growth bags both inside and outside of trenches. Consistent with the quantitative inhibition hypothesis, sites with more ECM fungi had significantly less microbial biomass per unit soil C and lower rates of N mineralization. Consistent with a release from competition, C-degrading enzyme activities were higher and gross proteolytic rates were lower per unit microbial biomass inside compared to outside trenches. We interpret this to reflect increased microbial investment in C-acquisition and decreased investment in N-acquisition in the absence of ECM fungi. Furthermore, the increase in C-degrading enzymes per unit microbial biomass was significantly greater in sites with the most abundant ECM fungi. Based on these results, ECM-saprotroph competition does

  5. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora).

  6. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora.

  7. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Carsten; Crescente, Oscar; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    A total of 227 marine isolates of ubiqituous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chlorofonn/methanol 3 : 2 : 1) characterized by HPLC. The fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of Venezuelan waters (0-10 m...

  8. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  9. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Alkali metals in fungi of forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Taylor, A.; Rosen, K.; Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The high affinity of forest soil fungi for alkali metals such as potassium, rubidium, caesium as well as radiocaesium is shown and discussed. Good positive correlation was found between K: Rb concentration ratios in soil and in fungi, when correlation between K: Cs concentration ratios was less pronounced. (LN)

  11. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  12. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun, E-mail: suhyunjo@kangwon.ac.kr

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}.

  13. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl's (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6

  14. Alberta opens its borders to PCB waste from other provinces for destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.

    1995-01-01

    The most recent and most significant development in the management of PCBs in Canada occurred with the announcement of the Alberta government that it would open its provincial borders to PCB and other hazardous wastes from across Canada for incineration at the province's special waste treatment facility located at Swan Hills, Alberta. The facility has an annual capacity of 15,000 tonnes of PCB waste. Alberta 's own waste products will be treated first; any excess capacity will be utilized to treat waste materials received from other provinces. It is estimated that given the Swan Hills plant capacity, it will take several years to treat and destroy all of Canada's current PCB waste inventory. Regulations concerning transportation, contracting requirements and pricing policies were briefly reviewed

  15. Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs have been identified as environmental hazards for years. Due to historical issues, a considerable amount of PCBs was released deep underground in Canada. In this research, a nanoscale zero valent iron- (nZVI- aided dechlorination followed by biosurfactant enhanced soil washing method was developed to remove PCBs from soil. During nZVI-aided dechlorination, the effects of nZVI dosage, initial pH level, and temperature were evaluated, respectively. Five levels of nZVI dosage and two levels of initial pH were experimented to evaluate the PCB dechlorination rate. Additionally, the temperature changes could positively influence the dechlorination process. In soil washing, the presence of nanoiron particles played a key role in PCB removal. The crude biosurfactant was produced using a bacterial stain isolated from the Atlantic Ocean and was applied for soil washing. The study has led to a promising technology for PCB-contaminated soil remediation.

  16. Simultaneous electrodialytic removal of PAH, PCB, TBT and heavy metals from sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    with the need of different remedial actions for each pollutant. In this study, electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of sediments was found effective for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants for sediments from Arctic regions - Sisimiut in Greenland and Hammerfest in Norway. The influence...... was found to be important for the removal of heavy metals and TBT, while photolysis was significant for removal of PAH, PCB and TBT. In addition, dechlorination was found to be important for the removal of PCB. The highest removal efficiencies were found for heavy metals, TBT and PCB (>40%) and lower......Contaminated sediments are remediated in order to protect human health and the environment, with the additional benefit of using the treated sediments for other activities. Common for many polluted sediments is the contamination with several different pollutants, making remediation challenging...

  17. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  18. Reliability of lead-free solder joints with different PCB surface finishes under thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-04-24

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under thermal cycling was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) were studied. The results show that OSP finish reveals better performance than its ENIG counterparts. The crack originates at the fringe of heel fillet in both cases. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface. When the OSP finishes are employed, many Cu6Sn5 precipitates form inside the bulk solder and have a strengthening effect on the solder joint, resulting in better reliability performance as compared to those with ENIG finishes.

  19. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  20. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  1. Shorten fungal treatment of lignocellulosic waste with additives to improve rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selective lignin degrading fungi can be used as pre-treatment to make cellulose in plant cell walls accessible for rumen microbes. According to previous studies, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes can increase the in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in 7 to 8 weeks.

