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Sample records for pb emissions valuation

  1. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohn Lise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed. Methods Different types of models are here linked. It is relatively straightforward to establish the relationship between Pb emissions and consequent increase in air-Pb concentration, by means of a Gaussian plume dispersion model (OML. The exposed population can then be modelled by linking the OML-output to population data nested in geo-referenced grid cells. Less straightforward is to establish the relationship between exposure to air-Pb concentrations and the resulting blood-Pb concentration. Here an Age-Dependent Biokinetic Model (ADBM for Pb is applied. On basis of previous research which established links between increases in blood-Pb concentrations during childhood and resulting IQ-loss we arrive at our results. Results External costs of Pb airborne emissions, even at low doses, in our site are in the range of 41-83 €/kg emitted Pb, depending on the considered meteorological year. This estimate applies only to the initial effects of air-Pb, as our study does not address the effects due to the Pb environmental-accumulation and to the subsequent Pb re-exposure. These are likely to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher. Conclusions Biokinetic modelling is a novel tool not previously included when applying the IPA to explore impacts of Pb emissions

  2. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Frohn, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb) emissions are assessed...... using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient) are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss...

  3. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions with a fairness-adjustment in the valuation exercise. Results indicate that industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions. Developing countries differ in their valuations. Results indicate that…

  4. Equity research of Volkswagen : valuation amidst of an emissions scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Bolos, Mary Anne Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças This project report follows the format recommended by the CFA Institute “(Pinto et. al., 2015)” and materials on this report will only reflect the public information issued on Volkswagen AG until September 30th, 2016. Volkswagen AG is Europe’s largest auto-manufacturer and one of the largest worldwide. The company offers a wide selection of brand portfolios and generates the highest economies scale in Europe in this industry. The emission scandal it faced on 2015 r...

  5. Scope effects of respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation: Evidence from motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndambiri, H.; Mungatana, E.; Brouwer, R.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the scope effects of respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation (CV) by evaluating whether willingness to pay (WTP) estimates were sensitive to changes in the magnitudes of motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. The WTP estimates were elicited through

  6. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  7. Intrinsic Lead Ion Emissions in Zero-Dimensional Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Yuhai; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare; Bakr, Osman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    -energy UV emission at approximately 350 nm to the allowed optical transition of 3P1 to 1S0 in Pb2+ ions and the low-energy UV emission at approximately 400 nm to the charge-transfer state involved in the 0D NC host lattice (D-state). In the emissive Cs4PbBr6

  8. Intrinsic Lead Ion Emissions in Zero-Dimensional Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun

    2017-11-07

    We investigate the intrinsic lead ion (Pb2+) emissions in zero-dimensional (0D) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) using a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments for both “nonemissive” (highly suppressed green emission) and emissive (bright green emission) Cs4PbBr6 NCs show a splitting of emission spectra into high- and low-energy transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. In the nonemissive case, we attribute the high-energy UV emission at approximately 350 nm to the allowed optical transition of 3P1 to 1S0 in Pb2+ ions and the low-energy UV emission at approximately 400 nm to the charge-transfer state involved in the 0D NC host lattice (D-state). In the emissive Cs4PbBr6 NCs, in addition to the broad UV emission, we demonstrate that energy transfer occurs from Pb2+ ions to green luminescent centers. The optical phonon modes in Cs4PbBr6 NCs can be assigned to both Pb–Br stretching and rocking motions from density functional theory calculations. Our results address the origin of the dual broadband Pb2+ ion emissions observed in Cs4PbBr6 NCs and provide insights into the mechanism of ionic exciton–optical phonon interactions in these 0D perovskites.

  9. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  10. A real option-based model to valuate CDM projects under uncertain energy policies for emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taeil; Kim, Changyoon; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A real option-based model for the valuation of CDM projects is proposed. • This study investigates the impact of energy policies on the value of CDM projects. • Level of target emission and its schedule should be carefully designed. • Government subsidy facilitates the implementation of CDM projects. • Period for free emission allowance prevents promoting CDM projects. - Abstract: Emission trading has been considered a primary policy tool for emission reduction. Governments establish national targets for emission reduction and assign emission reduction goals to private entities to accomplish the targets. To attain the goal, private entities should perform offset projects that can produce emission credits or buy emission credits from the market. However, it is not easy for private entities to decide to implement the projects because energy policies associated with emission trading keep changing; thus, the future benefits of the offset projects are quite uncertain. This study presents a real option-based model to investigate how uncertain energy policies affect the financial viability of an offset project. A case study showed that the establishment of a target emission was attractive to the government because it could make the CDM project financially viable with a small amount of government subsidy. In addition, the level of the government subsidy could determine the investment timing for the CDM project. In this context, governments should be cautious in designing energy policies, because even the same energy policies could have different impacts on private entities. Overall, this study is expected to assist private entities in establishing proper investment strategies for CDM projects under uncertain energy policies

  11. The willingness to pay for positron emission tomography (PET). Evaluation of suspected lung cancer using contingent valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheofanis, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, contingent valuation is used to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging by patients with suspected benign or malignant lung disease. Patients (n=87) undergoing thoracic computed tomography were surveyed for their WTP for PET for the evaluation of lung disease in lieu of further testing. Patients were provided background PET information and a two-page self-administered questionnaire. The survey queried basic demographic information, perceived risk of malignancy, and perceived life expectancy given a diagnosis of malignancy. Patients with increased perception of risk were willing to pay more than those with lower perceived risk. Patients who were self-payers for their health insurance indicated a lower WTP than those who did not pay any out-of-pocket insurance premiums. Individuals are willing to pay additional out-of-pocket costs for diagnostic imaging to reduce their perception of risk and improve their quality of life

  12. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO2 emission reductions in Turkey: A contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaman, Fikret; Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan; Ozkaynak, Beguem; Zenginobuz, Unal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO 2 emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey-a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. - Research Highlights: → We explored the determinants of households' willingness to pay for CO 2 reductions. → We administered a contingent valuation survey to 2422 respondents in urban Turkey. → Young, educated, environmentally-knowledgeable and activist people contribute more. → Income is also found to be significant in increasing willingness to contribute. → Lack of trust in institutions and in other's participation hampers the contributions.

  13. Structural origins of broadband emission from layered Pb-Br hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Jaffe, Adam; Dohner, Emma R; Lindenberg, Aaron M; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-06-01

    Through structural and optical studies of a series of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, we show that broadband emission upon near-ultraviolet excitation is common to (001) lead-bromide perovskites. Importantly, we find that the relative intensity of the broad emission correlates with increasing out-of-plane distortion of the Pb-(μ-Br)-Pb angle in the inorganic sheets. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence data obtained on a representative (001) perovskite support an intrinsic origin to the broad emission from the bulk material, where photogenerated carriers cause excited-state lattice distortions mediated through electron-lattice coupling. In contrast, most inorganic phosphors contain extrinsic emissive dopants or emissive surface sites. The design rules established here could allow us to systematically optimize white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites by fine-tuning the bulk crystal structure.

  14. Impact of the european emission trading scheme for the air transportation industry on the valuation of aircraft purchase rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarradellas-Espuny, J.; Salamero-Salas, A.; Martinez-Costa, C.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission issued a legislative proposal in December 2006, suggesting a cap on CO 2 emissions for all planes arriving or departing from EU airports, while allowing airlines to buy and sell pollution credits on the EU carbon market (Emission Trading Scheme, or ETS). In 2008 the new scheme got the final approval. Real options appear to be ab appropriate methodology to capture the extra value brought by the new legislation on new airplane purchase rights: The airline will surely have the purchase right to the new plane if the operation of the plane generates unused pollution credits that the airline can sell at a minimum price in the carbon market. This paper tries to determine if the impact of ETS in the valuation of aircraft purchase rights is significant enough in monetary terms to include the new legislation in a complex real-option model already proposed by the authors recently. The research concludes that even the impact of ETS justifies its inclusion in the model, the quality of the available sets of historical data still raises some questions. Particularly, the assumption of market efficiency for the Carbon Pool over the recent years needs to be treated with caution. (Author) 9 refs

  15. Monetary valuation of the social cost of CO2 emissions : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J. C J M; Botzen, W. J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297620584

    2015-01-01

    An expanding branch of research has estimated the potential costs of climate change, which are often expressed as the "Social Cost of Carbon" (SCC) or the costs of an additional ton of CO2 emissions. Estimates of the SCC can be used by policy makers to evaluate climate change policies and greenhouse

  16. Air emissions of ammonia and methane from livestock operations: valuation and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Siikamäki, Juha

    2008-09-01

    The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of ammonia (NH3), which is a precursor of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)--arguably, the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. The industry is also a major emitter of methane (CH4), which is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce NH3 and CH4 emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: PM offset credits for NH3 control, GHG offset credits for CH4 control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane (CH4) gas. Individually these policies vary substantially in the economic incentives they provide for farm operators to reduce emissions. We report on initial steps to fully develop the integrated process model that will provide guidance for policy-makers.

  17. Collection and valuation of numerical models with the aim to investigate the impact of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameris, M.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical models which are used to simulate the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth atmosphere are an important expedient to improve the knowledge of atmospheric processes. With such models it is possible to investigate single effects separately and to estimate their meaning for the whole system. It is possible to make sensitivity studies as well as calculations of different scenarios. This paper aims to describe different models which are available in the present time and which can be used for investigations dealing with the impact of aircraft emission on the Earth climate. Actual deficits of the modelling of atmospheric processes are discussed and the subsequent conclusions are presented. (orig.) 49 refs [de

  18. Enhanced field emission from PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots prepared by phase separation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinna; Luo Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Kui; Du Piyi; Shen Ge; Han Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Uniformly distributed PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots were successfully prepared by phase separation approach. A precursor sol film was first spin-coated on Si wafer and then spontaneously separated into two distinct phases owing to the Marangoni instability. PT nanodots with tailorable size and density were obtained after further heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that these nanodots showed a perovskite structure. An excellent room temperature field emission property of PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots was observed: the minimum turn-on voltage was about 5.3 V/{mu}m; while the emission current density reached about 270 {mu}A cm{sup -2} at an applied field of about 9.25 V/{mu}m.

  19. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico

    2015-10-27

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  20. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico; Striccoli, Marinella; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Brescia, Rosaria; Falqui, Andrea; Comparelli, Roberto; Corricelli, Michela; Tommasi, Raffaele; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  1. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  2. The effect of motor vehicle emission towards lead (Pb content of rice field soil with different clay content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.Wati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle gas emission contains lead (Pb which is a hazardous and toxic substance. Agricultural land, especially rice field, which is located nearby roads passed by many motor vehicle, are susceptible to the accumulation of Pb. If Pb is permeated by plants cultivated in the rice field, it will be very hazardous for humans as they are the final consumers. Hence, it is essential to identify Pb content of rice-field soil initiated by motor vehicle gas emission. This study was aimed to identify the effects of motor vehicle density, the distance between rice-field and road, and the clay content of soil towards Pb content of soils in Blitar and Ngawi Regencies of East Java. The method used for the study was survey method managed by using three-factor nested design with three replicates. The results of this study showed that motor vehicle density and the distance of rice field to road provide significant affected the total of Pb content of soil. However, the dissemination pattern of Pb in the soil was irregular due to the factors of climate and environment. Before Pb reached soil surface, Pb was spread out in the air due to the effect of temperature, wind velocity, vehicle velocity, size of vehicle, and road density. Consequently, the location with low motor vehicle density and positioned faraway to the road had higher total rate of Pb than the location with high motor vehicle density and positioned nearby the road. Clay content affected the total rate of Pb content as much as 37%, every 1% increase of clay content increased the total rate of Pb as much as 0.08 mg/kg.

  3. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of All-Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Bright Blue Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiqin; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Gao, Di; Xu, Xurong

    2016-10-26

    We developed a colloidal synthesis of CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) at a relative low temperature (90 °C) for the bright blue emission which differs from the original green emission (∼510 nm) of CsPbBr 3 nanocubes as reported previously. Shapes of the obtained CsPbBr 3 NCs can be systematically engineered into single and lamellar-structured 0D quantum dots, as well as face-to-face stacking 2D nanoplatelets and flat-lying 2D nanosheets via tuning the amounts of oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OM). They exhibit sharp excitonic PL emissions at 453, 472, 449, and 452 nm, respectively. The large blue shift relative to the emission of CsPbBr 3 bulk crystal can be ascribed to the strong quantum confinement effects of these various nanoshapes. PL decay lifetimes are measured, ranging from several to tens of nanoseconds, which infers the higher ratio of exciton radiative recombination to the nonradiative trappers in the obtained CsPbBr 3 NCs. These shape-controlled CsPbBr 3 perovskite NCs with the bright blue emission will be widely used in optoelectronic applications, especially in blue LEDs which still lag behind compared to the better developed red and green LEDs.

  4. A comparison of lead pollution record in Sphagnum peat with known historical Pb emission rates in the British isles and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M.; Erel, Y.; Zemanova, L.; Bottrell, S.H.; Adamova, M. [Czech Geological Survey, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-12-15

    Vertical Pb concentration gradients and isotope ratios (Pb-206/Pb-207, Pb-208/Pb-207) are reported for five Pb-210-dated Sphagnum peat profiles. The studied peat bogs are in the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Mull, Scotland; and Connemara, Eire) and central Europe (Ocean, northern Czech Republic: Rybarenska slat, southern Czech Republic). Both the U.K. and the Czech Republic experienced maximum Pb emissions from Ag-Pb smelting around 1880. Pb emissions from coal burning peaked in 1955 in the U.K, and in the 1980s in the Czech Republic. In both countries, use of alkyl-lead additives to gasoline resulted in large Pb emissions between 1950 and 2000. We hypothesized that peaks in Pb emissions from smelting, coal burning and gasoline burning, respectively, should be mirrored in the peat profiles. However, a more complicated pattern emerged. Maximum annual Pb accumulation rates occurred in 1870 at Ocean, 1940 at Thorne Moors, 1988 at Rybarenska slat, and 1990 at Mull and Connemara. Atmospheric Pb inputs decreased in the order Thorne Moors {ge} Ocean > Rybarenska slat > Mull > Connemara. The Ocean bog was unique in the central European region in that its maximum Pb pollution dated back to the 19th century and coincided with maximum Pb smelting at Freiberg and Pribram. In contrast, numerous previously studied sites showed no Pb accumulation maximum in the 19th century, but increasing pollution until the 1980s. It remains unclear why Ocean did not record the regional peak in Pb emissions caused by high coal and gasoline burning around 1980, while an array of nearby bogs studied previously did record the 1980 coal/gasoline peak, but no 1880 smelting peak. Mean Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of potential pollution sources were 1.07 and 1.11 for gasoline, 1.17 and 1.17 for local ores, and 1.18 and 1.19 for coal in the U.K. and the Czech Republic, respectively.

  5. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    , interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows......-coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  6. Localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice determined by the Moessbauer emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterov, V.F.; Nasredinov, F.S.; Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.P.; Troitskaya, N.N.; Bondarevskij, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    The 119 Sb ( 119m Sn) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy has shown that a localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice is affected by the conductivity type of the host material, the antimony atoms occupied mainly anion and cation sites in n-type and p-type samples, respectively. The 119 Sn impurity in the anion sublattice of PbTe formed an decay. Its charge state was shown to be independent of the Fermi level position

  7. Pollution of spruce Picea abies Karst. by emissions of F, As, Pb, Cd, and S from an aluminium plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankovska, B

    1979-01-01

    In two year old needles of P. abies polluted by industrial emissions, the following elements were determined: As, Pb and Cd by atomic absorption, F spectrophotometrically and S gravimetrically. All values of F, As, Cd and S close to the aluminum plant exceed those from Cierny Balog and are statistically significant at the P/sub 0/ /sub 01/% level. Only the content of Pb is insignificant. 8 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Measurement of the Cross Section for Electromagnetic Dissociation with Neutron Emission in Pb-Pb Collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Bottger, Stefan; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Bugaiev, Kyrylo; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Del Castillo Sanchez, Eduardo; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Fragkiadakis, Michail; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; 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Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; 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Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; 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Yushmanov, Igor; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2012-01-01

    The first measurement of neutron emission in electromagnetic dissociation of 208Pb nuclei at the LHC is presented. The measurement is performed using the neutron Zero Degree Calorimeters of the ALICE experiment, which detect neutral particles close to beam rapidity. The measured cross sections of single and mutual electromagnetic dissociation of Pb nuclei at √sNN = 2.76 TeV with neutron emission are σ_single EMD = 187.2±0.2 (stat.) +13.8−12.0 (syst.) b and σ_mutual EMD = 6.2 ± 0.1 (stat.) ±0.4 (syst.) b respectively. The experimental results are compared to the predictions from a relativistic electromagnetic dissociation model.

  9. Measurement of the cross section for electromagnetic dissociation with neutron emission in Pb-Pb collisions at √SNN=2.76 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelev, B.; Garishvili, I.; Soltz, R.; Adam, J.; Bielcik, J.; Cepila, J.; Krelina, M.; Krus, M.; Pachr, M.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Pospisil, V.; Smakal, R.; Tlusty, D.; Wagner, V.; Zach, C.; Vajzer, M.; Adamova, D.; Bielcikova, J.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Adare, A.M.; Aronsson, T.; Caballero Orduna, D.; Caines, H.; Harris, J.W.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Ma, R.; Oh, S.; Smirnov, N.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Bhati, A.K.; Chawla, I.; Rathee, D.; Sharma, N.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Augustinus, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Betev, L.; Brun, R.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chochula, P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Costa, F.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Di Mauro, A.; Divia, R.; Floris, M.; Fuchs, U.; Gheata, A.; Agocs, A.G.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Bencedi, G.; Berenyi, D.; Boldizsar, L.; Denes, E.; Hamar, G.; Levai, P.; Agostinelli, A.; Arcelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bellini, F.; Cifarelli, L.; Falchieri, D.; Guerzoni, B.; Scioli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Grabski, V.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Basu, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Choudhury, S.; De, S.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S.A.; Mohanty, B.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Nayak, T.K.; Baldisseri, A.; Borel, H.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Charvet, J.L.; Geuna, C.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Yang, H.

    2012-01-01

    The first measurement of neutron emission in electromagnetic dissociation of 208 Pb nuclei at the LHC is presented. The measurement is performed using the neutron zero degree calorimeters of the ALICE experiment, which detect neutral particles close to beam rapidity. The measured cross sections of single and mutual electromagnetic dissociation of Pb nuclei at √S NN = 2.76 TeV with neutron emission are σ singleEMD =187.4 ± 0.2(stat) +13.2 -11.2 (syst) b and σ mutualEMD = 5.7±0.1(stat) ± 0.4(syst) b, respectively. The experimental results are compared to the predictions from a relativistic electromagnetic dissociation model. (authors)

  10. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in Turkey: A contingent valuation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaman, Fikret [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkaynak, Beguem, E-mail: begum.ozkaynak@boun.edu.t [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Zenginobuz, Unal [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO{sub 2} emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey-a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. - Research Highlights: {yields} We explored the determinants of households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} reductions. {yields} We administered a contingent valuation survey to 2422 respondents in urban Turkey. {yields} Young, educated, environmentally-knowledgeable and activist people contribute more. {yields} Income is also found to be significant in increasing willingness to contribute. {yields} Lack of trust in institutions and in other's participation hampers the contributions.

  11. Multineutron emission cross-sections of Pb-208 and Bi-209 for use in fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.

    1995-01-01

    Pb-208 and Bi-209 are considered as promising materials for fusion blankets because of their superior neutron multiplying characteristics. In this paper, emission cross-sections for neutrons, protons, alpha-particles and gamma-rays are investigated for these nuclides in the energy range 8-30 MeV using the framework of the multistep Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory combined with the Kalbach exciton model for the pre-equilibrium decay and the Brink - Axel model of the giant dipole resonance to account for the radiative capture competition. Appropriate optical model potential parameters are selected to evaluate the compound nucleus reaction cross-sections at different neutron incident energies. (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,4n) and the total production cross-sections for neutrons, protons, alpha-particles and gamma-rays are inferred by performing consistent calculations. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  12. A comparison of lead pollution record in Sphagnum peat with known historical Pb emission rates in the British Isles and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Erel, Yigal; Zemanova, Leona; Bottrell, Simon H.; Adamova, Marie

    Vertical Pb concentration gradients and isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb) are reported for five 210Pb-dated Sphagnum peat profiles. The studied peat bogs are in the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Mull, Scotland; and Connemara, Eire) and central Europe (Ocean, northern Czech Republic; Rybarenska slat, southern Czech Republic). Both the U.K. and the Czech Republic experienced maximum Pb emissions from Ag-Pb smelting around 1880. Pb emissions from coal burning peaked in 1955 in the U.K. and in the 1980s in the Czech Republic. In both countries, use of alkyl-lead additives to gasoline resulted in large Pb emissions between 1950 and 2000. We hypothesized that peaks in Pb emissions from smelting, coal burning and gasoline burning, respectively, should be mirrored in the peat profiles. However, a more complicated pattern emerged. Maximum annual Pb accumulation rates occurred in 1870 at Ocean, 1940 at Thorne Moors, 1988 at Rybarenska slat, and 1990 at Mull and Connemara. Atmospheric Pb inputs decreased in the order Thorne Moors ≥ Ocean > Rybarenska slat > Mull > Connemara. The Ocean bog was unique in the central European region in that its maximum Pb pollution dated back to the 19th century and coincided with maximum Pb smelting at Freiberg and Pribram. In contrast, numerous previously studied sites showed no Pb accumulation maximum in the 19th century, but increasing pollution until the 1980s. It remains unclear why Ocean did not record the regional peak in Pb emissions caused by high coal and gasoline burning around 1980, while an array of nearby bogs studied previously did record the 1980 coal/gasoline peak, but no 1880 smelting peak. Mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios of potential pollution sources were 1.07 and 1.11 for gasoline, 1.17 and 1.17 for local ores, and 1.18 and 1.19 for coal in the U.K. and the Czech Republic, respectively. The calculated percentages of gasoline-derived Pb in peat (≤55% for the British Isles and ≤63% for the Czech Republic

  13. The Recombination Mechanism and True Green Amplified Spontaneous Emission in CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2015-01-01

    . M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, "The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites", Applied Physics Letters, 106, 081902, 2015. DOI: 10.1063/1.4913463

  14. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in Turkey. A contingent valuation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaman, Fikret; Oezkaynak, Beguem; Zenginobuz, Uenal [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO{sub 2} emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey - a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. (author)

  15. The valuation of air emission externalities of vehicles: a comparison between fossil fuels and ethanol in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.S.L.; Zylbersztain, D.

    1997-01-01

    The National Alcohol Program, Proalcool has had an important strategic role as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, Proalcool has faced economic difficulties that endanger the Program's future. From the environmental point of view, the introduction of hydrated ethanol as an automobile fuel was beneficial because initially it reduced vehicle emissions. The lack of investment in technology for a neat-alcohol vehicle has delayed further development of an alcohol engine relative to the gasoline engine, which is reflected in current exhaust gas emissions. This paper discusses the evolution of ethanol vehicle emissions and the monetary effect of these emissions in the urban area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. (author)

  16. Emission of single photons, hadrons, and dileptons in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at CERN SPS and quark hadron phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Kvasnikova, I; Gale, C; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar; Sinha, Bikash; Kvasnikova, Ioulia; Gale, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The production of single photons in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A very good description of the data is obtained if a quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. Most of the radiation of the photons is seen to arise from the quark-matter, which contributes dominantly through the mechanism of annihilation of quarks with scattering, and which in turn is possible only in a hot and dense plasma of quarks and gluons. The same treatment provides a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the ...

  17. Emission of thermally stimulated luminescence in mixed monocrystals KCl-KBr: Pb2+, KCl: Pb2+ and KBr: Pb2+ exposed at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Ramos B, S.; Melendrez A, R.; Chernov, V.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza F, M.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2002-01-01

    It is reported the behavior of solid solutions of mixed crystals KCl 1-x KBr x doped with divalent lead which were exposed to gamma radiation. The mixtures of KCl-KBr were varied, with x equivalents at 2, 50, 65, and 85 % including the extremes KCl: Pb 2+ and KBr: Pb 2+ . It was maintained a concentration of divalent lead between 20 and 40 ppm in the crystalline lattice. The production of the generated defects by radiation have been correlated with the increase in the brilliance curves depending on the received dose by the mixed doped crystal. It has been used the thermal stimulation (Tl) for obtaining the crystal luminescence depending on the dose until 130 Gy with gammas of cobalt 60. The results shows that this mixed crystalline material of varied composition responds adequately to low doses which indicates that this would be a good detector of ionizing radiation. The results have been correlated with the optical properties of this mixed doped crystal, however it has been found that exists an important loss of luminescence depending on the halogen quantity presents in the mixed crystal. (Author)

  18. New dual emission fluorescent sensor for pH and Pb(II) based on bis(napfthalimide) derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Luis, Georgina; Martínez-Quiroz, Marisela; Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Mendez-Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for selective determination of pH and Pb 2+ ions. The influence of the variability in the backbone that links the two fluorophores (naphthalimides) as a function of pH and metal ions was studied by UV–visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compounds 1(a–d) with different length alkyl linkers (CH 2 ) n (n=1, 2, 4 and 6) showed no excimer formation in aqueous solution. Fluorescence emission of these derivatives varied in a narrow range of pH (5–8) and was only slightly influenced by the addition of metal ions in CH 3 CN solutions. However, derivative 1e with amino-containing spacer (CH 2 –NH–CH 2 ) showed excimer emission in aqueous solution, a wide response to pH (2.5–9.5) and fluorescence enhancement with selective behavior towards metal ions. The pH sensor based in derivative 1e has a sufficient selectivity for practical pH monitoring in the presence of Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ . The coordination chemistry of these complexes was studied by UV–Vis, fluorescence and 1 H NMR. This chemosensor displayed high selectivity fluorescence enhancement toward Pb 2+ ions in the presence of the metals ions mentioned in CH 3 CN solutions. Competitive assays show that a 1-fold of metal cations in each case, compared with Pb 2+ ions, results in less than ±5% fluorescence intensity changes. Linear calibration up to 1×10 −5 M for Pb(II) ions (R=0.9968) was obtained and detection limit resulted of 5.0×10 −8 M. - Highlights: ► A novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for pH and Pb 2+ ions is synthetized. ► The excimer formation depends on the spacer that links the two naphthalimide groups. ► Bis(naphthalimide) with amino-containing spacer showed a wide selective response to pH. ► This chemosensor displayed a selective fluorescence enhancement effect towards Pb 2+ ions. ► Mechanism for the fluorescence OFF

  19. Reversible Concentration-Dependent Photoluminescence Quenching and Change of Emission Color in CsPbBr3 Nanowires and Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, Francesco; Imran, Muhammad; Akkerman, Quinten A; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Krahne, Roman

    2017-06-15

    We discuss the photoluminescence (PL) of quantum-confined CsPbBr 3 colloidal nanocrystals of two different shapes (nanowires and nanoplatelets) at different concentrations in solution and in solid-state films. Upon increasing the nanocrystal concentration in solution, a constant drop in photoluminescence quantum yield is observed, accompanied by a significant PL red shift. This effect is reversible, and the original PL can be restored by diluting to the original concentration. We show that this effect can be in part attributed to self-absorption and partly to aggregation. In particular, for nanoplatelets, where the aggregation is mostly irreversible, while the self-absorption effect is reversible, the two contributions can be well separated. Finally, when dry solid-state films are prepared, the emission band is shifted into the green spectral region, close to the bulk CsPbBr 3 band gap, thus preventing blue emission from such films.

  20. Valuation of intangible assets

    OpenAIRE

    Karlíková, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on the valuation of intangible assets, particularly trademarks and copyrights. In the beginning it deals with the problems of valuation of intangible assets. The main part of the thesis provides an overview of methods for valuation of intangible assets. This part is followed by a practical section that illustrates the procedure of valuation of trademarks and copyrights on a concrete example.

  1. Coplanarity of two-proton emissions in 400 MeV/nucleon Ne + NaF, Pb reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao.

    1984-10-01

    Two-proton coincidence spectra have been measured in a wide kinematical range for 20 Ne + NaF and 20 Ne + Pb collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Coplanar-type correlations show different feature between Ne + NaF and Ne + Pb target reactions. A strong in-plane correlation, which correspond to quasi-elastic scatterings (QES) of nucleons, was observed in wide angular range (15 to 90 0 ) in NaF target collisions. Angular distributions of QES were reproduced reasonably well by a single nucleon-nucleon scattering model. Enhancement of the QES at momentum transfer around t = 2 - 3m/sub π/, which is predicted as an indication of pionic instability, was not observed. In Ne + Pb collisions, an azimuthally asymmetric emission of particles with respect to the beam axis were implied by the anti-coplanar correlation. A new type of coplanar correlation between the emission angle and the momentum suggests a back-to-back emission of projectile and target nucleons. 8 references, 8 figures

  2. Use of real options in nuclear power plant valuation in the presence of uncertainty with CO2 emission credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the value of an investment in power generation assets that do not emit CO 2 , by using a real option model. This study evaluates the effects of future uncertainty on investment decision-making, by focusing on the uncertainty of CO 2 emission credits [yen/t-CO 2 ] in the fairly near future in Japan. Electric utilities are required to keep plans to prepare for various future uncertainties such as the price of CO 2 emission credits. The real option approach can evaluate the option value of decision-making under uncertainty. This study examined the option value of a power plant [yen/KW] to evaluate the effects of an externality under uncertainty. The results showed that nuclear power would have the most value under the forthcoming CO 2 emission limitations. In order to secure the effectiveness of measures against global warming, we should reconsider the roles of nuclear power plants in Japan. Finally, the real option model is shown to be an effective candidate for a decision-making support tool to deal with problems in energy environmental policy. (author)

  3. The Organizational Valuation of Valuation Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Amalie Martinus

    2016-01-01

    —integrated modes of valuation. Empirically, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of Lean management at a children’s hospital, which is presented through analytical snapshots. The paper suggests that an organizational turn is relevant for valuation studies, as this frst allows an analytical expansion to include...

  4. Valuation of Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodley, Joanne H.; Goodenough, Linda

    This report describes property tax revenues and assessment rates for all 50 States during 1966. The following information is summarized by State and by class of property: (1) The total valuation and the taxable valuation of property subject to local general property taxation and the percent distribution of total valuation by class of property; (2)…

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazak Jan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strong links between the condition of the environment and the economy have recently resulted in a number of actions aiming to implement environmental considerations in economic calculations. This is accompanied by the development of the concept of ecosystem services, characterizing the benefits that the environment provides humankind with. The identification of these services is reflected in their economic values. Hence, the concept of the valuation of ecosystem services. Therefore, if the service provided by the environment takes on a financial value, we can consider it as income from the property containing the analyzed ecosystem. Of course, in order to speak in practice of the income approach in the valuation of such properties, there must be actual financial flow as income for the real estate owner. However, in the era of big economic changes and the implementation of a number of financial instruments (e.g., subsidies for a particular use of property, trade of CO2 emission rights, it seems reasonable to consider the possibility of property valuation by the valuation of ecosystem services.

  6. Equity valuation : Under Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, António Rafael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    The present dissertation aims to value Under Armour, an American sportswear company. Since Valuation is not an exact science, during the literature review will be presented several valuation methods. Most of the authors mention DCF Valuation as one of the best but it seems impossible for them to reach a consensus about which one is in fact the best. In order to get Under Armour’s target price, a DCF valuation will be made and accompanied by a Relative Valuation that, when it is properly us...

  7. Carbon Valuation: Alternatives, Alternations and Lateral Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    This article refers to carbon valuation as the practice of ascribing value to, and assessing the value of, actions and objects in terms of carbon emissions. Due to the pervasiveness of carbon emissions in the actions and objects of everyday lives of human beings, the making of carbon offsets and ...

  8. Polarized emission from CsPbX3 perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Dan; Dong, Di; Chen, Wei; Hao, Junjie; Qin, Jing; Xu, Bing; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-06-01

    Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption.Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01915c

  9. New dual emission fluorescent sensor for pH and Pb(II) based on bis(napfthalimide) derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Luis, Georgina, E-mail: gpinaluis@yahoo.com [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion en Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, AP 1166, Tijuana 22500, BC (Mexico); Martinez-Quiroz, Marisela; Ochoa-Teran, Adrian [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion en Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, AP 1166, Tijuana 22500, BC (Mexico); Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila [Departamento de investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Mendez-Valenzuela, Eduardo [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion en Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, AP 1166, Tijuana 22500, BC (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes a novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for selective determination of pH and Pb{sup 2+} ions. The influence of the variability in the backbone that links the two fluorophores (naphthalimides) as a function of pH and metal ions was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compounds 1(a-d) with different length alkyl linkers (CH{sub 2}){sub n} (n=1, 2, 4 and 6) showed no excimer formation in aqueous solution. Fluorescence emission of these derivatives varied in a narrow range of pH (5-8) and was only slightly influenced by the addition of metal ions in CH{sub 3}CN solutions. However, derivative 1e with amino-containing spacer (CH{sub 2}-NH-CH{sub 2}) showed excimer emission in aqueous solution, a wide response to pH (2.5-9.5) and fluorescence enhancement with selective behavior towards metal ions. The pH sensor based in derivative 1e has a sufficient selectivity for practical pH monitoring in the presence of Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. The coordination chemistry of these complexes was studied by UV-Vis, fluorescence and {sup 1}H NMR. This chemosensor displayed high selectivity fluorescence enhancement toward Pb{sup 2+} ions in the presence of the metals ions mentioned in CH{sub 3}CN solutions. Competitive assays show that a 1-fold of metal cations in each case, compared with Pb{sup 2+} ions, results in less than {+-}5% fluorescence intensity changes. Linear calibration up to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M for Pb(II) ions (R=0.9968) was obtained and detection limit resulted of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for pH and Pb{sup 2+} ions is synthetized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excimer formation depends on the spacer that links the two naphthalimide groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bis

  10. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    H or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about...... the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions....

