WorldWideScience

Sample records for paulo city brazil

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  2. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Afonso; Lorena Berdasco; Thais Medeiros; Mirian Rejowski

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising ma...

  3. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising market for two segments: a exclusive pet hosting and b shared hosting (people with their pets. Hotel products and services for pets mean both broadening of the hospitality concept, and diversification. It means also new professionals are needed at managerial and operational levels to attend pet owners´ expectations and pets comfort themselves.

  4. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Nathalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  5. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natália H; Melo, Fernando Af; Santos, Adolfo Cb; Pandolfi, José Rc; Almeida, Elisabete A; Cardoso, Rosilene F; Berghs, Henri; David, Suzana; Johansen, Faber K; Espanha, Lívia G; Leite, Sergio Ra; Leite, Clarice Qf

    2011-07-29

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis). Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8%) were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4%) showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT), and 21 (22.6%) showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) (26 isolates), followed by the T family (24 isolates) and Haarlem (H) (11 isolates), which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database) comprised 51.8% (37/72) of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1). Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates in the remaining

  6. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espanha Lívia G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis. Findings Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8% were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4% showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT, and 21 (22.6% showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM (26 isolates, followed by the T family (24 isolates and Haarlem (H (11 isolates, which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database comprised 51.8% (37/72 of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1. Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Conclusions Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic

  7. Dose absorbed in x-rays toraxicas executed in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.B.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the contribution of radiography exams in the dose received by the population of the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil), we made mensurations of the doses absorbed in toraxicas x-rays (projections PA and LAT) taken in several teams of rays X used in hospitals. The work is supplemented with demography data and the knowledge of the quantity of exams executed in each team

  8. Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia; Pompeia, Celine; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Surveys were performed using the same three-stage cluster-sampling technique in three consecutive decades to obtain representative samples of the inhabitants of Sao Paulo with respect to gender, age (20-80 years), and socio-economic status. Sample sizes were 1000 volunteers in 1987 and 1995 surveys and 1101 in a 2007 survey. In each survey, the UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire was administered face-to-face in each household selected. For 1987, 1995, and 2007, respectively, difficulty initiating sleep (weighted frequency %; 95% CI) [(13.9; 11.9-16.2), (19.15; 16.8-21.6), and (25.0; 22.5-27.8)], difficulty maintaining sleep [(15.8; 13.7-18.2), (27.6; 24.9-30.4), and (36.5; 33.5-39.5)], and early morning awakening [(10.6; 8.8-12.7), (14.2; 12.2-16.5), and (26.7; 24-29.6)] increased in the general population over time, mostly in women. Habitual snoring was the most commonly reported complaint across decades and was more prevalent in men. There was no statistically significant difference in snoring complaints between 1987 (21.5; 19.1-24.2) and 1995 (19.0; 16.7-21.6), but a significant increase was noted in 2007 (41.7; 38.6-44.8). Nightmares, bruxism, leg cramps, and somnambulism complaints were significantly higher in 2007 compared to 1987 and 1995. All were more frequent in women. This is the first study comparing sleep complaints in probabilistic population-based samples from the same metropolitan area, using the same methodology across three consecutive decades. Clear trends of increasing sleep complaints were observed, which increased faster between 1995 and 2007 than from 1987 to 1995. These secular trends should be considered a relevant public health issue and support the need for development of health care and

  9. [Tuberculosis among city jail inmates in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco; Cardoso, Janaina Corrêa

    2004-03-01

    To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4,293 inmates who were held in the four prisons that comprise Campinas' municipal prison system. Data were obtained from the tuberculosis database belonging to the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine of the School of Medical Sciences at the State University of Campinas. The incidence of tuberculosis peaked in 1994 (1,397.62 cases per 100,000) and was lowest in 1999 (559.04 cases per 100,000). Most cases of tuberculosis occurred in inmates in the 25 to 34 year age group (62.6%). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was the disease most commonly associated with tuberculosis (49.9%), which was most often pulmonary in type (91.9%), with positive sputum smears in 70.3% of the inmates tested. Most inmates had not received treatment before (75.4%). The treatment dropout rate reached 49%, and a cure was achieved in only 20.8% of the cases notified over the study period. The incidence of tuberculosis observed in this study was moderate when compared to incidence rates found in other studies of prison inmates, but this could be due to underreporting. The frequency of treatment failure noted was low, since patients who were treated under supervision showed good adherence and were cured in the majority of cases. However, the high treatment dropout rate seen in the study is alarming because it could facilitate the spread of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community at large. Controlling tuberculosis among prison inmates should be part of routine interventions aimed at eliminating this disease from the community and at preventing resistance to antituberculosis therapy.

  10. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in São Paulo: the most populated city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lage Alencar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber. In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega City of São Paulo - SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Santos, Rafael; Saraiva Lopes, António Manuel; Prata-Shimomura, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega city of São Paulo - SP, Brazil Tropical megacities have presented a strong trend in growing urban. Urban management in megacities has as one of the biggest challenges is the lack of integration of urban climate and urban planning to promote ecologically smart cities. Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) are considered as important and recognized tool for urban climate management. Classes are local in scale, climatic in nature, and zonal in representation. They can be understood as regions of uniform surface cover, structure, material and human activity that have to a unique climate response. As an initial tool to promote urban climate planning, LCZs represent a simple composition of different land coverages (buildings, vegetation, soils, rock, roads and water). LCZs are divided in 17 classes, they are based on surface cover (built fraction, soil moisture, albedo), surface structure (sky view factor, roughness height) and cultural activity (anthropogenic heat flux). The aim of this study is the application of the LCZs classification system in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil. Located at a latitude of 23° 21' and longitude 46° 44' near to the Tropic of Capricorn, presenting humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with diversified topographies. The megacity of São Paulo currently concentrates 11.890.000 inhabitants is characterized by large urban conglomerates with impermeable surfaces and high verticalization, having as result high urban heat island intensity. The result indicates predominance in urban zones of Compact low-rise, Compact Mid-rise, Compact High-rise and Open Low-rise. Non-urban regions are mainly covered by dense vegetation and water. The LCZs classification system promotes significant advantages for climate sensitive urban planning in the megacity of São Paulo. They offers new perspectives to the management of temperature and urban ventilation and allows the formulation of urban planning

  12. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  13. Preliminary report on management of neonatal jaundice in maternity clinics of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains aproblem because it can lead to sequelae in both children and adults. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate how neonatal jaundice is treatedin maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Prospective andtransversal study on maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Aquestionnaire was applied to doctors working at neonatal wards withinmaternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, divided into public (n = 6 andprivate maternity clinics (n = 18. The results obtained from the differentitems of the questionnaire were then compared. Statistical analysis wasperformed using the Student’s t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitneytest when appropriate, and a p value < 0.005 was considered significant.Results: There were no significant differences between the two typesof maternity hospitals in relation to the treatment method for neonataljaundice. However, among private maternities there were some that didnot have written guidelines (5/17 and those that performed exchangetransfusion (3/18. Teaching was significantly more present amongpublic (100% than private maternity hospitals (17.6%. The mean serumbilirubin levels to initiate treatment did not show significant differencesbetween the two types of maternities. Some clinical practices in use bymaternity hospitals are not evidence based. Conclusions: The presentdata were considered preliminary and showed that further research inthe area is required and if our findings are confirmed, indicate the needfor continuous medical education on the part of health professionals incharge of newborns.

  14. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  15. HIV-1 subtypes among intravenous drug users from two neighboring cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Rossini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in two neighboring cities located near the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil (Santos and São Paulo, we investigated 83 HIV-1 strains obtained from samples collected in 1995 from intravenous drug users. The V3 through V5 region of the envelope of gp 120 was analyzed by heteroduplex mobility analysis. Of the 95 samples, 12 (12.6% were PCR negative (6 samples from each group; low DNA concentration was the reason for non-amplification in half of these cases. Of the 42 typed cases from São Paulo, 34 (81%, 95% confidence limits 74.9 to 87.0% were B and 8 (19%, 95% confidence limits 12.9 to 25.0% were F, whereas of the 41 typed cases from Santos, 39 (95%, 95% confidence limits 91.6 to 98.4% were B and 2 (5%, 95% confidence limits 1.6 to 8.4% were C. We therefore confirm the relationship between clade F and intravenous drug use in São Paulo, and the presence of clade C in Santos. The fact that different genetic subtypes of HIV-1 are co-circulating indicates a need for continuous surveillance for these subtypes as well as for recombinant viruses in Brazil.