  2. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  3. Detection of phytohormones in temperate forest fungi predicts consistent abscisic acid production and a common pathway for cytokinin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin N; Knowles, Sarah; Hayward, Allison; Thorn, R Greg; Saville, Barry J; Emery, R J N

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormones, abscisic acid and cytokinin, once were thought to be present uniquely in plants, but increasing evidence suggests that these hormones are present in a wide variety of organisms. Few studies have examined fungi for the presence of these "plant" hormones or addressed whether their levels differ based on the nutrition mode of the fungus. This study examined 20 temperate forest fungi of differing nutritional modes (ectomycorrhizal, wood-rotting, saprotrophic). Abscisic acid and cytokinin were present in all fungi sampled; this indicated that the sampled fungi have the capacity to synthesize these two classes of phytohormones. Of the 27 cytokinins analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS/MS, seven were present in all fungi sampled. This suggested the existence of a common cytokinin metabolic pathway in fungi that does not vary among different nutritional modes. Predictions regarding the source of isopentenyl, cis-zeatin and methylthiol CK production stemming from the tRNA degradation pathway among fungi are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous Arctic Char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  5. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  6. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a class of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and sold under a variety of trade names... highly stable, heat resistant, and nonflammable chemicals. Industrial uses of PCB's include, or did... and chemical properties and widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications have caused PCB's to be a...

  7. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability. Highlights: •Biochar and GAC reduced PCB uptake into plants and earthworms. •Biochar offered additional benefits, including increased plant and earthworm biomass. •BSAF reductions are greater when amendments are mechanically vs. manually mixed. •Mechanically mixing carbon amendments may over-estimate their remediation potential. -- In situ AC and biochar soil amendments perform equally well at reducing PCB uptake, however, laboratory-based mixing methods may exaggerate the sorptive capacities of both amendments

  8. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-01-01

    This document, the open-quotes 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratoryclose quotes was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL's PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL's PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, open-quotes Status of the PCB Management Programclose quotes, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program's policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal

  9. EFFECTS OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE ON LIVER ENZYMES AND THE THYROID AXIS OF RATS PRETREATED WITH PCB126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium perchlorate and 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are environmental contaminants that are known to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis by well defined modes of action that lead to hypothyroidism in the rat. PCB126 increases phase II conjugation of T4 by induc...

  10. Microbial and 'de novo' transformation of dicarboxylic acids by three airborne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, Valerie; Kos, Gregor; Mortazavi, Roya; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-organisms and organic compounds of biogenic or anthropogenic origins are important constituents of atmospheric aerosols, which are involved in atmospheric processes and climate change. In order to investigate the role of fungi and their metabolisation activity, we collected airborne fungi using a biosampler in an urban location of Montreal, Quebec, Canada (45 o 28' N, 73 o 45' E). After isolation on Sabouraud dextrose agar, we exposed isolated colonies to dicarboxylic acids (C 2 -C 7 ), a major group of organic aerosols and monitored their growth. Depending on the acid, total fungi numbers varied from 35 (oxalic acid) to 180 CFU/mL (glutaric acid). Transformation kinetics of malonic acid, presumably the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.00 mM for isolated airborne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Thysanophora with the fastest transformation rate are presented. The initial concentration was halved within 4.5 and 11.4 days. Other collected fungi did not show a significant degradation and the malonic acid concentration remained unchanged (0.25 and 1.00 mM) within 20 days. Degradation of acid with formation of metabolites was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as monitoring of 13 C labelled malonic acid degradation with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Using GC/MS we identified two processes driving chemical modifications of organic aerosol solutions: (I) formation of metabolites within several days, and (II) rapid release (≤ 2 min) of organic molecules from fungal species upon the insertion of taxa in organic aerosol solutions. Metabolites included aromatic compounds and alcohols (e.g. trimethylbenzene and butanol). Potential atmospheric implications of our results are discussed

  11. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...... in an apartment in a residential building. In the classroom, the air exchange rate (ACH) was raised from 0.2 (without mechanical ventilation) to 5.5 /h during the intervention. In the two bedrooms, the highest ACH was 6.6 /h and 0.5 /h without mechanical ventilation. The corresponding concentration decrease...

  12. Assessing PCB pollution in the Baltic Sea - An equilibrium partitioning based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Mayer, Philipp; Hursthouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted...... with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity...

  13. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. van den; Heneweer, M.; Geest, M. de; Sanderson, T. [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Jong, P. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) are persistent contaminants and are ubiquitously present in humans and the environment. Lipophilicity of MeSO2- PCB metabolites is similar to the parent compounds and they have been detected in human milk, adipose, liver and lung tissue. 4- MeSO2-PCB-149 is the most abundant PCB metabolite in human adipose tissue and milk at a level of 1.5 ng/g lipids. Human blood concentration of 4-MeSO2-PCB-149 is approximately 0.03 nM. 3- MeSO2-PCB-101 is the predominant PCB metabolite in muscle and blubber in wildlife, such as otter, mink and grey seal. In the environment, they have been linked to chronic and reproductive toxicity in exposed mink. Additionaly, some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been shown to be glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Since approximately 60% of all breast tumors are estrogen responsive, exposure to compounds that are able to alter estrogen synthesis through interference with the aromatase enzyme, can lead to changes in estrogen levels and possibly to accelerated or inhibit breast tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to identify exogenous compounds that can alter aromatase activity in addition to those compounds which have direct interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Aromatase (CYP19) comprises the ubiquitous flavoprotein, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and a unique cytochrome P450 that is exclusively expressed in estrogen producing cells. Previous studies have revealed that expression of the aromatase gene is regulated in a species- and tissue specific manner. In healthy breast tissue, the predominantly active aromatase promoter region I.4 is regulated by glucocorticoids and class I cytokines. Therefore, it is important to investigate possible aromatase inhibiting properties of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs (as anti glucocorticoids?) in relevant human tissues. We used primary human mammary fibroblasts because of their role in breast cancer development. We compared the results in primary fibroblasts with