  11. VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Dorisz Talas

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala) classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of managemen...

  12. Valuation relationships under growth

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Franco, Julián

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important topics on valuation is the appropriate relationships between cash flows and rate of returns. I review those relationships under the premise, by Myers (1974), of the cost of debt as the right discount for the tax shield. Different hypotheses have been advanced for the tax shield risk, each one producing different valuation results, especially when growth is present. The consequences of some common mistakes on valuation are explored. One difference between the results ...

  13. Cross currency swap valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Boenkost, Wolfram; Schmidt, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross currency swaps are powerful instruments to transfer assets or liabilities from one currency into another. The market charges for this a liquidity premium, the cross currency basis spread, which should be taken into account by the valuation methodology. We describe and compare two valuation methods for cross currency swaps which are based upon using two different discounting curves. The first method is very popular in practice but inconsistent with single currency swap valuation methods....

  14. Industry Valuation Driven Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether industry valuation impacts firms’ earnings management decisions. Existing accounting literature assumes that industry valuation has a constant impact on this decision. We argue that a higher industry valuation increases the perceived benefits of earnings

  15. Ligand-Free Nanocrystals of Highly Emissive Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuhai; Sinatra, Lutfan; Alarousu, Erkki; Yin, Jun; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2018-01-01

    diode or solar cell. Here, we report a new approach to preparing ligand-free perovskite NCs of CsPbBr, which retained high photoluminescence quantum yield (44%). Such an approach involves a polar solvent (acetonitrile) and two small molecules (ammonium

  16. Control of Emission Color of High Quantum Yield CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots by Precipitation Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Susha, Andrei S; Kershaw, Stephen V; Hung, Tak Fu; Rogach, Andrey L

    2015-09-01

    Emission color controlled, high quantum yield CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots are obtained by changing the temperature of a bad solvent during synthesis. The products for temperatures between 0 and 60 °C have good spectral purity with narrow emission line widths of 28-36 nm, high absolute emission quantum yields of 74% to 93%, and short radiative lifetimes of 13-27 ns.

  17. The first demonstration of room temperature stimulated emission from metal halides -its evidence in CsPbBr3 films

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 貴之; 高橋, 一彰; 斎藤, 忠昭; 近藤, 新一

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence from CsPbBr3 films prepared by crystallization from the amorphous phase is measured under N2 laser excitation. Stimulated emission due to free exaction-free exaction inelastic collision occurs not only at cryogenic temperature but also elevated temperatures. The intensity of the stimulated emission more rapidly increases with pumping intensity at room temperature than at 77K. The temperature dependence of the stimulated emission measured under 1100kW cm-2 pumping shows th...

  18. Pension plan asset valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Owadally, M. I; Haberman, S.

    2001-01-01

    Various asset valuation methods are used in the context of funding valuations. The motivation for such methods and their properties are briefly described. Some smoothed value or market-related methods based on arithmetic averaging and exponential smoothing are considered and their effect on funding is discussed. Suggestions for further research are also made.

  19. Polarized emission from CsPbBr3 nanowire embedded-electrospun PU fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuğrul; Topçu, Gökhan; Savacı, Umut; Genç, Aziz; Turan, Servet; Sari, Emre; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2018-04-01

    Interest in all-inorganic halide perovskites has been increasing dramatically due to their high quantum yield, band gap tunability, and ease of fabrication in compositional and geometric diversity. In this study, we synthesized several hundreds of nanometer long and ˜4 nm thick CsPbBr 3 nanowires (NWs). They were then integrated into electrospun polyurethane (PU) fibers to examine the polarization behavior of the composite fiber assembly. Aligned electrospun fibers containing CsPbBr 3 NWs showed a remarkable increase in the degree of polarization from 0.17-0.30. This combination of NWs and PU fibers provides a promising composite material for various applications such as optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  20. Polarized Emission from CsPbBr3 Nanowires Embedded-Electrospun PU fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tugrul; Topçu, Gökhan; Savacı, Umut; Genç, Aziz; Turan, Servet; Sarı, Emre; Demir, Mustafa M

    2018-01-29

    The interest in all-inorganic halide perovskites has been increasing dramatically due to their high quantum yield, band gap tunability, and ease of fabrication in compositional and geometric diversity. In this study, we synthesized µm long and ~4 nm thick CsPbBr3 nanowires (NWs). They were, then, integrated into electrospun polyurethane (PU) fibers to examine polarization behavior of the composite fiber assembly. Aligned electrospun fibers containing CsPbBr3 nanowires show remarkable increase in degree of polarization from 0.17 to 0.30. This combination of NWs and PU fibers provides a promising composite material for various applications such as optoelectronic devices and solar cells. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Multiparameter-dependent spontaneous emission in PbSe quantum dot-doped liquid-core multi-mode fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Tieqiang; Gu, Pengfei; Chu, Hairong; Cui, Tian; Wang, Yiding; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model was established in this paper to analyze the properties of 3.50 and 4.39 nm PbSe quantum dot-doped liquid-core multi-mode fiber. This model was applicable to both single- and multi-mode fiber. The three-level system-based light-propagation equations and rate equations were used to calculate the guided spontaneous emission spectra. Considering the multi-mode in the fiber, the normalized intensity distribution of transversal model was improved and simplified. The detailed calculating results were thus obtained and explained using the above-mentioned model. The redshift of the peak position and the evolution of the emission power were observed and analyzed considering the influence of the fiber length, fiber diameter, doping concentration, and the pump power. The redshift increased with the increases of fiber length, fiber diameter, and doping concentration. The optimal fiber length, fiber diameter, and doping concentration were analyzed and confirmed, and the related spontaneous emission power was obtained. Besides, the normalized emission intensity increased with the increase of pump power in a nearly linear way. The calculating results fitted well to the experimental data

  2. Dynamical effects in heavy ion collisions: neck emission in the Pb + Au system at 29 A.MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    In the study of the Pb + Au system with the assembly NAUTILUS a special class of events were made evident. Three body complete events have allowed observing a dynamical behavior in the fragment emission. A plot of the correlation between the emission angle and the charges Z 1 and Z 2 of the two fragments associated to the event shows a contribution of an intermediate mass third fragment reflecting a dynamical emission subsequent to the interaction phase between the two partners of the deep inelastic scattering (a phenomenon featuring the neck emission). Such a process has been observed in the Kr + Au at 60 MeV/nucleon and Xe + Cu at 50 MeV/nucleon. The on-going analysis of the Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon reveals the existence of a similar mechanism. A complete kinematical analysis of this class of events has permitted making evident the impact parameter window, here implied; it is situated for the associated collisions to an reduced impact parameter around 0.8 b max , corresponding to an excitation energy for the bi-nucleus system of the order of 2 MeV/nucleon. This phenomenon may allow to constrain more strongly the models describing the dynamics of the heavy ion collisions, particularly the kinetic models of Landau-Vlasov type. Then, the different mean field potential prescriptions my be tested by comparison with the experimental data

  3. Particle-bound reactive oxygen species (PB-ROS) emissions and formation pathways in residential wood smoke under different combustion and aging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zotter, Peter; Bruns, Emily A.; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bhattu, Deepika; Brown, Samuel; Bertrand, Amelie; Marchand, Nicolas; Lamkaddam, Houssni; Slowik, Jay G.; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Nussbaumer, Thomas; El-Haddad, Imad; Dommen, Josef

    2018-05-01

    Wood combustion emissions can induce oxidative stress in the human respiratory tract by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aerosol particles, which are emitted either directly or formed through oxidation in the atmosphere. To improve our understanding of the particle-bound ROS (PB-ROS) generation potential of wood combustion emissions, a suite of smog chamber (SC) and potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber experiments were conducted under well-determined conditions for different combustion devices and technologies, different fuel types, operation methods, combustion regimes, combustion phases, and aging conditions. The PB-ROS content and the chemical properties of the aerosols were quantified by a novel ROS analyzer using the DCFH (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin) assay and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). For all eight combustion devices tested, primary PB-ROS concentrations substantially increased upon aging. The level of primary and aged PB-ROS emission factors (EFROS) were dominated by the combustion device (within different combustion technologies) and to a greater extent by the combustion regimes: the variability within one device was much higher than the variability of EFROS from different devices. Aged EFROS under bad combustion conditions were ˜ 2-80 times higher than under optimum combustion conditions. EFROS from automatically operated combustion devices were on average 1 order of magnitude lower than those from manually operated devices, which indicates that automatic combustion devices operated at optimum conditions to achieve near-complete combustion should be employed to minimize PB-ROS emissions. The use of an electrostatic precipitator decreased the primary and aged ROS emissions by a factor of ˜ 1.5 which is however still within the burn-to-burn variability. The parameters controlling the PB-ROS formation in secondary organic aerosol were investigated by employing a regression model, including the fractions of

  4. Ligand-Free Nanocrystals of Highly Emissive Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuhai

    2018-02-23

    Although ligands of long carbon chains are very crucial to form stable colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), they create a severe barrier for efficient charge injection or extraction in quantum-dot-based optoelectronics, such as light emitting diode or solar cell. Here, we report a new approach to preparing ligand-free perovskite NCs of CsPbBr, which retained high photoluminescence quantum yield (44%). Such an approach involves a polar solvent (acetonitrile) and two small molecules (ammonium acetate and cesium chloride), which replace the organic ligand and still protect the nanocrystals from dissolution. The successful removal of hydrophobic long ligands was evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ζ potential analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Unlike conventional perovskite NCs that are extremely susceptible to polar solvents, the ligand-free CsPbBr NCs show robust resistance to polar solvents. Our ligand-free procedure opens many possibilities not only from a material hybridization perspective but also in optimizing charge injection and extraction in semiconductor quantum-dot-based optoelectronics applications.

  5. South African mine valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrar, C D

    1977-01-01

    This article sets out the basic concepts of mine valuation, with gold mining receiving more space than base minerals and coal. Sampling practice is given special attention. Chapter headings are methods of investigation, sampling, underground sampling, averaging of underground sampling, diamond-drill sampling, mass and mineral content of ore, organization of a sample office, working costs, mining pay limits, ore reserves, ore accounting, maintenance of grade, forecasting operations and life of mine, statistical mine valuation, state's share of profits and taxation, and financial valuation of mining ventures.

  6. Efficient blue emission from ambient processed all-inorganic CsPbBr2Cl perovskite cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Chatterjee, B. K.; Maiti, S.; Besra, N.; Thakur, S.; Sarkar, S.; Chanda, K.; Das, A.; Sardar, K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    The recent resurgence of photovoltaic research has empowered all inorganic perovskite materials to take the center stage thus leading to a plethora of interesting results. Here, via a facile room-temperature synthesis protocol high quality cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbBr2Cl) cubes has been realized. Surface morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized sample were investigated by FESEM and XRD respectively. To attain detail information of its chemical composition EDX analysis and elemental mapping were carried out. These single crystalline cubes crystallize in orthorhombic phase and exhibit strong photoluminescence emission at 482 nm with narrow FWHM value (˜18nm) and photoluminescence decay time of 10.44 ns. We believe, this facile synthesis protocol will pave the way for realization other perovskite cube and thereby their usage in several optoelectronic arena like as lasing, LEDs and photo detector etc.

  7. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  8. The Recombination Mechanism and True Green Amplified Spontaneous Emission in CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2015-08-01

    True-green wavelength emitters at 555 nm are currently dominated by III-V semiconductor-based inorganic materials. Nevertheless, due to high lattice- and thermal-mismatch, the overall power efficiency in this range tends to decline for high current density showing the so-called efficiency droop in the green region (“green gap”). In order to fill the research green gap, this thesis examines the low cost solution-processability of organometal halide perovskites, which presents a unique opportunity for light-emitting devices in the green-yellow region owing to their superior photophysic properties such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, small capture cross section of defect states as well as optical bandgap tunability across the visible light regime. Specifically, the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material were investigated using low-temperature, power-dependent (77 K), temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. We noted three recombination peaks at 77K, one of which originated from bulk defect states, and other two from surface defect states. The latter were identified as bound-excitonic (BE) radiative transitions related to particle size inhomogeneity or grain size induced surface state in the sample. Both transitions led to PL spectra broadening as a result of concurrent blue- and red-shifts of these excitonic peaks. The blue-shift is most likely due to the Burstein-Moss (band filling) effect. Interestingly, the red-shift of the second excitonic peak becomes pronounced with increasing temperature leading to a true-green wavelength of 553 nm for CH3NH3PbBr3. On the other hand, red-shifted peak originates from the strong absorption in the second excitonic peak owed to the high density of surface states and carrier filling of these states due to the excitation from the first excitonic recombination. We also achieved amplified spontaneous emission around excitation threshold energy of 350 μJ/cm2

  9. Valuation of Transactive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbert, Erik I. [Navigant Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Chandler, Shawn [Navigant Consulting, Portland, OR (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This is a final report from a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to formulate and test a methodology for valuation of systems where transaction-based mechanisms coordinate the exchange of value between the system’s actors. Today, the principal commodity being exchanged is electrical energy, and such mechanisms are called transactive energy systems. The authors strove to lay a foundation for meaningful valuations of transactive systems in general, and transactive energy systems as a special case. The word valuation is used in many different ways. This report proposes a valuation methodology that is inclusive of many types of valuations. Many will be familiar with cost-benefit valuations, in which both costs and benefits are assessed to determine whether the assets are worth their cost. Another set of valuation methods attempt to optimize an outcome using available resources, as is the case with integrated resource planning. In the end, this report’s methodology was most influenced by and most resembles the integrated-resource-planning approach. Regardless, we wish to enforce the premise that all valuations are comparative and should clearly specify a baseline scenario. A long, annotated list of prior valuation studies and valuation methodologies that influenced this report has been appended to this report. Much research is being conducted today concerning transactive systems, but only a handful of transactive system mechanisms have been formulated and field tested. They are found to be quite diverse, and the documentation of the various mechanisms is uneven in breadth and quality. It is therefore not adequate to simply assert that a valuation scenario includes a transactive system; certain characteristics and qualities of the chosen transactive system mechanism must be defined and stated. The report lists and discusses most of the known transactive system mechanisms. It offers a set of questions that may be used to help specify important

  10. Method of Banks Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Horvátová

    2010-01-01

    Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...

  11. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  12. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter; Christiansen, Karen S.; Borggaard, Ole K.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Metal exposure to terrestrial organisms is influenced by the reactivity of the solid-phase metal pool. This reactivity is thought to depend on the type of emission source, on aging mechanisms that are active in the soil, and on ambient conditions. Our work shows, that when controlling for soil pH or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions. - Highlights: • We found an effect of source on reactivity of anthropogenic metals in soils. • The influence of aging on reactivity of anthropogenic metals was not consistent. • We recommend including source and disregarding aging in calculation of CTPs values. - Improving current life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) practice in terrestrial ecotoxicity assessment of metals.

  13. Social impact analysis: monetary valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainger, Lisa A.; Johnston, Robert J.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Casey, Frank; Vegh, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This section provides basic guidance for using and conducting economic valuation, including criteria for judging whether valuation is appropriate for supporting decisions. It provides an introduction to the economic techniques used to measure changes in social welfare and describes which methods may be most appropriate for use in valuing particular ecosystem services. Rather than providing comprehensive valuation instructions,it directs readers to additional resources.More generally, it establishes that the valuation of ecosystem services is grounded in a long history of non-market valuation and discusses how ecosystem services valuation can be conducted within established economic theory and techniques.

  14. Photoelectron emission as a tool to assess dose of electron radiation received by ZrO2:PbS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpane, Diana; Dekhtyar, Yury; Surkova, Indra; Romanova, Marina

    2013-01-01

    PbS nano dots embedded in ZrO 2 thin film matrix (ZrO 2 :PbS films) were studied for application in nanodosimetry of electron radiation used in radiation therapy. ZrO 2 :PbS films were irradiated with 9 MeV electron radiation with doses 3, 7 and 10 Gy using medical linear accelerator. Detection of the dosimetric signal was made by measuring and comparing photoelectron emission current from ZrO 2 :PbS films before and after irradiation. It was found that electron radiation decreased intensity of photoemission current from the films. Derivatives of the photoemission spectra were calculated and maximums at photon energies 5.65 and 5.75 eV were observed. Amplitude of these maximums decreased after irradiation with electrons. Good linear correlation was found between the relative decrease of the intensity of these maximums and dose of electron radiation. Observed changes in photoemission spectra from ZrO 2 :PbS films under influence of electron radiation suggested that the films may be considered to be effective material for electron radiation dosimetry. Photoelectron emission is a tool that allows to read the signal from such dosimeter. (authors)

  15. High Br- Content CsPb(Cl yBr1- y)3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Strong Mn2+ Emission through Diverse Cation/Anion Exchange Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Xia, Zhiguo; Pan, Caofeng; Gong, Yue; Gu, Lin; Liu, Quanlin; Zhang, Jin Z

    2018-04-11

    The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn 2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX 3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr 2 and preformed CsPb 1- x Cl 3 : xMn 2+ NCs can be used to obtain high Br - content Cs(Pb 1- x- z Zn z )(Cl y Br 1- y ) 3 : xMn 2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn 2+ emission, and the Mn 2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%. More specifically, the fast anion exchange could be realized by the soluble halide precursors, leading to anion exchange within a few seconds as observed from the strong BE emission evolution, whereas the cation exchange instead generally required at least a few hours; moreover, their exchange mechanism and dynamics process have been evaluated. The Mn 2+ emission intensity could be further varied by controlling the replacement of Mn 2+ by Zn 2+ with prolonged ion exchange reaction time. White light emission of the doped perovskite NCs via this cation/anion synergistic exchange strategy has been realized, which was also successfully demonstrated in a prototype white light-emitting diode (LED) device based on a commercially available 365 nm LED chip.

  16. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr3 from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Tang; Hanguang Lu; Longshi Rao; Zongtao Li; Xinrui Ding; Caiman Yan; Binhai Yu

    2018-01-01

    The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr3 QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing hal...

  17. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  18. Valuation and creative accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalina VOINEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economic and financial valuation, that is the only type of valuation, based on a diagnosis and expertise, which has as objective to establish the market value of elements, whether goods or businesses, being a "orientation tool" for the economic operators on the market. There are specific means to measure value but there are also some mechanisms that can influence the value obtained, from the category of creative accounting. Creative accounting occurs due to human intervention and even the most advanced accounting systems are not able to do this due to the lack of reasoning. There must be also assumed that it is possible that these creative accounting techniques may be caused by a simple mistake and not necessarily with the intention of manipulating the financial results and reports. The aim of the paper is to see how specific element valuation can influence the general one, namely the value of a company.

  19. VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorisz Talas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.

  20. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  1. Chemically tailoring the dopant emission in manganese-doped CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das Adhikari, Samrat; Dutta, Sumit K.; Dutta, Anirban; Guria, Amit K.; Pradhan, Narayan [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India)

    2017-07-17

    Doping in perovskite nanocrystals adopts different mechanistic approach in comparison to widely established doping in chalcogenide quantum dots. The fast formation of perovskites makes the dopant insertions more competitive and challenging. Introducing alkylamine hydrochloride (RNH{sub 3}Cl) as a promoting reagent, precise controlled doping of Mn{sup II} in CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals is reported. Simply, by changing the amount of RNH{sub 3}Cl, the Mn incorporation and subsequent tuning in the excitonic as well as Mn d-d emission intensities are tailored. Investigations suggested that RNH{sub 3}Cl acted as the chlorinating source, controlled the size, and also helps in increasing the number of particles. This provided more opportunity for Mn ions to take part in reaction and occupied the appropriate lattice positions. Carrying out several reactions with varying reaction parameters, the doping conditions are optimized and the role of the promoting reagent for both doped and undoped systems are compared. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Bioavailability and uptake of smelter emissions in freshwater zooplankton in northeastern Washington, USA lakes using Pb isotope analysis and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, A W; Moore, B C; Vervoort, J D; Beutel, M W

    2018-07-01

    The upper Columbia River and associated valley systems are highly contaminated with metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada (Teck smelter), and to a lesser extent, Northport, Washington, USA (Le Roi smelter). Previous studies have investigated depositional patterns of airborne emissions from these smelters, and documented the Teck smelter as the primary metal contamination source. However, there is limited research directed at whether these contaminants are bioavailable to aquatic organisms. This study investigates whether smelter derived contaminants are bioavailable to freshwater zooplankton. Trace metal (Zn, Cd, As, Sb, Pb and Hg) concentrations and Pb isotope compositions of zooplankton and sediment were measured in lakes ranging from 17 to 144 km downwind of the Teck smelter. Pb isotopic compositions of historic ores used by both smelters are uniquely less radiogenic than local geologic formations, so when zooplankton assimilate substantial amounts of smelter derived metals their compositions deviate from local baseline compositions toward ore compositions. Sediment metal concentrations and Pb isotope compositions in sediment follow significant (p < 0.001) negative exponential and sigmoidal patterns, respectively, as distance from the Teck smelting operation increases. Zooplankton As, Cd, and Sb contents were related to distance from the Teck smelter (p < 0.05), and zooplankton Pb isotope compositions suggest As, Cd, Sb and Pb from historic and current smelter emissions are biologically available to zooplankton. Zooplankton from lakes within 86 km of the Teck facility display isotopic evidence that legacy ore pollution is biologically available for assimilation. However, without water column data our study is unable to determine if legacy contaminants are remobilized from lake sediments, or erosional pathways from the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX₃, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protesescu, Loredana; Yakunin, Sergii; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Krieg, Franziska; Caputo, Riccarda; Hendon, Christopher H; Yang, Ruo Xi; Walsh, Aron; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-06-10

    Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4-15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410-700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12-42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1-29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410-530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation.

  4. The valuation of environmental externalities in energy conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernick, P.L.; Caverhill, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of the full societal costs of energy usage must incorporate estimates of the environmental effects, or externalities, of energy production and delivery. An externality is any cost or benefit that is not reflected in the price paid by a utility or its customers for energy produced or consumed. The potential variety and scope of externality analyses are discussed. Four methods of externality valuation are briefly discussed to highlight the uses, strengths and pitfalls of each method. The use of pollutants' relative potency, polling of experts, direct estimation of costs, and implied valuation, are compared. The authors preferred method of valuation for near-term energy supply decisions, implied valuation, is discussed in detail. The distinguishing feature of the implied valuation technique is its use of the cost of control, rather than the direct cost of emissions. Only the most expensive required control measure is relevant to valuation of the external effects. The difficulties in applying implied valuation, such as the definition of the margin, the multiple effects of pollutants and the imperfect nature of the regulatory system, are also considered. The effect of environmental externalities on the benefits of conservation are summarized

  5. Conservatism in Corporate Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian

    Using a CCAPM based risk adjustment model, consistent with general asset pricing theory, I perform corporate valuations of a large sample of stocks listed on NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ. The model is different from the standard CAPM model in the sense that it discounts forecasted residual income for ri...

  6. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...... model performs substantially better than the best performing standard valuation model when comparing absolute valuation errors. Both types of models are able to identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns but also in this setting, the CCAPM-based valuation model outperforms...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...

  7. 210Po and 210Pb emissions to air from the thermal phosphorus plant in Europe: measurements in the environment and dose assessment for regulatory purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Knetsch, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1983 in The Netherlands, an environmental survey at a river estuary revealed elevated radionuclide concentrations above the background level. The source was identified as an industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus, by means of a thermal process. Within a few years a permit for emissions of radionuclides to the environment was requested under the prevailing Nuclear Energy Act, and granted. Since 1987 the industry reports its emission data to the mandated Ministry. This phosphorus plant contributes the highest release of 210 Po and 210 Pb to air in the Netherlands. The difficulty of identifying the enhanced activity due to the elemental phosphorus through environmental measurement is here illustrated by showing, by means of an air dispersion model, that the radioactivity added by the phosphorus plant to the environment is comparable to the natural background level. The estimate of the excess air concentration given exclusively by a continuous annual emission of 500 GBq, bound to aerosols of size less than 1 micron, varies from 450 to 750 micro Bq/m 3 at a distance of 3.5 km from the phosphorus plant, depending on yearly weather variations. This may be compared to the natural background level as it is measured at a distance of over 100 km inland from the phosphorus plant, at RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The yearly average measured 210 Pb activity concentration in air is 363±5 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009 which is within range of other years. At the coastal site where the phosphorus plant is located, the natural background will be lower. The gross beta activity concentration near the phosphorus plant is 296 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009: this includes the emissions to air from the sintering process. The emission to air for the year 2009 reported by the phosphorus plan is 80 GBq/y of 210 Pb

  8. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr3 from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr3 QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL spectral shift of CsPbBr3 QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr3 QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc.

  9. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr3 from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Lu, Hanguang; Rao, Longshi; Ding, Xinrui; Yan, Caiman; Yu, Binhai

    2018-01-01

    The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr3 QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) spectral shift of CsPbBr3 QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr3 QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc. PMID:29498710

  10. Regulating the Emission Spectrum of CsPbBr₃ from Green to Blue via Controlling the Temperature and Velocity of Microchannel Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Lu, Hanguang; Rao, Longshi; Li, Zongtao; Ding, Xinrui; Yan, Caiman; Yu, Binhai

    2018-03-02

    The ability to precisely obtain tunable spectrum of lead halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) is very important for applications, such as in lighting and display. Herein, we report a microchannel reactor method for synthesis of CsPbBr₃ QDs with tunable spectrum. By adjusting the temperature and velocity of the microchannel reactor, the emission peaks of CsPbBr₃ QDs ranging from 520 nm to 430 nm were obtained, which is wider than that of QDs obtained in a traditional flask without changing halide component. The mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) spectral shift of CsPbBr₃ QDs was investigated, the result shows that the supersaturation control enabled by the superior mass and heat transfer performance in the microchannel is the key to achieve the wide range of PL spectrum, with only a change in the setting of the temperature controller required. The wide spectrum of CsPbBr₃ QDs can be applied to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photoelectric sensors, lasers, etc.

  11. Valuation of energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerland, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the energy market in Norway, there has been a number of mergers and acquisitions of energy enterprises. In all these transaction the companies has been valued. The value has often been not insignificant above what the value should be according to traditional methods of valuation. What is the explanation of this premium. This paper describes a project which has as goal to test weather real option theory can explain the difference between actual price and theoretical value based on conventional discounted cash flow methods. This is supposed to be compared with an accounting based residual income approach of valuation. The goal is to see if a real option approach better can explain the value of the transactions in this industry in the past decade, and thereby better understand the value and value components of these enterprises. This is a first draft, and this paper will be rewritten and revised by the presentation in the conference ultimo August 2005. (Author)

  12. Conservatism in Corporate Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Using a CCAPM based risk adjustment model, consistent with general asset pricing theory, I perform corporate valuations of a large sample of stocks listed on NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ. The model is different from the standard CAPM model in the sense that it discounts forecasted residual income for risk in the numerator rather than trough the cost of equity, in the denominator. Further, the risk adjustment is based on assumptions about the time series properties of residual income return and consu...

  13. Homogeneous Emission Line Broadening in the Organo Lead Halide Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2014-04-17

    The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and the partially chlorine-substituted mixed halide CH3NH3PbI3-xClx emit strong and broad photoluminescence (PL) around their band gap energy of ∼1.6 eV. However, the nature of the radiative decay channels behind the observed emission and, in particular, the spectral broadening mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigate these processes for high-quality vapor-deposited films of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using time- and excitation-energy dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. We show that the PL spectrum is homogenously broadened with a line width of 103 meV most likely as a consequence of phonon coupling effects. Further analysis reveals that defects or trap states play a minor role in radiative decay channels. In terms of possible lasing applications, the emission spectrum of the perovskite is sufficiently broad to have potential for amplification of light pulses below 100 fs pulse duration.

  14. Study of broadband near-infrared emission in Tm3+-Er3+ codoped TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, R; Fernández, J; Fernández-Navarro, J M

    2009-05-25

    In this work, we report the near-infrared emission properties of Tm(3+)-Er(3+) codoped tellurite TeO(2)-WO(3)-PbO glasses under 794 nm excitation. A broad emission from 1350 to 1750 nm corresponding to the Tm(3+) and Er(3+) emissions is observed. The full width at half-maximum of this broadband increases with increasing [Tm]/[Er] concentration ratio up to a value of ~ 160 nm. The energy transfer between Tm(3+) and Er(3+) ions is evidenced by both the temporal behavior of the near-infrared luminescence and the effect of Tm3+ codoping on the visible upconversion of Er(3+) ions.

  15. The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priante, D.; Dursun, I.; Alias, M. S.; Shi, D.; Melnikov, V. A.; Ng, T. K.; Mohammed, O. F.; Bakr, O. M.; Ooi, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material using low-temperature, power-dependent (77 K), and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Two bound-excitonic radiative transitions related to grain size inhomogeneity were identified. Both transitions led to PL spectra broadening as a result of concurrent blue and red shifts of these excitonic peaks. The red-shifted bound-excitonic peak dominated at high PL excitation led to a true-green wavelength of 553 nm for CH3NH3PbBr3 powders that are encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane. Amplified spontaneous emission was eventually achieved for an excitation threshold energy of approximately 350 μJ/cm2. Our results provide a platform for potential extension towards a true-green light-emitting device for solid-state lighting and display applications.

  16. The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2015-02-23

    We investigated the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material using low-temperature, power-dependent (77K), and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Two bound-excitonic radiative transitions related to grain size inhomogeneity were identified. Both transitions led to PL spectra broadening as a result of concurrent blue and red shifts of these excitonic peaks. The red-shifted bound-excitonic peak dominated at high PL excitation led to a true-green wavelength of 553nm for CH3NH3PbBr3 powders that are encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane. Amplified spontaneous emission was eventually achieved for an excitation threshold energy of approximately 350μJ/cm2. Our results provide a platform for potential extension towards a true-green light-emitting device for solid-state lighting and display applications.

  17. Zn isotope study of atmospheric emissions and dry depositions within a 5 km radius of a Pb-Zn refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattielli, Nadine; Petit, Jérôme C. J.; Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; Perdrix, Esperanza; Taillez, Aurélien; Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Weis, Dominique

    The present paper examines the use of zinc isotopes as tracers of atmospheric sources and focuses on the potential fractionation of Zn isotopes through anthropogenic processes. In order to do so, Zn isotopic ratios are measured in enriched ores and airborne particles associated with pyrometallurgical activities of one of the major Pb-Zn refineries in France. Supporting the isotopic investigation, this paper also compares morphological and chemical characteristics of Zn particles collected on dry deposition plates ("environmental samples") placed within a 5 km radius of the smelter, with those of Zn particles collected inside the plant ("process samples"), i.e. dust collected from the main exhaust system of the plant. To ensure a constant isotopic "supply", the refinery processed a specific set of ores during the sampling campaigns, as agreed with the executive staff of the plant. Enriched ores and dust produced by the successive Zn extraction steps show strong isotope fractionation (from -0.66 to +0.22‰) mainly related to evaporation processes within the blast furnaces. Dust from the main chimney displays a δ 66Zn value of -0.67‰. Application of the Rayleigh equation to evaluate the fractionation factor associated with the Zn vapor produced after a free evaporation gives a range of αore/vapor from 1.0004 to 1.0008. The dry deposits, collected on plates downwind of the refinery, display δ 66Zn variations of up to +0.7‰. However, it is to be noted that between 190 and 1250 m from the main chimney of the refinery, the dry deposits show a high level of large (>10 μm) Zn, S, Fe and O bearing aggregates characterized by positive δ 66Zn values (+0.02 to +0.19‰). These airborne particles probably derive from the re-suspension of slag heaps and local emissions from the working-units. In contrast, from 1720 to 4560 m, the dry deposits are comprised of small (PM10) particles, including spherical Zn-bearing aggregates, showing negative δ 66Zn values (-0.52 to -0

  18. 26 CFR 26.2642-2 - Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reflects net appreciation and depreciation (occurring between the valuation date and the date of... on a basis that fairly reflects net appreciation and depreciation (occurring between the valuation...

  19. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  20. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  1. Unilever Group : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Susana Sofia Castelo

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation has the purpose to value the Unilever Group, but more specifically Unilever N.V. being publicly traded in the Amsterdam Exchange Index. Unilever is seen as a global player and one of most successful and competitive fast-moving consumer goods companies. In order to valuate Unilever’s equity, a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach is first carried out, since it is believed to be the most reliable methodology. The value estimated was €36.39, advising one to buy its s...