  16. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg -1 and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg -1 , respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  17. Ionizing radiation population doses at Sao Paulo city, Brazil: open-pit gamma dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Raimundo Enoch Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation to the human beings are well known for high and intermediate doses. As far as low level) radiation doses are concerned, there is no consensus. In order to get a better understanding of such effects it is necessary to assess the low doses with better accuracy. In this work, it was made an estimate of the annual ambient dose equivalent (H * (10)) to which the people are exposed in the city of Sao Paulo. Until now there are no data about it available in the literature. For the purpose of this evaluation, a map with various routes covering the largest and more representative area of the city was designed. The choice of points for data collection was made taking into account mainly the occupancy of the region. A portable gamma spectrometry system was used. It furnishes the rate of H * (10) and the measured gamma spectrum (in the range from 50 to 1670 keV) in the place of interest. The measurements were performed in a short time interval, since the gamma radiation arrives from a great extent of soil. Each measurement was done 1 m above the soil during 300 s. The rates of H * (10) varied from 33.1 to 152.3 nSv.h -1 , net values, obtained after subtraction of the cosmic rays contribution. The standard deviation was 22 n Sv.h -1 for an average for the city of Sao Paulo of 96.1(24) nSv.h -1 . In addition, average values of H * (10) rates for the city Health Divisions were calculated. Those values are not statistically equivalent and the whole set of data could not be treated as one, as the statistical Student test indicated a non homogeneity of the group of data. Hence it is necessary the accomplishment of a more detailed survey in order to verify the origin of the discrepancy. The mean value of H * (10) rate obtained for the city of Sao Paulo as converted to effective dose. in order to be compared with other places results It could be noticed that the annual average of effective dose for the city of Sao Paulo, 0.522(13) mSv, is superior to

  18. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  19. Rare earth elements, U and Th in tunnel dusts of SÃO Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nory, Renata M.; Figueireido, Ana Maria G., E-mail: renata.nory@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo is one of the most populated cities in the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 12 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. Given its importance as a major urban center in South America and the lack of information concerning urban dust composition, the present study aimed to determine rare earth elements (REEs), U and Th mass fractions in tunnel dust, collected in the Jânio Quadros Tunnel, and to assess their possible sources. The study of REEs distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last decades, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REEs, that are as common as the most familiar metals, are found in metallurgical additives, fluid cracking catalysts and automobile converter catalysts, among other applications. In this study, which employed Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) as analytical technique, the mass fractions of eight REEs were determined and normalized to the chondrite concentration values. The results showed that major concentrations were found for light REEs, following the sequence Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Yb > Eu > Tb > Lu. The pattern of the results pointed to a natural origin for these elements. Regarding U and Th concentrations, the results varied between 1.0 - 9.4 μg g{sup -1} and 3.3 - 35.9 μg g{sup -1}, respectively. Since there is almost no information about the concentration of these elements in this kind of matrix in São Paulo city, these data are important to support further investigations. (author)

  20. Ethnicity and cutaneous melanoma in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda C Luiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogeneous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe-Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03-8.77, Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41-8.57, a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.93, or ≥ 2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06-7.47; eye color-light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14-3.84 and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22-9.58; pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21-6.49; no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03-9.22; and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants.

  1. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  2. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  3. Spatial distribution of trace elements in topsoils adjacent to main avenues of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Natalia C.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration and distribution of Ba, Cu, Mo, Pb, S, Zn and Zr in soils collected along two main avenues (Pinheiros River Highway and Tiete River Highway) with high traffic density in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented, and their possible sources are discussed. These elements are strongly considered as contaminants originated from vehicular emissions. The analytical technique employed was XRF. The data set was evaluated by a t test for independent samples (group: avenues) at a 0.05 significance level. According to t test, the average contents obtained from Pinheiros River Highways are significantly different than the Tiete River, except for Mo. Multivariate statistic approaches (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factorial Analysis - FA) were adopted for data treatment. FA identified two main factors which accounted for about 86% of the total variance. The behavior of Ba, Cu, Pb, S and Zn were explained by the Factor 1. This indicates that the elements may have similar sources, probably related to gas emissions escaping from the vehicle fuel system. Factor 2 included Mo and Zr, suggesting their origin in the sample soils may be associated with the deterioration process of some device in the vehicular engine system or may be associated with the chemical composition of the urban soil analyzed. (author)

  4. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 ± 0.1 mSv.y -1 . For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 ± 0.12 mSv.y -1 . (author)

  5. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  6. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  8. Ocorrência de astrovírus humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of human astrovirus in S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Eberhard Stewien

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram detectados astrovírus humanos durante estudo longitudinal de 13 meses sobre a incidência de vírus diarréicos em 146 crianças menores de 2 anos de idade, hospitalizadas em clínica pediátrica de um hospital universitário, na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Das 67 crianças internadas com diarréia aguda, 3% foram positivas para astrovírus, por ocasião de sua admissão, pelo Ensaio Imunoenzimático Monoclonal Amplificado (ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, CDC, USA. As 79 crianças sem diarréia, admitidas durante o mesmo período por outra causa (controles, foram negativas para astrovírus, por ocasião de seu internamento. Entretanto, 4,8% do total de crianças hospitalizadas sofreram infecções por astrovírus durante sua permanência no hospital. Este é o primeiro estudo sobre a ocorrência de astrovírus humanos no Brasil, que assim participam significativamente na etiologia da gastroenterite infantil em nosso meio.Human astrovirus was detected during a 13-month longitudinal study of the incidence of diarrhoea viruses among hospitalized children (<2 years of age in a pediatric clinic of the city of S. Paulo (University Hospital. Serial fecal samples (intervals of 4 days were collected from 146 children with and without acute diarrhoea at admission and during their stay in the hospital. Two (3% of the 67 children with diarrhoea were positive at admission to the clinic by the highly sensitive ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, using CDC monoclonal antibodies (MAb SE7. All 79 children without diarrhoea (controls were negative for astrovirus at admission. However, astrovirus was detected in 7 (4.8% of the 146 hospitalized children during their stay in the clinic. Three of the positives shed astroviruses in 2 successive stool samples. All children positive for astrovirus were negative for rotavirus, adenovirus and bacterial and parasitic enteric agents. This is the first study of the detection of human astrovirus in Brazil. Astrovirus

  9. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  10. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-01-01

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  11. Alguns aspectos da mortalidade entre japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of mortality in Japanese and their descendants in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Léa Davidson Gotlieb

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available São analisadas algumas características da mortalidade entre imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, comparando-as com a população do Japão e geral do município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes apresentam padrão de mortalidade de nível intermediário entre o do local de origem e o de destino, aproximando-se mais do nível de saúde do Japão. A mortalidade infantil entre os descendentes dos imigrantes, nascidos no município de São Paulo, é bem inferior à do município de São Paulo. O risco de morrer por lesões vasculares que afetam o sistema nervoso central é mais alto no Japão. Por outro lado, o risco de morrer por doenças cardíacas é muito mais alto no município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses apresentam-se num nível intermediário de mortalidade pelas causas acima referidas. Tal fato sugere atuação de fatores ambientais, levando os imigrantes a adquirirem padrão de mortalidade do local de destino.Some mortality characteristics of Japanese immigrants and their descendants living in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, are analysed. Comparison between these characteristics and those among the populations of Japan and the city of S. Paulo has been made. The Japanese immigrants and their descendants have an intermediate pattern of mortality ranking between the pattern of Japan and the S. Paulo one, being closer to the former. The infant mortality rate among the Japanese born in S. Paulo is much lower than the S. Paulo rate. The death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is higher in Japan. On the other hand, the death rate for diseases of the heart (except rheumatic heart disease is much higher in S. Paulo. The association of a low death rate for diseases of the heart with a high death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is observed. The Japanese immigrants tend to occupy an intermediate mortality level

  12. Relation between aerosol sources and meteorological parameters for inhalable atmospheric particles in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fatima; Orsini, Celso; Maenhaut, Willy

    Stacked filter units were used to collect atmospheric particles in separate coarse and fine fractions at the Sao Paulo University Campus during the winter of 1989. The samples were analysed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the data were subjected to an absolute principal component analysis (APCA). Five sources were identified for the fine particles: industrial emissions, which accounted for 13% of the fine mass; emissions from residual oil and diesel, explaining 41%; resuspended soil dust, with 28%; and emissions of Cu and of Mg, together with 18%. For the coarse particles, four sources were identified: soil dust, accounting for 59% of the coarse mass; industrial emissions, with 19%; oil burning, with 8%; and sea salt aerosol, with 14% of the coarse mass. A data set with various meteorological parameters was also subjected to APCA, and a correlation analysis was performed between the meteorological "absolute principal component scores" (APCS) and the APCS from the fine and coarse particle data sets. The soil dust sources for the fine and coarse aerosol were highly correlated with each other and were anticorrelated with the sea breeze component. The industrial components in the fine and coarse size fractions were also highly positively correlated. Furthermore, the industrial component was related with the northeasterly wind direction and, to a lesser extent, with the sea breeze component.

  13. Elemental composition of herbal medicines sold over-the-counter in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, the use of herbal medicines is very popular due to its immense flora, cultural aspects and to the popular belief that herbs, which are of natural origin, are safe and without undesirable side effects. Aside from that public interest in natural therapies, the use of herbal medicines has increased expressively due to the high cost of synthetic medicines. In this study, elemental compositions of herbal medicines from the species Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Centella asiatica, Mulberry and Aloe vera supplied by different suppliers were evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Zn and some lanthanides were determined in these samples. Comparisons made between the results indicated differences in their elemental contents depending on the plant species, origins of the samples and the age of the leaves. The results also showed that the herbal medicines contain elements such as Ca, Co, K, Fe, Mg and Zn known as essential to humans and for treatment and prevention of diseases. Toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Cu were not detected. Elements As and Sb were detected in some samples but at very low concentrations at the μg kg -1 levels. Herbal medicine results were also compared to literature values. Biological certified reference material was analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito JA Luna

    Full Text Available With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  15. Ambient radiation dose to the population of the city of Sao Paulo-Brazil: indoor gamma distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsubo, Sergio M.; Yoshimura, Elizabeth M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present results of indoor ambient dose equivalent rate (H * (10)) in the city of Sao Paulo. Studies show that people of industrialized cities spend indoor approximately 80% of their time, and that there are great variations of the rate of H * (10) all over the world. Values of environmental radiation are important base to epidemiological studies, or analyses of consequences and effects of radioactive or nuclear accidents and also to assist research on biological effects of low doses, a very controversial subject in the literature. There are no reports in the literature about environmental radiation in the city of Sao Paulo, showing the important of this study. Environmental radiation exists everywhere in the planet, so the human beings are exposed to it at any time or place, being indoor or outdoor. Three types of commercial indoor ambient with large flow of the population were analyzed: bank offices, shops in the neighborhood of the banks, and shopping centers. A gamma ray portable spectrometer was used, composed by a crystal of NaI (Tl). The mean value of the H * (10) rate obtained was 173,8(17) nSv/h. The results analyzed by commerce type and by the health divisions of the city are also presented. (author)