  14. Biodegradation of naphthalenesulphonate polymers: the potential of a combined application of fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullotto, Antonella; Lubello, Claudio; Mannucci, Alberto; Gori, Riccardo; Munz, Giulio; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The potential of several fungi and their synergy with bacterial biomasses were evaluated as a solution for the removal of 2-naphthalensulphonic acid polymers (2-NSAPs) from petrochemical wastewater, characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) greater than 9000 mg/L. The ability of fungi to grow on 2-NSAP mixtures was preliminarily investigated using a solid medium, and then the action of the selected strains, both in suspended and immobilized form, was evaluated in terms of degradation, depolymerization, sorption and an increase in biodegradability of 2-NSAP. Among the 25 fungi evaluated two, in particular, Bjerkandera adusta and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been found to significantly depolymerize 2-NSAP yielding to the corresponding monomer (2-naphthalenesulphonic acid, 2-NSA), which has been further degraded by a bacterial consortia selected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The fungal treatment alone was able to reduce the COD value up to 44%, while activated sludge removed only 9% of the initial COD. In addition, the combined treatment (fungi and bacteria) allowed an increase in the COD removal up to 62%.

  15. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  16. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Lv

    Full Text Available Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  19. Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota): advances in understanding their taxonomy, life cycle, ecology, role and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Puniya, Anil K; Callaghan, Tony M; Edwards, Joan E; Youssef, Noha; Dagar, Sumit S; Fliegerova, Katerina; Griffith, Gareth W; Forster, Robert; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammalian herbivores, where they play an important role in the degradation of plant material. The Neocallimastigomycota represent the earliest diverging lineage of the zoosporic fungi; however, understanding of the relationships of the different taxa (both genera and species) within this phylum is in need of revision. Issues exist with the current approaches used for their identification and classification, and recent evidence suggests the presence of several novel taxa (potential candidate genera) that remain to be characterised. The life cycle and role of anaerobic fungi has been well characterised in the rumen, but not elsewhere in the ruminant alimentary tract. Greater understanding of the 'resistant' phase(s) of their life cycle is needed, as is study of their role and significance in other herbivores. Biotechnological application of anaerobic fungi, and their highly active cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzymes, has been a rapidly increasing area of research and development in the last decade. The move towards understanding of anaerobic fungi using -omics based (genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic) approaches is starting to yield valuable insights into the unique cellular processes, evolutionary history, metabolic capabilities and adaptations that exist within the Neocallimastigomycota. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Nicolás, César; Bentzer, Johan; Ellström, Magnus; Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Carleer, Robert; Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Ahrén, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Hibbett, David S; Martin, Francis; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2016-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Lignin-degrading enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-ru; Sarkanen, Simo; Wang, Yun-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the activities of four kinds of enzyme have been purported to furnish the mechanistic foundations for macromolecular lignin depolymerization in decaying plant cell walls. The pertinent fungal enzymes comprise lignin peroxidase (with a relatively high redox potential), manganese peroxidase, an alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase. The peroxidases and laccase, but not the etherase, are expressed extracellularly by white-rot fungi. A number of these microorganisms exhibit a marked preference toward lignin in their degradation of lignocellulose. Interestingly, some white-rot fungi secrete both kinds of peroxidase but no laccase, while others that are equally effective express extracellular laccase activity but no peroxidases. Actually, none of these enzymes has been reported to possess significant depolymerase activity toward macromolecular lignin substrates that are derived with little chemical modification from the native biopolymer. Here, the assays commonly employed for monitoring the traditional fungal peroxidases, alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase are described in their respective contexts. A soluble native polymeric substrate that can be isolated directly from a conventional milled-wood lignin preparation is characterized in relation to its utility in next-generation lignin-depolymerase assays.

  2. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  3. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Daren W. Brown; Laszlo G. Nagy; Dimitrios Floudas; Benjamin W. Held; Anthony Levasseur; Vincent Lombard; Emmanuelle Morin; Robert Otillar; Erika A. Lindquist; Hui Sun; Kurt M. LaButti; Jeremy Schmutz; Dina Jabbour; Hong Luo; Scott E. Baker; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Jonathan D. Walton; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Francis Martin; Daniel Cullen; David S. Hibbett; Igor V. Grigoriev

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic...