  2. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  3. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of median absolute valuation errors (MAVE) and in terms of excess returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields a significantly lower MAVE than the best performing...... standard valuation model. Both types of models can identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields time-series of realized hedge returns with more and higher positive returns and fewer and less negative returns compared with the time-series of realized...... through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  4. Determination of Pb in river water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Bispo, Marcia; Santos da Boa Morte, Elane; Korn das Gracas Andrade, Maria; Sena Gomes Teixeira, Leonardo; Korn, Mauro; Costa, Antonio Celso Spinola

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure for separation and pre-concentration using ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide was developed for Pb determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The optimization process was carried out using a two-level factorial design and a Doehlert matrix. Three variables (i.e. concentration of oxidizing solution-KMnO 4 , concentration of MnSO 4 solution and time of ultrasonic irradiation) were used as factors in the optimization. The recoveries, based on the analysis of spiked samples, were between 90% and 105%, and the precision was ≤ 5%. The detection limit and quantification limit for Pb determination were 3.2 and 10.7 μg L -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Pb in water samples from a river heavily polluted by industrial effluents. The recovery measured by analyte addition technique showed that the proposed pre-concentration method had good accuracy

  5. Valuation of international oil- and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, stock exchange quotation of Statoil has led to increased interest in valuation of oil companies. This article goes through the theory of corporate valuation. Then it compares the theory with practice, where valuation largely is built on accounts-based indicators. Taking the oil companies as a case, the article describes and evaluates the valuation methods used by analysts and investment banks

  6. Highly pure yellow light emission of perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots and their application for yellow light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuandan; Gong, Jinhui; Zhu, Yiyuan; Feng, Xingcan; Peng, Hong; Wang, Wei; He, Haiyang; Liu, Hu; Wang, Li

    2018-06-01

    High-quality all-inorganic perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots (QDs) with quantum yield of 50% were systematically studied as yellow light convertor for light emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel heat insulation structure was designed for the QD-converted yellow LEDs. In this structure, a silicone layer was set on top of the GaN LED chip to prevent directly heating of the QDs by the LED chip. Then the CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs were filled in the bowl-shaped silicone layer after ultrasonic dispersion treatment. Finally, an Al2O3 passivation layer was grown on the QDs layer by Atomic Layer Disposition at 40 °C. When x = 0.55, highly pure yellow LEDs with an emission peak at ∼570 nm and a full width at half maximum of 25 nm were achieved. The chromaticity coordinates of the QD-converted yellow LEDs (0.4920 ± 0.0017, 0.4988 ± 0.0053) showed almost no variation under driving current from 5 mA to 150 mA. During an operation period of 60 min, the emission wavelength of the yellow LEDs showed no distinct shift. Moreover, the luminous efficiency of the QD-converted yellow LEDs achieved 13.51 l m/W at 6 mA. These results demonstrated that CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs and the heat insulation structure are promising candidate for high purity yellow LEDs.

  7. Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 microm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, R; Lacha, L M; Fernández, J; Arriandiaga, M A; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Muñoz-Martin, D

    2008-08-04

    In this work, we report the spectroscopic properties of the infrared 3H4-->3F4 emission of Tm3+ ions in two different compositions of glasses based on TeO2, WO3, and PbO for three Tm2O3 concentrations (0.1,0.5, and 1 wt%). Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been determined and used to calculate the radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes. The infrared emission at around 1490 nm corresponding to the 3H4-->F4 transition has two noticeable features if compared to fluoride glasses used for S-band amplifiers. On one hand, it is broader by nearly 30 nm, and on the other, the stimulated emission cross section is twice the value for fluoride glasses. Both the relative intensity ratio of the 1490 nm emission to 1820 nm and the measured lifetime of the 3H4 level decrease as concentration increases, due to the existence of energy transfer via cross-relaxation among Tm3+ ions. The analysis of the decays from the 3H4 level with increasing concentration indicates the presence of a dipole-dipole quenching process assisted by energy migration.

  8. Three residual income valuation methods and discounted cash flow valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show that the three residual Income models for equity valuation always yield the same value as the Discounted Cash Flow Valuation models. We use three residual income measures: Economic Profit, Economic Value Added (EVA) and Cash Value Added. We also show that economic profit and EVA are different, although Copeland, Koller and Murrin (2000, page 55) say that economic profit is a synonym of EVA. Specifically, we first show that the present value of the Economic Profit discoun...

  9. THE FARMLAND VALUATION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research is scarce concerning the dynamics of farmland markets which inspire the decision to sell farmlands. This paper explores the real option to postpone the sale of land in farmland valuation. In this article, a real options approach is used to analyze farmland prices behavior using historical cash flow and land price information for Illinois. In general, rising farmland values are primarily dependent on agricultural commodity prices and interest rates. Results suggest that uncertainty about future growth and capital gains is a significant component of farmland market value. Furthermore, this research examines several shift factors of the option value of the state’s farmland by taking into account of uncertainty to improve the analysis of farmland market values.

  10. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  11. Carbon-11 pb-12: an attempt to visualize the dopamine d{sub 4} receptor in the primate brain with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver E-mail: oliver.langer@psyk.ks.se; Halldin, Christer; Chou Yuanhwa; Sandell, Johan; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Naagren, Kjell; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco; Leopoldo, Marcello; Farde, Lars

    2000-11-01

    The dopamine D{sub 4} receptor (D{sub 4}R) is expressed in low density in various extrastriatal brain regions. This receptor subtype is discussed in relation to the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia but no selective positron emission tomography (PET) ligand is available to date to study the distribution in vivo. The arylpiperazine derivative N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (PB-12) is a novel, high-affinity ( K{sub i}=0.040 nM) and selective D{sub 4}R ligand. We radiolabeled PB-12 with carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} 20.4 min) by O-methylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-hydroxybenzamide (LM-190) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Derivative LM-190 was prepared by condensing 3-hydroxybenzoic acid with the appropriate amine. For the radiolabeling, the incorporation yield was >90% and the total synthesis time including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification was about 35 min. The specific radioactivity of [{sup 11}C]PB-12 at time of injection was 67-118 GBq{center_dot}{mu}mol{sup -1}. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey showed a high uptake and widespread distribution of radioactivity in the brain, including the neocortex and thalamus. About 40% of total radioactivity in plasma represented unchanged radioligand at 60 min after injection as determined by HPLC. Pretreatment with the D{sub 4}R ligand 3-{l_brace}[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl{r_brace}-1H-pyrollo[2,3-b]pyridine (L-745,870) prior to radioligand injection failed to demonstrate receptor-specific binding in the monkey brain. Furthermore, the brain radioactivity distribution was left unaffected by pretreating with unlabeled PB-12. This failure to detect a D{sub 4}R-specific signal may be related to a very low density of the D{sub 4}R in primate brain, insufficient binding affinity of the radioligand, and a high background of nonspecific binding. It can be concluded from these findings that

  12. Phase Two Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  13. Phase One Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  14. Five essays in property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zan

    2000-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of five self-contained essayspresented to the Faculty Board of the Royal Institute ofTechnology. Property valuation is a central issue that forms acommon thread in the analysis in these essays. In the thesisproperty is considered in a mixed asset context in an attemptto build a bridge between valuation, property investment andfinancial theory. The object of the thesis is to value propertyfor finance, sales and purchases and investment. Theinvestigation of the the...

  15. 2n-emission from {sup 205}Pb* nucleus using clusterization approach at E{sub beam}∼14-20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Amandeep, E-mail: adeepkaur89@gmail.com; Sandhu, Kiran; Sharma, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: msharma@thapar.edu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    The dynamics involved in n-induced reaction with {sup 204}Pb target is analyzed and the decay of the composite system {sup 205}Pb* is governed within the collective clusterization approach of the Dynamical Cluster-decay Model (DCM). The experimental data for 2n-evaporation channel is available for neutron energy range of 14-20 MeV and is addressed by optimizing the only parameter of the model, the neck-length parameter (ΔR). The calculations are done by taking the quadrupole (β{sub 2}) deformations of the decaying fragments and the calculated 2n-emission cross-sections find nice agreement with available data. An effort is made to study the role of level density parameter in the decay of hot-rotating nucleus, and the mass dependence in level density parameter is exercised for the first time in DCM based calculations. It is to be noted that the effect of deformation, temperature and angular momentum etc. is studied to extract better description of the dynamics involved.

  16. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources duringthe past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotopemeasurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to thetropical North Atlantic following the

  17. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  18. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  19. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  1. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  2. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  3. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA; van der Windt, HJ; Keulartz, J

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  4. Valuation of Nature in Conservation and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Swart, S.; Windt, v.d. H.

    2001-01-01

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  5. Theory of the property valuation + valuation of specific property in Prague 6

    OpenAIRE

    Wurst, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of Bachelor thesis is the definition of basic terms and methods used in the property valuation and the subsequent valuation of specific property. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is devoted to (description) describing the basic terms and bases needed for the valuation and characteristics of the most widely used methods of property valuation. In the practical part is going to be made the valuation of the specific property by the comp...

  6. Valuation of the impacts from road traffic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Energy Ltd. participated in 1993 in the MOBILE research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) by carrying out the project `Valuation of the impacts of road traffic fuels emissions`. The project was financed by the MTI, Ekono Energy Ltd and Neste Oy. The aim of the project was to assess the external costs of Finnish road traffic, which are incurred by the environmental effects of fuel related emissions (motor petrol and diesel fuel). To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on people and the environment locally, nationally and globally. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these effects. The method has been applied to road traffic emissions in 1990 and emission forecasts for 2000. The valuation calculations made should be regarded as indicative examples. The article presents a possible way of assessing the cost of effects. This kind of review indicates the cost of impacts compared with the cost of reducing emissions. It also indicates the way in which environmental taxes could be developed and reveals those impacts which should be researched and the impacts and emissions components the restricting of which should be enhanced. (author)

  7. Valuation of the impacts from road traffic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Energy Ltd. participated in 1993 in the MOBILE research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) by carrying out the project `Valuation of the impacts of road traffic fuels emissions`. The project was financed by the MTI, Ekono Energy Ltd and Neste Oy. The aim of the project was to assess the external costs of Finnish road traffic, which are incurred by the environmental effects of fuel related emissions (motor petrol and diesel fuel). To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on people and the environment locally, nationally and globally. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these effects. The method has been applied to road traffic emissions in 1990 and emission forecasts for 2000. The valuation calculations made should be regarded as indicative examples. The article presents a possible way of assessing the cost of effects. This kind of review indicates the cost of impacts compared with the cost of reducing emissions. It also indicates the way in which environmental taxes could be developed and reveals those impacts which should be researched and the impacts and emissions components the restricting of which should be enhanced. (author)

  8. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  9. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE VALUATION OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of intangible assets represents one of the most delicate problems of assessing a company. Usually, valuation of intangible assets is in the process of evaluating enterprise as a whole. Therefore, Intangible Asset Valuers must have detailed knowledge on business valuation, in particular, the income-based valuation methods (capitalization / updating net cash flow). Valuation of Intangible Assets is the objective of the International Valuation Standards (GN) 4 Valuation of Intangible A...

  10. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  11. M sub shell X-ray emission cross section measurements for Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV synchrotron photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Gupta, Sheenu; Tiwari, M.K.; Mittal, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First time M sub shell fluorescence cross section measurements at 8 and 10 keV photons. • Comparison with theoretical evaluations from different model data for parameters. • Explained the large deviations from the trend of parameters with atomic number Z. • A specific pattern of cross sections with Z is predicted in the region, 78 ⩽ Z ⩽ 92. • Confirmation of prediction requires more experiment in these Z and energy region. -- Abstract: M sub shell X-ray emission cross sections of Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies have been determined with linearly polarized photon beam from Indus-2 synchrotron source. The measured cross sections have been reported for the first time and were used to check the available theoretical Dirac–Hartree–Slater (DHS) and Dirac–Fock (DF) values reported in literature and also the presently derived Non Relativistic Hartree–Slater (NRHS), DF and DHS values for M ξ , M δ , M α , M β , M γ , M m1 and M m2 group of X-rays

  12. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS EFFICIENT MASS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis for determining the effectiveness of mass valuation of land in present-day conditions are described. The concept defenitsy effect and effectiveness as economic categories and their classification values for mass valuation of land are presented. The effectiveness of mass valuation of land in the settlements defines the structure of local budget and economic activities undertaken by local authorities on the basis of the results of the mass appraisal of real estate. Mass valuation is regular and it is characterized by high degree of standardization of procedures and a significant increase in the role of statistical methods for processing data related to the use of the most significant factors influencing the parameters of the object to its cost, as well as the need to determine the value of the objective laws change equivalent, which is only possible when using economic and mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Quality control results of mass valuation carried out principally in other ways, as obtained by applying statistical machine results can be checked as soon statistical methods. This shows the relevance of research topic and lack of elaboration for Ukraine problems of efficiency of mass land valuation. Scientific research conducted through the use of the dialectical method and techniques of abstraction, comparative analysis and synthesis, the article various models and methods of valuation of land for taxation purposes are analyzed. In addition, the group explored methods used, comparisons, and more. In economic theory and practice problems and determine the effect of efficiency aimed at profit is quite relevant. Economists consider cost-effectiveness, such as economic efficiency. In this case, the production can be attributed to the activities to conduct and organization of mass valuation of land. This pushes many different positions on criteria and indicators of economic efficiency, the

  13. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  14. Timing effects in health valuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Andrea M; Pruckner, Gerald J

    2014-06-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of external sources of information, conveyed by the frequency of risky events that vary across time, on the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a reduction of mortality risk. We collected data from a contingent valuation (CV) exercise conducted in two waves (fall and winter) to examine whether individual WTP varied across periods that differed in the predominance of fatal accidents. Risk valuations were based on fatal snow avalanche accidents, that is, a type of risk with seasonal differences in occurrence. We found slightly lower but statistically significant mean WTP figures in the winter than in the fall sample because of time-varying individual risk attitudes and, therefore, recommend controlling for these factors in risk assessment CV surveys. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Wind power: valuation and finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, C.; Mose, O.; Sorensen, B.

    1996-01-01

    The past 20 years of wind energy experience in Denmark has primarily been based upon three financing schemes, tailored to individually owned, guild owned and utility owned wind turbines. The merits of and problems with these schemes are discussed, as well as their relations to specific legislation regarding e.g. taxation. It is finally explored, whether new forms of organisation, valuation and financing may be needed. (author)

  16. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  17. Over-valuation: avoid double counting when retaining dividends in the FCFE valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, J. M.; Pereira, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Valuation based on DCF (Discounted Cash Flow) has been the dominant valuation procedure during the last decades. In spite of this dominance, enterprise valuation using the discounted FCF (Free Cash Flow) model has some practical drawbacks, since there is often some confusion on how to effectively use it. Commonly, the valuation procedures start by estimating future FCF figures from historical data, such as mean FCF, growth and retention ratio, alongside many other variables. These FCF forecas...

  18. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  20. Currency Valuation and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Ibrahim Haidar

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight key limitations of The Economist magazine’s Big Mac Index (BMI). The Economist markets the BMI as a tool to determine valuation of currencies. This paper shows that the BMI is a misleading measure of currency valuation for economies whose markets are structurally different from the benchmark currency countries.

  1. Valuation Studies 4(1) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Valuation Studies presents an anthropological take on 'alternative valuations'. The three articles in this issue stem from a workshop held in August 2012 at James Cook University in Cairns, Australia. The workshop was organized by the guest editors of this issue along with Bruce...

  2. Valuation in life sciences: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan, Boris; Villiger, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    ... apply valuation methodologies in life sciences. One of the complicating factors is that, compared to other industries, valuation of biotech innovation is much more demanding. The long 10-15-year development and clinical trials process still represents the main risks faced by any biotech company. Added to that is the fact that getting a drug across the regulato...

  3. Prime divisors and noncommutative valuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Marubayashi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Classical valuation theory has applications in number theory and class field theory as well as in algebraic geometry, e.g. in a divisor theory for curves.  But the noncommutative equivalent is mainly applied to finite dimensional skewfields.  Recently however, new types of algebras have become popular in modern algebra; Weyl algebras, deformed and quantized algebras, quantum groups and Hopf algebras, etc. The advantage of valuation theory in the commutative case is that it allows effective calculations, bringing the arithmetical properties of the ground field into the picture.  This arithmetical nature is also present in the theory of maximal orders in central simple algebras.  Firstly, we aim at uniting maximal orders, valuation rings, Dubrovin valuations, etc. in a common theory, the theory of primes of algebras.  Secondly, we establish possible applications of the noncommutative arithmetics to interesting classes of algebras, including the extension of central valuations to nice classes of quantized a...

  4. Impact of the european emission trading scheme for the air transportation industry on the valuation of aircraft purchase rights; Impacto de la ley de comercio europeo de emisiones de CO{sub 2} para el sector del transporte aereo en la valoracion de los derechos de compra de aviones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarradellas-Espuny, J.; Salamero-Salas, A.; Martinez-Costa, C.

    2009-07-01

    The European Commission issued a legislative proposal in December 2006, suggesting a cap on CO{sub 2} emissions for all planes arriving or departing from EU airports, while allowing airlines to buy and sell pollution credits on the EU carbon market (Emission Trading Scheme, or ETS). In 2008 the new scheme got the final approval. Real options appear to be ab appropriate methodology to capture the extra value brought by the new legislation on new airplane purchase rights: The airline will surely have the purchase right to the new plane if the operation of the plane generates unused pollution credits that the airline can sell at a minimum price in the carbon market. This paper tries to determine if the impact of ETS in the valuation of aircraft purchase rights is significant enough in monetary terms to include the new legislation in a complex real-option model already proposed by the authors recently. The research concludes that even the impact of ETS justifies its inclusion in the model, the quality of the available sets of historical data still raises some questions. Particularly, the assumption of market efficiency for the Carbon Pool over the recent years needs to be treated with caution. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Valuation of climate change mitigation co-benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    a broad range of economic or, more likely, environmental and social issues. Examples of positive environmental impacts that may not be the primary outcome of a climate change mitigation policy include reduced local air pollution or restored ecosystem health. Examples of positive social impacts include......This document describes tools for valuating in monetary terms the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation actions. The term co-benefits refers to outcomes of those actions other than their primary outcome (reducing greenhouse-gas emissions). Such non-primary outcomes can fall under...... improved human health or increased access to clean energy....

  6. Ecosystem service valuations of mangrove ecosystems to inform decision making and future valuation exercises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available The valuation of ecosystem services is a complex process as it includes several dimensions (ecological, socio-cultural and economic and not all of these can be quantified in monetary units. The aim of this paper is to conduct an ecosystem services valuation study for mangroves ecosystems, the results of which can be used to inform governance and management of mangroves. We used an expert-based participatory approach (the Delphi technique to identify, categorize and rank the various ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems at a global scale. Subsequently we looked for evidence in the existing ecosystem services literature for monetary valuations of these ecosystem service categories throughout the biogeographic distribution of mangroves. We then compared the relative ranking of ecosystem service categories between the monetary valuations and the expert based analysis. The experts identified 16 ecosystem service categories, six of which are not adequately represented in the literature. There was no significant correlation between the expert based valuation (the Delphi technique and the economic valuation, indicating that the scope of valuation of ecosystem services needs to be broadened. Acknowledging this diversity in different valuation approaches, and developing methodological frameworks that foster the pluralism of values in ecosystem services research, are crucial for maintaining the credibility of ecosystem services valuation. To conclude, we use the findings of our dual approach to valuation to make recommendations on how to assess and manage the ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems.

  7. Ecosystem service valuations of mangrove ecosystems to inform decision making and future valuation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Dicks, Lynn; Hugé, Jean; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2014-01-01

    The valuation of ecosystem services is a complex process as it includes several dimensions (ecological, socio-cultural and economic) and not all of these can be quantified in monetary units. The aim of this paper is to conduct an ecosystem services valuation study for mangroves ecosystems, the results of which can be used to inform governance and management of mangroves. We used an expert-based participatory approach (the Delphi technique) to identify, categorize and rank the various ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems at a global scale. Subsequently we looked for evidence in the existing ecosystem services literature for monetary valuations of these ecosystem service categories throughout the biogeographic distribution of mangroves. We then compared the relative ranking of ecosystem service categories between the monetary valuations and the expert based analysis. The experts identified 16 ecosystem service categories, six of which are not adequately represented in the literature. There was no significant correlation between the expert based valuation (the Delphi technique) and the economic valuation, indicating that the scope of valuation of ecosystem services needs to be broadened. Acknowledging this diversity in different valuation approaches, and developing methodological frameworks that foster the pluralism of values in ecosystem services research, are crucial for maintaining the credibility of ecosystem services valuation. To conclude, we use the findings of our dual approach to valuation to make recommendations on how to assess and manage the ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems.

  8. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  9. 26 CFR 20.7520-2 - Valuation of charitable interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of charitable interests. 20.7520-2... Valuations § 20.7520-2 Valuation of charitable interests. (a) In general—(1) Valuation. Except as otherwise... such interests determined under § 20.7520-1. (2) Prior-month election rule. If any part of the property...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2031-9 - Valuation of other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of other property. 20.2031-9 Section... Valuation of other property. The valuation of any property not specifically described in §§ 20.2031-2 to 20... future interest in property not subject to valuation in accordance with the actuarial principles set...

  11. Project valuation and investment decisions: CAPM versus arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Carlo Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that (i) project valuation via disequilibrium NPV+CAPM contradicts valuation via arbitrage pricing, (ii) standard CAPM-minded decision makers may fail to profit from arbitrage opportunities, (iii) standard CAPM-based valuation violates value additivity. As a consequence, the standard use of CAPM for project valuation and decision making should be reconsidered.

  12. The contingent valuation method: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, L.

    2004-01-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a simple, flexible nonmarket valuation method that is widely used in cost-benefit analysis and environmental impact assessment. However, this method is subject to severe criticism. The criticism revolves mainly around two aspects, namely, the validity and the reliability of the results, and the effects of various biases and errors. The major objective of this paper is to review the recent developments on measures to address the validity and reliability issues arising out of different kinds of biases/errors and other related empirical and methodological issues concerning contingent valuation method

  13. 10 myths of healthcare business valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeson, J David; Kaplan, Karin Chernoff

    2008-10-01

    *Acceptance of common myths regarding business valuations can undermine a hospital's efforts to successfully negotiate deals with physicians. *Hospitals need to clearly understand the nature of fair market value (FMV), the use of multiples, the "guideline company technique," whether the FMV can be based on acute care revenue stream, the physician compensation model used in the valuation, and the applicability of the physician's historical production level. *Other matters that warrant careful consideration include whether to tax effect, whether to pay for goodwill, and whether obsolescence can be accounted for in the valuation.

  14. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  15. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  16. Estimation and valuation in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilia Ionescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of the enterprise with the external environment give rise to a range of informational needs. Satisfying those needs requires the production of coherent, comparable, relevant and reliable information included into the individual or consolidated financial statements. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS / IFRS aim to ensure the comparability and relevance of the accounting information, providing, among other things, details about the issue of accounting estimates and changes in accounting estimates. Valuation is a process continually used, in order to assign values to the elements that are to be recognised in the financial statements. Most of the times, the values reflected in the books are clear, they are recorded in the contracts with third parties, in the supporting documents, etc. However, the uncertainties in which a reporting entity operates determines that, sometimes, the assigned or values attributable to some items composing the financial statements be determined by use estimates.

  17. Hering S.A. Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fukuzawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The case studies real investment decisions and firm valuation. Hering S.A is a textile and retail clothing company listed in BM&FBovespa stock exchange. This case, based on newspaper articles and public information detailed in the text, (i enables the students to analyze the real investment decisions taken by investors that bought Hering´s stocks and at the same time (ii challenges the students to formulate assumptions to value the firm based on public information such as: financial statements, macroeconomic indicators and other market variables. The result obtained by the students can be confronted in the classroom for further discussion about (i the assumptions used and (ii the stock prices calculated. Such discussion can explicit the biases arising from the motivation of the evaluators considering that different assumptions may have been adopted based on different interests (buyer’s, seller’s, etc..

  18. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1-xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stam, Ward; Geuchies, Jaco J.; Altantzis, Thomas; Van Den Bos, Karel H.W.; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Van Aert, Sandra; Bals, Sara; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; De Mello Donega, Celso

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition

  19. The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide; Dursun, Ibrahim; Alias, M. S.; Shi, Dong; Melnikov, V. A.; Ng, Tien Khee; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material using low-temperature, power-dependent (77K), and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Two bound-excitonic radiative

  20. Visible–NIR emission and structural properties of Sm3+ doped heavy-metal oxide glass with composition B2O3–PbO–Bi2O3–GeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, A.; Fernandes, R.G.; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Hernandes, A.C.; Buchner, S.; Jacinto, C.; Balzaretti, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    A highly transparent Sm 3+ glass with composition B 2 O 3 –PbO–Bi 2 O 3 –GeO 2 was obtained by the traditional melt quenching technique and characterized from structural and spectroscopic points of view. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the amorphous nature of the sample and revealed the expected low phonon energy. Differential thermal analysis was also carried out to obtain the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures, related to the thermal stability of the sample. Judd–Ofelt theory was applied to evaluate phenomenological intensity parameters Ω λ (λ=2, 4 and 6) from the optical absorption measurements. The transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section were also calculated. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible and infrared regions revealed intense green, orange, red and near infrared emission bands providing a new trace to develop tunable laser and optoelectronics devices.

  1. Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, K.; Ng, V.; Pirrong, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix

  2. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  3. Valuation of common and preferred stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buying stocks is a modern way of investing. The investors may place the available capital on the domestic and foreign stock market, they may buy more stocks of a single issuer or distribute money to purchase stocks of various public (stock-exchange companies, and they may form a portfolio of various securities. The investors' decisions on these options are based on their estimate on returns and risks underlying individual security instruments (securities. The two basic approaches to valuation of common stocks are: the Present Value Approach (method of valuating the capitalization of income and the P/E Ratio Approach (the method of valuating the multiple of per-share earnings. Instead of viewing these methods as competing alternatives, they should better be viewed as mutually complementary methods. Both methods are equally useful and their concurrent use may provide better grounds for the analysts' valuation of stocks.

  4. Log-Concavity Properties of Minkowski Valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Astrid; Parapatits, Lukas; Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    New Orlicz Brunn-Minkowski inequalities are established for rigid motion compatible Minkowski valuations of arbitrary degree. These extend classical log-concavity properties of intrinsic volumes and generalize seminal results of Lutwak and others. Two different approaches which refine previously employed techniques are explored. It is shown that both lead to the same class of Minkowski valuations for which these inequalities hold. An appendix by Semyon Alesker contains the proof of a new clas...

  5. Thermoactivation processes in PbI2:Zr and PbI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.R.; Kapustyanik, V.B.; Tsibul's'kij, V.S.; Dubov, Yu.G.; Pasternak, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray luminescence, thermal emission and thermally stimulated depolarisation spectra as well as the influence of IR-illumination on the thermal emission and thermally stimulated depolarisation spectra of the PbI 2 :Zr and PbI 2 crystals have been studied. There were found the hole traps in the PbI 2 :Zr crystals that are absent in PbI 2 . For the observed traps the activation energy has been calculated. The mechanisms describing the traps' nature and that of thermally stimulated depolarisation currents have been proposed

  6. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this work, CsPbBr3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr3, increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio ...

  7. Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

  8. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2018-01-01

    In this work, CsPbBr 3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr 3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr 3 , increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio in composites. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots changed from cubic to orthorhombic due to the introduction of PbSe at the surface. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirmed that the atomic distribution in CsPbBr 3 /PbSe composite clusters is uniform and the composite materials were well formed. The PL intensity of a CsPbBr 3 /PbSe sample with a 1:1 Cs:Se ratio maintained 50% of its initial intensity after keeping the sample for 81 h in air, while the PL intensity of CsPbBr 3 reduced to 20% of its initial intensity. Therefore, it is considered that low amounts of Se could improve the stability of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots.

  9. Wide range tuning of the size and emission color of CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots by surface ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbX3 (X= I, Br, Cl quantum dots (QDs possess the characters of easy solution-process, high luminescence yield, and unique size-dependent optical properties. In this work, we have improved the nonaqueous emulsion method to synthesize halide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs with tunable sizes. Their sizes have been tailored from 5.29 to 2.81 nm in diameter simply by varying the additive amount of surfactant, n-octylamine from 5 to 120 μL. Correspondingly, the photoluminescence (PL peaks shift markedly from 520 nm to very deep blue, 436 nm due to quantum confinement effect. The PL quantum yields exceed 90% except for the smallest QDs. These high-quality QDs have potential to build high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  10. Emission of intermediate mass fragments in the heavy ion interaction of (14.0 MeV/u) Pb+Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E.U.; Qureshi, I.E.; Shahzad, M.I.; Khattak, F.N.; Khan, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the heavy ion interactions of (14.0 MeV/u) Pb + Au using two threshold detectors, mica and CN-85. A thin layer of Au was deposited on each of the three mica and two CN-85 detector pieces. These target-detector assemblies were exposed to a beam of 14.0 MeV/u Pb ions having the fluence of 1.5x10 6 cm 2 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. After removing the target material and etching the samples in appropriate etchants, we scanned 32.29 cm 2 and 24.97 cm 2 area of mica and CN-85, respectively. Based on the observed number of events of various multiplicities, we have determined the total as well as partial experimental reaction cross-sections. It is shown that a significant number of intermediate mass fragments are emitted along with the heavy fragments in the present reaction

  11. Doppler-shift assisted fast ion spectroscopy: a case study for X-ray emission from 277 MeV/u Pb[81+] ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Stoehlker, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Moshammer, R.; Rymuza, P.; Stachura, Z.; Warczak, A.

    1994-09-01

    Utilizing the different information from spatially separated segments of high-granular photon detectors the measured (LAB) energy of photons emitted by fast moving ions can be corrected individually for the Doppler effect according to the particular observation angles of each detector segment. By a redundant fitting procedure the center of mass photon energy can be determined with high precision. This new Doppler-shift assisted spectroscopy is explained for the case study of 277.4 MeV/u Pb 82+ ions colliding with a N 2 -gas target at the heavy ion storage ring ESR. Spectroscopic information for hydrogenic Pb 81+ ions is given for the ground-state transitions, for the Balmer transitions, as well as for the total K-binding energy. (orig.)

  12. Use of Multicriteria Valuation of Spatial Units in a System of Mass Real Estate Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kuburić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of mass valuation at the national level must be functional, practically applicable, consistent and adaptable to actual conditions and real estate market trends. A consideration of the influence of location on real estate value in a spatial unit, and a description of spatial units with a sufficient number of attributes to determine a connection between the value of these attributes and the average price of real estate in a spatial unit, are important tasks in modelling a system of mass real estate valuation. This paper, based on a test implementation of mass real estate valuation for an area covering a number of municipalities in the Republic of Serbia, offers conclusions on the suitability of the use of a mass valuation method grounded in the principles of logical aggregation and case based reasoning. The values of location characteristics, or factors of spatial unit valuation, were determined in spatial analyses employing GIS, according to an established system of multicriteria valuation. This approach ensures that a model-defined value is not stored as offline data, but that each time such data is needed, it can be determined following the proposed methodology, based on actual, updated data from the databases of official spatial data registries. Prior to this, it is necessary to meet all the required prerequisites, which include the distributed databases of official real estate data registries and other factors needed in the mass valuation procedure. Keywords: real estate valuation; spatial units; multicriteria analysis

  13. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  14. Tunable White-Light Emission in Single-Cation-Templated Three-Layered 2D Perovskites (CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ) 4 Pb 3 Br 10–x Cl x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Traore, Boubacar [Institut; Katan, Claudine [Institut; Even, Jacky [Fonctions; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2017-08-16

    Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid halide perovskites come as a family (B)2(A)n-1PbnX3n+1 (B and A= cations; X= halide). These perovskites are promising semiconductors for solar cells and optoelectronic applications. Among the fascinating properties of these materials is white-light emission, which has been mostly observed in single-layered 2D lead bromide or chloride systems (n = 1), where the broad emission comes from the transient photoexcited states generated by self-trapped excitons (STEs) from structural distortion. Here we report a multilayered 2D perovskite (n = 3) exhibiting a tunable white-light emission. Ethylammonium (EA+) can stabilize the 2D perovskite structure in EA4Pb3Br10–xClx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9.5, and 10) with EA+ being both the A and B cations in this system. Because of the larger size of EA, these materials show a high distortion level in their inorganic structures, with EA4Pb3Cl10 having a much larger distortion than that of EA4Pb3Br10, which results in broadband white-light emission of EA4Pb3Cl10 in contrast to narrow blue emission of EA4Pb3Br10. The average lifetime of the series decreases gradually from the Cl end to the Br end, indicating that the larger distortion also prolongs the lifetime (more STE states). The band gap of EA4Pb3Br10–xClx ranges from 3.45 eV (x = 10) to 2.75 eV (x = 0), following Vegard’s law. First-principles density functional theory calculations (DFT) show that both EA4Pb3Cl10 and EA4Pb3Br10 are direct band gap semiconductors. The color rendering index (CRI) of the series improves from 66 (EA4Pb3Cl10) to 83 (EA4Pb3Br0.5Cl9.5), displaying high tunability and versatility of the

  15. Analysis of HgI2 and PbI2 crystals and detectors by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and ion backscattering spectroscopy (IBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, G.S.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.; James, R.B.; David, D.C.; Burger, A.; Van Den Berg, L.

    1993-03-01

    The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI 2 and PbI 2 crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented

  16. Sustained Forced Sale Value Opinion Advice in Nigerian Valuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    volume of secured lending by commercial banks. ... Keywords: Forced sale value, mortgage valuation, Nigeria, valuation ... fact that given the rather large set of unknowns .... Besides the primary data .... mortgage lending value add anything.

  17. Modelling and computation in the valuation of carbon derivatives with stochastic convenience yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI) in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results.

  18. Modelling and computation in the valuation of carbon derivatives with stochastic convenience yields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results.

  19. Modelling and Computation in the Valuation of Carbon Derivatives with Stochastic Convenience Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI) in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results. PMID:26010900

  20. The Organizational Valuation of Valuation Devices: Putting Lean whiteboard management to work in a hospital department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Martinus Hauge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the interplay between multiple modes of valuation. The paper engages with the question of how a valuation device intersects with the working values of an organization. While the many studies of valuation practices have drawn attention to the pervasive effects of valuation devices, only a few studies have taken into account the fact that many spaces, including organizations, are already filled with practices and ideas that constitute what is valuable. Revisiting classical organization theory, this paper shows that organizations comprise multiple, more - or less - integrated modes of valuation. Empirically, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of Lean management at a children's hospital, which is presented through analytical snapshots. The paper suggests that an organizational turn is relevant for valuation studies, as this fi rst allows an analytical expansion to include less 'deviced' valuations, contributes to the ongoing culture vs. device debate offering an alternative to the causal analysis of devices and effects without making the 'ineffable culture' what makes or breaks the causality.