  16. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  17. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  18. Satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women from primary health care services in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women attending primary health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: crosssectional study conducted with a sample of 668 women aged 1849 years, who were enrolled in 38 primary health care facilities in São Paulo city, Brazil, in 2015. Exclusion criteria were no sexual initiation, use of irreversible contraceptive methods for more than five years, pregnancy and no contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed using chisquare and multivariate logistic regression. Results: in general, women were satisfied with current contraceptive method (78.7%. The higher percentage of satisfaction was observed among IUD users (94.7%, and female and male sterilization users (93.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Withdrawal users were less satisfied (52.9%. Contraceptive method itself was the only factor associated with satisfaction. Barrier or traditional method users were less likely to be satisfied with their contraceptive methods than irreversible method users. Conclusions: long acting contraceptive method and irreversible method users were more satisfied with their contraceptive methods. Efforts should be undertaken in order to make these contraceptives available and accessible in primary health care facilities in Brazil.

  19. Trends in the profile of blood donors at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalez Thelma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in the profile of blood donors from 1995 through 2001 at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, particularly following the initiation in 1998 of marketing strategies aimed at substituting replacement donors with altruistic repeat donors. METHODS: Using an information system that had been established at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo in 1994, we collected information on sex, age, and type of donation for the years 1995-2001. We classified blood donors as either replacement blood donors (if they stated that the reason for donating was that they had a friend or relative in the hospital or as altruistic donors. First-time blood donors were those who had not donated in our institution since the establishment of the information system. RESULTS: The percentage of repeat altruistic blood donors increased over time as first-time replacement donors declined for both genders. The proportion of altruistic donors climbed from 20% of all blood donors in 1995 to 57% in 2001. In 2001, first-time blood donors represented only 52% of all donors, as contrasted to 88% in 1995. Female donors increased from 20% to 37% of the donors over the period studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that the São Paulo population has responded well to the marketing strategies that have been introduced in our institution. We believe that similar promotional efforts elsewhere in Brazil would produce comparable, positive results.

  20. Tuberculose no sistema prisional de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Tuberculosis among city jail inmates in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a situação da tuberculose nas prisões da Cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos casos notificados de tuberculose em presidiários no período de 1993 a 2000. Foram avaliados dados de 4 293 detentos dos quatro presídios que constituem o complexo penitenciário da região. Foram utilizadas informações do banco de dados em tuberculose do Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um pico de incidência da tuberculose em 1994 (1 397,62 notificações em 100 000 indivíduos. A menor taxa foi observada em 1999 (559,04. Predominou a faixa etária de 25 a 34 anos (62,6% e a AIDS como doença associada (49,9%. A forma preponderante de tuberculose foi a pulmonar (91,9%, com baciloscopia de escarro positiva em 70,3%. A maioria dos presidiários não tinha realizado tratamentos prévios (75,4%. O abandono de tratamento chegou a 49%. Houve cura em apenas 20,8% dos casos no período estudado. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência intermediária de tuberculose observada neste estudo pode estar relacionada à subnotificação. A freqüência de falência do tratamento ainda é baixa. No entanto, o abandono, como fator que facilita a propagação de micobactérias resistentes na comunidade, causa preocupação. O controle da tuberculose nas prisões deveria ser parte rotineira das intervenções direcionadas a eliminar a doença na comunidade e a prevenir a resistência às drogas antituberculose.OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4 293 inmates who were held

  1. [The sexual behavior of adolescents in some schools in the city of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira

    2008-12-01

    It is a descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying some aspects related to teenagers' sexual behavior. The subjects of the study were 920 adolescents aged 10 to 19, who were attending primary and secondary schools in the region of Santo Eduardo, municipality of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected through a questionnaire with 28 structured questions. The results show that 77% of adolescents liked their bodies, 71% looked for information about sexuality, and 35% thought their parents were the primary source of information; 26% of them said they had an active sexual life, 79% had had the first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 or younger, and 81% used condoms. The results of the study emphasize the importance of providing sexual guidance for adolescents in order to encourage prevention attitudes.

  2. Fraction of work-related accidents attributable to occupational noise in the city of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, A; Cordeiro, R

    2008-01-01

    Background: Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. Materials and Methods: In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for sev...

  3. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  4. GPR applied to mapping utilities along the route of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel construction in São Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Ruy, Yang Boo; Ramos, Fernanda Pereira; Yamanouth, Gisele R. B.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid industrial development and disorganized population growth in huge cities bring about various urban problems due to intense use of physical space on and below the surface. Subsurface problems in metropolitan areas are caused by subway line construction, which often follows the routes of utility networks, such as electric and telephone cables, water and gas pipes, storm sewers, etc. Usually, the main problems are related to damage or destruction of preexisting utilities, often putting human lives at risk. With the purpose of minimizing risks, GPR-profiling with 200 MHz antennae was done at two sites, both located in downtown São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives of this work were to map utilities or existing infrastructure in the subsurface in order to orient the construction of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo. GPR profiles can detect water pipes, utility networks in the subsurface, and concrete foundation columns or pilings in subsoil up to 2 m depth. In addition, the GPR profiles also provided details of the target shapes in the subsurface. GPR interpretations combined with lithological information from boreholes and trenches opened in the study areas were extremely important in mapping of the correct spatial distribution of buried utilities at these two sites in São Paulo. This information improves and updates maps of utility placement, serves as a basis for planning of the geotechnical excavation of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo, helps minimize problems related to destruction of preexisting utilities in the subsoil, and avoids risk of dangerous accidents.

  5. [The aging process and work: a case study in the maintenance engineering division of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Andrea Toshye; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; Jardim, Tatiana de Andrade; Ratier, Ana Paula Pelegrini; Lancman, Selma

    2017-11-06

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the relations between aging and work. This was a case study in the maintenance engineering division of a high-complexity hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In September and October 2015, 16 semi-structured interviews were held with the division heads and other workers with a minimum age of 50 years. The data were analyzed with thematic content analysis. Although the workers experienced difficulties resulting from the aging process, these did not prevent them from performing their work activities, since they developed strategies through their knowhow to compensate for their functional losses and/or declines. Still, they felt limited and demotivated due to the poor working conditions, outsourcing of the division, and the prevailing workload organization. Thus, in this division, the working conditions and organization had more impact than the aging process on the individuals' daily work routine.

  6. Menopausa, hormônios, envelhecimento: discursos de mulheres que vivem em um bairro na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brasil Menopause, hormones, aging: the discourse of women living on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Trench

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar os discursos de mulheres usuárias de unidade básica de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brazil, sobre a menopausa para compreender os sentidos que elas atribuem a este evento. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas oito mulheres entre 44 e 75 anos, empregando-se a metodologia qualitativa na perspectiva do construcionismo social, de modo que os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante, história de vida e entrevistas. RESULTADOs: nas mulheres estudadas, a menopausa é vivida de modo geral como um acontecimento inevitável, relacionado ao corpo e à vida, e é considerada uma entidade estranha, ou inimiga, que ataca as mulheres de maneira inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: nas mulheres estudadas os resultados indicam que este período deve ser percebido em seu caráter particular e relativo, não como sendo da ordem do universal ou como algo padronizado.OBJECTIVES: to analize the discourse regarding the menopause in women attending a health service unit on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to understand the meaning they attribute to this event. METHODS: eight women aged between 44 and 75 years were interviewed using qualitative methods and a social constructionist approach. The data were collected using participant observation, life histories and interviews. RESULTS: in the group of study the menopause is experienced by these women as an inevitable occurrence related to their bodies and lives and is also considered a strange inimical event that afflicts them unexpectedly. CONCLUSIONS: in ghe group of study the results indicate how important it is to approach the menopause is such a way that is viewed as something relative and particular to each individual, not as something universal and standardized.

  7. [The climate change policy of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: reflexivity and permeability of the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Rubens; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2014-10-01

    São Paulo is today an unsustainable city in which social and environmental vulnerabilities are obliged to tackle the uncertainties of climate change. To face up to this situation, in 2009 the city unveiled its Climate Change Policy. The scope of this paper is to analyze how the health sector is preparing to contribute to the implementation of this policy by 2012. Content analysis was the method adopted by examining official documents and conducting semi-structured interviews. In a context of social transformation affected by environmental degradation and socio-environmental consequences there is a need for the cessation of inertia and a demand for new knowledge systems. The outcomes of the study showed a positive intersectorial dialectic relationship, since the research hypothesis was that the health sector would be called upon to back actions on air quality monitoring. Its verification showed a broad scope introducing health promotion and preventive actions as the determinant focus, especially influencing other public policies. Thus, the process under scrutiny acquired reflexivity when evolving with interactive measures breaking with the traditional sectorial and reductionist policy model. It shows an intersectorial perspective based on the importance of issues related to local public health.