  5. Mapping the membrane proteome of anaerobic gut fungi identifies a wealth of carbohydrate binding proteins and transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Susanna; Solomon, Kevin V; Gilmore, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    fungi, adapted to degrade raw plant biomass in the intestines of herbivores, are a potential source of valuable transporters for biotechnology, yet very little is known about the membrane constituents of these non-conventional organisms. Here, we mined the transcriptome of three recently isolated...

  6. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: Elshafie@squ.edu.om; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Busaidi, Sultan [Oman Refinery Company Laboratories, LLC, P.O. Box 3568 Ruwi PC112 (Oman); Bakheit, Charles [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Albahry, S.N. [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)

    2007-11-15

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum.

  7. Lignin Biodegradation in Pulp-and-Paper Mill Wastewater by Selected White Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been carried out to explore the lignin-degrading ability of white rot fungi, as B. adusta and P. crysosporium, grown in different media containing (i glucose and mineral salts; (ii a dairy residue; (iii a dairy residue and mineral salts. Both fungi were then used as inoculum to treat synthetic and industrial pulp-and-paper mill wastewater. On synthetic wastewater, up to 97% and 74% of lignin degradation by B. adusta and P. crysosporium, respectively, have been reached. On industrial wastewater, both fungal strains were able to accomplish 100% delignification in 8–10 days, independent from pH control, with a significant reduction of total organic carbon (TOC of the solution. Results have confirmed the great biotechnological potential of both B. adusta and P. crysosporium for complete lignin removal in industrial wastewater, and can open the way to next industrial applications on large scale.

  8. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya; Al-Busaidi, Sultan; Bakheit, Charles; Albahry, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum

  9. Proteomic strategy for the analysis of the polychlorobiphenyl-degrading cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 exposed to Aroclor 1254.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. These proteins were involved in (i PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase; (ii transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase; (iv electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein; (v general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable; (vi carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta; and (vii nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. KBC101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, M.; Ezaki, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kurane, R. [Kubota Corporation, Ryuugasaki City (Japan). Biotechnology Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The biphenyl-utilizing bacterial strain KBC101 has been newly isolated from soil. Biphenyl-grown cells of KBC101 efficiently degraded di- to nonachlorobiphenyls. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus sp. with respect to its 16S rDNA sequence and fatty acid profiles, as well as various biological and physiological characteristics. In the case of highly chlorinated biphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl; PCB) congeners, the degradation activities of this strain were superior to those of the previously reported strong PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1. Recalcitrant coplanar PCBs, such as 3,4,3',4'-CB, were also efficiently degraded by strain KBC101 cells. This is the first report of a representative of the genus Paenibacillus capable of degrading PCBs. In addition to growth of biphenyl, strain KBC101 could grow on dibenzofuran, xanthene, benzophenone, anthrone, phenanthrene, napthalene, fluorene, fluoranthene, and chrysene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Paenibacillus sp. strain KBC101 presented heterogeneous degradation profiles toward various aromatic compounds. (orig.)

  11. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological controllers: New insights into their virulence and pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Ali Ahmad; Rao Qayyum Abdul; Bakhsh Allah; Husnain Tayyab

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi vary considerably in their mode of action and virulence. Successful infection depends primarily on the adherence and penetration ability of a fungus to the host integuments. A variety of extracellular enzymes is produced during the degradation of insect integument. The attempts to control insects have changed over time from chemicals to natural control methods. This is why the development of natural methods of insect control or biopesticides, is preferred. By the ...

  13. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12.

  14. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  15. Determination of the human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing the enantioselective oxidation of 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Haruna; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-10-17

    2,2',3,5',6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183) possess axial chirality and form the aS and aR enantiomers. The enantiomers of these congeners have been reported to accumulate in the human body enantioselectively via unknown mechanisms. In this study, we determined the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase responsible for the enantioselective oxidization of PCB 95 and PCB 183, using a recombinant human CYP monooxygenase. We evaluated 13 CYP monooxygenases, namely CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, and aromatase (CYP19), and revealed that CYP2A6 preferably oxidizes aS-PCB 95 enantioselectively; however, it did not oxidize PCB 183. The enantiomer composition was elevated from 0.5 (racemate) to 0.54. In addition, following incubation with CYP2A6, the enantiomer fraction (EF) of PCB 95 demonstrated a time-dependent increase.