  1. Évaluation institutionnelle : Cadre pour le renforcement des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les applications possibles vont de l'auto-évaluation interne à l'auto-évaluation externe par un organisme de financement et de l'évaluation exhaustive du fonctionnement d'une institution au relevé d'impressions-clés à l'occasion de visites brèves. Évaluation institutionnelle s'adresse notamment à une institution récente ou ...

  2. Investment Valuation Analysis with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin İNCE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that discounted cash flow and net present value, which are traditional investment valuation models, can be combined with artificial neural network model forecasting. The main inputs for the valuation models, such as revenue, costs, capital expenditure, and their growth rates, are heavily related to sector dynamics and macroeconomics. The growth rates of those inputs are related to inflation and exchange rates. Therefore, predicting inflation and exchange rates is a critical issue for the valuation output. In this paper, the Turkish economy’s inflation rate and the exchange rate of USD/TRY are forecast by artificial neural networks and implemented to the discounted cash flow model. Finally, the results are benchmarked with conventional practices.

  3. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  4. 26 CFR 20.2032-1 - Alternate valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternate valuation method under section 2032, the property included in the decedent's gross estate on the..., the alternate valuation method applies to all property included in the gross estate and cannot be... elects the alternate valuation method under section 2432, all property interests existing at the date of...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) the value of the property as of the alternate valuation date. For example, assume that the decedent... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation (temporary). 20.2032-1T...-1T Alternate valuation (temporary). (a) through (e) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 20.2032-1...

  6. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance with...

  7. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  8. Reasons to value the health care intangible asset valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous individual reasons to conduct a health care intangible asset valuation. This discussion summarized many of these reasons and considered the common categories of these individual reasons. Understanding the reason for the intangible asset analysis is an important prerequisite to conducting the valuation, both for the analyst and the health care owner/operator. This is because an intangible asset valuation may not be the type of analysis that the owner/operator really needs. Rather, the owner/operator may really need an economic damages measurement, a license royalty rate analysis, an intercompany transfer price study, a commercialization potential evaluation, or some other type of intangible asset analysis. In addition, a clear definition of the reason for the valuation will allow the analyst to understand if (1) any specific analytical guidelines, procedures, or regulations apply and (2) any specific reporting requirement applies. For example, intangible asset valuations prepared for fair value accounting purposes should meet specific ASC 820 fair value accounting guidance. Intangible asset valuations performed for intercompany transfer price tax purposes should comply with the guidance provided in the Section 482 regulations. Likewise, intangible asset valuations prepared for Section 170 charitable contribution purposes should comply with specific reporting requirements. The individual reasons for the health care intangible asset valuation may influence the standard of value applied, the valuation date selected, the valuation approaches and methods applied, the form and format of valuation report prepared, and even the type of professional employed to perform the valuation.

  9. Stated Preference Methods for Valuation of Forest Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Kevin J. Boyle

    2003-01-01

    The valuation methods described in this chapter are based on the idea that forest ecosystems produce a wide variety of goods and services that are valued by people. Rather than focusing attention on the holistic value of forest ecosystems as is done in contingent valuation studies, attribute-based valuation methods (ABMs) focus attention on a set of attributes that...

  10. Combining accounting approaches to practice valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzben, D; Finkler, S A

    1998-06-01

    Healthcare organizations that wish to acquire physician or ambulatory care practices can choose from a variety of practice valuation approaches. Basic accounting methods assess the value of a physician practice on the basis of a historical, balance-sheet description of tangible assets. Yet these methods alone are inadequate to determine the true financial value of a practice. By using a combination of accounting approaches to practice valuation that consider factors such as fair market value, opportunity cost, and discounted cash flow over a defined time period, organizations can more accurately assess a practice's actual value.

  11. Valuation of brands and intellectual capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review several methods used for valuing brands. Among them, those of Interbrand, Damodaran, Financial World, Houlihan Valuation Advisors, Market Facts, Young & Rubicam and CDB Research & Consulting. In particular, we analyze in depth the valuations of Kellogg's and Coca-Cola performed by Damodaran and the method proposed by Interbrand. Damodaran valued the Coca-Cola brand at 24.6 billion dollars in 1993 and at 102.6 billion dollars in 1998. In recent years, a lot has been sai...

  12. Monetary valuation in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Brandão, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    different impacts and/or with other economic costs and benefits. For this reason, monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied also in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), especially in the weighting phase. However, several challenges limit its diffusion in the field, which resulted in only a few......Monetary valuation is the practice of converting measures of social and biophysical impacts into monetary units and is used to determine the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. It is applied in cost benefit analysis to enable the cross-comparison between...

  13. Determination of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma in Organs of the Specie Gambusia punctata (Poeciliidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argota Perez, George; Argota Coello, Humberto; Rodriguez Amado, Jesus; Fernandez Heredia, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to adequate the ICP-AES method to the quantification of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in brain, liver and gills of the specie Gambusia punctata, in order to know the level of exposure of the ecosystems San Juan and File in Santiago de Cuba province. To achieve the fitness for purpose of the method, limits of detection, reproducibility and accuracy were evaluated using reference certificated materials of fishes. The biological samples were classified according the ecosystem, length, sex and organ. It were dried, digested with mix of acids and the metals measured in the spectrometer. The results demonstrated that factors as length and sex have not influence in the bioaccumulation, whereas the gill was the organ where all the elements were bioaccumulated. Finally, due that the smallest concentrations of metals were in the File ecosystem, it could be used as an environmental reference

  14. Calculation of proton and neutron emission spectra from proton reactions with 90Zr and 208Pb to 160 MeV with the GNASH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A number of modifications have been made to the reaction theory code GNASH in order the accuracy of calculations at incident particle energies up to 200 MeV. Direct reaction a level density models appropriate for higher energy calculations are now used in the code, and most importantly, improved preequilibrium models have been incorporated into the code system. The code has been used to calculate proton-induced reactions on 90 Zr and 208 Pb for the International Code and Model Intercomparison for Intermediate Energy Reactions organized by the NEA. Calculations were performed with GNASH at incident proton energies of 25, 45, 80, and 160 mev using both the exciton model and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory for the preequilibrium component. The models and procedures used in the GNASH calculations with the exciton model are described here. The results are compared to experimental data and to results from the GNASH calculations with Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin preequilibrium theory

  15. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  16. 398 ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND VALUATION PROCESSES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  17. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  18. Economic valuation of biodiversity: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Vindigni, G.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, an intensive debate on the economic valuation of biodiversity has entered the environmental-economics literature. The present paper seeks to offer first a critical review of key concepts that are essential for a proper understanding of such evaluation issues. Particular attention is

  19. Topics in Finance Part IV--Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at security valuation from the perspective of the financial manager, accenting the relationships to stockholder wealth maximization (SWM), risk and return, and potential agency problems. It also covers some of the pertinent literature related to how investors and creditors price the stocks and bonds of corporations.

  20. Contingency Valuation of Croatian Arboretum Opeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social aspects of forestry have always been an important factor of forest usage and management, and therefore have significant influence on its sustainability. Non-wood forest functions such as recreation, tourism, aesthetic and educational factors influence development of rural areas. Contingent valuation method has rarely been used for evaluation of protected forest areas. The aim of the article is to estimate the amount of money visitors are willing to pay for nature’s resources preservation in the arboretum Opeka in the North-West Croatia. Material and Methods: Opeka Arboretum is situated in the Vinica municipality in northern Croatia. Located in a large park surrounding a manor, Opeka arboretum, with its 65 hectares is the largest of the three arboretums existing in Croatia today. The arboretum was founded in 1860 by the Count Marko Bombelles. Contingent valuation is a survey-based economic technique for the non-market valuation of resources, such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination. It is also the approach that can generally be used to include what is usually referred to as the passive use component of the economic value of environmental goods. Results and Conclusion: Willingness to pay for visitor’s use of the arboretum has been investigated using the survey and contingency valuation method on a sample of 53 respondents. Research results present high preference for arboretum benefits such as beauty of landscape, cultural and historical significance, recreation and health but low willingness to pay.

  1. Consumer valuation of health attributes in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    estimate a hedonic model of consumers’ valuation of food characteristics that allows nutrients to influence utility both through their perceived effects on health and through their effects on the taste and consumption experience. We find that the most highly educated have the same or lower revealed...

  2. Ellipsoids and matrix-valued valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Monika

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a classification of Borel measurable, GL(n) covariant, symmetric-matrix-valued valuations on the space of n-dimensional convex polytopes. The only ones turn out to be the moment matrix corresponding to the classical Legendre ellipsoid and the matrix corresponding to the ellipsoid recently discovered by E. Lutwak, D. Yang, and G. Zhang.

  3. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  4. 30 CFR 281.29 - Royalty valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty valuation. 281.29 Section 281.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.29...

  5. Market-based approaches to tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2008-01-01

    A recent four-part series in Arborist News outlined different appraisal processes used to value urban trees. The final article in the series described the three generally accepted approaches to tree valuation: the sales comparison approach, the cost approach, and the income capitalization approach. The author, D. Logan Nelson, noted that the sales comparison approach...

  6. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-01-01

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to mental accouting'' in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the true'' values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-12-31

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to ``mental accouting`` in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the ``true`` values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  9. Valuation of environmental problems in landfill deposition and composting - test of methodology; Verdsetting av miljoekonsekvenser av avfallsdeponering og kompostering - metodeutproeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar; Movik, Espen; Wiik, Ragnhild; Meissnes, Rudolf

    1995-08-01

    This study is aimed at the tests and design of methods for valuation of environmental problems associated with the landfill deposition of household waste. An extensive review of literature has been conducted with respect to the environmental impacts and valuation methods. Environmental impact assessment and valuation with respect to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG's), leachate and disamenity, have been performed for 4 Norwegian landfills. These differ in their approach towards waste treatment in terms of GHG-collection, briquette production and composting and also in their location in terms of proximity to residential areas and the quality of natural recipients. The study shows that the collection of methane and production of briquettes causes major reductions in the generation of GHG's, whereas composting brings significant reductions for all types of environmental impacts. (author)

  10. Valuation of environmental problems in landfill deposition and composting - test of methodology; Verdsetting av miljoekonsekvenser av avfallsdeponering og kompostering - metodeutproeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar; Movik, Espen; Wiik, Ragnhild; Meissnes, Rudolf

    1995-08-01

    This study is aimed at the tests and design of methods for valuation of environmental problems associated with the landfill deposition of household waste. An extensive review of literature has been conducted with respect to the environmental impacts and valuation methods. Environmental impact assessment and valuation with respect to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG's), leachate and disamenity, have been performed for 4 Norwegian landfills. These differ in their approach towards waste treatment in terms of GHG-collection, briquette production and composting and also in their location in terms of proximity to residential areas and the quality of natural recipients. The study shows that the collection of methane and production of briquettes causes major reductions in the generation of GHG's, whereas composting brings significant reductions for all types of environmental impacts. (author)

  11. Cost approach of health care entity intangible asset valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    In the valuation synthesis and conclusion process, the analyst should consider the following question: Does the selected valuation approach(es) and method(s) accomplish the analyst's assignment? Also, does the selected valuation approach and method actually quantify the desired objective of the intangible asset analysis? The analyst should also consider if the selected valuation approach and method analyzes the appropriate bundle of legal rights. The analyst should consider if there were sufficient empirical data available to perform the selected valuation approach and method. The valuation synthesis should consider if there were sufficient data available to make the analyst comfortable with the value conclusion. The valuation analyst should consider if the selected approach and method will be understandable to the intended audience. In the valuation synthesis and conclusion, the analyst should also consider which approaches and methods deserve the greatest consideration with respect to the intangible asset's RUL. The intangible asset RUL is a consideration of each valuation approach. In the income approach, the RUL may affect the projection period for the intangible asset income subject to either yield capitalization or direct capitalization. In the cost approach, the RUL may affect the total amount of obsolescence, if any, from the estimate cost measure (that is, the intangible reproduction cost new or replacement cost new). In the market approach, the RUL may effect the selection, rejection, and/or adjustment of the comparable or guideline intangible asset sale and license transactional data. The experienced valuation analyst will use professional judgment to weight the various value indications to conclude a final intangible asset value, based on: The analyst's confidence in the quantity and quality of available data; The analyst's level of due diligence performed on that data; The relevance of the valuation method to the intangible asset life cycle stage and

  12. Resource management and nonmarket valuation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Survey based nonmarket valuation research is often regarded as economics research. However, resource economists need to be aware of and acknowledge the manifold information sources that they employ in order to enhance the policy credibility of their studies. Communication between resource economists and practitioners of allied disciplines including chemistry, civil engineering, sociology, and anthropology are often neglected. Recent resource allocation policy debates have given rise to an extensive discussion of methodological issues that narrow the scope of the subject. The present paper provides a format for the presentation of nonmarket valuation research results that emphasizes the manifold links between economics studies that employ different methodologies to estimate nonmarket resource values. A more robust emphasis on the interlocking features of the different approaches for estimating nonmarket benefits should foster appreciation of the transdisciplinary aspects of the subject.

  13. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  14. COMPANY VALUATION METHODS BASED ON PATRIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  15. Activity based costing model for inventory valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Chouhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Activity-Based-Model (ABC is used for the purpose of significant improvement for overhead accounting systems by providing the best information required for managerial decision. This pa-per discusses implacability of ABC technique on inventory valuation as a management account-ing innovation. In order to prove the applicability of ABC for inventory control a material driven medium-sized and privately owned company from engineering (iron and steel industry is select-ed and by analysis of its production process and its material dependency and use of indirect in-ventory, an ABC model is explored for better inventory control. The case revealed that the ne-cessity of ABC in the area of inventory control is significant. The company is not only able to increase its quality of decision but also it can significantly analyze its cost of direct material cost, valuation of direct material and use its implications for better decision making.

  16. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  17. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  18. Determination of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma in waters and sediments from San Juan Ecosystem, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argota Perez, George; Argota Coello, Humberto; Fernandez-Heredia, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the levels of concentration of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in waters and sediments from the ecosystem San Juan in the Santiago of Cuba province were evaluated. Two sampling of the ecosystem in two stations belonging to the high and middle part of the river, in rainy and little rainy periods were carried out. The conservation and treatment of the samples were developed according to established standards and the determinations of the elements were realized using atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The concentrations intervals of the studied elements were established so much in the superficial waters like in the sediments and it was demonstrated that exists statistical significant differences for the factors station, period and type of sample, being the middle part of the river, the little rainy period and the sediments, where the grater concentrations of the pollutants appear

  19. The valuation of health care intangible assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, R F; Rabe, J R

    1997-01-01

    Health care entities (and especially medical practices) are valued for a number of reasons: sale transaction pricing and structuring, merger formation and dissolution, taxation and regulatory compliance, and litigation support and dispute resolution. The identification and quantification of the entity's intangible assets are often the most important aspects of the valuation. This article illustrates the generally accepted methods for valuing health care-related intangible assets.

  20. Credit Default Swap Valuation with Counterparty Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Seng Yuen; Kwok, Yue Kuen

    2005-01-01

    Using the reduced form framework with inter-dependent default correlation, we perform valuation of credit default swap with counterparty risk. The inter-dependent default risk structure between the protection buyer, protection seller and the reference entity in a credit default swap are characterized by their correlated default intensities, where the default intensity of one party increases when the default of another party occurs. We explore how settlement risk and replacement cost affect th...

  1. Intangible Capital, Corporate Valuation and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Danthine, Jean-Pierre; Jin, Xiangrong

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have found unmeasured intangible capital to be large and important. In this paper we observe that by nature intangible capital is also very different from physical capital. We find it plausible to argue that the accumulation process for intangible capital differs significantly from the process by which physical capital accumulates. We study the implications of this hypothesis for rational firm valuation and asset pricing using a two-sector general equilibrium model. Our main fi...

  2. The Coca-Cola Company : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, André Escoval dos

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation aims to demonstrate the process of valuing The Coca-Cola Company (KO). Valuation is not an exact science, requiring numerous assumptions and different models to be trusted. Several theories and articles from prestigious authors were followed aiming to deliver the best possible result. There is not a consensus among authors about which method yields best results, however Discounted Cash Flow is considered the finest by most of them. Therefore, KO will...

  3. Valuation of international oil companies - size matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    According to economic theory, exploration and the development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE (Return on Average Capital Employed), for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demands for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. We investigate the presumed positive relation between RoACE and stock market valuation. Based on panel data for 12 international oil and gas companies for the period 1997-2002, we seek to establish econometric relations between market valuation on one hand, and simple financial and operational indicators on the other. Our findings do not support the perceived positive relation between reported RoACE and market-based multiples. Recent evidence also suggests that the stock market is increasingly concerned about reserve replacement and sustained profitable production growth. The current high-price, low-investment equilibrium is therefore hardly stable. (Author)

  4. MEASURING INSOLVENCY: VALUATION GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays valuation has become an inherent part of business environment which has experienced dynamic changes in economic activity through mergers and acquisitions, organizational restructuring and repurchasing of shares. The dynamic centre of all these activities is valuation, whose methods are needed not only for accounting purposes, but to serve as information support to all stakeholders. Although there are many individual techniques of assessment businesses in difficulty, selecting the most suitable method of valuation is often difficult. The paper is a mini-guide that should be taken into account by all actors involved in the assessment of firms in difficulty when they pursue to carry out such activities. In this regard, we compare the financial and accounting aspects with the national regulation on insolvency, highlighting the usefulness or, where appropriate, the lack of consistency based on assessments completed to date. In the end we insist on the reconciliation of financial vision with the rule of law in order to simplify insolvency proceedings in Romania.

  5. Valuation anomalies for interconnector transmission rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInerney, Celine; Bunn, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Whilst the acquisition of physical transmission interconnector rights between two or more electricity markets can be structured as spread options on the spot prices of electricity between connected markets, empirical evidence suggests that actual prices may be quite different. This raises issues for the valuation of transmission rights, particularly in the European context of market harmonisation, and the use of transmission rights with increasing levels of wind penetration. We examine the price differentials between the Irish and British electricity markets, where explicit transmission capacity auctions have been persistently undersubscribed and transmission rights acquired but not fully utilised. We find significant empirical indications that auction prices for transmission rights are undervalued against both arbitrage and spread option valuations. We also find significant power flows against the efficient price spread direction. A survey of a group of experts with an interest in trading power between Ireland and Britain inform a number of possible explanations for the apparent inefficiencies. These include ex-post pricing in the Irish market, intermittent wind and strategic behaviour by dominant firms. - Highlights: ► Valuation anomalies for transmission rights highlight lack of market integration. ► Exports constrained from market with ex post pricing and no hedging mechanisms. ► High start-up costs for balancing plant may deter exports from high wind regions. ► Deadband created by capacity payments based on flows versus availability

  6. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  7. Valuation of inventories in systems with product recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Teunter, Ruud; Laan, Erwin

    2003-01-01

    textabstractValuation of inventories has different purposes, in particular accounting and decision making, and it is not necessary for a firm to use the same valuation method for both purposes. In fact, it is not uncommon to use accounting books as well as management books. In this chapter, we will only consider inventory values from the perspective of decision making. More specifically, we will analyze the effect of inventory valuation on inventory control decisions (and not the correspondin...

  8. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-09-07

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX 3 , X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr 3 , its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs 4 PbBr 6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr 3 and insulating Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals. We demonstrate that, in this case, the two materials inevitably hybridize, forming nanoparticles with a spherical shape. The actual amount of these Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals and nanohybrids increases for synthesis at lower temperatures, i.e., the condition typically used for the development of perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with smaller sizes. We use state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy to characterize nanoparticles at the single object level. This method allows distinguishing between optical characteristics of a pure Cs 4 PbBr 6 and CsPbBr 3 nanocrystal and their nanohybrid. In this way, we resolve some of the recent misconceptions concerning possible visible absorption and emission of Cs 4 PbBr 6 . Our method provides detailed structural characterization, and combined with modeling, we conclusively identify the nanospheres as CsPbBr 3 /Cs 4 PbBr 6 hybrids. We show that the two phases are independent of each other's presence and merge symbiotically. Herein, the optical characteristics of the parent materials are preserved, allowing for an increased absorption in the UV due to Cs 4 PbBr 6 , accompanied by the distinctive efficient green emission resulting from CsPbBr 3 .

  9. Tensor valuations and their applications in stochastic geometry and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiderlen, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to give an up-to-date introduction to tensor valuations and their applications. Starting with classical results concerning scalar-valued valuations on the families of convex bodies and convex polytopes, it proceeds to the modern theory of tensor valuations. Product and Fourier-type transforms are introduced and various integral formulae are derived. New and well-known results are presented, together with generalizations in several directions, including extensions to the non-Euclidean setting and to non-convex sets. A variety of applications of tensor valuations to models in stochastic geometry, to local stereology and to imaging are also discussed.

  10. Valuation of Non-Life Liabilities from Claims Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lindholm

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete program for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on claims triangle data. The valuation is fully consistent with the principle of valuation by considering the costs associated with a transfer of the liability to a so-called reference undertaking subject to capital requirements throughout the runoff of the liability cash flow. The valuation program includes complete details on parameter estimation, bias correction and conservative estimation of the value of the liability under partial information. The latter is based on a new approach to the estimation of mean squared error of claims reserve prediction.

  11. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE VALUATION OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets represents one of the most delicate problems of assessing a company. Usually, valuation of intangible assets is in the process of evaluating enterprise as a whole. Therefore, Intangible Asset Valuers must have detailed knowledge on business valuation, in particular, the income-based valuation methods (capitalization / updating net cash flow. Valuation of Intangible Assets is the objective of the International Valuation Standards (GN 4 Valuation of Intangible Assets (revised 2010. Next to it was recently proposed GN 16 Valuation of Intangible Assets for IFRS reporting. International Accounting Standard (IAS 38 Intangible Assets prescribe the accounting treatment for intangible assets, analyze the criteria that an intangible asset must meet to be recognized, specific carrying amount of intangible assets and sets out requirements for disclosure of intangible assets. From an accounting perspective, relevant professional accounting standards and the following: IFRS 3 Business Combinations, IAS 36 Impairment of Assets and SFAS 157 fair value measurement, developed by the FASB. There is a more pronounced near the provisions of IAS 38 contained in GN 4. Therefore, a good professional intangible asset valuation must know thoroughly the conditions, principles, criteria and assessment methods recognized by those standards

  12. Lead Isotopic Compositions of Selected Coals, Pb/Zn Ores and Fuels in China and the Application for Source Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-Yang; Li, Zhong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Rui; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ming-Zhi

    2017-11-21

    Lead (Pb) pollution emission from China is becoming a potential worldwide threat. Pb isotopic composition analysis is a useful tool to accurately trace the Pb sources of aerosols in atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive data set of Pb isotopes for coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels from China was presented. The ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in the coals were in the range of 1.114-1.383 and 1.791-2.317, similar to those from Europe, Oceania, and South Asia, but different from those from America (p fuels from in coals. Urban aerosols demonstrated similar Pb isotopic compositions to coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels in China. After removing the leaded gasoline, the Pb in aerosols is more radiogenic, supporting the heavy contribution of coal combustion to the atmospheric Pb pollution.

  13. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adjusted fair market value of plan assets, assets that are added to a plan as a result of a plan... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date and.... Paragraph (c) of this section describes rules regarding the determination of the asset value for purposes of...

  14. Análise empírica de modelos de valuation no ambiente brasileiro: fluxo de caixa descontado versus modelo de Ohlson (RIV Empirical analysis of valuation models in the brazilian environment: discounted cash flow versus Ohlson's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do contexto controverso de comparações entre modelos de valuation, o presente trabalho investiga, baseado nas projeções dos analistas de mercado de capitais para empresas brasileiras, se existem diferenças entre os valores de uma empresa estimados pelo modelo de fluxo de caixa descontado (DCF e pelo modelo de Ohlson (modelo de lucros residuais - RIV. Essa abordagem é inovadora à medida que trabalhos já realizados visando à comparação entre esses modelos consideram o valor da empresa calculado com base nas informações publicadas/divulgadas pela empresa e não com base na expectativa dos agentes de mercado (como por exemplo, o analista de mercado de capitais. Entretanto, a correta implementação dos modelos em análise deve ser realizada considerando-se as expectativas dos agentes de mercado. Adicionalmente, são realizadas regressões para verificar qual dos modelos (DCF ou OHLSON explica melhor a relação preço/valor patrimonial (P/B de uma empresa em períodos futuros. As conclusões obtidas foram: i existem diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o valor estimado das empresas pelo fluxo de caixa descontado e pelo modelo de Ohlson (RIV e ii os índices P/B, calculados a partir das estimativas dos analistas (que utilizam o DCF, apresentam maior poder explicativo dos índices P/B futuros da empresa do que as estimativas do índice P/B feitas pelo modelo de Ohlson (RIV.This paper uses equity analysts' forecasts for Brazilian firms to analyze whether there are significant differences between the results from the estimation of equity value when applying the discounted cash flow model (DCF and the residual income model (OHLSON. The approach used in this research is pioneer, considering that previous papers comparing valuation models in Brazil used researchers' assumptions, based on public information, to implement the valuation models. However, the correct implementation of these models relies on market expectations (i

  15. Exploring Polaronic, Excitonic Structures and Luminescence in Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Biswas, Koushik

    2018-02-15

    Among the important family of halide perovskites, one particular case of all-inorganic, 0-D Cs 4 PbBr 6 and 3-D CsPbBr 3 -based nanostructures and thin films is witnessing intense activity due to ultrafast luminescence with high quantum yield. To understand their emissive behavior, we use hybrid density functional calculations to first compare the ground-state electronic structure of the two prospective compounds. The dispersive band edges of CsPbBr 3 do not support self-trapped carriers, which agrees with reports of weak exciton binding energy and high photocurrent. The larger gap 0-D material Cs 4 PbBr 6 , however, reveals polaronic and excitonic features. We show that those lattice-coupled carriers are likely responsible for observed ultraviolet emission around ∼375 nm, reported in bulk Cs 4 PbBr 6 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 /CsPbBr 3 composites. Ionization potential calculations and estimates of type-I band alignment support the notion of quantum confinement leading to fast, green emission from CsPbBr 3 nanostructures embedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .

  16. Sustained forced sale value opinion advice in Nigerian valuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, the first in a series testing for standardisation of practice among professional Valuers, explores the issue of level of awareness of International Valuation Standards (IVS) provisions among Nigerian Valuers. This is with respect to mortgage valuations in the face of increased volume of secured lending by ...

  17. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case of...

  18. 48 CFR 211.274-3 - Policy for valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for valuation. 211... Documents 211.274-3 Policy for valuation. (a) It is DoD policy that contractors shall be required to...'s unit acquisition cost is— (1) For fixed-price type line, subline, or exhibit line items, the unit...

  19. Towards an International Data Standard for Immovable Property Valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Çağdaş, Volkan; Işıkdağ, Ümit; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Lemmen, Christiaan; Stubkjær, Erik; Halme, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Immovable property valuation is performed by public sector actors for several land management activities, such as property taxation, expropriation or compulsory purchase of land, land re-adjustment and land consolidation; and private sector actors perform valuation for purchase, real estate

  20. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42 Section 254.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.42 Valuation of tracts. (a) Approximately equal value shall be...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2031-4 - Valuation of notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of notes. 20.2031-4 Section 20.2031-4... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-4 Valuation of notes... of the party or parties liable, or for other cause), and that any property pledged or mortgaged as...

  2. 26 CFR 25.2512-4 - Valuation of notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of notes. 25.2512-4 Section 25.2512-4... GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-4 Valuation of notes. The fair market... the property, if any, pledged or mortgaged as security is insufficient to satisfy it. ...

  3. Valuation of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the Nuclear Power Plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valuated by means of cash-flow. The value of replacement of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is of U$S 1.593.538.000 (authors) [es

  4. Valuation of inventories in systems with product recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractValuation of inventories has different purposes, in particular accounting and decision making, and it is not necessary for a firm to use the same valuation method for both purposes. In fact, it is not uncommon to use accounting books as well as management books. In this chapter, we will

  5. Valuation Biases, Error Measures, and the Conglomerate Discount

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe document the importance of the choice of error measure (percentage vs. logarithmic errors) for the comparison of alternative valuation procedures. We demonstrate for several multiple valuation methods (averaging with the arithmetic mean, harmonic mean, median, geometric mean) that the

  6. Prepayment and the Valuation of Danish Mortgage-Backed Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Svend

    Ph.D. thesis on prepayment modelling and valuation of Danish mortgage backed bonds. The thesis discusses several aspects of mortgage backed bonds including after-tax valuation, the special Danish delivery option, rational prepayment behavior, transaction costs and heterogenous borrowers. The thes...... concludes with an empirical analysis of pricing and holding period returns...

  7. A valuation-Based Test of Market Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Elliott, W.B.; Warr, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We implement an earnings-based fundamental valuation model to test the impact of market timing on the firm's method of funding the financing deficit. We argue that our valuation metric provides a superior measure of equity misvaluation because it avoids multiple interpretation problems faced by the

  8. 29 CFR 4044.41 - General valuation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part 4044.) (b) Valuation of assets. Plan assets shall be valued at their fair market value, based on the method of valuation that most accurately reflects such fair market value. Trusteed Plans ... been or will be placed into trusteeship by the PBGC shall value plan benefits in accordance with...

  9. GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    We survey the theory and empirical evidence on GARCH option valuation models. Our treatment includes the range of functional forms available for the volatility dynamic, multifactor models, nonnormal shock distributions as well as style of pricing kernels typically used. Various strategies...... for empirical implementation are laid out and we also discuss the links between GARCH and stochastic volatility models. In the appendix we provide Matlab computer code for option pricing via Monte Carlo simulation for nonaffine models as well as Fourier inversion for affine models....

  10. Dealing with Operating Leases in Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    Most firm valuation models start with the after-tax operating income as a measure of the operating income on a firm and reduce it by the reinvestment rate to arrive at the free cash flow to the firm. Implicitly, we assume that the operating expenses do not include any financing expenses (such as interest expense on debt). While this assumption, for the most part, is true, there is a significant exception. When a firm leases an asset, the accounting treatment of the expense depends upon whethe...

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF CORPORATE VALUATION TECHNIQUES IN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Anita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the main tools and techniques of firm valuation. One of the objectives in this paper is to present the reasons for such differences in value across different models, and to help in choosing the right model for a specific task. In today's management literature there are a lot of evaluation models, which based on the different approaches. The most important dimensions in the evaluation are the past performance analysis, the current value of the firm based on the forecast period and the appraisal of future opportunities. Nowadays it is quite problematic that these concepts regarding the valuation methods used in practice are not homogeneous. In view of the major principles is equal, but the details are different. In this paper my goal is to categorize the methods in the right section and to demonstrate the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages as well. This study proceeds as follow. The first section classifies and categorizes the different valuation approaches, which are the ratios based on accounting data, the asset-based approach, the income-based approach within the discounted cash flow models and the value added methods, the relative valuation, at last the real options. The second part presents the main features and implementation of the methods. Finally, the third section concludes what might be learned from this study. Based on the related literature reviewed and my previous researches I conclude that, in the evaluation, the problem is not that there are not enough models to complete the task but on the contrary, the selection of the appropriate model is the first challenge in the work. The different approaches lead to significantly different values. The other main finding of this work that, professionals involved in the assessment task explained the reason for the differences, and selection the correct model which is the best fit for the job. Considering the models described below a best model cannot be

  12. An Improved Valuation Model for Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ako Doffou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates some of the parameters of the Schwartz and Moon (2001 model using cross-sectional data. Stochastic costs, future financing, capital expenditures and depreciation are taken into account. Some special conditions are also set: the speed of adjustment parameters are equal; the implied half-life of the sales growth process is linked to analyst forecasts; and the risk-adjustment parameter is inferred from the company’s observed stock price beta. The model is illustrated in the valuation of Google, Amazon, eBay, Facebook and Yahoo. The improved model is far superior to the Schwartz and Moon (2001 model.

  13. Problems of valuation and organization in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porchet, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the past thirty years, the electricity industry has experienced significant structural changes in its organization all over the world. Traditionally centralized and organized in monopolies, at least locally, and often publicly owned, the activities of electricity production and retail have moved towards a market-based organization. Nowadays, a significant number of countries host electricity wholesale markets where producers and retailers exchange electricity to satisfy the demand of end consumers. These markets are not strictly national and the volume of cross-border exchanges is increasing. The question of the organization of these markets is crucial with regards to the direct consequences in cases of failure (we refer for example to the California crisis or the Enron scandal in 2001). The whole set of energy markets has been transformed in a broader context of demand growth, threat of exhaustion of fossil energies, environmental awareness and political tensions for the access to natural resources. Beside an oil market under pressure, the gas and coal markets have seen their volumes increasing. The ratification of the Kyoto protocol and the enforcement of a greenhouse gases reduction policy have lead to the creation of markets for emissions permits and stimulated the use of renewable and nuclear energies and biofuels. The increasing exposure of the world economy to energy prices incited the financial markets to develop new commodity risk management products (energy, agriculturals, metals). These are price risk and also volume risk management products, in order to hedge the risk of fluctuating demand. These are also derivatives or insurance products against weather risk. This PhD dissertation keeps within this context. It is composed of four chapters that are independent of each other. The first chapter concerns the valuation of physical assets such as thermal power plants. This Real Option valuation method is based on a utility indifference analysis and

  14. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  15. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wang; Sheble, Gerald B.; Lopes, Joao A. Pecas; Matos, Manuel Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  16. Valuating the Investment Efficiency of Distribution Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karajica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study is to valuate the investment efficiency of distribution companies. Although a series of publications and studies has been dedicated to this topic, it is difficult to find a general consensus in defining the investment efficiency of a company. Nevertheless if we simplify an imaginary  company as a production unit in which a series of actions transforms inputs to outputs, efficiency can be understood as like an effort to achieve maximum value of the outputs together with minimum usage of inputs, where the inputs constitute investments by a company. The investment efficiency of a company can be measured by expressing the absolute values of selected inputs and outputs, a relative expression of inputs and outputs, and perhaps an expression of the difference between them. However, an examination of the efficiency of a certain company is impossible without a valuation of other companies. In view of the amount of benchmarking, it should be emphasized, that this study is dedicated to a certain category of benchmarking, which we may term investment benchmarking. This benchmarking can be defined as a comparison of companies in terms investment efficiency. The purpose of this comparison is not only to investigate levels of investment efficiency and to relate them to other companies from the same branch, but also to locate the greatest efficiency and indicate potential improvement. 