  8. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  9. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg -1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg -1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  10. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  11. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-01-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 μGy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and LAT

  12. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  13. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  14. Hospital marketing: characterization of marketing actions in private hospitals in the city of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiderman, Eduardo Blay; Padovan, Jorge Luis; Zucchi, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the marketing actions in private hospitals in the city of São Paulo, the organizational structure of the marketing area, the target public of marketing actions and the media used. Exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out by a survey made with hospital administrators. The hospitals studied were clearly divided in two groups whose differentials are statistically significant: 1. good infrastructure and equipment, with a well-defined investment policy in marketing; 2. worse infrastructure and less equipment, with lower proportional investment in marketing. 1. The actions most used are the evaluation of patients/caregivers satisfaction, web site and dissemination of the hospital services. 2. The hospital administrators attribute a level of significant importance to the application of hospital marketing concepts. 3. There is a marketing structure in most of the hospitals studied. 4. The hospitals consider as extremely or very important publics: patients and relatives, doctors, collaborators, health plans and community. 5. The media most used are the most simple and of lower cost. 6. There is a statistically significant correlation between the higher investment in marketing and the best infrastructure. 7. The studied hospitals apply the concept of marketing in a restricted way.

  15. Fraction of work-related accidents attributable to occupational noise in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for several covariables was obtained by classifying occupational noise exposure into three levels, as well as determining the prevalence in each level. Based on these data, the attributable fraction was estimated as 0.6391 (95% CI = 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 63% of the work accidents that took place in the study site were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The causes of this association as well as its implications in the prevention of work accidents are discussed.

  16. Entrapped victims in motor vehicle collisions: characteristics and prehospital care in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rogério Navarro Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the severity of trauma in entrapped victims and to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity. INTRODUCTION: Triage and rapid assessment of trauma severity is essential to provide the needed resources during prehospital and hospital phases and for outcome prediction. It is expected that entrapped victims will have greater severity of trauma and mortality than non-entrapped subjects. METHODS: A transverse, case-control, retrospective study of 1203 victims of motor vehicle collisions treated during 1 year by the prehospital service in São Paulo, Brazil was carried out. All patients were drivers, comprising 401 entrapped victims (33.3% and 802 non-entrapped consecutive controls (66.7%. Sex, age, mortality rates, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, corporal segments, timing of the prehospital care and resource use were compared between the groups. The results were analysed by χ2, Zres, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: Entrapped victims were predominantly men (84.8%, aged 32±13.1 years, with immediate mortality of 10.2% and overall mortality of 11.7%. They had a probability of death at the scene 8.2 times greater than that of non-entrapped victims. The main cause of death was hemorrhage for entrapped victims (45.2% and trauma for non-entrapped victims. Of the entrapped victims who survived, 18.7% had a severe GCS (OR = 10.62, 12% a severe RTS (OR = 9.78 and 23.7% were in shock (OR = 3.38. Entrapped victims were more commonly transported to advanced life support units and to tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSION: Entrapped victims had greater trauma severity, more blood loss and a greater mortality than respective, non-entrapped controls.

  17. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  18. A study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in risk groups in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Gobetti Vieira Coelho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the extent of and trends in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a priority of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The current study aimed to estimate the incidence of MDR-TB, describe the profile of TB drug resistance in risk groups and examine whether screening for MDR-TB adhered to the recommended guidelines. A descriptive study that examined diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil, between 2000-2004. Of the 2,176 pulmonary TB cases studied, 671 (30.8% met the criteria for drug sensitivity testing and, of these cases, 31.7% (213/671 were tested. Among the tested cases, 9.4% were resistant to one anti-TB drug and 15% were MDR. MDR was observed in 11.6% of 86 new TB cases and 17.3% of 127 previously treated cases. The average annual incidence of MDR-TB was 1.9 per 100,000 inhabitants-years. The extent of known MDR-TB in the city of Santos is high, though likely to be underestimated. Our study therefore indicates an inadequate adherence to the guidelines for MDR-TB screening and suggests the necessity of alternative strategies of MDR-TB surveillance.

  19. Decrease in mortality rate and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction after the enactment of the smoking ban law in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Scholz, Jaqueline; de Masi, Eduardo; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Filho, Roberto Kalil

    2017-11-01

    Smoking restriction laws have spread worldwide during the last decade. Previous studies have shown a decline in the community rates of myocardial infarction after enactment of these laws. However, data are scarce about the Latin American population. In the first phase of this study, we reported the successful implementation of the law in São Paulo city, with a decrease in carbon monoxide rates in hospitality venues. To evaluate whether the 2009 implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban law in São Paulo city was associated with a reduction in rates of mortality and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. We performed a time-series study of monthly rates of mortality and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction from January 2005 to December 2010. The data were derived from DATASUS, the primary public health information system available in Brazil and from Mortality Information System (SIM). Adjustments and analyses were performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) method modelled by environmental variables and atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the effect of smoking ban law in mortality and hospital admission rate. We also used Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) to make a comparison between the period pre and post smoking ban law. We observed a reduction in mortality rate (-11.9% in the first 17 months after the law) and in hospital admission rate (-5.4% in the first 3 months after the law) for myocardial infarction after the implementation of the smoking ban law. Hospital admissions and mortality rate for myocardial infarction were reduced in the first months after the comprehensive smoking ban law was implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  1. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  2. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1% (95% confidence interval 4.7, 7.6%) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6% (6.2, 11.1%) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  3. O ensino profissionalizante na imperial cidade de são Paulo, Brasil (1823-1889 - Vocational education in the imperial city of São Paulo, Brazil (1823-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Etchebéhère-Júnior, Sandra Farto Botelho Trufem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo deste trabalho a realização de um resgate histórico no  sentido  de demonstrar  que  o  Ensino  Profissionalizante,  hoje significativamente  valorizado e  discutido,  não  se configura como novidade  na história educacional de nossa província. Desde a  época da  Imperial Cidade de São  Paulo  existiram  varias  iniciativas no sentido de estabelecê-lo, de modo geral com história bem sucedida, de tal modo que alguns deles constituíram-se em embriões de afamadas escolas ou faculdades atuais. Palavras-chave: ensino profissionalizante; período     imperial; província de São Paulo.   VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE IMPERIAL CITY OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (1823  - 1889 Abstract The objective of this work is the realization of a historical rescue of the Vocational Education, now significantly enhanced and discussed as a novelty in the educational history of our province. Since of the time of the Imperial City of São Paulo, there were several initiatives to  establish it,  in  general with successful history, so that  some of them  consisted  in  the  embryos of  many  renowned schools  and colleges today. Keywords: vocational education; the imperial period; the province of Sao Paulo.   EDUCACIÓN  PROFESIONAL  EN LA CIUDAD IMPERIAL DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL (1823  - 1889 Resumen Objetivo de este trabajo es la realización de un histórico en el sentido de mostrar  que la  enseñanza  profesional,  ahora  mucho  mayor  y discutido,  no  está  diseñado   como  una   novedad  en  la  historia educativa de nuestra provincia. Desde la época de la imperial ciudad de São Paulo había varias iniciativas para su creación, en general con la historia de éxito, por lo que algunos de ellos consistió en embriones de muchas escuelas e universidades de renombre hoy en día. Palabras -clave:  formación   profesional;  la   época   imperial;  la provincia de Sao Paulo.   L

  4. Causes of death among people living with AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART Eras in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Silvia Bruniera Domingues

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. METHODS: Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991-1996; early post-HAART (1997-1999; and late post-HAART (2000-2006. The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991-1995 and ICD-10 (1996-2006. We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001: from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001 for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001 for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001 for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%, septicemia (33.46%, cardiovascular diseases (10.11% and liver diseases (8.0%; and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  5. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  6. Alguns grupos de microrganismos em manteigas vendidas no município de São Paulo Microorganism groups found in butter sold in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de manteiga de 5 marcas diferentes vendidas em supermercados da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil com a finalidade de verificar as condições microbiológicas de manteigas e compará-las com os padrões recomendados. Semanalmente foi colhida uma amostra de cada marca, durante 21 semanas. A partir da parte aquosa de cada amostra, foram realizadas as contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrófilas (em ágar padrão e ágar gelisato, coliformes, proteolíticas e de bolores e leveduras e os resultados comparados com alguns parâmetros propostos por vários pesquisadores. Os valores obtidos nas contagens dos vários grupos de microrganismos estudados, em muitos casos podem ser considerados altos, os quais podem ser resultado do processamento e/ou conservação, realizados em condições não satisfatórias.One hundred and five samples of five different brands of butter in the supermarkets of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil were brought in for testing every week for 21 weeks. From the aqueous phase, counts were made for mesophilic and psichrophilic (using the standard plate count, agar and gelysate agar, coliform, proteolytic, and lipolytic bacteria, as well as for yeasts and molds. Results were compared with parameters proposed by several researchers. In many cases, the count values can be considered high, but these high counts may be due to inadequate processing and/or inadequate storage.