  16. Two-step bioleaching of copper and gold from discarded printed circuit boards (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işıldar, Arda; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Rene, Eldon R; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-11-01

    An effective strategy for environmentally sound biological recovery of copper and gold from discarded printed circuit boards (PCB) in a two-step bioleaching process was experimented. In the first step, chemolithotrophic acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were used. In the second step, cyanide-producing heterotrophic Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used. Results showed that at a 1% pulp density (10g/L PCB concentration), 98.4% of the copper was bioleached by a mixture of A. ferrivorans and A. thiooxidans at pH 1.0-1.6 and ambient temperature (23±2°C) in 7days. A pure culture of P. putida (strain WCS361) produced 21.5 (±1.5)mg/L cyanide with 10g/L glycine as the substrate. This gold complexing agent was used in the subsequent bioleaching step using the Cu-leached (by A. ferrivorans and A. thiooxidans) PCB material, 44.0% of the gold was mobilized in alkaline conditions at pH 7.3-8.6, and 30°C in 2days. This study provided a proof-of-concept of a two-step approach in metal bioleaching from PCB, by bacterially produced lixiviants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of growth rate on Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Haffner, G. Douglas; Patterson, Gordon; Walters, David M.; Burtnyk, Michael D.; Drouillard, Ken G.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulation, a non‐steady state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed versus predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from five different waterbodies across North America. The non‐steady state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in three of five waterbodies: Apsey, Sharbot and Stonelick Lake. The poor performance of the model for the Detroit River and Lake Hartwell, which were two well‐known contaminated sites with possibly high heterogeneity in spatial contamination, was attributed to changes in the feeding behavior and/ or change in prey contamination. Model simulations indicate that growth dilution is a major component of contaminant bioaccumulation patterns in fish especially during early life stages and was predicted to be more important for hydrophobic PCBs compared to Hg. Simulations which considered tissue specific growth provided some improvement in model performance particularly for PCBs in fish populations which exhibited changes in their whole body lipid content with age. Higher variation in lipid growth compared with that of lean dry protein was also observed between different bluegill populations which partially explains the greater variation in PCB bioaccumulation slopes compared with Hg across sampling sites.

  18. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints

  19. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  20. Development of planar CT system for multi-layer PCB inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Youn, Hanbean; Kam, Soohwa; Park, Eunpyeong; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    X-ray defect inspection apparatus can be used in the production line to inspect the PCB. However, a simple X-ray radiography cannot discriminate defects from the multi-layer PCBs because the layers of them overlays the defects. To complement this issue, computed tomography (CT) technology is applied to the NDT system which can offer 3-dimensional information of object. However, CT requires hundreds of projection images to examine a single PCB, hence real-time inspection is nearly impossible. In this study, we develop a planar computed tomography (pCT) system appropriate for the multi-layer PCB inspection. For the image reconstruction of planar cross-section images, we use the digital tomosynthesis (DTS) concept in association with the limited angle scanning. and performance characterization of the pCT system for the PCB inspection. The 3-d Fourier characteristics and more quantitative performance, such as contrast, uniformity, depth resolution will be presented. The cross-sectional images of multi-layer PCBs will also be demonstrated.

  1. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittsiepe, J.; Schrey, P.; Lemm, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (Germany); Fuerst, P. [Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Muenster (Germany); Kraft, M. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany); Eberwein, G. [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany); Winneke, G. [Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is done by analyzing both blood and milk samples. With reference to calculation of Toxicity Equivalents (TEq) as published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 determination of 17 PCDD/F congeners together with 4 non- and 8 mono-ortho PCB congeners is the preferred method. In contrast to data on PCDD/F only little is known on background levels of dioxin-like PCB in human blood or milk samples. In the present study we report on PCDD/F and PCB levels in human blood samples of pregnant women living in an industrialized area of Germany and of human milk samples from the same women taken in the first weeks after birth. The investigations demonstrate the current background levels found in Germany, make a contribution for the assessment of preand postnatal exposure of infants and show correlations between the two matrices.

  2. Concentration-Dependant Changes of PCB Patterns in Fish-Eating Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, J.P.; van der Meer, J.; Allchin, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Data sets on CB concentrations in fish-eating mammals from five laboratories were combined to test and refine a pharmacokinetic model. Clear differences in PCB patterns were observed between species, The ability to metabolize chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners with vicinal H-atoms only in the ortho...

  3. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  4. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  5. Facilitating Performance Optimization of RF PCB Designs by using Parametric Finite-Element Component Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2012-01-01

    such as antennas and PCB traces. The models presented are benchmarked against real-life measurements and conventional circuit models. Furthermore, two example parallel-resonance circuits are designed based on interpolation of the results and validated by measurements in order to demonstrate the accuracy...