  17. Prospect theory in the valuation of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Maurice L; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    Prospect theory is the prominent nonexpected utility theory in the estimation of health state preference scores for quality-adjusted life year calculation. Until recently, the theory was not considered to be developed to the point of implementation in economic analysis. This review focuses on the research and evidence that tests the implementation of prospect theory into health state valuation. The typical application of expected utility theory assumes that a decision maker has stable preferences under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Under prospect theory, preferences are dependent on whether the decision maker regards the outcome of a choice as a gain or loss, relative to a reference point. The conceptual preference for standard gamble utilities in the valuation of health states has led to the development of elicitation techniques. Empirical evidence using these techniques indicates that when individual preferences are elicited, a prospect theory consistent framework appears to be necessary for adequate representation of individual health utilities. The relevance of prospect theory to policy making and resource allocation remains to be established. Societal preferences may not need the same attitudes towards risks as individual preferences, and may remain largely risk neutral.

  18. Tunable CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 phase transformation and their optical spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Daqin; Li, Junni; Fang, Gaoliang; Sheng, Hongchao; Zhong, Jiasong

    2018-04-24

    As a novel type of promising materials, metal halide perovskites are a rising star in the field of optoelectronics. On this basis, a new frontier of zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 with bright green emission and high stability has attracted an enormous amount of attention, even though its photoluminescence still requires to clarification. Herein, the controllable phase transformation between three-dimensional CsPbBr3 and zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is easily achieved in a facile ligand-assisted supersaturated recrystallization synthesis procedure via tuning the amount of surfactants, and their unique optical properties are investigated and compared in detail. Both Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 produce remarkably intense green luminescence with quantum yields up to 45% and 80%, respectively; however, significantly different emitting behaviors are observed. The fluorescence lifetime of Cs4PbBr6 is much longer than that of CsPbBr3, and photo-blinking is easily detected in the Cs4PbBr6 product, proving that the zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is indeed a highly luminescent perovskite-related material. Additionally, for the first time, tunable emissions over the visible-light spectral region are demonstrated to be achievable via halogen composition modulations in the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) samples. Our study brings a simple method for the phase control of CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 and demonstrates the intrinsic luminescence nature of the zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbX6 products.

  19. Utilizing 3D building and 3D cadastre geometries for better valuation of existing real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isikdag, U.; Horhammer, M.; Zlatanova, S.; Kathmann, R.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of the properties is known as real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation and is a process which focuses on determining the value of a building or a land lot. The valuation of each real estate is required prior to any transaction as every property is unique in terms of

  20. Valuation of international oil- and gas companies; Verdsetting av internasjonale olje- og gasselskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-07-01

    In Norway, stock exchange quotation of Statoil has led to increased interest in valuation of oil companies. This article goes through the theory of corporate valuation. Then it compares the theory with practice, where valuation largely is built on accounts-based indicators. Taking the oil companies as a case, the article describes and evaluates the valuation methods used by analysts and investment banks.

  1. Participatory Environmental Valuation: A Comparative Analysis of Four Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Carnoye

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of multiple ecosystem services requires the design of valuation processes able to integrate different dimensions of value and to cope with complexity. Following the “value-articulating institution” framework, we note that three core problems arise: the cognitive, normative and composition problems. Combining valuation methods, such as contingent valuation and multicriteria analysis, with participatory and deliberative techniques is increasingly promoted as a means to address those fundamental problems. However, the quality and legitimacy of the valuation process then becomes dependent on how participation is framed. We note that numerous issues need to be taken into account, such as the roles assumed by participants, the differences in contribution among participants, the level of participatory impact and the level of democratization of the decision-making process. This paper proposes a detailed qualitative analysis of four case studies, each of them having implemented a specific valuation method in a participatory process. We analyze how those cases were handled in each of the dimensions considered and offer our conclusions about the added values and remaining challenges related to participatory environmental valuation.

  2. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk

  3. Effects of Pb doping on the magneto-optical properties of EuPbTe epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E.; Motisuke, P. [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Couto, O.D.D. Jr. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Lang, R. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, 12231-280 SP (Brazil); Balanta, M.A.G.; Brasil, M.J.S.P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Oliveira Rappl, P.H. de [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Iikawa, F., E-mail: iikawa@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    We investigate the magneto-optical properties of magnetic-semiconductor Eu{sub 1−x}Pb{sub x}Te epitaxial layers with Pb contents up to 5%. We show that the inclusion of a small amount of Pb atoms in EuTe affects the optical and magnetic properties of the resulting alloy. The incorporation of Pb gives rise to a reduction of the Néel temperature and of the slope of the giant magneto-red-shift of the magnetic polaron optical emission. All those effects can be understood in terms of the magnetic dilution effect due to the reduced Eu concentration. The introduction of Pb also reveals a splitting of the high emission energy side-band under applied magnetic field, presenting a more complex feature of the band structure of the alloys. Our results cannot be fully explained on the basis of the current theoretical knowledge of the EuTe band structure and, therefore, we expect that they can stimulate future theoretical investigations and encourage applied investigations of spintronic devices based on these materials. - Highlights: • Reduction of the Néel temperature when small amount of Pb is introduced into EuTe. • The saturation magnetic field needed to fully order the magnetic moments of Eu also reduces increasing Pb content. • Splitting of the high energy optical emission line under applied magnetic field, which is more evident for Pb doped samples.

  4. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Burn-Nunes, Laurie J.; Hong, Sungmin; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.

    2011-01-01

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature (∼ 1.20 for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and ∼ 2.50 for 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last ∼ 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 2.471 for 208 Pb/ 207 Pb in the period 1990–1996. The depression of the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  5. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  6. Syntheses and characterizations of secondary Pb-O bonding supported Pb(II)-sulfonate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Zhen; Zou, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Biao; Deng, Zhao-Peng; Huo, Li-Hua; Gao, Shan

    2018-06-01

    The reaction of Pb(II) salts and mono- or disulfonates leads to the formation of eight new Pb(II)-mono/disulfonate complexes, [Pb(L1)(H2O)]2 (1), [Pb4(L2)2(AcO)2]n·5nH2O (2), [Pb(L3)(H2O)]2 (3), [Pb(HL4)(H2O)2]n·nH2O (4), [Pb(HL5)(H2O)2]n·2nH2O (5), [Pb(H2L6)(H2O)]n·nDMF·2nH2O (6), [Pb2(H3L7)4(H2O)6]·2H2O (7) and [Pb(H2L7)(H2O)]n·nH2O (8) (H2L1= 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzenesulfonic acid, H3L2= 2-hydroxyl-5-methyl- 1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid, H2L3= 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzenesulfonic acid, H3L4= 2-hydroxyl-5-bromo-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid, H3L5= 2-hydroxyl-5-carboxyl-benzenesulfonic acid, H4L6= 2,5-dihydroxyl-3-carboxyl- benzenesulfonic acid, H4L7= 2,4-dihydroxyl-5-carboxyl-benzenesulfonic acid, DMF = N,N'-dimethyl-formamide, AcO- = acetate), which have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, PL, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In view of the primary Pb-O bonds, these eight complexes exhibit diverse dinuclear (1, 3 and 7), helical chain (4), wave-like chain (5), linear chain (6), zigzag chain (8) and layer structure (2), in which the Pb(II) cations present different hemi-directed geometries. Taking the secondary Pb-O bonds into account, chain structure for complex 7, layer motifs for complexes 1 and 3-6, as well as 3-D framework for complex 8 are observed with Pb(II) cations showing more intricate holo-directed geometries. The various coordination modes of these seven different mono/disulfonate anions are responsible for the formation of these multiple structures. Furthermore, the introduction of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups increases the coordination ability of sulfonate to the p-block metal cation. Luminescent analyses indicate that complex 7 presents purple emission at 395 nm at room temperature.

  7. The valuation of franchises : a restaurant case study / Gavin Stanvliet

    OpenAIRE

    Stanvliet, Gavin Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of a business valuation arrangement is to reach a reasonable and acceptable opinion of value. Valuing a business entity has become less of a guessing game than before. Business valuations are two thirds science and one third art according to several theorists and practitioners. The result of a valuation is only definite if it can accurately predict the future, and given that it is not possible, there will always be an element of risk that the actual value differs from the expect...

  8. SalMar ASA : Strategic analysis and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to estimate the theoretical value of equity for SalMar ASA and thereby the value per share at 27.11.2017. Fundamental valuation through a two-stage discounted cash flow model is chosen as the main method, while a valuation using comparable firms is performed as a supplement. In the fundamental valuation I have estimated the enterprise value by discounting the expected future cash flows to present value. To find the value of equity, the net-intere...

  9. Photoresponse of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jae Hoon; Yin, Wenping; Park, Cheolwoo; Park, Yongmin; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jung, Duk-Young

    2017-02-02

    High-quality and millimeter-sized perovskite single crystals of CsPbBr 3 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 were prepared in organic solvents and studied for correlation between photocurrent generation and photoluminescence (PL) emission. The CsPbBr 3 crystals, which have a 3D perovskite structure, showed a highly sensitive photoresponse and poor PL signal. In contrast, Cs 4 PbBr 6 crystals, which have a 0D perovskite structure, exhibited more than 1 order of magnitude higher PL intensity than CsPbBr 3 , which generated an ultralow photoresponse under illumination. Their contrasting optoelectrical characteristics were attributed to different exciton binding energies, induced by coordination geometry of the [PbBr 6 ] 4- octahedron sublattices. This work correlated the local structures of lead in the primitive perovskite and its derivatives to PL spectra as well as photoconductivity.

  10. [Valuation and prospect of function preserving gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuchang; Yu, Site; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Gang

    2017-10-25

    Preserving gastric function and improving quality of life (QOL) is the tendency of surgery for early gastric cancer. Function preserving gastrectomy (FPG) is applied to modify the extent of surgery and to achieve better quality of life at the premise of radical resection. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is the most favorable approach of FPG with oncological safety, which can improve nutritional status and QOL via preserving pylorus and vagal nerve. Proximal gastrectomy is widely accepted as FPG for early upper 1/3 gastric cancer. However, the most optimal way of anastomosis is not yet solved. Sentinel node navigation is currently the most accurate approach for intraoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis, which stimulates the development of many kinds of FPG procedures for individual treatment. Nevertheless, more efforts should be made to reduce false negative rate of sentinel node biopsy. Herein we discuss the valuation and prospect of FPG.

  11. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contamination and source differentiation of Pb in park soils along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongbo; Yu Shen; Li Guilin; Deng Hong; Luo Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    Urban soil Pb contamination is a great human health risk. Lead distribution and source in topsoils from 14 parks in Shanghai, China were investigated along an urban-rural gradient. Topsoils were contaminated averagely with 65 mg Pb kg -1 , 2.5 times higher than local soil background concentrations. HCl-extracts contained more anthropogenic Pb signatures than total sample digests as revealed by the higher 207/206 Pb and 208/206 Pb ratios in extracts (0.8613 ± 0.0094 and 2.1085 ± 0.0121 versus total digests 0.8575 ± 0.0098 and 2.0959 ± 0.0116). This suggests a higher sensitivity of HCl-extraction than total digestion in identifying anthropogenic Pb sources. Coal combustion emission was identified as the major anthropogenic Pb source (averagely 47%) while leaded gasoline emission contributed 12% overall. Urbanization effects were observed by total Pb content and anthropogenic Pb contribution. This study suggests that to reduce Pb contamination, Shanghai might have to change its energy composition to clean energy. - Highlights: → Coal combustion emission is identified as a main Pb source in Shanghai park soils. → HCl-extraction is sensitive in identifying anthropogenic isotope Pb sources. → Soil Pb contamination and its anthropogenic sources showed urbanization effects. - Coal combustion emission was identified as the main anthropogenic source of soil Pb contamination affecting Shanghai parks.

  13. Supported Lead in Pb-210 Chronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, D.; Hettwig, B.; Fischer, H. W. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A widely applied method of supported lead estimation in sediments using gamma spectrometric {sup 226}Ra determination via {sup 222}Rn short lived daughter products relies on radioactive equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn being established after sealing the samples. Advantages and disadvantages of methods of {sup 226}Ra estimation in sediments, using either {sup 222}Rn daughter products or direct estimation by 186.2 keV gamma emissions are discussed. An equilibrium experiment was performed using test samples and in one case radioactive equilibrium was not reached. On a theoretical sediment profile it was shown how systematic errors in supported {sup 210}Pb estimation can lead to incorrect interpretations of {sup 210}Pb{sub xs} profiles and therefore affect {sup 210}Pb derived chronologies. (author)

  14. Conceptual bases of the brand valuation by cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Studinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of valuing intangible assets in accordance with international trends is substantiated. The brand is seen as more important component of intangible assets, as an effective management tool company. The benefits and uses of brand evaluation results are investigated. System monocriterion cost brand evaluation methods is analyzed. In particular, methods that require evaluation by the time factor (current and forecast methods and methods for factor comparison base (relative and absolute. The cost method of brand valuation through market transactions in accordance J.Common’s classification is considered in detail. The explanation of the difference between method a summation of all costs and method of brand valuation through market transactions is provided. The advantages and disadvantages considered cost method of brand valuation are investigated. The cost method as the relative-predicted of the brand valuation, «The method of determining the proportion of the brand from the discounted total costs» is grounded

  15. Spring cleaning: rural water impacts, valuation, and property rights institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Michael; Leino, Jessica; Miguel, Edward; Zwane, Alix Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized evaluation in Kenya, we measure health impacts of spring protection, an investment that improves source water quality. We also estimate households' valuation of spring protection and simulate the welfare impacts of alternatives to the current system of common property rights in water, which limits incentives for private investment. Spring infrastructure investments reduce fecal contamination by 66%, but household water quality improves less, due to recontamination. Child diarrhea falls by one quarter. Travel-cost based revealed preference estimates of households' valuations are much smaller than both stated preference valuations and health planners' valuations, and are consistent with models in which the demand for health is highly income elastic. We estimate that private property norms would generate little additional investment while imposing large static costs due to above-marginal-cost pricing, private property would function better at higher income levels or under water scarcity, and alternative institutions could yield Pareto improvements.

  16. Human Resource Valuation and the Performance of Selected Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Valuation and the Performance of Selected Banks in ... the researcher gathered data from Nigerian banks listed in the Nigeria Stock ... Conclusively, human resources cost approach to corporate performance measurement ...

  17. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic......An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based...

  18. a comparison of wetland valuation purposes in lagos metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Also, NIESV should incorporate environmental valuation in the curriculum for professional ... 1Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental. Sciences, College of .... implicit (non-market) value of the fishery of marsh habitat can ...

  19. Investigating the use of Automated Valuation Models (AVMs) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction of AVMs, and a better terminology includes data- analysis methods ... property valuations, as in many other industries, has transformed business operations. ... starts by providing an AVM and comparable transactions. The valuer ...

  20. Usage of Major Heuristics in Property Investment Valuation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Key words: Investment Valuation, Major Heuristics, Nigeria,. Property. ... given, estimated, or implied and then proceeds to use this information as the basis of ..... study areas take into account the effect of costly floor and wall finishes in their ...

  1. Monetary ecosystem services valuation in natural environment management

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, David

    2017-01-01

    As it happened with Stern Report, which made international community change their attitude related to climate change, TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity) was a turning point in valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services. This change of attitude happened, partially, thanks to include monetary ecosystem valuation of ecosystem services and how much their conservation and avoid their loss worth to the entire society. Integrate monetary valuation in green infrastructur...

  2. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...

  3. Considerations regarding the Valuation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip IORGULESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical framework for the valuation of cultural heritage and of the economic effects produced by investments in the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage. The following methods are considered: impact studies, hedonic pricing method, contingent valuation method and travel cost method. The paper focuses on methodological issues, difficulties encountered when implementing the methods, as well as on their specific limitations. Moreover, each method is illustrated through the results of quantitative studies in the field.

  4. Quantitative valuation of platform technology based intangibles companies

    OpenAIRE

    Achleitner, Ann-Kristin; Nathusius, Eva; Schraml, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    In the course of raising external equity, e.g. from venture capitalists, a quantitative valuation is usually required for entrepreneurial ventures. This paper examines the challenges of quantitatively valuing platform technology based entrepreneurial ventures. The distinct characteristics of such companies pose specific requirements on the applicability of quantitative valuation methods. The entrepreneur can choose from a wide range of potential commercialization strategies to pursue in the c...

  5. Valuation of medical resource units collected in health economic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley-Merriman, C; Lair, T J

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues that are critical for the valuation of medical resources in the context of health economic studies. There are several points to consider when undertaking the valuation of medical resources. The perspective of the analysis should be established before determining the valuation process. Future costs should be discounted to present values, and time and effort spent in assigning a monetary value to a medical resource should be proportional to its importance in the analysis. Prices vary considerably based on location of the service and the severity of the illness episode. Because of the wide variability in pricing data, sensitivity analysis is an important component of validation of study results. A variety of data sources have been applied to the valuation of medical resources. Several types of data are reviewed in this paper, including claims data, national survey data, administrative data, and marketing research data. Valuation of medical resources collected in clinical trials is complex because of the lack of standardization of the data sources. A national pricing data source for health economic valuation would greatly facilitate study analysis and make comparisons between results more meaningful.

  6. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  7. Equity of cadastral valuation and simplified methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Guerrieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real estate taxation has been intensely debated lately. The main issue concerns the formation of taxable values based on the current cadastral incomes. More specifically, the point is made against the iniquity that the current surveyed values generate in the fiscal system, thus the necessity of overcoming it. It is known that the iniquity depends on the failed revision of valuation fees (related to the two-year period 1988-1989 and on the classification (sometimes still related to the urban cadastral as well as on the modalities used to calculate the taxable basis through the multipliers (the IMU ones, particularly. These are the expression of a conventional (and certainly distorting rate of return procedure which have become tools for the income variation. During the last twenty years, the Government and the Parliament have found the solution to the problem of iniquity in the revision of the current cadastral incomes. Nevertheless, they never managed to start a veritable reform process. In fact, during these years, they have just managed to introduce temporary measures as for instance paragraph 335 e 336 of article 1 of Law 311 of December 30th for the revision of the classification of some territorial backgrounds or of some real estate units, thus managing to control the most evident iniquities. Some other norms were approved in order to conduct remote surveys to identify properties which were never listed in the cadastre office. More than once, other possible suitable solutions have been discussed which could have been, with a fast implementation and low use of resources, a first step towards the recovery of an equity of real estate taxation. Unfortunately, these came out to be temporary measures all the same. Last in order and worth of mention is the Ministry of Economic and Finance document by the Finance and Economy Department (hereinafter MEF named “Ipotesi di revisione del prelievo sugli immobili” (Revision of real estate taxation

  8. Contribution to construction and setup of a detection system for the focal plan of the BBS spectrometer. Application to study of the neutron emission decay of the resonant states populated by the reaction (4He,3He) at 42 MeV/u in nuclei 208Pb and 209Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plankl-Chabib, Elke

    1999-01-01

    In order to realize an experimental program dedicated to nuclear structure studies we have conceived and constructed at IPN Orsay a detection system for the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer BBS, installed at the cryogenic cyclotron AGOR of the laboratory KVI (The Netherlands). Two detection units, consisting each of two localization plans of the Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) type, measure the position and angle of particle trajectory. This information is used for the determination of the reaction parameters at the target by a backtracking procedure. The identification of the reaction products is done by the measurement of their time-of-flight and energy loss. For light ions this task is assumed by plastic scintillators, and for heavy ions by a parallel plan detector (PPAC) and an ionization chamber. This detection system is well adapted to the requirements given by the detection of a large range of ions (protons to 36 Ar at energies of several tenths of MeV/nucleon) as well as the big acceptance, the small dispersion and the aberration of the BBS. The results of the test show the good performances of the detection system. In a first experiment the focal plane detection system was coupled to the neutron multidetector EVEN in order to study the decay of resonant high spin states at high excitation energies by the ( 4 He, 3 He) reaction on 207 Pb and 208 Pb targets. The transfer spectra, inclusive and in coincidence, of the nuclei 208 Pb and 209 Pb show a striking resemblance except for an excitation energy shift which is due to the hole in the last neutron shell of 207 Pb. The resonances at l 8 and l = 9 are clearly populated, in agreement with the predictions of the Bonaccorso-Brink model. A sizeable fraction of the decay of the l = 8 resonance is direct, but at excitation energies higher than 15 MeV (in 208 Pb) the decay is mostly statistical. (author)

  9. Acoustic emission during the ferroelectric transition Pm3{sup ¯}m to P4mm in BaTiO{sub 3} and the ferroelastic transition R3{sup ¯}m-C2/c in Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, E. K. H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Dul' kin, E.; Roth, M. [Department of Applied Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-04-13

    Acoustic emission (AE) spectroscopy without frequency filtering (∼broadband AE) and moderate time integration is shown to be sensitive enough to allow the investigation of subtle nano-structural changes in ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} and ferroelastic Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. AE signals during weak phase transitions are compatible with avalanche statistics as observed previously in large-strain systems. While the data are too sparse to determine avalanche exponents, they are well suited to determine other thermodynamic parameters such as transition temperatures and critical stresses.

  10. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the optic diagnostics of plasma of laser flames formed from lead surface and PbGa 2 S 4 laminar crystal using a neodymium laser. It is shown that the most intensive lines in the lead laser plasma are as follows: 405.7, 368.3, 364.0 nm PbI and 220.4 nm PbII while for the laminar crystal base plasma - the combination of the most intensive lines of PbI and GaI emission. One determined the narrow point of recombination fluxes for the ion and the atomic components of laser plasma of lead and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal. One conducted comparison study of emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in laser plasma of the respective metals and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal [ru

  13. Economic Valuation of Mangrove Restoration in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Suprapto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is one of the important ecosystems in Karimunjawa, Indonesia. It provides a variety of services both ecologically and economically. However, over-exploited activity, such as timber theft, can be threatening the sustainability of mangrove forest in Karimunjawa now and in the future. Thus, the improved management for mangrove forest is necessary to ensure its sustainability, and it is depending on how people value the conservation from economic and environment consideration. This study examines the factors influencing on the willingness to pay (WTP of respondents for mangrove restoration in Karimunjawa. A total of 502 respondents were interviewed using census method. The method employed is Contingent Valuation Method (CVMSingle Bounded. In CVM, the logit model was defined based on dichotomous choice method to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP randomly with three different starting bid value. Findings showed that local awareness of the importance of the values given by mangroves was popularized among local communities. The findings also indicated that respondents who are higher education and have more income were more likely to pay for the mangrove restoration.

  14. Credible evidence for the passivation effect of remnant PbI₂ in CH₃NHCH₃PbICH₃ films in improving the performance of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimao; Dong, Weiwei; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingli; Zhou, Shu; Deng, Zanhong; Tao, Ruhua; Shao, Jingzhen; Xia, Rui; Song, Chao; Hu, Linhua; Zhu, Jun

    2016-03-28

    The role of remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films is still controversial, some investigations have revealed that the remnant PbI2 plays a passivation role, reduces the charge recombination in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), and improves the performance of PSCs, but the opposing views state that remnant PbI2 has no passivation effect and it would deteriorate the stability of the devices. In our investigation, the CH3NH3PbI3 films have been prepared by a two-step spin-coating method and the content of the remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films has been tuned by varying the preparation temperature. It has been found that increasing the heating temperature could increase the coverage of spin-coated PbI2 films, which has led to high coverage CH3NH3PbI3 films and more remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films, and as a result, the performance of PSCs was enhanced obviously and the maximum power conversion efficiency of 14.32 ± 0.28% was achieved by the PSCs prepared at 130/120 °C (PbI2 films were heated at 130 °C and CH3NH3PbI3 films were heated at 120 °C). Furthermore, the dark current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence emission decay measurements revealed that the charge recombination in PSCs has been gradually suppressed and the fluorescence emission lifetime has gradually increased with the content of remnant PbI2 increasing. Thus, the passivation effects of the unreacted and decomposed PbI2 in improving the performance of PSCs have been confirmed unquestionably.

  15. Charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ståhl, Andre Govinda

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Run 1 results of the analysis of charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with the CMS experiment are reported. The coherent J/ψ photoproduction cross section is measured as a function of rapidity in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The forward-backward ratio of prompt J/ψ yields in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV is presented as a function of the event activity and p T . The nuclear modification factor of prompt J/ψ in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV is shown as a function of rapidity, centrality and p T . Finally, the ratio of ψ (2 S ) to J/ψ yields in PbPb collisions with respect to pp collisions at 2.76 TeV is analysed in different rapidity and centrality bins. (paper)

  16. Comparing 15D Valuation Studies in Norway and Finland-Challenges When Combining Information from Several Valuation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Yvonne Anne; Augestad, Liv Ariane; Rand, Kim

    2018-04-01

    The 15D is a generic preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument developed in Finland. Values for the 15D instrument are estimated by combining responses to three distinct valuation tasks. The impact of how these tasks are combined is relatively unexplored. To compare 15D valuation studies conducted in Norway and Finland in terms of scores assigned in the valuation tasks and resulting value algorithms, and to discuss the contributions of each task and the algorithm estimation procedure to observed differences. Norwegian and Finnish scores from the three valuation tasks were compared using independent samples t tests and Lin concordance correlation coefficients. Covariance between tasks was assessed using Pearson product-moment correlations. Norwegian and Finnish value algorithms were compared using concordance correlation coefficients, total ranges, and ranges for individual dimensions. Observed differences were assessed using minimal important difference. Mean scores in the main valuation task were strikingly similar between the two countries, whereas the final value algorithms were less similar. The largest differences between Norway and Finland were observed for depression, vision, and mental function. 15D algorithms are a product of combining scores from three valuation tasks by use of methods involving multiplication. This procedure used to combine scores from the three tasks by multiplication serves to amplify variance from each task. From relatively similar responses in Norway and Finland, diverging value algorithms are created. We propose to simplify the 15D algorithm estimation procedure by using only one of the valuation tasks. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DCF Fair Value Valuation, Excessive Assetes and Hidden Inefficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value concept is widely used in DCF (Discounted Cash Flow  business valuation. One of the main principle of fair value concept is full information symmetry between contracting parties. The assumption enforces specific way of FCF (Free Cash Flow estimation: all areas of inefficiency of valuated companies should be identified and their effect on free cash flow should be eliminated. The projection of free cash flow thus prepared should reflect the optimum operations of the business. The methodological issues of fair value valuation of inefficient companies are not comprehensibly addressed in the financial and accounting literature. There is easily observable gap between fair value theory and valuation practices. Thus this article is an attempt to answer the question about practical issues in fair value valuation of companies which do not apply value based management rules. It is based on literature review, theory examination and short case studies which present proposed solution for practical problems. Methods of identification and assessment of impact of inefficiencies on the fair value of a business are hereinafter presented and supported with arguments.

  18. Deposition of atmospheric 210Pb and total beta activity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussi Paatero; Murat Buyukay; Juha Hatakka; Kaisa Vaaramaa; Jukka Lehto

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and regional variation of the atmospheric 210 Pb deposition in Finland was studied. The 210 Pb activity concentration in precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeastern Finland north-westwards. An average deposition of 40 Bq/m 2 during a 12 months period was observed. The deposition of 210 Pb shows a seasonal variation with minimum in spring and maximum in autumn and winter. The specific activity of 210 Pb (activity of 210 Pb per unit mass of stable lead) in the atmosphere has returned to the level prior to World War II owing to the reduced lead emissions into the atmosphere. (author)

  19. The use of fuzzy real option valuation method to rank Giga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fuzzy real option valuation method to rank Giga Investment Projects on Iran's natural gas reserves. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... methodology – discounted cash flow analysis – in valuation of Giga investments.

  20. VALUATION FOR BIOLOGICAL ASSETS WITH HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING OR FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING ?

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-01-01

    The valuation for biological assets is regulated by IAS 41. Interesting debate is what valuation models it is better to use: historical cost accounting or fair value accounting? I will discuss advantages and disadvantages in this case.

  1. VALUATION FOR BIOLOGICAL ASSETS WITH HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING OR FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The valuation for biological assets is regulated by IAS 41. Interesting debate is what valuation models it is better to use: historical cost accounting or fair value accounting? I will discuss advantages and disadvantages in this case.

  2. Pb migration in the OKLO uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancarz, A.J.; Curtis, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    U-Pb and Pb isotopic data are presented which indicate that Pb is lost from host uraninite by diffusion, and that not only in situ uranogenic Pb but also the initial Pb is lost by diffusion. The conglomerate underlying the U deposit contains excess Pb and is both a transport zone and the repository for the Pb. 2 figures

  3. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in de...

  4. X-ray spectroscopic study of amorphous and polycrystalline PbO films, α-PbO, and β-PbO for direct conversion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, A; LeBlanc, K; Semeniuk, O; Reznik, A; Lin, J; Pan, Y; Moewes, A

    2017-10-13

    We investigated the electronic structure of Lead Oxide (PbO) - one of the most promising photoconductor materials for direct conversion x-ray imaging detectors, using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy. Two structural configurations of thin PbO layers, namely the polycrystalline and the amorphous phase, were studied, and compared to the properties of powdered α-PbO and β-PbO samples. In addition, we performed calculations within the framework of density functional theory and found an excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured absorption and emission spectra, which indicates high accuracy of our structural models. Our work provides strong evidence that the electronic structure of PbO layers, specifically the width of the band gap and the presence of additional interband and intraband states in both conduction and valence band, depend on the deposition conditions. We tested several model structures using DFT simulations to understand what the origin of these states is. The presence of O vacancies is the most plausible explanation for these additional electronic states. Several other plausible models were ruled out including interstitial O, dislocated O and the presence of significant lattice stress in PbO.

  5. Valuation of ecosystem services: paradox or Pandora’s box for decision-makers?

    OpenAIRE

    Nijnik,Maria; Miller,David

    2017-01-01

    The valuation of ecosystem services (ES) employs a range of methods. Based on a literature review and selected empirical examples, we consider major opportunities and challenges in ecosystem services valuation. We analyse when different valuation methods are appropriate and most useful. We demonstrate that mechanisms to capture benefits and costs are needed; and that the use of valuation should be incorporated more widely in decision-making. However, we argue that ecosystems are complex syste...

  6. Application of Real Options Valuation to R&D Investments in Pharmaceutical Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huan Ran

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into the application of real option valuation method to R&D projects in pharmaceutical companies. As one of the most important corporate finance decision-making methods, real option valuation method has been introduced in the last two decades. By applying option valuation methods, real option valuation is a useful tool to company managers. R&D investments in pharmaceutical companies are subject to considerable uncertainty, which may involve possibilities (i...

  7. Optical properties of Pb2 -based aggregated phases in CsBr Thin film and single crystal matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihokova, E.; Polak, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Phani, R.; Santucci, S.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Emission characteristics of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 aggregates in CsBr bulk and thin film matrices are reported. The emission of the former aggregated phase is peaking about 520-560 nm. It shows small Stokes shift (50 meV) related to narrow free exciton emission line of sub-nanosecond decay times. Quantum size effect was evidenced for the aggregates of 6-7 nm in diameter. The Cs4PbBr6 aggregates show emission peak at 375 nm and overall emission characteristics are similar to those of KBr: Pb, which is explained by very close local arrangement of emission centres-(PbBr6)4- octahedra-in both structures.

  8. The problem of accounting methods in connection to company valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of a company is not only a calculation but it represents complex set of processes which are mutually interconnected and which are more or less important in the process of company valuation in dependence of the value category inquired. One of these processes is the financial analysis which objective is not only to prove, subsequently the strategic analysis, going concern of a company, but its outcomes are the starting-point of financial plan preparation that is needed in order to apply income-based methods of company valuation. It is generally accepted that results of financial ratios differ in implications of applied accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to frame an influence of accounting methods on the income-based value of a company while the stress is put on the methods of inventory measurement in the context of both, in context of the Czech accounting law as well as of the International Financial Reporting Standards.

  9. Valuation of Inventories Considering the Fair Value Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Adela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper represents a pleading for fair value in the specific case of valuating inventories. The real significance and implications of fair value can only be seen after analyzing the topic from different points of view concerning all involved actors. Therefore we have based our scientific demarche on analyzing the trade literature and comparing the foresights of international regulations given by both the accounting setting bodies and the valuation setting bodies. Moreover we have followed two of the three moments which require valuation and for these moments we have selected those cases which require the using of fair value. Our opinion regarding the findings of the research is expresses by giving practical examples for the specific application of fair value and the way to reach it.