  7. Influence of psychiatric morbidity and sociodemographic determinants on use of service in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen; Tófoli, Luis Fernando Farah; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2008-01-01

    Recent population-based studies in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries brought evidence of the growing burden of mental illness in this region. The objective of this study is to examine determinants of health service utilization by individuals with psychiatric disorders in a defined area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were derived from São Paulo Catchment Area Study (SP-ECA), a cross-sectional household prevalence survey, based on a representative adult sample (N=1,464) living in two defined boroughs. The psychiatric diagnosis was assessed through the CIDI 1.1 interview, yielding ICD-10 diagnoses. The past-month use of health services--for general medical (GM) care and mental health (MH) care sectors--was investigated in their relationship with sociodemographic features, insurance coverage, GM conditions, and psychiatric morbidity. Nearly one-third (32.2%) of the total sample used health services in the last month: 29.0% attended GM care and 7.8% used MH care. Logistic regression models showed that being female, older than 60 years, having private insurance coverage, and presence of psychiatric morbidity increased the level GM care seeking in the total sample. For those with 12-month psychiatric disorders, the determinants for GM sector use were female gender, age 45-59 years old, and private insurance coverage, whereas separated, divorced, or widowed women had the highest odds (OR 9.9; 95% CI: 2.7-36.5) for using MH service. Low-income people were less likely to seek MH services. The major contribution of this article is to underscore the impact of MH on health care systems, in a LAC country where service use information is scarce. The main finding is that inequalities in the access to MH care occurred, with low-income people having less likelihood of receiving treatment for their mental disorder. Access to health service in this catchment area reflected the great degree of deregulation and lack of integration. Additional efforts should

  8. Quality of cocaine seized in 1997 in the street-drug market of São Paulo city, Brazil Qualidade da cocaína traficada em 1997 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gonçalves de Carvalho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Street drugs when in great demand in an illicit market become not only more expensive but are also subject to extensive adulteration and dilution. These fraudulent practices may also contribute to the amplification of toxic effects observed in the abuse of certain drugs including cocaine hydrochloride. The number of seizures reflects the increase of illicit use of cocaine powder in the city of S.Paulo, where the identity of the suspected drug is its hydrochloride form. Routine analytical procedures in enforcement laboratories in Brazil now comprise techniques involving thin layer chromatography for presumptive identification of the drug and eventually gas chromatography for its confirmation or quantification whenever required. The determination of cocaine content, adulterants and diluents in street samples is not only of clinical value but also important for enforcement activities, recognition of its geographical distribution and allocation. So, the aim of this study was to continue examining the quality of cocaine hydrochloride in the illicit market of the city of S.Paulo. Cocaine and adulterant contents were determined as well as the identification of several diluents in 389 out of 1958 samples of "white powder" seized in the city of São Paulo. Thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography (FID and GC-MS were used for the determination of cocaine and adulterant contents. Spot-tests and thin-layer chromatography were the techniques applied for the identification of diluents. The results were as follows: neither cocaine nor adulterants were detected in 17 samples (4.4%; of all positive samples (95.6 % for cocaine, 14% consisted of no more than 200 mg/g; in 70% cocaine purity ranged from 201 to 550 mg/g and in 16% it was not greater than 700 mg/g. The local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine were detected in 19 samples (4,9% in a range from 10 to 602 mg/g. Caffeine was present in only two samples (179 and 356 mg/g. The main diluents detected were

  9. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  10. Application of land use regression to predict the concentration of inhalable particular matter in São Paulo city, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    O estudo teve por objetivo construir um modelo de regressão baseada no uso do solo para predizer a concentração material particulado inalável (MP10) no município de São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo se baseou na média de MP10 de 2007 de 9 estações de monitoramento. Obtiveram-se dados demográficos, viários e de uso do solo em círculos concêntricos de 250 a 1.000 m para compor o modelo. Calculou-se regressão linear simples para selecionar as variáveis mais robustas e sem colinearidade. Quatro variáve...

  11. The electric energy consumption in the city of Sao Paulo - Brazil: the residential sector in the eighties; O consumo de energia eletrica na cidade de Sao Paulo: o setor residencial nos anos oitenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, A.B.; Sellito, Y.M.; Moreira, J.G.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1994-07-01

    This work analyses the evolution of the energy consumption in the residential sector of the city of Sao Paulo in the years of 19980, 1985 and 1990, and relates electric power cost participation in the family monthly stratified budget. Also, the price x consumption elasticity verified in the mentioned period is analysed.

  12. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  13. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pesquisa de compra de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes em duas cidades do Estado de São Paulo Alcohol purchase survey by adolescents in two cities of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Romano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O consumo de álcool é um problema de saúde pública. A disponibilidade comercial é um importante fator no estímulo ao consumo de álcool por adolescentes. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar com que freqüência menores de 18 anos conseguem comprar bebidas alcoólicas em estabelecimentos comerciais. MÉTODOS: Adolescentes com idades entre 13 e 17 anos tentaram comprar bebidas alcoólicas em uma amostra aleatória de estabelecimentos comerciais em Paulínia (N=108 e Diadema (N=426, no Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em novembro e dezembro de 2003 em Paulínia e de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2005 em Diadema. Eles foram orientados a não mentir sobre sua idade quando questionados e a dizer que a bebida era para consumo próprio. Os testes estatísticos realizados foram bi-caudais e o nível de significância considerado foi de pOBJECTIVE: Alcohol use is a public health problem. Commercial availability is an important factor that encourages the use of alcohol by young people. The aim of the study was to assess how often young people under 18 could buy alcohol in shops METHODS: Adolescents from 13 to 17 attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages at a random sample of shops in the cities of Paulinia (n=108 and Diadema (n=426, Southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted from November to December 2003 in Paulínia, and July 2004 to August 2005 in Diadema. They were told not to lie about their ages when asked and to say that the beverage was for themselves. Statistical tests performed were two-tailed and the significance level considered was p<0.05. RESULTS: Adolescents, under the minimum legal age, were successful in purchasing alcoholic beverages in the first attempt in 85.2% of the surveyed outlets in Paulinia, and 82.4% in Diadema. The adolescents bought alcoholic beverages just as easy in all shops researched. CONCLUSIONS: The data showed almost unanimous easiness of teenagers to obtain alcoholic beverages, suggesting the

  15. Tendência secular do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo (1976-1998 Secular trends in birth weight in S. Paulo city, Brazil (1976-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Resgatar a tendência secular da distribuição do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo, SP, bem como examinar suas possíveis causas, com base em dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares sobre condições de saúde na infância realizados em 1984/85 e em 1995/96, complementados por informações procedentes de levantamento de prontuários de maternidades e por informações do Sistema Estadual de Declarações de Nascidos Vivos. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos domiciliares estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população infantil de São Paulo com idade inferior a cinco anos (n=1.016 em 1984/85; n=1.280 em 1995/96. O levantamento de prontuários estudou uma amostra probabilística dos partos ocorridos nas maternidades da cidade no ano de 1976 (n=5.734. As declarações de nascidos vivos referem-se às coortes de crianças nascidas na cidade entre 1993 e 1998 (cerca de 200 mil crianças por ano. O estudo da distribuição social do peso ao nascer levou em conta a renda familiar per capita e a escolaridade materna. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da tendência secular do peso ao nascer empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade, análises multivariadas de regressão e procedimentos análogos aos utilizados para calcular riscos atribuíveis populacionais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo (média de 3.160 g com 8,9% de pesos OBJECTIVE: Data from two household surveys on infant and child health status undertaken in the mid-80s and mid-90s, complemented with previous data collected from maternity hospitals records and more recent data provided by the state system on birth registries, allowed to characterize and analyse secular trends in birth weight in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The household surveys included random samples of children under 5 years old (n=1,016 children in 1984-85 and n=1,280 children in 1995-96. A random sample of births that

  16. Estimating the planetary boundary layer height from radiosonde and doppler lidar measurements in the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia T. A.; Moreira, Gregori de A.; Pinero, Maciel; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) values estimated by radiosonde data through the bulk Richardson number (BRN) method and by Doppler lidar measurements through the Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) method, which corresponds to the maximum of the variance of CNR profile. The measurement campaign was carried during the summer of 2015/2016 in the city of São Paulo. Despite the conceptual difference between these methods, the results show great agreement between them.

  17. Aspectos estruturais e funcionais do apoio social de idosos do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Structural and functional aspects of social support for the elderly in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Etsuko da Costa Rosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a distribuição das redes sociais e de apoio em idosos no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, por características sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Estudou-se amostra probabilística de 1.568 idosos (60 ou mais anos da cidade de São Paulo (inquérito sobre Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento - SABE, focalizando-se as dimensões estruturais e funcionais das redes sociais. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a regressão logística simples e múltipla. As melhores condições nas redes sociais foram observadas nos menores patamares de renda e as piores entre os mais velhos e os "não casados". Para as mulheres, as chances de estarem "não casadas" aumentaram significativamente quanto pior era o seu nível educacional. O "status de coabitação" foi o que mais influenciou o apoio funcional, onde "morar só" aumentou significativamente as chances de não ocorrerem as trocas sociais. Os modelos de regressão logística múltipla construídos separadamente por gênero sugerem que idade, estado civil, renda per capita e escolaridade estão associados com as redes sociais entre os idosos. No entanto, essas relações manifestam-se de modos desiguais entre gêneros e entre as características sócio-demográficas para as diferentes dimensões da rede social.This study aimed to describe the distribution of social support networks for the elderly in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, based on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A probability sample of 1,568 elderly persons (> 60 years was studied (SABE query, focusing on structural and functional dimensions of social networks. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. The best conditions in social networks were in the lowest income levels and the worst among older and unmarried people. For women, unmarried marital status was significantly associated with lower schooling. Cohabiting had the strongest influence on

  18. [Privatization of health care management through Social Organizations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: description and analysis of regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreiras, Henrique; Matta, Gustavo Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    The article describes and discusses privatization of the municipal health system in São Paulo, Brazil, from an administrative and political perspective. The methodology consisted of a literature review and analysis of legislation and public documents. The study showed that although legislation governing the so-called "Social Organizations" (OS) in Brazil dates to the year 2006, half of the administrative privatization is still regulated by a previous provisional instrument in the form of an "agreement" ("convênio" in Portuguese). In 2011, 61% of services were administered by private organizations, which received 44% of the health budget in 2012. The twenty participating organizations include five of the ten largest health care companies in Brazil. Inspection agencies have detected flaws in the management contracts, but the "agreements" (convênios) are subject to less rigorous control and have proven invisible to inspection. Finally, the legal framework is unstable. The study uses the experience in São Paulo as the basis for discussing the political versus technical nature of private management in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).