  6. Cell specific effects of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbone receptors in follicular cells of porcine ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Dept. of Animal Physiology, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) like other endocrine disrupters could interfere with natural hormones by binding to their receptors and thus mimicking the cellular response to them. They are known to possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties. In our previous papers we demonstrated that PCBs are able to disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis. We found that the coplanar PCB 126 caused the decrease in estradiol secretion in whole cultured pig ovarian follicles. PCB 126 congener is structurally related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Since TCDD effects are known to be mediated by aryl hydrocarbone receptors (AhRs), we decided to determine if PCB 126 affects signal transduction pathway activated by these receptors. It has been reported that the functional AhR is present in ovary including oocytes, granulosa and theca cells of rat, mouse, rhesus monkey and human ovary. Moreover, the expression of AhR in the rat ovary appeared to be estrous cycle-dependent, thus suggesting that AhR expression may be regulated by fluctuating hormone levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the non-ortho-substituted 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on the AhR activation, localization and protein level in pig ovarian follicle cells.

  7. Variability of PCB burden in 5 fish and sharks species of the French Mediterranean continental slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Pierre; Fabri, Marie Claire; Miralles, Françoise Marco; Dufour, Jean-Louis; Elleboode, Romain; Sevin, Karine; Mahé, Kelig; Bouchoucha, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Despite being generally located far from contamination sources, deep marine ecosystems are impacted by chemicals like PCB. The PCB contamination in five fish and shark species collected in the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) was measured, with a special focus on intra- and interspecific variability and on the driving factors. Significant differences occurred between species. Higher values were measured in Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus and Helicolenus dactylopterus and lower values in Phycis blennoides and Lepidorhombus boscii. These differences might be explained by specific abilities to accumulate and eliminate contaminant, mostly through cytochrome P450 pathway. Interindividual variation was also high and no correlation was observed between contamination and length, age or trophic level. Despite its major importance, actual bioaccumulation of PCB in deep fish is not as documented as in other marine ecosystems, calling for a better assessment of the factors driving individual bioaccumulation mechanisms and originating high variability in PCB contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the distribution of 14C labelled PCB in the body, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Hosoya, Hideo; Kugoh, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Authors carried out the experiments of 14 C-PCB distribution in fish (Carrasius auratus) by autoradiography. 0.1 micro Ci of 14 C-PCB solution was administrated by both methods, one of the method was used as mixture of PCB solution in the environmental water of the fish and other one was used as orally medication for the fish. The fish were kept in 300 ml of exposed with 500 ml beaker per fish, and then the fish were killed for the sake of autoradiography at 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours of the experiments. Radioactivity of the water was analyzed at each experimental time as cpm/ml. In cases of the administration in the environmental water, radioactivity of the water was reducing in direct relation to the period in the contact time between the fish and the water, and autoradiogram appeared that radioactivity of the sectioning body plate was increasing in parallel with the contact in the water with the fish. In cases of the oral medication, radioactivity in the water and autoradiogram were increasing in direct relation to the period in the contact time. In both cases 14 C-PCB was found into the brain and spinal cord, it was special finding as compared with other animals. (auth.)

  9. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics depict ericoid mycorrhizal fungi as versatile saprotrophs and plant mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Elena; Morin, Emmanuelle; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Daghino, Stefania; Barry, Kerrie W; Cichocki, Nicolas; Clum, Alicia; Dockter, Rhyan B; Hainaut, Matthieu; Kuo, Rita C; LaButti, Kurt; Lindahl, Björn D; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna; Khouja, Hassine-Radhouane; Magnuson, Jon; Murat, Claude; Ohm, Robin A; Singer, Steven W; Spatafora, Joseph W; Wang, Mei; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Henrissat, Bernard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis M; Perotto, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M. variabilis, Oidiodendron maius and Rhizoscyphus ericae, and compared their gene repertoires with those of fungi with different lifestyles (ecto- and orchid mycorrhiza, endophytes, saprotrophs, pathogens). We also identified fungal transcripts induced in symbiosis. The ERM fungal gene contents for polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, lipases, proteases and enzymes involved in secondary metabolism are closer to those of saprotrophs and pathogens than to those of ectomycorrhizal symbionts. The fungal genes most highly upregulated in symbiosis are those coding for fungal and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), lipases, proteases, transporters and mycorrhiza-induced small secreted proteins (MiSSPs). The ERM fungal gene repertoire reveals a capacity for a dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle. This may reflect an incomplete transition from saprotrophy to the mycorrhizal habit, or a versatile life strategy similar to fungal endophytes. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Current data on the background burden to the persistent organochlorine pollutants HCB, p,p'-DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 in plasma of the general population in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Alt, Anne; Esser, Andre; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite their long-term ban, persistent organochlorine compounds like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of environmental concern. For the evaluation of potential occupational or environmental exposures to these substances, it is essential to know the current background burden of the general population. As representative and up-to-date information is missing for Germany, we have analysed a large dataset generated in studies on potential exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs to fill this gap for the levels of HCB, DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. We have investigated n=2750 plasma samples of persons of the general population living in North Rhine-Westfalia and Hesse aged 6-65 years and sampled between September 2010 and March 2014. For evaluation of the age-dependent accumulation in the general population we have generated seven age groups in the collective. Our laboratory used a validated and quality controlled procedure using GC/MS for quantification of the organochlorine compounds in plasma (LOQ: 0.01μg/L). The median (95th percentile) levels for ∑ PCB 138+PCB 153+PCB 180 were 0.14 (0.73); 0.30 (0.82); 0.38 (0.88); 0.50 (1.14); 0.92; 1.58 (3.54) and 2.41 (4.82)μg/L plasma in the age groups 6-10 years (n=102), 11-17 years (n=499), 18-25 years (n=157), 26-35 years (n=710), 36-45 years (n=400), 46-55 years (n=525) and 56-65 years (n=357), respectively. Similarly, the median (95th percentile) levels of p,p'-DDE were 0.18 (1.24); 0.18 (0.74); 0.24 (0.85); 0.30 (1.20); 0.45 (1.74); 0.64 (3.25) and 0.94 (4.7)μg/L plasma. Finally, the median (95th percentile) of HCB in plasma in these age groups was 0.05 (0.10); 0.06 (0.11); 0.08 (0.15); 0.08 (0.15); 0.11 (0.22); 0.14 (0.42) and 0.20 (0.68)μg/L plasma. Our results prove an overall substantial reduction in the body burden to organochlorine compounds in Germany compared to earlier studies. However, 15% and 3.6% of the examined