  10. Gas Storage Valuation and Hedging: A Quantification of Model Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hénaff

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the valuation and hedging of gas storage facilities, using a spot-based valuation framework coupled with a financial hedging strategy implemented with futures contracts. The contributions of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, we propose a model that unifies the dynamics of the futures curve and spot price, and accounts for the main stylized facts of the US natural gas market such as seasonality and the presence of price spikes in the spot market. Secondly, we evaluate the associated model risk, and show not only that the valuation is strongly dependent upon the dynamics of the spot price, but more importantly that the hedging strategy commonly used in the industry leaves the storage operator with significant residual price risk.

  11. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  12. Nongeminate radiative recombination of free charges in cation-exchanged PbS quantum dot films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Ashley R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Beard, Matthew C.; Johnson, Justin C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Highlights: • Photoluminescence and transient absorption are used to probe PbS QD films. • Cation-exchanged PbS QDs show room-temperature PL emission. • Bimolecular recombination is shown for the first time in coupled, PbS QD films. - Abstract: Using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy we explore the radiative recombination pathways in PbS quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by two methods. We compare conventionally synthesized PbS from a PbO precursor to PbS synthesized using cation-exchange from CdS QDs. We show that strongly coupled films of PbS QDs from the cation-exchange luminesce with significant efficiency at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to conventional PbS QDs, which have exceedingly weak room temperature emission. Moreover, the power dependence of the emission is quadratic, indicating bimolecular radiative recombination that is reasonably competitive with trap-assisted recombination, a feature previously unreported in coupled PbS QD films. We interpret these results in terms of a greatly reduced defect concentration for cation-exchanged QDs that mitigates the influence of trap-assisted recombination. Cation-exchanged QDs have recently been employed in highly efficient and air-stable lead chalcogenide QD devices, and the reduced number of trap states inferred here may lead to improved current collection and higher open circuit voltage.

  13. 43 CFR 30.152 - May the parties to an agreement waive valuation of trust property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valuation of trust property? 30.152 Section 30.152 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... parties to an agreement waive valuation of trust property? The parties to a settlement agreement or a consolidation agreement may waive valuation of trust property otherwise required by regulation or the Secretary...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2512-1 - Valuation of property; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of property; in general. 25.2512-1... valuation of other particular kinds of property. See § 25.2702-6 for an adjustment to the total amount of an... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-1 Valuation of...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.503 - RBIC's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... close of the quarter. (e) Review of valuations by independent public accountant. (1) For valuations performed as of the end of your fiscal year, your independent public accountant must review your valuation... independent public accountant's report on your audited annual financial statements (SBA Form 468) must include...

  16. 13 CFR 107.503 - Licensee's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the quarter. (e) Review of valuations by independent public accountant. (1) For valuations performed as of the end of your fiscal year, your independent public accountant must review your valuation... independent public accountant's report on your audited annual financial statements (SBA Form 468) must include...

  17. 76 FR 71491 - Gross Estate; Election to Value on Alternate Valuation Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... 14 may be applicable to determine fair market value for Federal estate tax purposes. (iii... valuation period shall be added to the value of the entity on the alternate valuation date. The sum of the... Gross Estate; Election to Value on Alternate Valuation Date AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  18. Administrateur de programme principal, Évaluation (h/f) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    amélioration du système d'évaluation du Centre. ... méthodes de planification, de suivi et d'évaluation de la recherche au service du développement;; appuie les recherches sur des outils et des méthodes d'évaluation effectuées par des partenaires ...

  19. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  20. Spectroscopy of 189Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Brown, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Conticchio, L.F.; Davids, C.N.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies of the very neutron-deficient lead isotopes 188 , 190 Pb have shown evidence for competing structures which may be attributed to the coexistence of spherical, weakly-deformed oblate and moderately-deformed prolate shapes. These studies have relied strongly on the observation of isomers to distinguish the properties of the states concerned. However, prior to the present work, information on the properties of the yrast and near-yrast states in the neighbouring, odd-A isotope 189 Pb was tentative and fragmentary. In an experiment at the Argonne National Laboratory, prompt gamma-gamma coincidence data on 189 Pb were obtained with the 158 Gd( 36 Ar,5n) reaction. In this experiment, mass identification of the gamma-radiation was provided by coincident detection of recoiling evaporation residues in the ANL Fragment Mass Analyser. In a second experiment, at the Australian National University, using the 164 Er( 29 Si,4n) reaction, an isomer with a 32-μs lifetime was identified in 189 Pb and the main features of the level scheme below this isomer were established. The results will be discussed in the light of the structures identified in the heavier odd-mass lead isotopes and in the neighbouring even-mass isotopes

  1. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...

  2. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    2015-01-01

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...

  3. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  4. Reliability of Level Three Valuations and Credit Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arber Hoti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper evaluates the impact of levelthree valuations in accordance with FAS157 and its impact on investors, auditors’ work, and valuation. The objective of this research is todemonstrate that the fair value measurements shouldnot be suspended. The standards provide formeasurement of fair value in all market conditions.Therefore, level 3 measurements or mark-to-model is an answer for many issuers that are not sure how to measure their assets and liabilities at thefair value. The paper concludes that fair value measurement has not caused the current crisis and hasno pro-cyclical effect and suggests several recommendations for policy makers and regulators.

  5. Application of monetary valuation in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Pizzol, Massimo; Miguel, Brandão

    Monetary valuation, or monetarisation, is the determination of the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. Although monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), in particular in the weighting phase, several challenges...... for LCA. For the two surveys, the total number of respondents was 209. The critial review showed that observed- and revealed-preference methods and the abatement cost method have limited applicability in LCA, whereas the conjoint analysis method and the budget constraint method are the best options...

  6. A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Willem Maria Stienen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop management strategies for sustainable useand conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful,but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuationmaps that compile and summarize all available biological andecological information for a study area, and that allocate anoverall biological value to subzones, can be used as baselinemaps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper providesa concept for marine biological valuation which is based on aliterature review of existing valuation criteria and the consensusreached by a discussion group of experts.

  7. On a Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model for Option Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edeki S.O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In financial mathematics, option pricing models are vital tools whose usefulness cannot be overemphasized. Modern approaches and modelling of financial derivatives are therefore required in option pricing and valuation settings. In this paper, we derive via the application of Ito lemma, a pricing model referred to as Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model (GSGDM for option pricing and valuation. Same approach can be considered via Stratonovich stochastic dynamics. We also show that the classical Black-Scholes, and the square root constant elasticity of variance models are special cases of the GSGDM. In addition, general solution of the GSGDM is obtained using modified variational iterative method (MVIM.

  8. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  9. Jet Fragmentation in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jets are an important tool to study the hot, dense matter produced in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Due to the loss of some of the jet’s energy outside the jet cone, jet rates have been found to be reduced by approximately a factor of two, in the most central events and over a wide kinematic range. In order to understand precisely how the jets are modified, it is important to measure how the jet momentum is carried by its fragmentation products. The longitudinal momentum fraction of charged particles in jets from Pb+Pb, p+Pb, and p+p collisions have been measured using the ATLAS detector. Proton-proton and p+Pb collisions provide necessary baseline measurements for quantifying the modifications in Pb+Pb collisions. In Run 1, ATLAS collected samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV and a sample of p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. In Run 2, large samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV have been collected providing a complete set of collision systems at 5.02 TeV. In this t...

  10. Primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb and lunar soil maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The soil maturity index I/sub s//FeO does not apply to either 204 Pb/sub r/ or C/sub hyd/; both are directly correlated with the submicron Fe 0 (I/sub s/) content. They act as an index of soil maturity which is independent of soil composition. In contrast to primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb is lost during soil maturation. Radiogenic Pb is present in mineral grains and may be lost by solar wind sputtering (or volatilization) and not resupplied. 204 Pb coating grain surfaces acts as a reservoir to provide the 204 Pb being extracted in the Fe 0 formation process. Venting or some other volatile source may replenish the surface 204 Pb. 1 figure

  11. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.664-4 with respect to the valuation of the remainder interest in property transferred to a... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7520-1 Valuation of annuities, unitrust...

  12. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.664-4 of this chapter with respect to the valuation of the remainder interest in property... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests... Valuations § 20.7520-1 Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and...

  13. Multiferroic properties of Pb2Fe2O5 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min; Tan, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Simultaneous occurrence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ceramics. → The off-centers of shifted Pb 2+ ions as well as the FeO 6 octahedra in the 'Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ' lead to a ferroelectric polarization. → Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ceramic demonstrates ferromagnetic order state due to the spin arrangement in the double chains of FeO 5 tetrahedral pyramids. -- Abstract: Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 (PFO) powders in monoclinic structure have been synthesized using lead acetate in glycerin and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursor. The powders were pressed into pellets, which were sintered into ceramics at 800 o C for 1 h. The morphology and structure have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Polarization was observed in Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ceramics at room temperature, exhibiting a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The remanent polarization of Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ceramic is estimated to be Pr ∼ 0.22 μC/cm 2 . The origin of the polarization may be attributed to the off-centers of shifted Pb 2+ ions as well as the FeO 6 octahedra in the perovskite-based structure of Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 . Magnetic hysteresis loop was also observed at room temperature. The Pb 2 Fe 2 O 5 ceramic shows coexistence of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. It provides a new field of research for complex oxides with multiferroic properties.

  14. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  15. Railroad Noise: Economic Valuation and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Nijkamp, P.; Pels, E.; Rietveld, P.

    2003-01-01

    In developed countries noise annoyance is an important source of environmental concern. Research on noise annoyance caused by railroad traffic is relatively underdeveloped. Here, a causal chain model is presented in which railroad traffic density, noise emission, noise immission and noise annoyance

  16. Option Valuation with Conditional Heteroskedasticity and Non-Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Elkamhi, Redouane; Feunou, Bruno

    the option smirk. We analyze a class of equivalent martingale measures for which the resulting risk-neutral return dynamics are from the same family of distributions as the physical return dynamics. In this case, our framework nests the valuation results obtained by Duan (1995) and Heston and Nandi (2000...

  17. Option valuation with the simplified component GARCH model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce the Simplified Component GARCH (SC-GARCH) option pricing model, show and discuss sufficient conditions for non-negativity of the conditional variance, apply it to low-frequency and high-frequency financial data, and consider the option valuation, comparing the model performance...

  18. Support en suivi et évaluation (Acacia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    information en Afrique) cherche à intégrer un processus évaluatif dans ses activités et dans celles de ses partenaires. Ce projet vise à susciter l'intérêt de ses partenaires d'un système de suivi-évaluation orienté vers d'apprentissage. Le projet sera ...

  19. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  20. Semantically rich 3D building and cadastral models for valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isikdag, U.; Horhammer, M.; Zlatanova, S.; Kathmann, R.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Valuation of real estate/ properties is in many countries/ cities the basis for fair taxation. The value depends on many aspects, including the physical real world aspects (geometries, material of object as build) and legal/virtual aspects (rights, restrictions, responsibilities, zoning/development

  1. Financial accounting as a method of household finance capacity valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Untanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents existing household finance capacity investigations. Comparison conducting allowed to determinate collisions and flaws of previous works. That substantiates to find a new approach in household finance capacity valuation necessity. The article contains theoretical research of household finance fundamental categories. In particular, it notes significant difference between domestic and foreign experience of household finance determination. Although emphasizing key similarities allows identifying household finance capacity composition. Moreover, the article provides a public and corporate finance sectors experience, which contains a huge knowledge of finance capacity investigations. Used research allows classify finance capacity not only as a resource valuation, but also as an economic entity’s ability to generate financial result. In terms of resource valuation, the paper suggests assessing both financial resources in classical meaning and any other property, which participating household economic activity and could be evaluated. The author’s position in terms of household finance capacity valuation is suggested. A broad definition of finance capacity causes applying conceptually different approach in this paper. Thus, comparative analysis method is suggested to substantiate household and corporate firm similarities. Used method allows forming household financial accounting, which leads to clear determination of household finance capacity composition and structure. Specificity forming household financial accounting is considered. An author’s position in regards existing contradictions with early research is suggested.

  2. Integrating Sustainability into the Real Estate Valuation Process: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sought the perception of Nigerian real estate valuers on sustainable development and how sustainability can be integrated into the real estate valuation process in Nigeria. One hundred and sixty Estate Surveyors and Valuers were asked, among others, to rate the significance of a range of sustainability features ...

  3. Beyond Level 4: Tying HPT to Valuation of Intangible Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayeski, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Considers how human performance technology (HPT) can achieve greater recognition in the mainstream business world by developing interventions that are framed in terms of enhancing the overall valuation of the organization's intangible assets. Discusses a consulting model that can be used with clients and stakeholders to identify barriers to…

  4. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  5. An Overview of Intellectual Property and Intangible Asset Valuation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic models most commonly applied to estimate the value of intellectual property and other forms of intangible assets. It highlights the key strengths and weaknesses of these models. One of the apparent weaknesses of the most commonly used valuation models is the failure to incorporate legal rights into their…

  6. A state-space model for residential real estate valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.

    2010-01-01

    All property in the Netherlands has to be appraised yearly. Yearly valuation has only been made possible with the help of models. The number of real estate appraisers is simply too small to value the more than 7 million residential properties. This paper describes the statistical model that is used

  7. Property Valuation: Integration of Methods and Determination of Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Verhaegh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Property valuation up to now is a global guess. On the one hand we have the Investment Method which regards a property as just a sum of money, on the other hand we have the Contractor's Method which is based on the actual new construction costs of the building and the actual value of the land. Both

  8. Preference uncertainty in nonmarket valuation: a fuzzy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Krcmar, E.; Bulte, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we consider uncertain preferences for non-market goods, but we move away from a probabilistic representation of uncertainty and propose the use of fuzzy contingent valuation. We assume that a decision maker never fully knows her own utility function and we treat utility as a fuzzy

  9. Embalse nuclear power plant and heavy water valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the nuclear power plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valued by the cash-flow method. The Embalse nuclear power plant replacement value is of U$S 1.593.538.000. (author) [es

  10. 26 CFR 1.471-2 - Valuation of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-2 Valuation of inventories. (a) Section 471 provides two tests...-5.) Any goods in an inventory which are unsalable at normal prices or unusable in the normal way...

  11. Identifying the warm glow effect in contingent valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Schokkaert, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a contingent valuation study designed to investigate the influence of warm glow in willingness to pay (WTP) responses. Interindividual differences in warm glow motivation are measured through a factor analysis, performed on a list of attitudinal items. The

  12. Directional heterogeneity in WTP models for environmental valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; Brouwer, R.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in the stated preference literature on environmental valuation do not include the effects of substitutes and distance in willingness-to-pay (WTP) models, in spite of the relevance of these effects in aggregation and benefit transfer. Heterogeneity in the availability of substitutes over

  13. What's it worth? A general manager's guide to valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrman, T A

    1997-01-01

    Behind every major resource-allocation decision a company makes lies some calculation of what that move is worth. So it is not surprising that valuation is the financial analytical skill general managers want to learn more than any other. Managers whose formal training is more than a few years old, however, are likely to have learned approaches that are becoming obsolete. What do generalists need in an updated valuation tool kit? In the 1970s, discounted-cash-flow analysis (DCF) emerged as best practice for valuing corporate assets. And one version of DCF-using the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC)-became the standard. Over the years, WACC has been used by most companies as a one-size-fits-all valuation tool. Today the WACC standard is insufficient. Improvements in computers and new theoretical insights have given rise to tools that outperform WACC in the three basic types of valuation problems managers face. Timothy Luehrman presents an overview of the three tools, explaining how they work and when to use them. For valuing operations, the DCF methodology of adjusted present value allows managers to break a problem into pieces that make managerial sense. For valuing opportunities, option pricing captures the contingent nature of investments in areas such as R&D and marketing. And for valuing ownership claims, the tool of equity cash flows helps managers value their company's stake in a joint venture, a strategic alliance, or an investment that uses project financing.

  14. 7 CFR 3015.53 - Valuation of donated services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for volunteer services should be consistent with those regular rates paid for similar work in the same....53 Valuation of donated services. (a) Volunteer services. Unpaid services provided to a recipient by an individual shall be valued at rates consistent with the rates normally paid for similar work in...

  15. Valuation of Real Options as Competitive Prototyping in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    hedge technology investment risk (Benaroch, 2001), and application to design modularity (Baldwin & Clark, 2000), research and development resource...Valuation Models assume that: (a) future asset behavior and value conform to well-defined processes, (b) markets are complete and arbitrage opportunities

  16. 17 CFR 210.12-09 - Valuation and qualifying accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period Column C—Additions (1)—Charged to costs and expenses (2)—Charged to other accounts—describe Column... qualifying accounts and reserves by descriptive title. Group (a) those valuation and qualifying accounts... accounts. 210.12-09 Section 210.12-09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  17. Is embedding entailed in consumer valuation of food safety characteristics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' preferences for food safety characteristics are investigated with a particular focus on the existence of an embedding effect. Embedding exists if consumer valuation of food safety is insensitive to scope. We conduct between-attribute external tests for embedding in two choice experiments...

  18. Essays on valuation and risk management for insurers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing attention of the insurance industry for market consistent valuation of insurance liabilities and the quantification of insurance risks. Important drivers of this development are the new regulatory requirements resulting from the introduction of IFRS 4 Phase

  19. 31 CFR 223.9 - Valuation of assets and liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of assets and liabilities. 223.9 Section 223.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  20. On the Payoff Valuations of Investment Strategies: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also determine among the companies, which of them yield the highest returns at time t. We find that investors may not invest in some of the companies as a result of poor performance that arises from the high risk involve in the investments. Keywords: Payoff valuation; Investment strategy; Stock price; Stochastic.

  1. Financial accounting as a method of household finance capacity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Untanov

    2017-01-01

    The article presents existing household finance capacity investigations. Comparison conducting allowed to determinate collisions and flaws of previous works. That substantiates to find a new approach in household finance capacity valuation necessity. The article contains theoretical research of household finance fundamental categories. In particular, it notes significant difference between domestic and foreign experience of household finance determination. Although emphasizing key similaritie...

  2. Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Groot, de R.S.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, the valuation of ecosystem services has received ample attention in scientific literature. However, to date, there has been relatively little elaboration of the various spatial and temporal scales at which ecosystem services are supplied. This paper analyzes the spatial scales

  3. Mass-spectrometric and optimal study of products from the laser ablated PbTe(Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, V.A.; Putilin, F.N.; Trubnikov, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    The products of evaporation (p=10 -7 Torr) of a PbTe(Ga) target ablated by the Nd 3+ : YA laser (λ=1.08 μm, τ=15 ns, w=0.47-4.8 Jxcm -2 ) have been studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. The neutral Pb, Te, Ga, Te 2 , PbTe and the singly charged ions of Pb, Te, Ga have been detected by mass spectrometry. The lines of Pb 1 , Pb 2 , Te 2 and Ga 1 have been observed in the region of 340-760 nm of the emission spectra, the lines of Pb 3 and Te 3 were absent. The kinetic energy of the ions has been estimated using the ion optics system decelerated and focused ions with the selected energy

  4. Lead and stable Pb-isotope characteristics of tropical soils in north-eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg; Reimann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Stable Pb-isotope ratios are widely used as tracers for Pb-sources in the environment. Recently, a few publications have challenged the predominating view of environmental applications of Pb-isotopes. Present applications of Pb-isotopic tracers in soils largely represent the northern hemisphere. This study focuses on tropical soils from Paraíba, north-eastern Brazil. Lead concentrations and Pb-isotopic signatures (both 7N HNO 3 ) were determined at 30 sites along a 327 km E–W-transect, from the Atlantic coast at João Pessoa to some kilometers west of Patos, to identify possible processes for the observed (and anticipated) distribution pattern. Thirty samples each of litter (ORG) and top mineral soil (TOP) were taken on pasture land at suitable distance from roads or other potential contamination sources. Lead-content was determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb by ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Both sample materials show similarly low Pb-concentrations with a lower median in the ORG samples (ORG 3.4 mg kg −1 versus TOP 6.9 mg kg −1 ). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios revealed a large spread along the transect with median 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of 1.160 (ORG) and 1.175 (TOP). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios differ noticeably between sample sites located in the Atlantic Forest biome along the coast and sample sites in the inland Caatinga biome. The “forest” sites were characterised by a significant lower median and a lower spread in the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb ratios compared to the Caatinga sites. Results indicate a very restricted influence of anthropogenic activities (individual sites only). The main process influencing the spatial variability of Pb-isotope ratios is supposed to be precipitation-dependent bioproductivity and weathering.

  5. [Health valuations for patients with chronic ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, M; Farin, E

    2011-08-01

    The study deals with the question of how patients with chronic ischemic heart disease assess different health situations that can be achieved by rehabilitation. Furthermore it examines which factors influence these health valuations and whether the predictors vary depending on the level of education. The health valuations of n = 331 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease are compiled using visual analogue scales (VAS). In addition to sociodemographic questions, generic and illness-specific scales (SF-12, MacNew) for the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are used as potential predictors of the health valuations. Additional basic medical data were provided by the physician. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted; the sociodemographic, medical and HRQOL variables are included stepwise. Since many variables are observed for the regression models, an imputation of missing values is made. The health dimensions "Self-care and domestic life" and "Mobility" are assigned the highest values on the VAS. The lowest preference is assigned to the dimensions "Reduction of symptoms" and "Information about the disease". The differences between the health dimensions are statistically significant. Sociodemographic variables explain up to 3.6% of the variance of health valuations, with level of education and living with a partner being the most important predictors. The medical variables included in the second step explain between 2.1 and 6.8% incremental variance; the most important predictor is the operation performed prior to rehabilitation (bypass, heart valve). The HRQOL variables in the third block provide 7.1-24.9% incremental explanation of variance, by far the highest percentage. This is mainly achieved using the 3 MacNew scales (emotional, social and physical functioning). The overall explanation of variance for the health valuations is 17.1-28.8%. For patients with a higher level of education, the total explanation of variance is about 9.2% higher on

  6. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  7. The differences between emission, waste, and a good, and their significance to waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Mueller, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper defines the transportability of solid waste as its major difference compared to emissions. Several specific possibilities for politics dealing with the problems of solid waste are deduced from this characteristic. The difference between solid waste and good lies in the valuation of objects. As is shown the negative valuation of waste has a great influence on the effect of possible politics derived in part one of this paper. (orig.) [de

  8. Strange hadron production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Kapil; Singh, Venktesh [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Varanasi (India); Shukla, Prashant [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Vineet [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    We present a systematic analysis of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra of the strange hadrons in different multiplicity events produced in pp collision at √(s) = 7 TeV, pPb collision at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV and PbPb collision at √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV. Both the single and differential freeze-out scenarios of strange hadrons K{sup 0}{sub s}, Λ and Ξ{sup -} are considered while fitting using a Tsallis distribution which is modified to include transverse flow. The p{sub T} distributions of these hadrons in different systems are characterized in terms of the parameters, namely Tsallis temperature (T), power (n) and average transverse flow velocity (β). It is found that for all the systems, transverse flow increases as we move from lower to higher multiplicity events. In the case of the differential freeze-out scenario, the degree of thermalization remains similar for events of different multiplicity classes in all the three systems. The Tsallis temperature increases with the mass of the hadrons and also increases with the event multiplicity in pp and pPb system but shows little variation with the multiplicity in PbPb system. In the case of the single freeze-out scenario, the difference between small systems (pp, pPb) and PbPb system becomes more evident. The high-multiplicity PbPb events show higher degree of thermalization as compared to the events of pp and pPb systems. The trend of variation of the temperature in PbPb system with event multiplicity is opposite to what is found in the pp and pPb systems. (orig.)

  9. Valuation of design adaptability in aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Martin, Ismael

    As more information is brought into early stages of the design, more pressure is put on engineers to produce a reliable, high quality, and financially sustainable product. Unfortunately, requirements established at the beginning of a new project by customers, and the environment that surrounds them, continue to change in some unpredictable ways. The risk of designing a system that may become obsolete during early stages of production is currently tackled by the use of robust design simulation, a method that allows to simultaneously explore a plethora of design alternatives and requirements with the intention of accounting for uncertain factors in the future. Whereas this design technique has proven to be quite an improvement in design methods, under certain conditions, it fails to account for the change of uncertainty over time and the intrinsic value embedded in the system when certain design features are activated. This thesis introduces the concepts of adaptability and real options to manage risk foreseen in the face of uncertainty at early design stages. The method described herein allows decision-makers to foresee the financial impact of their decisions at the design level, as well as the final exposure to risk. In this thesis, cash flow models, traditionally used to obtain the forecast of a project's value over the years, were replaced with surrogate models that are capable of showing fluctuations on value every few days. This allowed a better implementation of real options valuation, optimization, and strategy selection. Through the option analysis model, an optimization exercise allows the user to obtain the best implementation strategy in the face of uncertainty as well as the overall value of the design feature. Here implementation strategy refers to the decision to include a new design feature in the system, after the design has been finalized, but before the end of its production life. The ability to do this in a cost efficient manner after the system

  10. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim; de Bastiani, Michele; Turedi, Bekir; Alamer, Badriah Jaber; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Yin, Jun; Gereige, Issam; Alsaggaf, Ahmed; Mohammed, Omar F.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    , which enabled us to finally clarify the material's optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  11. Effect of lead salts on phase, morphologies and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline PbMoO4 and PbWO4 synthesized by microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuruangrat Anukorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PbMoO4 and PbWO4 were successfully synthesized by microwave radiation using different lead salts (acetate, chloride, nitrate and sulfate and Na2MO4 (M = Mo, W in propylene glycol. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In this research, morphologies, crystallization and photoluminescence of the products were influenced by the kinetics of anions, including the detection of M–O (M = Mo, W stretching modes in the (MO42− tetrahedrons. Photoluminescence of PbMoO4 synthesized from Pb(NO32 and of PbWO4 synthesized from PbCl2 showed the strongest blue emission due to the electronic diffusion in tetrahedrons at room temperature.

  12. Multipion Bose-Einstein correlations in $pp$, $p$-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; 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Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-05-18

    Three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations are presented in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We compare our measured four-pion correlations to the expectation derived from two- and three-pion measurements. Such a comparison provides a method to search for coherent pion emission. We also present mixed-charge correlations in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of several analysis procedures such as Coulomb corrections. Same-charge four-pion correlations in pp and p-Pb appear consistent with the expectations from three-pion measurements. However, the presence of non-negligible background correlations in both systems prevent a conclusive statement. In Pb-Pb collisions, we observe a significant suppression of three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations compared to expectations from two-pion measurements. There appears to be no centrality dependence of the suppression within the 0-50% centrality interval. The origin of the suppression is not clear. However, by postulating either coherent pion ...

  13. [Research on the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-xin; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Wang, Feng-ping; Huang, Shu-hua; Fang, Wu; Wang, Wei-qiang; Huang, Yong-feng

    2012-05-01

    A method of copper converting process determination based on PbO/PbS emission spectrum analysis was described. According to the known emission spectrum of gas molecules, the existence of PbO and PbS was confirmed in the measured spectrum. Through the field experiment it was determined that the main emission spectrum of the slag stage was from PbS, and the main emission spectrum of the copper stage was from PbO. The relative changes in PbO/PbS emission spectrum provide the method of copper converting process determination. Through using the relative intensity in PbO/PbS emission spectrum the copper smelting process can be divided into two different stages, i.e., the slag stage (S phase) and the copper stage (B phase). In a complete copper smelting cycle, a receiving telescope of appropriate view angle aiming at the converter flame, after noise filtering on the PbO/PbS emission spectrum, the process determination agrees with the actual production. Both the theory and experiment prove that the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis is feasible.

  14. The valuation of external costs: An overview of issues and state actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caverhill, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The valuation of externalities helps determine the cost effectiveness of environmentally superior resources that would not be cost effective on a direct cost comparison to utility avoided costs. Explicitly monetizing externalities appears to be the best way to meet the criteria of consistency across resource options and pollutants and allowing selection of societally least-cost resources among a variety of resource types. Environmental costs should be defined so as not to exclude any potential external effects, including all environmental, social, and economic effects. For practical purposes, the definition could probably include only environmental externalities without materially affecting resource decisions in the foreseeable future for most North American utilities. More specifically, a comprehensive list of external costs should at least include emissions of pollutants such as SO 2 , CO, NO x , volatile organics, and greenhouse gases; thermal effluents; solid wastes; risk of catastrophic accidents; and for hydro projects, destruction of habitat and recreational areas, and mercury accumulation in reservoirs. Environmental effects should then be counted and valued, most commonly by damage costing or regulatory cost of control. Some utilities and other parties have proposed a market-based approach to valuing externalities, determining the marginal cost of controlling emissions by the market price of emissions allowances. Quantification of environmental costs, ensuring consistency among externality sources, and estimation of avoided externality costs are also discussed. Examples are presented of externality values selected in a number of areas of the USA. 11 refs., 5 figs

  15. Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Marcos D.B.; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are provided by healthy ecosystems and are fundamental to support human life. However, natural systems have been degraded all over the world and the process of degradation is partially attributed to the lack of knowledge regarding the economic benefits associated with ES, which usually are not captured in the market. To valuate ES without using conventional approaches, such as the human's willingness-to-pay for ecosystem goods and services, this paper uses a different method based on Energy Systems Theory to estimate prices for biogeochemical flows that affect ecosystem services by considering their emergy content converted to equivalent monetary terms. Ecosystem services related to water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical flows were assessed since they are connected to a range of final ecosystem services including climate regulation, hydrological regulation, food production, soil formation and others. Results in this paper indicate that aquifer recharge, groundwater flow, carbon dioxide sequestration, methane emission, biological nitrogen fixation, nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching/runoff are the most critical biogeochemical flows in terrestrial systems. Moreover, monetary values related to biogeochemical flows on a global scale could provide important information for policymakers concerned with payment mechanisms for ecosystem services and costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. What causes Psi suppression in Pb+Pb Collisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.

    1998-01-01

    A reexamination of hadronic comover scattering indicates that this mechanism cannot explain the observed ψ suppression in Pb+Pb interactions. The possibility of quark-gluon plasma formation is therefore considered. Implications for RHIC and LHC are also discussed. The agreement of the NA50 Pb+Pb data with naive comover models is reassessed. Previous work is reanalyzed and expanded to include feeding of the ψ' and χ c states to the ψ. The effect of color screening is also investigated. Only the ψ/Drell-Yan (DY) ratios are discussed here

  17. Intangibles and methods for their valuation in financial terms: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Pastor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review literature devoted to intangibles and their valuation and give examples of the methods that can be used for valuation of individual intangibles in financial terms. Design/methodology/approach: Paper presents a systematic review of articles dedicated to intangibles and their valuation. Findings: This review shows that there is a need for consensus in definitions of intangibles, intangible assets, knowledge assets and other related terms. These terms are used interchangeably in spite of their different meanings. Many methods for valuation of intangibles can be found in the literature, but widely accepted list of basic intangibles with suggested methods for their valuation in financial terms is still missing. Research limitations/implications: Not all the papers related to this topic could be covered in this paper. Presented list of important intangible components may be enhanced and examples of some other methods for their valuation may be added in the future. Practical implications: Paper calls for development of framework comprising list of the most important intangibles, proposals of methods used for their valuation and examples of their use. This framework can be helpful for organization, which are confronted with a difficult task of intangibles valuation. Originality/value: Basic definitions and differences between intangibles, intangible assets, identifiable intangible assets, knowledge assets and intellectual capital have not been mentioned in one paper yet. List of intangibles and methods for their valuation gives a direction for future work that can be fruitful for valuation of intangibles.

  18. Intelligent databases assist transparent and sound economic valuation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Ceroni, Marta; Krivov, Sergey

    2007-06-01

    Assessment and economic valuation of services provided by ecosystems to humans has become a crucial phase in environmental management and policy-making. As primary valuation studies are out of the reach of many institutions, secondary valuation or benefit transfer, where the results of previous studies are transferred to the geographical, environmental, social, and economic context of interest, is becoming increasingly common. This has brought to light the importance of environmental valuation databases, which provide reliable valuation data to inform secondary valuation with enough detail to enable the transfer of values across contexts. This paper describes the role of next-generation, intelligent databases (IDBs) in assisting the activity of valuation. Such databases employ artificial intelligence to inform the transfer of values across contexts, enforcing comparability of values and allowing users to generate custom valuation portfolios that synthesize previous studies and provide aggregated value estimates to use as a base for secondary valuation. After a general introduction, we introduce the Ecosystem Services Database, the first IDB for environmental valuation to be made available to the public, describe its functionalities and the lessons learned from its usage, and outline the remaining needs and expected future developments in the field.