  19. Comparação entre diferentes fontes de dados sobre homicídios no município de São Paulo Comparing distinct homicides database for Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kilsztajn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo compara dados de homicídios de residentes no município de São Paulo entre 1996 e 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim, Fundação Seade e Ministério da Saúde; e de homicídios por distrito de residência da vítima no município de São Paulo em 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim e pela Fundação Seade. Foram considerados homicídios os óbitos por agressão; intervenção legal e eventos de intenção não determinada causados por disparo de arma de fogo e por contato com objeto cortante/penetrante ou contundente. A diferença entre os números da Fundação Seade e do Ministério da Saúde é desprezível, mas a diferença entre os números do Pro-aim e da Fundação Seade para homicídios de residentes ocorridos na capital em 2000 é expressiva para muitos distritos do município de São Paulo. Além disso, o Pro-aim não registra óbitos de residentes na capital ocorridos em outro município. As análises da taxa de homicídio por distrito do município de São Paulo que utilizam dados do Pro-aim podem levar a resultados muito diferentes das que utilizam dados da Fundação Seade.The article compares city (Pro-aim, state (Fundação Seade and federal (Ministério da Saúde data for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city between 1996 and 2000; and Pro-aim and Fundação Seade data for homicides per district in Sao Paulo municipality, in 2000. As homicides were considered deaths caused by assault, legal intervention and events of undetermined intent caused by firearm discharge and contact with sharp or blunt objects. The difference between Fundação Seade and Ministério da Saúde data is worthless. But the difference between Pro-aim and Fundação Seade numbers for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city in 2000 has statistical significance for a large number of districts. Furthermore, Pro-aim does not record deaths of residents in Sao Paulo city occurred in other cities. Analysis of homicide rates per district in Sao Paulo city that

  20. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1996-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Media and Cultural Consumption by Young Students in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Evidences of Digital Divide, Possibilities of Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Bekesas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial findings of a Brazilian project, which is part of an international research group, studying youth cultures in the age of globalization. It aims to develop a comparative study from the cultural perspective of globalization on the construction of aesthetic cosmopolitanism among young people from France, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Our aim here specifically is to understand the cultural consumption of young students from São Paulo and their uses of different media for this matter, in hybrid forms (mainly digital. The analysis of empirical data presented is built upon 52 exploratory questionnaires and 40 interviews conducted with young students (from 18 to 24 year old living in São Paulo, Brazil. In order to understand the Brazilian context in this analysis, we performed a triangulation with secondary data from “Brazilian digital youth” by IBOPE (2012 and “Connected youth” by Telefonica Foundation/USP (2014. Based on the analysis, we reflect on two central topics: 1 evidence of a digital divide, according to their socio-economic profile and their access to information/entertainment, and 2 possibilities of cosmopolitan encounters, through the consumption of international cultural products and the search of information regarding other countries and cultures.

  3. Utilização dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS na cidade de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil Utilization of community mental health services in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Baxter Andreoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de descrever a clientela atendida nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS da Cidade de Santos foi realizado um censo de pacientes atendidos nos CAPS no período 1º de junho de 2001 a 30 de junho de 2001. O primeiro contato do paciente com o serviço foi registrado e seus dados foram preenchidos em ficha padronizada utilizando o prontuário médico como fonte de informação. Foram atendidos 1.673 usuários, com idade média de 46 anos, mulheres (59,0%, morando com a família (78,0% e tempo médio de três anos em tratamento no serviço. Atenderam 38,0% de esquizofrênicos, esquizotípicos e delirantes, 31,0% com transtorno de humor e 17,0% de neuróticos, nas modalidades de ambulatório médico-psiquiátrico (81,0%, individual (23,0%, grupal (13,0% e reabilitação psicossocial (4,3%. Os CAPS de Santos atendem todas as categorias de transtornos mentais, sendo os mais freqüentes aqueles considerados mais graves, o que é esperado para este tipo de serviço. O modelo de tratamento oferecido tem características ambulatorial e médico-psiquiátrica.To report on the clientele treated at community mental health services (CAPS in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, a census was conducted of the patients examined at the services from June 1, 2001, to June 30, 2001. The patient's initial contact with the service was registered, and data were recorded on a standardized form, using the medical case history as a source of information. Among the 1,673 patients, average age was 46 years, 59.0% were female, 58.0% lived with their families, and mean duration of treatment was three years. Some 38.0% were schizophrenic, schizotypical, or in acute delusional states, 31.0% presented mood disorders, and 17.0% were neurotic. Treatment modalities included out-patient psychiatric (81.0%, individual (23.0%, group (13.0%, and psychosocial rehabilitation (4.3%. In Santos, CAPS treat all categories of mental disorders (and frequently those considered the

  4. Prevalência de asma e fatores de risco em escolares da cidade de São Paulo Asthma prevalence and risk factors in schoolchildren of the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane R D Casagrande

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de asma e possíveis fatores de risco associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, integrante do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Participaram 561 escolares de seis a sete anos de idade, provenientes de 35 escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo, escolhidas por sorteio, em 2002. A amostra incluiu 168 asmáticos e 393 não asmáticos, que responderam questionário constituído por 33 questões referentes a dados pessoais, familiares e ambientais. A associação entre asma e fatores de risco foi avaliada pela análise de regressão logística, considerando-se nível de significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: Entre os escolares, 31,2% referiam sibilos nos 12 meses anteriores à entrevista. Os fatores de risco significativamente associados à asma foram: sexo masculino (OR=2,4;IC 95%: 1,4;4,2, mãe fumante no primeiro ano de vida (OR=2,0; IC 95%: 1,1;3,8, presença de eczema em locais característicos (OR=3,0; IC 95%:1,2; 7,6 e rinoconjuntivite (OR=2,4;IC 95%: 1,2; 4,8. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma na região estudada foi elevada e os fatores de risco relacionados foram: sexo masculino, sintomas de rinoconjuntivite no último ano, mãe fumante no primeiro ano de vida e presença de eczema em locais característicos.OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma prevalence and potential risk factors associated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A total of 561 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 35 public schools in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil were drawn to participate in the study, in 2002. The sample consisted of 168 asthmatic and 393 non-asthmatic children who answered a questionnaire comprising 33 questions on personal, family and environmental information. The association between asthma and the risk factors studied was assessed by logistic regression analysis at a 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: Among the

  5. Situações relacionadas ao uso indevido de drogas nas escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo Situations related to drug misuse in public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves Moreira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar situações, atitudes e comportamentos dos coordenadores pedagógicos das escolas municipais de ensino fundamental relacionados ao uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado na cidade de São Paulo, em 2002. As informações foram colhidas por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada, com oito informantes-chave locados em setor administrativo e com experiência de coordenação pedagógica. Foi realizada a análise qualitativa de conteúdo, com o referencial etnográfico. RESULTADOS: A idéia da transmissão de conhecimentos como base da prevenção permeia a maioria dos discursos, entretanto, os coordenadores relataram sentirem-se mal informados. As atitudes mais freqüentes frente ao usuário de drogas são de impotência e paralisia e algumas vezes, repressora. Elas são motivadas pelo desconhecimento e medo devido à associação entre usuário e marginalidade. Nas situações indiretamente associadas ao abuso de drogas (problemas familiares e de comportamento foram relatadas atitudes mais compreensivas e inclusivas, compatível com práticas do paradigma da redução de danos. CONCLUSÕES: Uma capacitação teórica dos educadores para uma prática preventiva teria a função de ratificar aquela desenvolvida a partir da sua vivência na escola com as situações (indiretamente associadas ao abuso de drogas. Conseqüentemente, os tornaria mais seguros nas suas intervenções de redução de danos ou risco com os usuários.OBJECTIVE: To explore situations, attitudes and behavior of public elementary school education supervisors concerning psychoactive substance misuse. METHODS: The study was carried out in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2002. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire applied to eight key informants in the administrative area experienced in education supervision. Qualitative content analysis with ethnographic reference was conducted. RESULTS: Most

  6. Public awareness of dementia: A study in Botucatu, a medium-sized city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a progressive and debilitating disease affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. Despite its importance, only a few studies have examined public awareness of dementia. We present a study of the public awareness of dementia in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A sample of 73 individuals answered a questionnaire approved by the Medical Ethics Research Committee inquiring about the characteristics of healthy old-aged and demented individuals. Results: Those interviewed believed that dementia is characterized by prevalent memory impairment (41% and behavioral changes (32.9% with onset in the 60's or older (42.5% and upon suspecting dementia, only a few would seek specialized medical help. Discussion: Better understanding of public awareness of dementia provides the clue to more effective health and social policies in order to achieve a higher rate of early diagnosis and thereby possibly decreasing patient, family and caregiver distress.