  11. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  12. Functional analysis of the MAPK pathways in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Domingo; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways constitute one of the most important and evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for the perception of extracellular information in all the eukaryotic organisms. The MAPK pathways are involved in the transfer to the cell of the information perceived from extracellular stimuli, with the final outcome of activation of different transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to them. In all species of fungi, the MAPK pathways have important roles in their physiology and development; e.g. cell cycle control, mating, morphogenesis, response to different stresses, resistance to UV radiation and to temperature changes, cell wall assembly and integrity, degradation of cellular organelles, virulence, cell-cell signaling, fungus-plant interaction, and response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Considering the importance of the phylogenetically conserved MAPK pathways in fungi, an updated review of the knowledge on them is discussed in this article. This information reveals their importance, their distribution in fungal species evolutionarily distant and with different lifestyles, their organization and function, and the interactions occurring between different MAPK pathways, and with other signaling pathways, for the regulation of the most complex cellular processes. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Ligninolytic Activity at 0 °C of Fungi on Oak Leaves Under Snow Cover in a Mixed Forest in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshizumi; Koda, Keiichi; Kawaguchi, Arata; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition under snow cover in boreal forests and tundra, very little is known regarding the characteristics and functions of litter-decomposing fungi adapted to the cold climate. We investigated the decomposition of oak leaves in a heavy snowfall forest region of Japan. The rate of litter weight loss reached 26.5% during the snow cover period for 7 months and accounted for 64.6% of the annual loss (41.1%). Although no statistically significant lignin loss was detected, decolourization portions of oak leaf litter, which was attributable to the activities of ligninolytic fungi, were observed during snow cover period. This suggests that fungi involved in litter decomposition can produce extracellular enzymes to degrade lignin that remain active at 0 °C. Fungi were isolated from oak leaves collected from the forest floor under the snow layer. One hundred and sixty-six strains were isolated and classified into 33 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on culture characteristics and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences. To test the ability to degrade lignin, the production of extracellular phenoloxidases by isolates was quantified at 0 °C. Ten OTUs (9 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota) of fungi exhibited mycelial growth and ligninolytic activity. These results suggested that some litter-decomposing fungi that had the potential to degrade lignin at 0 °C significantly contribute to litter decomposition under snow cover.

  14. Species and Sex Differences in the Morphogenic Response of Primary Rodent Neurons to 3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunjay; Keil, Kimberly P; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-12-23

    PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific primary hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 48 h to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM. Total axonal length was quantified in tau-1 immunoreactive neurons at day in vitro (DIV) 2; dendritic arborization was assessed by Sholl analysis at DIV 9 in neurons transfected with MAP2B-FusRed. In mouse cultures, PCB 11 enhanced dendritic arborization in female, but not male, hippocampal neurons and male, but not female, cortical neurons. In rat cultures, PCB 11 promoted dendritic arborization in male and female hippocampal and cortical neurons. PCB 11 also increased axonal growth in mouse and rat neurons of both sexes and neuronal cell types. These data demonstrate that PCB 11 exerts sex-specific effects on neuronal morphogenesis that vary depending on species, neurite type, and neuronal cell type. These findings have significant implications for risk assessment of this emerging developmental neurotoxicant.