  19. Valuation of Electric Power System Services and Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Accurate valuation of existing and new technologies and grid services has been recognized to be important to stimulate investment in grid modernization. Clear, transparent, and accepted methods for estimating the total value (i.e., total benefits minus cost) of grid technologies and services are necessary for decision makers to make informed decisions. This applies to home owners interested in distributed energy technologies, as well as to service providers offering new demand response services, and utility executives evaluating best investment strategies to meet their service obligation. However, current valuation methods lack consistency, methodological rigor, and often the capabilities to identify and quantify multiple benefits of grid assets or new and innovative services. Distributed grid assets often have multiple benefits that are difficult to quantify because of the locational context in which they operate. The value is temporally, operationally, and spatially specific. It varies widely by distribution systems, transmission network topology, and the composition of the generation mix. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently established a benefit-cost framework that proposes a process for estimating multiple benefits of distributed energy resources (DERs) and the associated cost. This document proposes an extension of this endeavor that offers a generalizable framework for valuation that quantifies the broad set of values for a wide range of technologies (including energy efficiency options, distributed resources, transmission, and generation) as well as policy options that affect all aspects of the entire generation and delivery system of the electricity infrastructure. The extension includes a comprehensive valuation framework of monetizable and non-monetizable benefits of new technologies and services beyond the traditional reliability objectives. The benefits are characterized into the following categories: sustainability, affordability, and

  20. L’évaluation des experts dans les organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mirralès

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’avènement des nouvelles technologies et le développement de la société de connaissance n’ont fait qu’amplifier le rôle central de l’expert dans l’organisation. Plus que tout autre individu évoluant dans un milieu professionnel, son évaluation s’avère incontournable et cruciale. Du point de vue managérial pourtant, cette nécessaire évaluation génère très souvent de nombreuses frustrations de l’ensemble des parties prenantes. Notre travail de recherche s’attache à comprendre et à apporter des éléments de réponse à une évaluation des experts qui soit acceptable par eux –mêmes, par les dirigeants de l’organisation et par les autres parties prenantes (Etat, clients, actionnaires, fournisseurs…. Il met en évidence deux grandes modalités de l’évaluation : l’évaluation contrôle et l’évaluation régulation, pour lesquelles les réactions des experts sont diamétralement opposées. Notre méthodologie de recherche utilise des études de cas entreprises auprès d’une trentaine d’experts de deux secteurs d’activité différents.The advent of new technologies and the development of the Knowledge society have increased the central role of experts in organizations. More than any other professional individual, his evaluation is crucial. From the managerial point of view however, this evaluation often creates frustration of many stakeholders. This article tries to understand the process and develop a method which is acceptable to the management of the organization but also for other stakeholders (State, clients, shareholders, suppliers…. The article highlights two methods of evaluation: the control and regulation methods, for which the reactions of the experts are completely opposed. The methodology is based on case studies of firms with some 30 experts in two sectors of activity.

  1. Source apportionment of Pb pollution in saltmarsh sediments from southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Millward, Geoffrey; Taylor, Alex; Marshall, William; Rodríguez, Javier; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio; Blake, William H.

    2017-04-01

    The local availability of metal resources played a crucial role in Britain's development during the industrial revolution, but centuries of mining within Cornwall and Devon (UK) have left a legacy of contamination in river basin and estuary sediments. Improved knowledge of historical heavy metal sources, emissions and pathways will result in a better understanding of the contemporary pollution conditions and a better protection of the environment from legacy contaminants. Our study aims to trace historical sources of Pb pollution in the area of east Cornwall and west Devon, UK, using a multi proxy approach for contaminants stored in saltmarsh sediment columns from 3 systems characterized by different contamination patterns. Source apportionment investigations included the determination of Pb concentration and Pb isotopic composition (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) for selected down-core sediment samples, and for local ore and parent rock materials. General trends in pollutant loading (e.g. Pb) could be identified, with maximum inputs occurring in the middle of the 19th century and decreasing towards the present day, while an increase in the catchment disturbance was apparent for the last decades. The isotopic ratios of Pb further indicate that sediments with higher Pb content have a less radiogenic signature, these particular inputs being derived from Pb mining and smelting sources in the catchment area. Acknowledgements: Andra-Rada Iurian acknowledges the support of a Marie Curie Fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2014, Grant Agreement number: 658863) within the Horizon 2020.

  2. Studies of 212Pb storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, E.; Kataoka, T.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T.

    1996-01-01

    212 Pb which reached its equilibrium state with its daughters in the air was measured around small uranium mines in Japan. Environmental. 212 Pb concentrations rose suddenly and reached a value ten times as high as usual values. These Phenomena were observed many times during the past six Years. We called these Phenomena 212 Pb storms. Meteorological conditions lead to the variations of 220 Rn progeny concentrations. These phenomena have been studied in the point of meteorology. (author)

  3. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  4. Strongly Enhanced Free-Exciton Luminescence in Microcrystalline CsPbBr3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Kakuchi, Mitsugu; Masaki, Atsushi; Saito, Tadaaki

    2003-07-01

    The luminescence properties of CsPbBr3 films prepared via the amorphous phase by crystallization are dominated by free-exciton emission, and only a weak trace of emission due to trapped excitons was observed, in contrast to the case of bulk CsPbBr3 crystals. In particular, the films in the microcrystalline state show by more than an order of magnitude stronger free-exciton emission than in the polycrystalline state. The enhanced free-exciton emission is suggestive of excitonic superradiance.

  5. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...... for straightforward filtering and estimation of the model. Our model belongs to the affine class enabling us to derive the conditional characteristic function so that option values can be computed rapidly without simulation. When estimated on S&P500 index options and returns the new model performs well compared...

  6. A Short Integrated Presentation of Valuation, Profitability and Growth Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Kim; Sørensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the valuation models used in finance theory and the profitability and growth analysis taught in financial statement analysis are related. Traditional textbooks on finance and financial statement analysis are often very comprehensive, comprising a vast number of chapters. However......, the learning cost associated to this seems to be that many students are unable to understand either the interrelations between the chapters in a financial statement analysis textbook, or the origins of financial information (i.e., financial statements) in applied finance. Thus, the underlying motivation...... of this teaching note is to highlight the purpose of profitability and growth analysis in financial statement analysis by incorporating the point of value relevance in applied finance. We hope this reduced presentation of valuation and profitability and growth analysis will help students to understand...

  7. Variable capacity utilization, ambient temperature shocks and generation asset valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chung-Li; Dmitriev, Alexandre [Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhu, Wei [Optim Energy, 225 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX 75062 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This paper discusses generation asset valuation in a framework where capital utilization decisions are endogenous. We use real options approach for valuation of natural gas fueled turbines. Capital utilization choices that we explore include turning on/off the unit, operating the unit at increased firing temperatures (overfiring), and conducting preventive maintenance. Overfiring provides capacity enhancement which comes at the expense of reduced maintenance interval and increased costs of part replacement. We consider the costs and benefits of overfiring in attempt to maximize the asset value by optimally exercising the overfire option. In addition to stochastic processes governing prices, we incorporate an exogenous productivity shock: ambient temperature. We consider how variation in ambient temperature affects the asset value through its effect on gas turbine's productivity. (author)

  8. Transactive Systems Simulation and Valuation Platform Trial Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Huang, Qiuhua; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; McDermott, Thomas E.; Sivaraman, Deepak; Tang, Yingying; Veeramany, Arun; Woodward, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive energy systems use principles of value to coordinate responsive supply and demand in energy systems. Work continues within the Transactive Systems Program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to understand the value of, understand the theory behind, and simulate the behaviors of transactive energy systems. This report summarizes recent advances made by this program. The main capability advances include a more comprehensive valuation model, including recommended documentation that should make valuation studies of all sorts more transparent, definition of economic metrics with which transactive mechanisms can be evaluated, and multiple improvements to the time-simulation environment that is being used to evaluate transactive scenarios.

  9. Transactive Systems Simulation and Valuation Platform Trial Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Qiuhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDermott, Thomas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Yingying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodward, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Transactive energy systems use principles of value to coordinate responsive supply and demand in energy systems. Work continues within the Transactive Systems Program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to understand the value of, understand the theory behind, and simulate the behaviors of transactive energy systems. This report summarizes recent advances made by this program. The main capability advances include a more comprehensive valuation model, including recommended documentation that should make valuation studies of all sorts more transparent, definition of economic metrics with which transactive mechanisms can be evaluated, and multiple improvements to the time-simulation environment that is being used to evaluate transactive scenarios.

  10. A novel UV-emitting phosphor: LiSr4(BO3)3: Pb2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekgözlü, İlhan

    2013-01-01

    Pure and Pb 2+ doped LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 materials were prepared by a solution combustion synthesis method. The phase analysis of all synthesized materials were determined using the powder XRD. The synthesized materials were investigated using spectrofluorometer at room temperature. The excitation and emission bands of LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 : Pb 2+ were observed at 284 and 328 nm, respectively. The dependence of the emission intensity on the Pb 2+ concentration for the LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 were studied in detail. It was observed that the concentration quenching of Pb 2+ in LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 is 0.005 mol. The Stokes shifts of LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 : Pb 2+ phosphor was calculated to be 4723 cm –1 . -- Highlights: • A novel UV-emitting phosphor: LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 : Pb 2+ ” synthesized for the first time. • The emission band of LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 : Pb 2+ was observed at 328 nm upon excitation with 284 nm. • LiSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 : Pb 2+ is a good phosphor for broadband UV application

  11. The Economics of Hedge Funds: Alpha, Fees, Leverage, and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Yingcong Lan; Neng Wang; Jinqiang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Hedge fund managers are compensated via management fees on the assets under management (AUM) and incentive fees indexed to the high-water mark (HWM). We study the effects of managerial skills (alpha) and compensation on dynamic leverage choices and the valuation of fees and investors' payoffs. Increasing the investment allocation to the alpha-generating strategy typically lowers the fund's risk-adjusted excess return due to frictions such as price pressure. When the manager is only paid via m...

  12. Statistical Efficiency of Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hanemann; John Loomis; Barbara Kanninen

    1991-01-01

    The statistical efficiency of conventional dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys can be improved by asking each respondent a second dichotomous choice question which depends on the response to the first question—if the first response is "yes," the second bid is some amount greater than the first bid; while, if the first response is "no," the second bid is some amount smaller. This "double-bounded" approach is shown to be asymptotically more efficient than the conventional, "singlebo...

  13. Application of the contingent valuation method to estimate a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of freshwater inflows into the Kowie and the Kromme Estuaries were calculated at R0.072/m3 and R0.013/m3, respectively. Total WTP values were estimated at R938 296.59 and R974 019.20, respectively. A valuation function to predict willingness-to-pay was predicted using the Tobit model estimation of linear ...

  14. The Impact of International Diversification on the Corporate Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubenko Alena Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the impact of international diversification strategy on the corporate valuation. It describes theory basis that can explain the sources for value added in companies that use diversification strategy. The article gives also the comprehensive view on the methodology of evaluation of international diversification influence on the corporate value and comparative analysis of inconsistent empirical results of different researches concerning the nature of key relationships’ be...

  15. The valuation of nursing begins with identifying value drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2010-03-01

    Adequate investment in a profession links to its ability to define and document its value. This requires identifying those elements or value drivers that demonstrate its worth. To completely identify nursing's value drivers requires meshing the economic, technical, and caring aspects of its profession. Nursing's valuation includes assessing nursing's tangible and intangible assets and documenting these assets. This information communicates nursing's worth and ensures adequate economic investment in its services.

  16. Federal and Indian oil and gas royalty valuation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers: Royalty management-an M.M.S. overview; Payor/operator/lessee royalty liability; Royalty issues for OCS lessees; Royalty valuation procedures; Gas marketing royalty issues - industry perspective; Gas marketing royalty issues - M.M.S. perspective; Settlements of gas contract disputes Royalty reporting issues; Production reporting issues; Indian royalty issues; Litigation/regulatory updates; Over/under production on federal leases, units, and communitized areas; Audit program; and M.M.S. Reference Handbook

  17. Methods of Bank Valuation in the Age of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Karminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theory ofvalue-based management at the commercial bank and the main valuation methods in the age of globalization. The paper identifies five main factors that significantly influence valuation models selection and building: funding, liquidity, risks, exogenous factors and the capital cushion. It is shown that valuation models can be classified depending on underlying cash flows. Particular attention is paid to models based on potentially available cash flows (Discounted cash flow-oriented approaches, DCF and models based on residual income flows (Residual income-oriented approaches. In addition, we consider an alternative approach based on comparison with same sector banks (based on multiples. For bank valuation equity discounted сash flow method is recommended (Equity DCF. Equity DCF values equity value of a bank directly by discounting cash flows to equity at the cost of equity (Capital Asset Pricing Model, CAPM, rather than at the weighted average cost of capital (WACC. For the purposes of operational management residual income-oriented approaches are recommended for use, because they are better aligned with the process of internal planning and forecasting in banks. For strategic management residual income-oriented methods most useful when expected cash flows are negative throughout the forecast period. Discounted сash flow-oriented approaches are preferable when expected cash flows have positive values and needs for models using is motivated by supporting the investment decisions. Proposed classification can be developed in interests of bank management tasks in the midterm in the age of globalization.

  18. Equivalence of ten different discounted cash flow valuation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using discounted cash flows (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality using the same assumptions; t...

  19. Évaluation organisationnelle | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2011 ... Charles Lusthaus, Gary Anderson, Marie-Hélène Adrien et Elaine Murphy (CRDI 1995). Autres outils et ressources. Le site Web Reflect & Learn a vu le jour grâce à Universalia, au Center for Educational Leadership de l'Université McGill et au CRDI. Il a pour but d'améliorer l'évaluation organisationnelle ...

  20. The Political Man and Contingent Valuation: Motives Do Count

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Nyborg

    1996-01-01

    In addition to his role as a consumer pursuing his own interests, an individual may also regard himself as an ethical observer, judging matters from society's point of view. It is not clear which of these possibly conflicting roles respondents in contingent valuation studies take on. This leads to ambiguities in the interpretation of reported willingness to pay. I formalize this problem using a simple model of respondents' behaviour, based on the concept of subjective social welfare functions...

  1. The equity premium in finance and valuation textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations about the equity premium found in the main finance and valuation textbooks. We review several editions of books written by authors such as Brealey and Myers; Copeland, Koller and Murrin (McKinsey); Ross, Westerfield and Jaffe; Bodie, Kane and Marcus; Damodaran; Copeland and Weston; Van Horne; Bodie and Merton; Stowe et al.; Pratt; Penman; Bruner; Weston & Brigham; and Arzac. We highlight the confusing message the textbooks convey regarding the equ...

  2. Scale Sensitivity and Question Order in the Contingent Valuation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Svensson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evi...

  3. The long-term stock market valuation of customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Lerzan

    2008-01-01

    Firm valuation has been an important domain of interest for finance. However, most financial models do not include customer-related metrics in this process. Studies in marketing have found that one particular customer metric, customer satisfaction, improves the ability to predict future cash flows, long-term financial measures, stock performance, and shareholder value. However, most of these studies predominantly employ models that are not directly used in finance practice. This article exten...

  4. Valuation of Biochemical and Microbiological Indicators in Soil Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...

  5. Valuation of Company Merger from the Shareholders’ Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Toll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available By means of a company merger formerly legally and economically independent companies are tied up to an economic entity. To order the financial state of affairs after the merger, the current shareholders must revalue their stake in the merged company. The interest is focused on the valuation of shares and, consequently, on the allocation of the future economic benefits of the merged company to each owner. Despite the apparent relevance of company mergers in practice, the scientific literature deals with this topic only in an unsatisfying manner. After some early simple model-oriented approaches with the aim to define an ideal exchange ratio, the valuation problem of a merger was taken up again not earlier than in Hering (2004. Based on his considerations, the aim of our paper is to extend and generalize the valuation methods for a company merger and foremost to set the algebra for the computation of the critical share by using maximization of wealth as target function on a firm foundation. We assign a certain marginal quota to the shareholders representing the minimum share in the merged company which puts them in a financial position no worse than compared to the going concern basis. For this reason, we introduce the state marginal quota model as an innovative valuation approach that considers both existing market imperfections and individual expectations of a specific shareholder. To pinpoint our key finding: If private financial redistributions are available, our extended and generalized model shows that the marginal quota * in question cannot be “trivially” obtained as a ratio of utilities. Instead, it is essential to consider the private decision field of a shareholder to allow a restructuring of the dividend payout stream offered by the merged company in order to reach at least a level of utility which is comparable to the state before the merger.

  6. Monetary Valuation of Natural Forest Habitats in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechanec, V.; Machar, I.; Štěrbová, Lenka; Prokopová, Marcela; Kilianová, H.; Chobot, K.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 427. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : mapping ecosystem services * environmental services * biodiversity conservation * ecological resilience * valuing biodiversity * floodplain forests * economic valuation * cost-effectiveness * management * payments * monetary value of forest biodiversity * Natura 2000 * special area of conservation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  7. The ecosystem services valuation tool and its future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; Smeets, Nele; Staes, Jan; Biest, Van der, Katrien; Schaafsma, Marije; Nocker, De, Leo; Meire, Patrick; Cerulus, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Although methodologies for classification, quantification, and valuation of ecosystem services are improving drastically, applications of the ecosystem services concept in day-to-day decision-making processes remain limited, especially at the planning level. Nevertheless, spatial planning decisions would benefit from systematic considerations of their effects on ecosystem services. Assessing the impacts of policy on a wide range of ecosystem services contributes to more cost-effecti...

  8. Exploring a Sense of Intellectual Property Valuation for Indian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh; Minakshi Paliwal

    2014-01-01

    As intellectual property (IP) has become an integral part of business strategy, the valuation of these assets has become more and more critical. Consequently, the strategic decisions of Indian SMEs also increasingly depend on understanding the economics affecting the value of these assets and most crucially appraising the approximate value of their IP. In this light, the paper reviews the principal approaches and methods used to evaluate an IP asset and proposes a framework to help the Indian...

  9. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  10. Correlations and fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyboth, Peter; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Results on two-particle correlations, deuteron production, event anisotropy and event-by-event fluctuations of T > and K/π were obtained by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A·GeV beam energy. The interpretation of the measurements is discussed in light of the search for deconfinement

  11. APPLICATION OF DIVIDEND DISCOUNT MODEL VALUATION AT MACEDONIAN STOCK-EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend discount model (DDM is the simplest model for valuing equities in finance. Many analysts belived that DDM is outmoded, but much of the intuition that drives Discounted Cash Flow (DCF valuation is embedded in the DDM model. There are also specific companies stocks where the DDM model remains a useful tool for estimating value. The basic task of these research is to examine if DDM models offer relevant and safe valuation of long-term securities at Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE through the process of empirical valuation of random chosen stocks. This research helped us to identify problems in use of DDM valuation models at MSE, to determine causes for differences between the intrinsic values and the stock market prices and to determine basic parameters for implementation of valuation on Macedonian financial market. We find that DDM models are usefull only as additional tool beside relative and DCF stocks valuation at MSE.

  12. Visible–NIR emission and structural properties of Sm{sup 3+} doped heavy-metal oxide glass with composition B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–PbO–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–GeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500 - Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Fernandes, R.G.; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Hernandes, A.C. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sãocarlense, 400, CEP 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Buchner, S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Rua Sarmento Leite, 245, CEP 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacinto, C. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Balzaretti, N.M., E-mail: naira@if.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500 - Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    A highly transparent Sm{sup 3+} glass with composition B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–PbO–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–GeO{sub 2} was obtained by the traditional melt quenching technique and characterized from structural and spectroscopic points of view. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the amorphous nature of the sample and revealed the expected low phonon energy. Differential thermal analysis was also carried out to obtain the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures, related to the thermal stability of the sample. Judd–Ofelt theory was applied to evaluate phenomenological intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4 and 6) from the optical absorption measurements. The transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section were also calculated. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible and infrared regions revealed intense green, orange, red and near infrared emission bands providing a new trace to develop tunable laser and optoelectronics devices.

  13. Investigation of electron exchange between neutral and ionized centers of germanium in PbSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terukov, I.E.; Khuzhakulov, Eh.S.

    2005-01-01

    The 73 As( 73 Ge) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy is applied to study the electron exchange between neutral ionized states of the germanium donor center in PbSe. It is shown that the charge state of the antistructural 73 Ge defect, generating in the anion PbSe sublattice after 73 As radioactive decay, does not depend on the Fermi level location. In contrast to this, the 73 Ge center in the cation PbSe sublattice is the isoelectronic substitution impurity. The analysis of emission Moessbauer spectra of p-type PbSe: 73 As testifies about the presence of the fast electron exchange between neutral and ionized donor Ge centers in PbSe [ru

  14. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Laser plasmas produced at the surfaces of lead and a PbGa 2 S 4 layered crystal irradiated by a neodymium laser with λ = 1.06 μm, pulse duration τ = 20 ns, and intensity W = (1-2) x 10 9 W/cm 2 are studied using optical diagnostics. It is shown that, in a lead plasma, the most intense (characteristic) lines are the PbI 405.7-nm, PbI 368.3-nm, PbI 364-nm, and PbII 220.4-nm lines. In a layered crystal plasma, the emission spectrum is an aggregation of the most intense PbI and GaI lines, whereas sulfur lines are absent. The bottlenecks of the recombination of the ionic and atomic components of the lead and PbGa 2 S 4 crystal plasmas are determined. The average propagation velocity of the lead laser plume is 18-20 km/s. A comparative analysis of the emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in the laser plasmas of these metals and in the plasma of a PbGa 2 S 4 crystal is carried out. The results obtained are important for the optical diagnostics of the plasmas of lead- and gallium-containing crystals and for the optimization of laser deposition of the thin films of these substances

  15. The ecological rationality of state-dependent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J M; Trimmer, P C; Houston, A I

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory studies on a range of animals have identified a bias that seems to violate basic principles of rational behavior: a preference is shown for feeding options that previously provided food when reserves were low, even though another option had been found to give the same reward with less delay. The bias presents a challenge to normative models of decision making (which only take account of expected rewards and the state of the animal at the decision time). To understand the behavior, we take a broad ecological perspective and consider how valuation mechanisms evolve when the best action depends upon the environment being faced. We show that in a changing and uncertain environment, state-dependent valuation can be favored by natural selection: Individuals should allow their hunger to affect learning for future decisions. The valuation mechanism that typically evolves produces the kind of behavior seen in standard laboratory tests. By providing an insight into why learning should be affected by the state of an individual, we provide a basis for understanding psychological principles in terms of an animal's ecology.

  16. Contingent valuation of environmental goods - Closure of Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Decisions in the community, are usually taken on the basis of economic calculations. Many environmental effects, however, are excluded from these calculations because it is often difficult to value environmental effects in monetary terms. Contingent valuation has recently become widespread in connection with this purpose, namely in the USA, but also in a number of European countries like, for example, Norway and Sweden. In Denmark the method has been applied sporadically in recent years. The purpose of this study is; to elucidate the problems associated with contingent valuation when the method is used in practice; to indicate study designs which can solve these problems; and draw attention to the reservations which must be made in respect of the results of these types of studies. The data material consists of 298 telephone interviews and 13 personal interviews. The interviewees all live in a radius of 30 km from Barsebaeck. The 311 interviews took place in the period of December 1993 to February 1994, approx. two months after extensive publicity concerning leakages at Barsebaeck. In the telephone interviews, 240 out of the 298 (80%) asked agreed to take part in the interviews. The conclusion cannot be directly transferred to other environmental goods. Barsebaeck was a special case because the risk was known prior to the study. In valuation of goods with which the respondents are not previously familiar, the greater need for information can necessitate using personal interviews. The method provides a better possibility of incorporating environmental effects directly in macroeconomic analyses. (EG)

  17. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  18. Market valuation in the framework of modern life insurance mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Petrač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional actuarial life insurance mathematics, liabilities to beneficiaries (technical reserves are calculated based on conservative assumptions of mortality and interest rates. However, this approach was found to be incomplete since it does not contain the market component which has become essential due to the development of the financial market. Since about 80% of total liabilities of life insurance companies are made up of technical reserves, this issue has a major impact on the overall performance of insuran - ce companies. The introduction of financial components into the actuarial valuation resulted in actuarial mathematics using more and more the elements of financial mathematics thus creating new, modern life insurance mathematics. Using a simple example, this paper compares the traditional and market approaches to valuation. For this purpose, one of the principles of modern life insurance mathematics, the principle of equivalence, was observed. The above market approach to valuation, together with operational risk management, forms the basis of Solvency II Directive, the new legislative and regulatory framework for insurance and reinsurance companies in the European Union.

  19. Landslides geotechnical analysis. Qualitative assessment by valuation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo Oscar, Sc D.; Oliva Aldo, Sc D.; Polanco Gabriel, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    In general, a landslide can cause a disaster when it is combined a number of factors such as an extreme event related to a geological phenomenon, vulnerable elements exposed in a specific geographic area, and the probability of loss and damage evaluated in terms of lives and economic assets, in a certain period of time. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of slope stability through of Valuation Factors, obtained from the characterization of the determinants and triggers factors that influence the instability; for the first the morphology and topography, geology, soil mechanics, hydrogeology and vegetation to the second, the rain, earthquakes, erosion and scour, human activity, and ultimately dependent factors of the stability analysis, and its influence ranges which greatly facilitate the selection of construction processes best suited to improve the behavior of a slope or hillside. The Valuation Factors are a set of parameters for assessing the influence of conditioning and triggering factors that influence the stability of slopes and hillsides. The characteristics of each factor must be properly categorized to involve its effect on behavior; a way to do this is by assigning a weighted value range indicating its effect on the stability of a slope. It is proposed to use Valuation Factors with weighted values between 0 and 1 (arbitrarily selected but common sense and logic), the first corresponds to no or minimal effect on stability (no effect or very little influence) and the second, the greatest impact on it (has a significant influence). The meddle effects are evaluated with intermediate values.

  20. PbSe nanocubes obtained by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: hrojasc@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Achimovicova, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Daneu, N. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, PbSe nanocubes were obtained by high-energy milling, and their optical properties were investigated by measuring the UV-VIS-IR spectra in the range of 200-2,000 nm. The optical absorption of all samples showed a strong UV emission band at 1.45 eV. Previously, to obtain only PbSe nanocubes, an intermediate phase was identified, PbSeO{sub 3}. Although both PbSeO{sub 3} and PbSe were traced through this study, a major effort is devoted to characterize the latter. To trace how chemical transitions evolve from precursors to PbSe, X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. Therefore, the following parameters were evaluated as a function of milling time: phase percentages, area-to-volume ratio, average crystallite dimensions, specific surface area, and morphology changes. To corroborate previous findings, nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used. All the set experimental results unambiguously confirm that crystallites show a cubic morphology, with its average crystallite size distribution being around 24 nm.

  1. PbTe mechanosynthesis from PbO and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, Hugo; Diaz-de la Torre, Sebastian; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Plascencia, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results concerning the mechanosynthesis (MSY), of PbTe from the PbO-Te powder system, at room temperature an atmospheric conditions are reported. XRD results for samples milled for and after 5.4 ks only show PbTe diffraction peaks; neither Te nor PbO or any other solid phase were detected. Particle size and morphology, was followed by SEM observations. Phase evolution and quantification was monitored by Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that the use of lead oxide as a component of the mechanosynthesis system reduces milling time with respect to the Pb-Te metallic system with mechanical alloying.

  2. The application of sustainable development principles to the theory and practice of property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, David Philipp

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploration into the fields of sustainable development, property investment and valuation. It investigates the rationale for immediately and rigorously integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and proposes theoretical and practical options for valuers on how to address sustainability issues within valuation reports. It is argued that the perception of property as a commodity is changing to emphasize sustainable design features and p...

  3. Spécialiste de programme principal, Évaluation (h/f) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il recommande les méthodes, outils et processus d'évaluation et d'autoévaluation appropriés et en facilite la conception et l'utilisation par le personnel et la direction des programmes afin d'appuyer leur utilisation de l'évaluation pour éclairer la conception de projets et de programmes, améliorer les pratiques de gestion, ...

  4. Bank Accounting and Market Valuation in Japan: An Overview of Accounting Issues of Financial Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Ogawa; Takashi Kubota

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers a framework for introducing market valuation to Japanese bank accounting, focusing on practical issues to be solved. Reflecting the growing concern over the present historical cost accounting, it is argued that market valuation should be introduced to bank accounting for disclosure purpose in Japan. Particularly, there are strong arguments for market valuation of certain types of financial instruments. Specific considerations include: the overview of present accounting in...

  5. Does Accrual Management Impair the Performance of Earnings-Based Valuation Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Courteau; Jennifer L. Kao; Yao Tian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically how the presence of accrual management may affect firm valuation. We compare the performance of earnings-based and non-earnings-based valuation models, represented by Residual Income Model (RIM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), respectively, based on the absolute percentage pricing and valuation errors for two subsets of US firms: “Suspect” firms that are likely to have engaged in accrual management and “Normal” firms matched on industry, year and size. Results ...

  6. ASPECTS OF THE STOCK VALUATION AND ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana BANUTA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a current and common and topical problem of the business entities operating in agriculture, the stock valuation and accounting problem. Thus, gradually the article starts from the delimitation of the categories of inventories in agriculture, continues with the reasons for the need to valuate them and shows the stock valuation methods in the current accounting and in other specific situations.

  7. Hadronic Expansion Dynamics in Central Pb+Pb Collisions at 158 GeV per Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshäuser, H; Bailey, S J; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Bock, R; Bormann, C; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferguson, M I; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Xu, N; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1998-01-01

    Two-particle correlation functions of negative hadrons over wide phase space, and transverse mass spectra of negative hadrons and deuterons near mid-rapidity have been measured in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS. A novel Coulomb correction procedure for the negative two-particle correlations is employed making use of the measured oppositely charged particle correlation. Within an expanding source scenario these results are used to extract the dynamic characteristics of the hadronic source, resolving the ambiguities between the temperature and transverse expansion velocity of the source, that are unavoidable when single and two particle spectra are analysed separately. The source shape, the total duration of the source expansion, the duration of particle emission, the freeze-out temperature and the longitudinal and transverse expansion velocities are deduced.

  8. Investigation of the optoelectronic behavior of Pb-doped CdO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Abdollah; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-03-01

    Un- and lead (Pb)-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) semiconductor nanostructures were synthesized by a sonochemical method to study their physical properties. The obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated cubic CdO crystalline structures for all samples and showed that the crystallite size of CdO increases with Pb addition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the nanostructures illustrated agglomerated oak-like particles for the Pb-doped CdO nanostructures. Furthermore, optical studies suggested that the emission band gap energy of the CdO nanostructures lies in the range of 2.27-2.38 eV and crystalline defects increase by incorporation of Pb atoms in the CdO crystalline lattice. In addition, electrical experiments declared that the n-type electrical nature of the un- and Pb-doped CdO nanostructures and the minimum of Pb atoms lead to a high carrier concentration.

  9. Specific activity of 210Pb and historical changes of lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of the published data on historical changes of lead levels in human bones and the environmental lead levels throughout the world is given. The discussion demonstrates that 1) there exists a substantial number of published data on 210 Pb content in man and in environment which support the claim that only a small fraction of the total Pb uptake in humans is contributed from vehicle emissions; 2) the current Pb levels in the majority of Europeans and in the global environment are probably dominated by the natural sources of Pb. In several European countries, the Pb level in man is now much lower than before the industrial revolution; and 3) the claim that the Pb content in man currently increased 500 times above the pre-technological level is based on a misleading interpretation of nonrepresentative data. (U.K.)

  10. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim

    2017-08-02

    CsPb2Br5 is a ternary halogen-plumbate material with close characteristics to well-reported halide perovskites. Due to its unconventional two-dimensional structure, CsPb2Br5 is being looked at broadly for potential applications in optoelectronics. CsPb2Br5 investigations are currently limited to nanostructures and powder forms of the material, which present unclear and conflicting optical properties. In this study, we present the synthesis and characterization of CsPb2Br5 bulk single crystals, which enabled us to finally clarify the material\\'s optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  11. A social preference valuations set for EQ-5D health states in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed at deriving a preference valuation set for EQ-5D health states from the general Flemish public in Belgium. A EuroQol valuation instrument with 16 health states to be valued on a visual analogue scale was sent to a random sample of 2,754 adults. The initial response rate was 35%. Eventually, 548 (20%) respondents provided useable valuations for modeling. Valuations for 245 health states were modeled using a random effects model. The selection of the model was based on two criteria: health state valuations must be consistent, and the difference with the directly observed valuations must be small. A model including a value decrement if any health dimension of the EQ-5D is on the worst level was selected to construct the social health state valuation set. A comparison with health state valuations from other countries showed similarities, especially with those from New Zealand. The use of a single preference valuation set across different health economic evaluations within a country is highly preferable to increase their usability for policy makers. This study contributes to the standardization of outcome measurement in economic evaluations in Belgium.

  12. Persistent Pb Pollution in Central East Antarctic Snow: A Retrospective Assessment of Sources and Control Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chaewon; Han, Changhee; Han, Yeongcheol; Hur, Soon Do; Lee, Sanghee; Motoyama, Hideaki; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin

    2016-11-15

    Well-defined variations in the enrichments and isotopic compositions of Pb have been observed in snow from Dome Fuji and Dome A in the central East Antarctic Plateau (EAP) over the past few decades. The Pb isotopic fingerprints indicate that the rapid increase in Pb enrichments from the mid-1970s, reaching a peak in ∼1980, is due to the massive use of leaded gasoline in northern South America, especially Brazil. Since then, they show a continuous decline, mostly due to the significant removal of the Pb additives from gasoline in Brazil in the 1980s and, subsequently, in Argentina and Chile in the 1990s. After the phase-out of Pb in gasoline, Cu smelting in Chile has become the major source of Pb, contributing ∼90% to the total Pb emissions in northern South America in 2005. Nevertheless, Pb pollution in the central EAP declined substantially until recently as a result of the regulatory efforts to curb toxic trace metal emissions from the Cu industry in Chile. However, more than 90% of the Pb in the most remote places on Earth are still of anthropogenic origin, highlighting the need for the continuation of environmental regulations for the further reduction of Pb emissions.

  13. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  14. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  15. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S J; Yoo, S H; Han, S Y; Do, G W; Lee, J S [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  16. Heavy metal pollution and Pb isotopic tracing in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ruilian; Zhang, Weifang; Hu, Gongren; Lin, Chengqi; Yang, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of 16 heavy metals and Pb isotopic ratios in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay were determined to study the pollution level of heavy metals and the sources of Pb. The results showed that most concentrations of Cd, Sn, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cs, Fe and V were higher than the background values, while most concentrations of Ti, Sb and Sr were lower than the background values. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd exceeded the first-grade criteria of Chinese marine sediment quality. The geo-accumulation indexes revealed that the sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals. The results of Pb isotopic tracing indicated that the total Pb in the sediments were mainly from parent material, industrial emission and vehicle exhaust with the mean contributions of 38.2%, 51.3% and 10.5%, respectively, calculated by a three-end-member model of Pb isotopic ratios. - Highlights: •Level of 16 heavy metals in intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay was studied. •The sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals including Pb. •Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments and the potential sources were determined. •A three-end member model was applied to estimate the contributions of Pb sources. •Industrial emission was the major anthropogenic Pb contributor in the sediments.