  7. Aspectos de importância para a vigilância epidemiológica da poliomielite na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Important epidemiological aspects of poliomyelitis in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victório Barbosa

    1980-12-01

    superar o efeito antagônico dos fatores epidemiológicos desfavoráveis no controle de poliomielite em nosso meio.Several epidemiological aspects of poliomyelitis in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil are discussed and related to measures that must be taken to maintain control of this disease. Results show the need of continued vaccination of the whole infant population, because a decrease in vaccination may permit an upraise of the disease. During four years of tight control, 58 new cases were registered per year. After that, in 1971, 195 cases appeared. Only in the second half of 1975, when immunization programs were again improved, was the situation controlled. This study shows that poliomyelitis still acts in the classical mode in that about 75% of the cases occur in children two years old or under. This, plus evidence that type 1 poliovirus is the type prevalent in S. Paulo, strengthens the idea that the epidemiology of this viral illness has not been essentially changed by the vaccination programs. Another finding is that the Sabin vaccine has been less efficient in our environment than in developed countries with temperate climates. This is due to epidemiological factors and operational conditions. In 1970-1977, 8.9% of the cases had received three, four, or more doses of the trivalent oral vaccine, and 43.3% had received at least one dose of the oral vaccine. The recommendation is herewith made that the number of doses of the basic series for immunization against poliomyelitis be increased from three to five in order to counterbalance mishaps in the act of oral vaccination and our environment's difficulties related with the epidemiology of the disease.

  8. Donald Pierson e a escola sociológica de Chicago no Brasil: os estudos urbanos na cidade de São Paulo (1935-1950 Donald Pierson and the Sociological School of Chicago in Brazil: urban studies in the city of São Paulo (1935-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar S.G. Mendoza

    2005-12-01

    influência da Escola de Chicago e sua repercussão no Brasil.This paper is an overview of the influence of Donald Pierson, formed in the Sociological School of Chicago, which had more repercussion on urban research in Brazil in the 1930s and 1950s, both within Sociology and Anthropology, in the city of São Paulo. Urban research in Brazil - both sociological and anthropological - had theoretical references that left their marks on the works of that time. According to my argument, regarding the scientific fields of anthropology and urban Sociology in Brazil, one of the theoretical trends in a certain historical and theoretical context was the Sociological School of Chicago. Revisiting pioneer urban studies in São Paulo could assert the influence of the School of Chicago. In spite of being isolated studies, they have strongly stressed properly urban issues. It would be risky to define them these days as Urban Sociology in its own right, in São Paulo. The reason for bringing them up is to demonstrate that they really represented antecedents to urban studies in Brazil between 1035-1950. Therefore, I can say that the sociology of the School of Chicago had its impact on three fields in Brazil: a racial relations (blacks, whites, and immigrants; b community studies (small rural towns; and c studies in the city (especially in São Paulo. Therefore, I think of the city of São Paulo as a scenario in general terms, as an agenda for institutional research in 1935-1950. Among the few and modest sociology studies having the city of São Paulo as their object, an ethnography of the city or urban ethnography was conducted that was different from classic studies on communities or small rural towns. Initially, we have eight works published mainly as journal articles, and their research object was some neighborhoods in São Paulo or other cities. The main feature of the article is the extensive bibliography found and presented at the end of the text, about the impact of the Scholl of

  9. Mapping geological at risk areas in the city of São Paulo: issues and results from the largest risk survey in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, Luciana; Macedo, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    In the City of São Paulo, the first reports of accidents resulting from landslides are directly related to urban expansion that has been recorded since the 30s. Areas of major environmental fragility, such as slopes and stream-banks, have also ended up being occupied without proper planning. The increased number of deaths due to landslides in the 80s already indicated the need for intervention at these sites by the public authorities. It was important to act to prevent these disasters, not only emergency assistance to victimized families. Therefore, in 1989 the first systematic and official survey on the City's at-risk areas was made. At the time, the at-risk sites had been still unknown, except for the occurrence records and press reports. While some areas were evaluated by experts, others appeared or expanded without any control. The surveys pace could not definitely follow the growth and the density of favelas, and some communities started to trigger the first records of accidents in areas hitherto stable. Considering the universe to be studied and the detail level of the work, it was necessary to use specific methodology to enable evaluation of the entire City in a relatively short period of time. For that purpose,mapping activities were carried out in five phases and involved about 80 professionals in the fields of geology, engineering, architecture, geography, civil defense, and housing, who participated directly or indirectly in all stages of work. Thus, the mapping that has recently been completed by the Municipality of São Paulo and by the Institute for Technological Research of São Paulo State is today the largest geological-risk database in the country. Besides technical information, the survey also shows the types of intervention to be implemented according to the degree of risk and the type of verified occupation, vital data to prioritizing the public-authorities actions. Currently, among the 1,602 favelas and informal settlements in the city, 407

  10. Ochratoxin A in wines and grape juices commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Ocratroxina A em vinhos e sucos de uva comercializados na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Shundo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2005, a total of 101 samples of wines and grape juices purchased from supermarkets and retail stores in São Paulo city were analysed for the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA. OTA was evaluated in 29 red wines and 38 grape juices produced in Brazil and in 34 imported red wines (from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and South Africa. OTA was extracted in an immunoaffinity column and detected by HPLC with fluorescence detection, according to EN 14133/2003. The detection and quantification limits established were 0.01 and 0.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries for wine samples were 94.1, 82.5, 86.1% and the relative standard deviation were 6.10, 1.03, 4.11% at levels of 0.03, 2.0, 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. For grape juice, the recovery was 86.2% and the RSD was 2.01% at a level of 0.4 ng/mL. OTA contamination was found in nine of the 29 Brazilian red wines with levels ranging from 0.10 to 1.33 ng/mL and in 18 of the 34 imported red wines with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.32 ng/mL. OTA was not detected in any of the grape juice samples analysed. Although the results from the wine samples analysed for the presence of OTA were below to the limits established by EC 123/2005 (2.0 ng/mL, low and continuous exposure to this mycotoxin could be a risk to human health.Durante o verão de 2005, um total de 101 amostras de vinho tinto e suco de uva, compradas em supermercados e lojas especializadas na cidade de São Paulo, foram analisadas para a presença de Ocratoxina A (OTA. OTA foi pesquisada em 29 amostras de vinho tinto e 38 de suco de uva produzidos no Brasil e em 34 amostras importadas de vinho tinto (provenientes da Argentina, Chile, Uruguai, França, Itália, Portugal, Espanha e África do Sul. OTA foi extraída em coluna de imunoafinidade e detectada por CLAE com detector de fluorescência, de acordo com EN 14133/2003. Os limites de detecção e quantificação estabelecidos foram 0,01 e 0,03 ng

  11. Origin and evolution of the Pirituba aluminous calc-alkalic magma, state of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, Eberhard

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Late Proterozoic calc-alkalic Pirituba magmatism near the city of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil, are presented and discussed on the basis of geological, petrographic, mineralogical, chemical (rocks and minerals), isotopic and zircon typology data. (author)

  12. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 μg kg -1 for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg -1 for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg -1 established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 μg kg -1 for the predator species and 1000 μg kg -1 for the predator species)

  13. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  14. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25% ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5%

  15. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 %

  16. Spatial and seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Dracena, a city in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, that is endemic with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Moreira Holcman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vector seasonality knowledge is important for monitoring and controlling of vector-borne diseases. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lu. longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, which is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Methods Lu. longipalpis was monitored for 3 consecutive nights each month using light traps from the Centers for Disease Control in the peridomiciles and intradomiciles of 18 residences from January 2005 to December 2012 in the urban area of Dracena, a medium-sized city located in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil. Results A total of 54,820 Lu. longipalpis specimens were collected, and the proportion of positive samples was significantly higher in the peridomiciles than in the intradomiciles (p<0.05 in all 8 years of the study, except for 2005. The vector was present in all study years in the 9 sub-regions of the city, and the male/female ratio ranged from 3.19 to 4.26. The greatest vector abundance occurred in the first semester and peaked in March, confirming its seasonality. Conclusions The maintenance of this high abundance over an 8-year surveillance period demonstrates the vector adaptation to the urban conditions of the city. These characteristics present a major challenge for preventing human and canine contact with the vector and, consequently, controlling the spread of disease.

  17. Consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e renda familiar na cidade de São Paulo Association of children's consumption of processed foods and family income in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e a relação com a renda familiar per capita, com base em inquérito domiciliar. MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar de uma amostra probabilística da população infantil residente na cidade de São Paulo, entre zero e 59 meses de idade (n=718, foi estudado em 1995/1996 por meio de inquérito recordatório de 24h. Analisou-se a relação entre o consumo de 24 alimentos industrializados e a renda familiar per capita, distribuída em quartis. RESULTADOS: O consumo de açúcar foi maior entre as crianças de menor renda, enquanto achocolatados, chocolates, iogurte, leite em pó modificado e refrigerantes foram mais consumidos por crianças de maior renda familiar per capita (pOBJECTIVE: To describe children's consumption of processed foods and its relationship with per capita family income based on a household survey. METHODS: Food consumption was studied in a statistical sample of 718 children living in the city of São Paulo in the period 1995-1996. A 24-hour dietary recall was used. Data regarding the association of children's consumption of 24 processed foods and per capita family income (arranged in quartiles was analyzed. RESULTS: Consumption of sugar was higher among children of low income families whereas the consumption of chocolate powder, chocolate, yogurt, infant formula and soft drinks was higher among children of high income families (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that per capita family income affects the consumption of some processed foods.

  18. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m -3 to 55 ± 4 kBq.m -3 . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m -3 and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m -3 , diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  19. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  20. Distribution of human fecal marker GB-124 bacteriophages in urban sewage and reclaimed water of São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Bruni, Antônio de Castro; Barbosa, Mikaela Renata Funada; Bonanno, Vilma Marques Santos; Garcia, Suzi Cristina; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli

    2018-04-01

    Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination. GB-124 phages were detected in 100% of the raw sewage samples, with viral loads varying from 7.5 × 10 3 to 1.32 × 10 6 PFU/L. Virus removal efficiency in activated sludge processes ranged from 1.89 to 2.31 log 10 . Frequencies of phage detection were lower in reclaimed water samples (0-22.2%). The results indicated that GB-124 phage could be a complementary low-cost viral marker for the detection of human fecal pollution in waters impacted with urban sewage in this region. However, the datasets of tertiary effluents resulted in several samples with concentrations below the detection limit (DL ≤1 PFU/mL) suggesting the need to obtain analytical methods with lower DL for greater accuracy of negative results.