  15. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  16. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  17. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  18. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  19. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  20. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    . Six new ST producing fungi were discovered: Aspergillus asperescens, Aspergillus aureolatus, Aspergillus eburneocremeus, Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus tardus, and Penicillium inflatum and one new aflatoxin producer: Aspergillus togoensis (=Stilbothamnium togoense). ST was confirmed in 23...

  1. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN MUDFISH (Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Clarias gariepinus (African mudfish) and 144 fish holding water samples were collected from ... Finding these fungi in the fish holding water might have occurred through the use ... This increased .... microbial profile of some fish ponds in the.

  2. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  3. Thraustochytrid fungi associated with marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Many of the diatoms collected from Arabian Sea were found to harbour thraustochytrid fungi on them. The fungus was identified as Ulkenia visurgensis and it could be grown on pine pollen in seawater. The fungus never infected healthy growing cultures...

  4. Classification and infection mechanism of entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Margy Alejandra Esparza; Castilho, Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro; Fraga, Marcelo Elias

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic fungi are important biological control agents throughout the world, have been the subject of intensive research for more than 100 years, and can occur at epizootic or enzootic levels in their host populations. Their mode of action against insects involves attaching a spore to the insect cuticle, followed by germination, penetration of the cuticle, and dissemination inside the insect. Strains of entomopathogenic fungi are concentrated in the following orders: Hypocre...

  5. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20 degrees C and a maximum temperature of growth extending Itp to 60 to 62 degrees C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45 degrees C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62 degrees C. Although wides...

  6. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested ...

  7. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporipsis subvermispora during growth on Aspen Wood Reveal this Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lighnocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Phil Kersten; Michael Mozuch; Masahiro Samejima; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about themechanismof selective ligninolysis. To...

  8. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  9. Dietary Selenium as a Modulator of PCB 126–Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian K.; Chai, Yingtao; Simmons, Donald; Watson, Walter H.; Tan, Rommel; Haschek, Wanda M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Bingxuan; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Homeostasis of selenium (Se), a critical antioxidant incorporated into amino acids and enzymes, is disrupted by exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Here we examined the importance of dietary Se in preventing the toxicity of the most toxic polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a potent AhR agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet with differing dietary Se levels (0.02, 0.2, and 2 ppm). Following 3 weeks of acclimatization, rats from each dietary group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (vehicle), 0.2, 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB 126, followed 2 weeks later by euthanasia. PCB exposure caused dose-dependent increases in liver weight and at the highest PCB 126 dose decreases in whole body weight gains. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) activity was significantly increased even at the lowest dose of PCB 126, indicating potent AhR activation. PCB exposure diminished hepatic Se levels in a dose-dependent manner, and this was accompanied by diminished Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Both these effects were partially mitigated by Se supplementation. Conversely, thioredoxin (Trx) reductase activity and Trx oxidation state, although significantly diminished in the lowest dietary Se groups, were not affected by PCB exposure. In addition, PCB 126–induced changes in hepatic copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were observed. These results demonstrate that supplemental dietary Se was not able to completely prevent the toxicity caused by PCB 126 but was able to increase moderately the levels of several key antioxidants, thereby maintaining them roughly at normal levels. PMID:21865291

  10. Sex and the Imperfect Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.

  11. Effect of vegetation types on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in a karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yueming; Pan, Fujing; He, Xunyang; Chen, Xiangbi; Su, Yirong

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in plant growth and recovery in degraded ecosystems. The desertification in karst regions has become more severe in recent decades. Evaluation of the fungal and bacterial diversity of such regions during vegetation restoration is required for effective protection and restoration in these regions. Therefore, we analyzed relationships among AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria abundances, plant species diversity, and soil properties in four typical ecosystems of vegetation restoration (tussock (TK), shrub (SB), secondary forest (SF), and primary forest (PF)) in a karst region of southwest China. Abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, plant species diversity, and soil nutrient levels increased from the tussock to the primary forest. The AM fungus, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, and plant community composition differed significantly between vegetation types (p fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, respectively. Available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and soil organic carbon levels and plant richness were positively correlated with the abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (p fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria increased from the tussock to the primary forest and highlight the essentiality of these communities for vegetation restoration.

  12. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required....... For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...

  13. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Robert Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2017-02-17

    Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF) will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a) thermotolerant and (b) present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  14. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Russell M. Paterson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a thermotolerant and (b present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  15. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  16. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  17. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Busk

    Full Text Available The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls.

  18. Final report. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant PCB sediment survey: Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory analysis of collected samples along drainage features at PGDP. Report documents levels of PCB contamination and considers locations of contamination and known releases to theorize probable sources to further investigate.

  19. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected ofcarcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute...... to this difference. Objective: To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children andmothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959–1977). Methods: PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6–11 years...... and 143 mothers living inan urban and a rural area in Denmark and participating in the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES (Demonstrationof a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). In Denmark, PCBs wereused in construction in the period 1950–1977, and year of construction...

  20. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...