  17. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia, E-mail: marianaluciaandrei@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Babes-Bolyai University, Environmental Science and Engineering Faculty, 30 Fantanele, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Levei, Erika-Andrea [INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found.

  18. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Levei, Erika-Andrea; Borodi, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found

  19. A Strangelet and Particle Search in Pb-Pb Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Lohmann, K-D; Linden, T

    2002-01-01

    %NA52 %title\\\\ \\\\The NA52 experiment aims to detect strangelets, \\textit{i.e.} small drops of strange quark matter, which might result from the extreme energy and baryon densities attained in Pb+Pb collisions at a beam momentum of 158~A GeV/c. The experiment uses the H6 beam line as a spectrometer equipped with wire chambers, time of flight measurements over a path of 524~m and a hadronic calorimeter which is placed at the end of the setup.\\\\ \\\\During the 17 day run in fall of 1994 we accumulated data of 1.8~\\cdot~10$^{12}$~Pb ions on our Pb targets. The average beam intensity was 2~\\cdot~10$^{7}$~ions per spill for the NA52 experiment. We were running mainly with a 40~mm target at spectrometer rigidities of $\\pm$100 and $-$200~GeV/c and with a 16~mm target at $+$200~GeV/c. Per setting 10$^{11}$ Pb+Pb collisions were recorded. During the Pb-ion run in 1995 the statistics for the strangelet search at a rigidity of $-$200~GeV/c has been improved by about one order of magnitude. This was mainly due to a factor o...

  20. Deuteron production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Hlinka, V; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Ivanov, M; Jacobs, P; Janik, R; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results on deuteron emission from central Pb+Pb collisions (E/sub beam/=158A GeV, fixed target), obtained by NA49 at the CERN SPS accelerator, are presented. The transverse mass m/sub t/ distribution was measured near mid-rapidity (2.0emission volume is consistent with earlier HBT results on the source of pion emission. (28 refs).

  1. Reliability of stable Pb isotopes to identify Pb sources and verifying biological fractionation of Pb isotopes in goats and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Yabe, John; Liazambi, Allan; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 μg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Highlights: • Presence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken was studied. • The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B. • Chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B. • The biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats. • Threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Biological fractionation and its threshold for stable Pb isotope ratio in goats and chickens were examined.

  2. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and $p$+Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356981; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak boson ( W , Z , γ ) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV and in p +Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In p +Pb, the Z boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity yZ⁎ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken xPb ). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large xPb . The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The Z boson production yields are measured as a functi...

  3. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00356981

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak boson ($W$, $Z$, $\\gamma$) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV and in $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In $p$+Pb, the $Z$ boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity $y_{Z}^{*}$ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken $x_{Pb}$). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large $x_{Pb}$. The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The $Z...

  4. NMR study of LaPb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Kohara, T.; Yamada, Y.

    1995-01-01

    La and Pb NMR signals were observed in LaPb 2 with a superconducting transition temperature of about 7 K. The width of the Pb NMR spectrum with an asymmetric line shape was rather narrower than those of Er-, Gd- and Ho-Pb 2 . The spin-lattice relaxation time of Pb nuclei was twice longer than that of Pb metal. La NMR spectrum had satellites due to the electric quadrupole interaction. These results show that each local environment at La or Pb site in LaPb 2 compound is uniquely determined, compared with those in randomly substituted alloys. ((orig.))

  5. Investigation on the parity violation in the 207Pb(npol, γ)208Pb reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Ermakov, O.N.; Karpikhin, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the investigation of P-odd asymmetry in the emission of γ-rays after absorption of transverse-polarized neutrons by nuclei 207 Pb are given. The measurements were carried out on polarized thermal neutron beam of the ITEP reactor. The obtained upper limit of the P-odd asymmetry coefficient is 1.7x10 -5 at the 90% confidence level. This result may be crucial for one-particle (valent) mechanism of the mixing of compound resonance wave function componets having opposite parities

  6. Valuation of private companies by Estonian private equity and venture capitalists / Priit Sander, Margus Kõomägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sander, Priit, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Eraettevõtete hindamine Eesti era- ja riskiinvestorite poolt. Riskikapitali hinnakujundamise meetodid. Tabelid: Venture capital valuation issues; Venture capital pricing issues and return. Skeem: The venture capital valuation process in Estonia

  7. Yrast excitations in 191Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Andreyev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Prompt, in-beam γ rays in coincidence with evaporation residues were measured in the 164,166 Er + 164 MeV 32 S reactions. A level scheme built on the 13/2 + isomer has been deduced from four transitions assigned to 191 Pb. The states in 191 Pb are interpreted in terms of a weak coupling of the odd i 13/2 neutron-hole to the spherical states in the even-mass 192 Pb core. (orig.). With 4 figs

  8. Lead precipitation fluxes at tropical oceanic sites determined from 210Pb measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.; Turekian, K.K.; Cochran, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, 210 Pb, and 210 Po were measured in rain selected for least influence by local sources of contamination at several tropical and subtropical islands (Enewetak; Pigeon Key, Florida; and American Samoa) and shipboard stations (near Bermuda and Tahiti). Ratios expressed as ng Pb/dpm 210 Pb in rain were 250--900 for Pigeon Key (assuming 12% adsorption for 210 Pb and no adsorption for lead), depending on whether the air masses containing the analyzed rain came from the Caribbean or from the continent, respectively; about 390 for the northern Sargasso Sea downwind from emissions of industrial lead in North America; 65 for Enewetak, remote from continental emissions of industrial lead in the northern hemisphere; and 14 near Tahiti, a remote location in the southern hemisphere where industrial lead emissions to the atmosphere are much less than in the northern hemisphere. (The American Samoa sample yielded a higher ratio than Tahiti; the reason for this is not clear but may be due to local Pb sources). The corresponding fluxes of lead to the oceans, based on measured or modeled 210 Pb precipitation fluxes, are about 4 ng Pb/cm 2 y for Tahiti, 10 for Enewetak, and 270 for the Sargasso Sea site, and between 110 to 390 at Pigeon Key

  9. HBT correlation in 158 AGeV Pb + Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R.; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Huang, I.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.

    1998-01-01

    The large acceptance TPCs of the NA49 spectrometer allow for a systematic multidimensional study of two-particle correlations in different part of phase space. Results from Bertsch-Pratt and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii parametrizations are presented differentially in transverse pair momentum and pair rapidity. These studies give an insight into the dynamical space-time evolution of relativistic Pb+Pb collisions, which is dominated by longitudinal expansion.

  10. Upper Mississippi Pb as a mid-1800s chronostratigraphic marker in sediments from seasonally anoxic lakes in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeil, Charles; Tessier, André; Couture, Raoul-Marie

    2013-07-01

    Sediment cores from eight headwater lakes located in Southern Québec, Eastern Canada, were analyzed for Pb, stable Pb isotopes, and the radioelements 210Pb, 137Cs, 241Am and 226Ra. The depth profiles of stable Pb isotope ratios show, for the post-19th century period, the influence of several isotopically distinct anthropogenic lead sources, mainly including emissions from two Canadian smelters and from leaded gasoline combustion in Canada and in the United States. A most interesting feature of the profiles, however, is the presence of sharp stable Pb isotope ratio peaks near the depth horizon, where excess 210Pb becomes undetectable. Using a binary mixing model and assuming that natural Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions from the catchment are given by the pre-industrial sediments at the bottom of the cores, we find that a significant part of the anthropogenic Pb supplied to the sediments at this horizon originated from smelting activities in the Upper Mississippi Valley. We assess that the Pb isotope ratio peaks, also observed in the laminated sediments of the Pettaquamscutt Estuary, Rhode Island, USA, are an accurate chronostratigraphic marker for the validation of mid-19th century 210Pb-derived dates. Given that the study lakes are located up to 2000 km from the Mississippi Valley, we conclude that this isotopic Pb signal provides a widely distributed time-marker that is key to validate 210Pb chronologies in environmental archives from Eastern North America.

  11. Capturing Business Strategy and Value in Enterprise Architecture to Support Portfolio Valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates and enhances the suitability of the Archi Mate enterprise architecture modeling language to support the modeling of business strategy concepts and architecture-based approaches to IT portfolio valuation. It gives an overview of existing strategy and valuation concepts and

  12. Interactive valuation : the social construction of the value of ecological services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.; Röling, N.

    1999-01-01

    Two different perspectives mark the discourse about the valuation of ecological services: (i) a positivist-realist perspective, and (ii) a constructivist perspective. The implications of the constructivist perspective for valuation are presented. First, is analyzed the current dominant practice of

  13. 29 CFR 4281.16 - Benefit valuation methods-plans closing out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as determined under this subpart. (b) Valuation rule. The present value of nonforfeitable benefits... 4281(b) of ERISA, the plan sponsor shall value the plan's benefits in accordance with paragraph (b) of... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit valuation methods-plans closing out. 4281.16...

  14. 7 CFR 3015.55 - Valuation of donated equipment, buildings, and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Valuation of donated equipment, buildings, and land...-Sharing or Matching § 3015.55 Valuation of donated equipment, buildings, and land. When a third party... donated property shall depend upon the purpose of the grant or subgrant as follows: (a) Awards for capital...

  15. Research bias in judgement bias studies : a systematic review of valuation judgement literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent Gruis; Pim Klamer; Cok Bakker

    2017-01-01

    Valuation judgement bias has been a research topic for several years due to its proclaimed effect on valuation accuracy. However, little is known on the emphasis of literature on judgement bias, with regard to, for instance, research methodologies, research context and robustness of research

  16. Research bias in judgement bias studies : A systematic review of valuation judgement literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Pim; Bakker, C.; Gruis, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Valuation judgement bias has been a research topic for several years due to its proclaimed effect on valuation accuracy. However, little is known on the emphasis of literature on judgement bias, with regard to, for instance, research methodologies, research context and robustness of research

  17. 13 CFR 108.503 - NMVC Company's adoption of an approved valuation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following the close of the quarter. (e) Review of valuations by independent public accountant. (1) For valuations performed as of the end of your fiscal year, your independent public accountant must review your... independent public accountant's report on your audited annual financial statements (SBA Form 468) must include...

  18. Dynamic learning and context-dependence in sequential, attribute-based, stated-preference valuation questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Kevin J. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid stated-preference model is presented that combines the referendum contingent valuation response format with an experimentally designed set of attributes. A sequence of valuation questions is asked to a random sample in a mailout mail-back format. Econometric analysis shows greater discrimination between alternatives in the final choice in the sequence, and the...

  19. Supporting Fiscal Aspect of Land Administration through an LADM-based Valuation Information Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Çağdaş, V.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Işıkdağ, Ü.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stubkjær, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an information system artifact for the fiscal aspect of land administration, a valuation information model for the specification of inventories or databases used in valuation for recurrently levied immovable property taxes. The information model is designed as an extension module

  20. 26 CFR 301.7517-1 - Furnishing on request of statement explaining estate or gift valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estate or gift valuation. 301.7517-1 Section 301.7517-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... estate or gift valuation. (a) In general. Section 7517 requires the Service to furnish to a taxpayer, at the request of that taxpayer, a statement explaining the estate, gift or generation-skipping transfer...

  1. Évaluation des télécentres communautaires

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La plupart des études d'évaluation auront pour objectif de mesurer les .... Les télécentres peuvent faire du contrôle régulier une de leurs tâches de gestion ...... Planning, monitoring and évaluation of programme performance: a resource book.

  2. The Analysis of Corporate Bond Valuation under an Infinite Dimensional Compound Poisson Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the firm bond valuation and credit spread with an endogenous model for the pure default and callable default corporate bond. Regarding the stochastic instantaneous forward rates and the firm value as an infinite dimensional Poisson process, we provide some analytical results for the embedded American options and firm bond valuations.

  3. Moving beyond the exchange value in the nonmarket valuation of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Allen; Rebecca Moore

    2016-01-01

    There has been much discussion across the ecosystem services literature as to the role of economic valuation in identifying ecosystem service values and shaping policy. This article demonstrates a non-typical use of a nonmarket valuation technique known as the stated choice experiment (CE) for understanding a range of public preferences for stream-related...

  4. Facile preparation of PbS nanostructures and PbS/f-CNT nanocomposites using xanthate as sulfur source: Thermal and optical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Parisa; Akbarzadeh, Raziyeh; Dehghani, Hossein, E-mail: dehghani@kashanu.ac.ir

    2015-10-25

    PbS nanostructures with different morphologies were fabricated using a new sulfur source through a facile and low cost hydro(solvo)thermal method. The influence of different reaction factors such as sulfur source, temperature, reactant, solvent and surfactant on the size and morphology of the obtained PbS particles were investigated. Beside, a simple hydrothermal process at low temperature (60 °C) for little time (4 h), has been used for preparation of PbS nanoparticles (NPs)/functionalized multi wall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) nanocomposite. The as-prepared nanocomposite possesses excellent thermal and optical properties. Thermal stability increases by depositing PbS nanoparticles on the surface of CNT. The structure, morphology, thermal and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocompounds were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Pl spectra and UV–Vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra of PbS NPs and nanocomposite are consist of two emission peaks which centered at around 402 and 423 nm, when excited at 350 nm. It was noteworthy that the blue luminescence intensity over PbS/f-CNT nanocomposite is very lower than that of pure PbS NPs. Remarkable blue-shift from bulk material was observed on the PbS nanoparticles using UV–Vis spectrum. Furthermore, possible growth mechanism of PbS nanostructures is presented. - Graphical abstract: PbS nanostructures with different morphologies were fabricated using xanthate as sulfide source. Also, PbS/f-CNT nanocomposites were synthesized by simple hydrothermal process at low temperature (60 °C) for little time (4 h). - Highlights: • Sodium tert-butyl xanthate was used as sulfur source for synthesis of PbS. • Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O salt was used for synthesis of PbS. • PbS/CNT nanocomposite was synthesized in deionized water for 4 h at 60

  5. Control Variates for Monte Carlo Valuation of American Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicki S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers two applications of control variates to the Monte Carlo valuation of American options. The main contribution of the paper lies in the particular choice of a control variate for American or Bermudan options. It is shown that for any martingale process used as a control variate...... technique is used for improving the least-squares Monte Carlo (LSM) approach for determining exercise strategies. The suggestions made allow for more efficient estimation of the continuation value, used in determining the strategy. An additional suggestion is made in order to improve the stability...

  6. A primer on counterparty valuation adjustments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wayne van Vuuren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Counterparty valuation adjustment (CVA risk accounts for losses due to the deterioration in credit quality of derivative counterparties with large credit spreads. Of the losses attributed to counterparty credit risk incurred during the financial crisis of 2008-9 were due to CVA risk; the remaining third were due to actual defaults. Regulatory authorities have acknowledged and included this risk in the new Basel III rules. The capital implications of CVA risk in the South African milieu are explored, as well as the sensitivity of CVA risk components to market variables. Proposed methodologies for calculating changes in CVA are found to be unstable and unreliable at high average spread levels.

  7. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  8. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  9. Environmental Valuation of Conserving the Setiu Wetland in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Suziana Binti

    the application of CE literature by applying the Stated Preference (SP) technique to the economic valuation of non-marketed environmental services from wetland conservation. This thesis consists of three empirical papers divided into two topics. The first part concerns the methodological improvement of SP survey...... applications specifically on the challenge of selecting an appropriate payment vehicle for valuing environmental goods in countries like Malaysia. The second part focuses on recognizing and understanding taste heterogeneity for better welfare estimates. The enhanced conservation alternatives are described...

  10. Towards a listed real estate investment valuation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douw Gert Brand Boshoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Listed Real Estate Investment Valuation Model that was developed to investigate the movement in indirect real estate investment through the consideration of the underlying assets of property loan stock companies. Specific reference is given to information that is made available to shareholders by way of annual financial statements in order to determine the extent to which shareholders can make investment decisions based on this information. The study enhances the knowledge of direct vs. indirect real estate investment behaviour and provides more insight into price discovery in the property sector.

  11. Strategic financial statement analysis and valuation of Aker solutions ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Farstadvoll, Haakon Simonsen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the fair value of Aker Solutions ASA per 31.05.2017. The fair value is held up against the market price to make a recommendation as to what investment strategy an external, well-diversified investor should follow. The strategic analysis concludes that Aker Solutions has a potential strategic advantage in the longer term, but faces strong challenges in the market in the short term. A fundamental valuation by a DCF approach is used as the ...

  12. Best Practices in Applying Multiples for Valuation Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenborg, Thomas; Pimentel, René Coppe

    2016-01-01

    A literature review suggests eight empirical implementation issues to which practitioners should give increased attention. Implementation issues include how comparable firms are selected, the use of reported versus forecasted earnings, and the most suitable way of calculating averages. We identif...... more informed decisions when accessing a firm’s value....... a more effective way to handle each implementation issue in order to enhance the accuracy of valuation outputs. By synthesizing the main empirical findings and thereby identifying best practices when applying market multiples, we expect to help analysts, portfolios managers, and investment bankers make...

  13. Issues in the valuation of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stine

    1998-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the valuation of travel time savings (emanating from investment in transport infrastructure). In the first part of the paper the question is approached within a microeconomic framework. It is discussed if and how the theory can give indications on the relative value...... of travel time elements and on the extrapolation of time values into the future. In the second part of the paper the same questions are investigated on the basis of the results of several empirical studies....

  14. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D; Keil Svn, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron De Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Mis̈kowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; Szanto De Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb at sNN=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons

  15. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) with respect to the valuation of the remainder interest in property transferred to a charitable... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests...) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 General Actuarial Valuations § 25.7520...

  16. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6 - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of a remainder interest in property... § 1.642(c)-6 Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund. (a) In... transferred property on the valuation date. The fact that the income beneficiary may not receive the last...

  17. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF URBAN LAND MASS VALUATION OBJECTIVENESS AND WAYS OF SOLVING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAPIKOVSKYI O. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Implementation of prudent investment, urban planning and fiscal policy is possible only if there is knowledge of the real value of land in the entire city, which is obtained by the mass appraisal of urban land. The implementation of this important social function puts strict requirements for urban land mass valuation results objectiveness and comparability, stated in the international sectoral standards and regulations. Purpose. The aim of the article is to determine the basic requirements to urban land mass valuation results objectiveness maintenance and to analyse the compliance of the normative monetary valuation with these requirements. Conclusion. The problem of urban land mass valuation objectiveness can be considered through the prism of the ontological, epistemological and logical aspects, compliance with which allows the anticipation of the expected improvement of this valuation methodological apparatus efficiency.

  19. Equivalence of the different discounted cash flow valuation methods. Different alternatives for determining the discounted value of tax shields and their implications for the valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the valuation of firms by cash flow discounting. The first part shows that the four most commonly used discounted cash flow valuation methods (free cash flow discounted at the WACC; cash flow available for equity holders discounted at the required return on the equity flows; capital cash flow discounted at the WACC before taxes; and Adjusted Present Value) always give the same value. This result is logical because all the methods analyse the same reality under the same hy...

  20. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450–950), the Inca empires (AD 1450–1532), colonial times (AD 1532–1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity. PMID:26601147

  1. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity.

  2. Determination of {sup 210}Pb and other radionuclides; Determinacion de {sup 210}Pb y otros radionuclidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Orellana, Jordi [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    {sup 210}Pb is an {beta}-{gamma} emitter, with two emissions of {beta} E{sub 1max} = 63.1 keV energies and E{sub 2max} = 16.6 keV {gamma} emission of 46.5 keV. Being twice emitter allows direct determination by different techniques, but also can determine its activity indirectly through its descendant the {sup 210}Po. The most common technique recommended for determining the {sup 210}Pb in coastal sediments is a measure of {sup 210}Po spectrometric {alpha}. In these records we can assume that the {sup 210}Pb and its descendant {sup 210}Po are in secular equilibrium, although the possibility exists that in the upper core this is not always met. The advantages of this technique are that i) radiochemical processing of samples is not complicated, ii) {alpha} spectrometers allow fast counting to obtain acceptable statistics (<10%) and iii) the amount of sample required is small (0.2 to 1 g). The ease of handling samples and the simplicity of spectral treatment allows exploratory profiles of the cores to determine the quality of sedimentary profile before the onset of other analysis. Direct measurement of the {sup 210}Pb {gamma} spectrometry with Ge detectors of high resolution is also very common. Advantages of this technique are that: - it is a nondestructive technique and thus allows reuse of other samples for analysis - preparation of measurement geometries is simple and requires no radiochemical processes; - allows simultaneous measurement of other {gamma} radionuclides of interest ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K and {sup 23} {sup 4}Th). There are also some disadvantages: - high cost of measurement systems and need for low background shields without {sup 210}Pb; - calibration of the equipment is complex in the area of {sup 210}Pb; - low efficiencies that require long counting time to obtain acceptable statistics (<10%); - need to have at least 5 g of sample well detectors and at least about 20 g for coaxial detectors, although some authors use

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAX OBJECT SALES VALUE ON LAND AND BUILDINGS WITH INDONESIAN VALUATION STANDARD (SIP-BASED VALUATION IN MALANG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani I.F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore how the valuation/appraisal in determining land and building values at Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB in Malang City and to analyze the comparison between the valuation of Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB conducted in Malang and the valuation of land and buildings according to Indonesian Valuation Standards (SPI. Through the qualitative research with a case study approach, it was obtained that the model of mass and individual appraisals on the valuation of Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB had the similar stages to the individual appraisal according to Indonesian Valuation Standards (SPI. Furthermore, from the results, the problems faced in valuing Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB by the Local Revenue Office of Malang City were also known. It can be used as a consideration for the improvement of regulation or procedure in valuing Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB.

  4. Outpatient imaging center valuations: do you need a fair-market value analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonsman, G S

    2001-01-01

    Typically, outpatient diagnostic imaging centers are formed as partnerships between radiologists, radiologists and hospitals, and/or radiologists and diagnostic imaging center management companies. As a result of these partnership structures, the question of equity valuation frequently arises. It is not only important to understand when an independent valuation would be required, but also what "type" of valuation needs to be performed. The type of valuation may vary based upon the use of the valuation. In partnerships that involve hospitals and physicians, the federal anti-kickback statutes (fraud and abuse laws) require that all transactions between referring physicians and hospitals be consummated at fair-market value. In addition, tax-exempt hospitals that enter into partnerships with physicians are required to enter into those transactions at fair-market value or risk losing their tax-exempt status. Fair-market value is also typically the standard of value that all partnerships strive to conduct equity transactions with shareholders. Qualifications required by those who perform independent fair-market value opinions include: Proper business valuation training and focus on valuations as a primary business Focus on the healthcare industry and specifically on the valuation of diagnostic imaging centers In order to perform a reasonable business valuation analysis, the appraiser must have access to a significant amount of financial, operational and legal information. The analyst must be able to understand the history of the imaging center as well as the projected future of the center. Ultimately, a valuation is a measurement of the estimated future cash flows of the center--risk adjusted--in order to quantify the present value of those cash flows.

  5. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  6. New Land valuation criteria after the spanish 2011 valuation of land regulation: the objectivation of building expectations in rural land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria De La Encarnación Valcárcel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The land valuation regime has undergone one of its most important modifications at the hands of the 2008 Land Act and its 2011 Regulation. According to the so-called objectivity principle - which defines all established methods for the new basic situations of land - and according to the stated prohibition of taking into consideration building expectations arising from granted planning permission, the fact is that the existence of circumstances that are not a natural consequence of landowner investments made on the property is easily deducible. This is inconsistent with the spirit of the Land Act in force contained in its Explanatory Memorandum.

  7. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Real estate valuation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Branko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no complete and systemized infrastructure for efficient and reliable evaluation of real estates in the Republic of Serbia. This is confirmed by analysis of the applicable regulations which treat valuation of real estates in different ways. This practice contradicting numerous standards and applicable directives (INSPIRE directive, Strategy of the development of geospatial data infrastructure in the Republic of Serbia etc., as well as numerous other examples of good practice governing the activities of collecting and maintaining spatial data infrastructure. By the Law on State Survey and Cadaster of the 2009, the Republic Geodetic Authority is ensured to the jurisdiction of the development of mass appraisal, which should provide real estate market value for all real estates in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. In contrast, the position and the role of local government being increasable stronger in creating the budget, which is closely associated with the values of resources and capital which local government have. Determing the property tax is the responsibility of the local government and therefore its role in the process of valuation of immovable property is of great importance. In addition to local governments, the Tax Administration traditionally determines real estate values. This paper analyzes the current situation and initiate further activities on the development of the system of evaluation of real estates in the Republic of Serbia.

  9. Mainstreaming Natural Capital into Decisions: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnas Palaima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review current paradigms in ecosystem services valuation, existing gaps and current trends in addressing those gaps. Natural capital, often defined as the stock of natural ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future, is often undervalued or not valued at all by governments, business and society, which leads to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. One of the major reasons of such undervaluation is the lack of practical, realistic quantitative methods/models that would establish ecosystem services value and its change due to human development. A promising, recently developed ecosystem services modeling system is InVEST: “Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-Offs.” InVEST is a set of Geographic Information Systems (GIS models that predict the provision and value of ecosystem services and habitat provision given land use/land cover maps and related biophysical, economic, and institutional data for the study region. InVEST, if further developed and applied in a systematic way, could facilitate mainstreaming the natural capital into decisions at all levels and provide a strong foundation for local natural resources managers to improve and optimize their environmental management strategies.

  10. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. Today, this role is becoming all the more apparent in the conduct of natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) and cost-benefit analyses of environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities. As such, environmental professionals are more interested in how natural resource values are affected by ER and WM activities. This professional interest extends to the use of NRDA values as measures of liability and legal causes of action under such environmental status as the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, as amended); and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990. Also, environmental professionals are paying closer attention to NRDA values in cost-benefit analyses of risk and pollution-abatement standards, and in meeting environmental and safety standards - for achievable (ALARA). This handbook reviews natural resource valuation techniques that may be applied to resources at DOE sites within the foregoing contexts.

  11. Real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to perform a real options valuation of fusion energy R and D programme. Strategic value of thermonuclear fusion technology is estimated here based on the expected cash flows from construction and operation of fusion power plants and the real options value arising due to managerial flexibility and the underlying uncertainty. First, a basic investment option model of Black-Scholes type is being considered. Then, a fuzzy compound real R and D option model is elaborated, which reflects in a better way the multi-stage nature of the programme and takes into account the imprecision of information as one of the components of the overall programme uncertainty. Two different strategies are compared: 'Baseline' corresponding to a relatively moderate pace of fusion research, development, demonstration and deployment activities vs. 'Accelerated' strategy, which assumes a rapid demonstration and massive deployment of fusion. The conclusions are drawn from the model calculations regarding the strategic value of fusion energy R and D and the advantages of accelerated development path. - Research highlights: → Real options analysis of fusion R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) programme. → ENPV of fusion RDDD programme is calculated using stochastic probabilistic simulation. → Fusion RDDD programme exhibits substantial positive real options value: Euro 245 billion. → Fuzzy compound real option valuation method provides more robust results.

  12. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  13. Valuation of Wind Energy Projects: A Real Options Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Abadie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We address the valuation of an operating wind farm and the finite-lived option to invest in it under different reward/support schemes: a constant feed-in tariff, a premium on top of the electricity market price (either a fixed premium or a variable subsidy such as a renewable obligation certificate or ROC, and a transitory subsidy, among others. Futures contracts on electricity with ever longer maturities enable market-based valuations to be undertaken. The model considers up to three sources of uncertainty: the electricity price, the level of wind generation, and the certificate (ROC price where appropriate. When analytical solutions are lacking, we resort to a trinomial lattice combined with Monte Carlo simulation; we also use a two-dimensional binomial lattice when uncertainty in the ROC price is considered. Our data set refers to the UK. The numerical results show the impact of several factors involved in the decision to invest: the subsidy per MWh generated, the initial lump-sum subsidy, the maturity of the investment option, and electricity price volatility. Different combinations of variables can help bring forward investments in wind generation. One-off policies, e.g., a transitory initial subsidy, seem to have a stronger effect than a fixed premium per MWh produced.

  14. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. Today, this role is becoming all the more apparent in the conduct of natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) and cost-benefit analyses of environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities. As such, environmental professionals are more interested in how natural resource values are affected by ER and WM activities. This professional interest extends to the use of NRDA values as measures of liability and legal causes of action under such environmental status as the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, as amended); and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990. Also, environmental professionals are paying closer attention to NRDA values in cost-benefit analyses of risk and pollution-abatement standards, and in meeting environmental and safety standards - for achievable (ALARA). This handbook reviews natural resource valuation techniques that may be applied to resources at DOE sites within the foregoing contexts

  15. Real option valuation of power transmission investments by stochastic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringles, Rolando; Olsina, Fernando; Garcés, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Network expansions in power markets usually lead to investment decisions subject to substantial irreversibility and uncertainty. Hence, investors need valuing the flexibility to change decisions as uncertainty unfolds progressively. Real option analysis is an advanced valuation technique that enables planners to take advantage of market opportunities while preventing or mitigating losses if future conditions evolve unfavorably. In the past, many approaches for valuing real options have been developed. However, applying these methods to value transmission projects is often inappropriate as revenue cash flows are path-dependent and affected by a myriad of uncertain variables. In this work, a valuation technique based on stochastic simulation and recursive dynamic programming, called Least-Square Monte Carlo, is applied to properly value the deferral option in a transmission investment. The effect of option's maturity, the initial outlay and the capital cost upon the value of the postponement option is investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis determines optimal decision regions to execute, postpone or reject the investment projects. - Highlights: • A modern investment appraisal method is applied to value power transmission projects. • The value of the option to postpone decision to invest in transmission projects is assessed. • Simulation methods are best suited for valuing real options in transmission investments

  16. Fluorescence Blinking and Photoactivation of All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sudipta; Mondal, Navendu; Patra, Satyajit; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-01-21

    Study of the emission behavior of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I as a function of the excitation power employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and conventional techniques reveals fluorescence blinking in the microsecond time scale and photoinduced emission enhancement. The observation provides insight into the radiative and nonradiative deactivation pathways of these promising substances. Because both blinking and photoactivation processes are intimately linked to the charge separation efficiency and dynamics of the nanocrystals, these key findings are likely to be helpful in realizing the true potential of these substances in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  17. AOT-microemulsions-based formation and evolution of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D; Tang Kai Bin; Liang Zhen Hua; Zheng Hua Gui

    2004-01-01

    Anionic surfactant-AOT-microemulsions-assisted formation and evolution of PbWO//4 nanostructures with bundles rodlike, ellipsoidlike, and spherelike prepared at different media conditions were studied by powder X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanisms for the formation of PbWO//4 samples in series of microemulsion systems were discussed. Various comparison experiments show that several experimental parameters, such as the AOT concentration, the water content, and reaction temperature play important roles in the morphological control of PbWO//4 nanostructures. Room-temperature photoluminescence of PbWO//4 samples with different morphologies has also been investigated and the results reveal that all these samples showed similar features with emissions at 480 similar to 510 nm but different luminescence intensity. 40 Refs.

  18. Tunable photoluminescence of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots for light emitting diodes application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Xin, Xing; Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng; Li, Cunlong; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Miao; Du, Juan

    2017-11-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbBr3) perovskite quantum dots (QDs), as one kind of promising materials, have attracted considerable attention in optoelectronic applications. Herein, we synthesized the colloidal CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable photoluminescence (PL) (493-531 nm) by adjusting the reaction temperatures, which revealed narrow emission bandwidths of about 25 nm. The average diameters of the QDs could be adjusted from 7.1 to 12.3 nm as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 180 °C. Moreover, the radiative lifetimes of CsPbBr3 QDs were measured to be 2 ns, and the single QD fluorescence intensity time trace results demonstrated its suppressed blinking emission. Moreover, green light emitting diodes by using CsPbBr3 QDs casted on blue LED chips were further fabricated, which provided potential applications in the field of display and lighting technology.

  19. Femtoscopy with Identified Hadrons in pp, pPb, and PbPb Collisions in CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Siklér

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-range correlations of identified charged hadrons in pp ( s = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV, pPb ( s NN = 5.02 TeV, and peripheral PbPb collisions ( s NN = 2.76 TeV are studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. Charged pions, kaons, and protons at low momentum and in laboratory pseudorapidity | η | < 1 are identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker. The two-particle correlation functions show effects of quantum statistics, Coulomb interaction, and also indicate the role of multi-body resonance decays and mini-jets. The characteristics of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional correlation functions are studied as a function of transverse pair momentum, k T , and the charged-particle multiplicity of the event. The extracted radii are in the range 1–5 fm, reaching highest values for very high multiplicity pPb, also for similar multiplicity PbPb collisions, and decrease with increasing k T . The dependence of radii on multiplicity and k T largely factorizes and appears to be insensitive to the type of the colliding system and center-of-mass energy.

  20. Self-assembled colloidal PbS quantum dots on GaAs substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Wei; Yamada, Fumihiko; Kamiya, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication and analysis of self-assembled monolayer and bilayer films of colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (001) substrates. 1,6-hexanedithiol is used as link molecule between QDs and GaAs substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the formation of PbS QD film on GaAs. For the monolayer PbS QD film, the temperature-dependent PL shows a feature typical of close-packed film. For the bilayer PbS QD film fabricated from two different mean-sized PbS QDs, we find that the stacking sequence of QDs with different size affects the quantum yield and emission wavelength of the film.