  1. Establishment of the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esper Georges Kallas

    Full Text Available Several strategies aim at characterizing the AIDS epidemic in different parts of the world. Among these, the identification of recent HIV-1 infections using the recently described serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy was employed in four testing sites of the City of São Paulo Public Health Department (CSPPHD. Those identified as recently infected were invited to participate in a prospective clinical and laboratory evaluation study. We describe the establishment of the patient identification network and the success in enrolling the participants, as well as their clinical and laboratory characteristics. From May to December 2002, 6,443 persons were tested for HIV in the four participating sites, of whom 384 (5.96% tested HIV-1 positive; 43 (11.2% of them were identified as recently infected. Twenty-two were successfully enrolled in the follow-up study, but three of them did not meet clinical and/or laboratory criteria for recent HIV-1 infection. After these exclusions, the laboratory findings revealed a median CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 585 cells/muL (inter-quartile range 25-75% [IQR], 372-754, a CD8+ T lymphocyte count of 886 cells/muL (IQR, 553-1098, a viral load of 11,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (IQR, 3,650-78,150, log10 of 4.04 (IQR 3.56-4.88. The identification of recent HIV infections is an extremely valuable way to evaluate the spread of the virus in a given population, especially when cohort studies, considered the gold standard method to evaluate incidence, are not available. This work demonstrated that establishing a network to identify such patients is a feasible task, even considering the difficulties in a large, resource-limited country or city.

  2. Evaluation of the clinical risk index in very low birth weight newborns at a public tertiary maternity in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Breuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical risk index in very low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital, its associationwith mortality, some selected neonatal respiratory diseases andsurfactant therapy. Methods: A cohort prospective study carriedout at the Hospital Municipal Vila Nova Cachoeirinha e MaternidadeEscola, in São Paulo, Brazil. All newborns with gestational age< 31 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g were evaluated for theapplication of the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB. Newbornswho died in the first 12 hours of life or were referred from othermaternities were excluded from this study. Statistical analysesused logistic regression, Spearman correlation test and Student’st test. Results: Seventy-one cases were studied. The meangestational age was 27.30 ± 2.61 weeks; the mean weight was1032.61 ± 280.62 g. Birth weight and gestational age showedbetter predictive values for neonatal mortality than the clinicalrisk index for babies (80.30%, 76.10%, 73.20%. Twins showed nosignificant index differences (t = 0.601; p = 0.748. The scorewas inversely related to Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and wasassociated with the respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothoraxand the use of surfactants. There was no significant correlation withchronic lung disease. Conclusion: The clinical risk index for babieswas not the best predictor for neonatal mortality as compared toweight and gestational age, but showed a significant associationwith 1 and 5-minute Apgar scores, respiratory distress syndrome,extrapulmonary air and the use of surfactants. It was not predictivefor chronic lung disease. Twins were not associated with CRIB.

  3. Aves e vegetação em um bairro residencial da cidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brasil Birds and vegetation in a residential quarter in São Paulo city (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Martha Argel-de-Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1978 to 1991, 48 bird species have exploited some kind of resource in a residential quarter reasonably well provided of vegetation. There was a predominante of species with generalist feeding habits (omnivores and non-specialized insectivores, forest edge or secondary growth dwellers, and species that feed and nest in arboreal and shrub layers. Only 23 species are certain or probable residents; the presence of others is due to migration or to displacement of populational excedents coming perhaps from nearby urban parks. Although the vegetation is not exactly profuse, it is enough to be exploited by many forest species. As the city of São Paulo confines with the Atlantic Forest, this kind of urban vegetation may be important to the maintenance not only of resident populations but also of vagrant birds from the surroundings, including some rare or little known species.

  4. Insect feeding preferences on Piperaceae species observed in São Paulo city, Brazil Preferências alimentares de insetos por espécies de Piperaceae, observadas na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio A. Vanin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperaceae species have been placed among the basal angiosperm and are adapted to a variety of habitats including moist forests, secondary vegetation and dry high lands. The major anatomical/morphology features are of small trees, vines, and shrubs for Piper species, while the epiphytic and succulent characteristics are predominant forms among Peperomia species. Their secondary chemistry can be mostly represented by amides, phenylpropanoids/lignoids, and chromenes in addition to a phletoria of biosynthetically mixed-origin secondary compounds. Although several amides and lignans are known as insecticides, several phytophagous insects, among which some considered pests of economic importance, have been observed feeding vigorously on Piperaceae species. Herein we describe the feeding preferences of fourteen phytophagous species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hemiptera over approximately fifty Piperaceae species observed in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in a long-term basis.As espécies de Piperaceae têm sido posicionadas entre as angiospermas basais e são frequentemente encontradas em habitats diversificados que incluem matas ciliares, vegetação secundária e campos rupestres. As espécies de Piper possuem hábitos de plantas herbáceas, arboretos e trepadeiras enquanto que, no caso de Peperomia, é freqüente o hábito de epífitas e suculentas. As classes de metabólitos secundários que caracterizam espécies de Piperaceae são amidas, fenilpropanóides/lignóides e cromenos, além de diversos outros de origem biossintética mista de menor representatividade. Apesar de muitos desses possuírem atividades inseticidas, diversos insetos fitófagos, alguns considerados pragas de importância econômica, foram observados alimentando-se de espécies de Piperaceae. Neste trabalho são relatadas as preferências alimentares de quatorze espécies fitófagas de Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera sobre aproximadamente cinqüenta espécies de Piperaceae

  5. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Doses absorvidas pelos pacientes submetidos a radiografias toracicas em hospitais do municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-07-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 {mu}Gy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and

  6. Retardo do crescimento e condições sociais em escolares de Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil Linear growth retardation and social factors among schoolchildren from the city of Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a associação existente entre classe social e retardo do crescimento físico, ocorrido nos primeiros anos de vida. Com base em um censo de estatura, envolvendo alunos ingressantes em todas as escolas (públicas e particulares do Município de Osasco, região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, realizado no início do ano letivo de 1989, foram selecionados casos e controles para a investigação retrospectiva dos determinantes sociais do retardo do crescimento. Os casos, totalizando 125 ingressantes de sete a oito anos de idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade inferior a -2 escores Z da população de referência do NHCS/OMS. Os controles, totalizando 139 ingressantes da mesma idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade superior a -1 escore Z. Escolaridade do chefe da casa e da mãe, renda familiar per capita, condições de habitação e saneamento, ou seja, variáveis que devem mediar a relação entre classe social e déficit de estatura, foram fatores que se associaram significativamente com o risco de retardo do cresimento. Quanto à inserção da família no processo social de produção, avaliada através da classe social do chefe, as crianças do subproletariado apresentaram uma chance sete vezes maior de retardo do crescimento quando comparadas com as dos grupos da pequena burguesia, refletindo os efeitos biológicos da recessão econômica dos anos 80.Cases and controls were selected for this retrospective investigation of the social determinants of growth retardation, from a Height Census carried out in the 1989 school year,involving children attending the first grade of all public and private schools in Osasco (in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil. The cases, totalling 125 children entering school aged 7-8 years old, were characterized by a height-for-age index below -2 z score of the NCHS/WHO reference. The controls, totalling 139 children

  7. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2014-02-01

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo

    2008-10-01

    teléfono, totalizando 1.267 mujeres y 855 hombres. La frecuencia del consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue medida por medio de una guía con preguntas cortas y simples. En la evaluación de los factores asociados al consumo, se realizó análisis de regresión linear multivariada y jerarquizada, con variables sociodemográficas en el primer nivel jerárquico, de comportamiento en el segundo y relacionadas con el patrón de alimentación en el tercer nivel. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue mayor entre las mujeres. En los dos sexos se verificó que la frecuencia de consumo aumentaba con la edad y la escolaridad del individuo. Entre las mujeres que informaron haber realizado dieta el año anterior hubo mayor consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras. El consumo de alimentos que indican un patrón de consumo no saludable como azúcares y grasas se mostró inversamente asociado al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en los dos sexos. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras de la población adulta residente en Sao Paulo fue mayor entre las mujeres, estando influenciado por la edad, la escolaridad y la dieta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by adults and to assess factors associated with this frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, carried out between October and December 2003 in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Telephone interviews were conducted on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (>18 years living in the city of Sao Paulo and with access to land telephone lines, totaling 1,267 women and 855 men. Frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was obtained by means of a questionnaire containing short, simple questions. Association of different factors with fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by multivariate linear regression using a hierarchic model with sociodemographic variables in the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables in the

  9. Caracterização das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva do município de São Paulo Caracteristics of intensive care units in Sao Paulo city - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miako Kimura

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo constitui-se numa parte inicial de um Projeto Integrado que visa analisar os recursos estruturais das UTIs do Município de São Paulo, incluindo o ambiente físico, recursos humanos, equipamentos e materiais. Os aspectos analisados neste artigo referem-se às características destas Unidades quanto à sua quantidade e distribuição geográfica, número de leitos, entidade mantenedora, tipo de atendimento, de clientela e de tratamento, assim como as médias de ocupação e de permanência. Por amostragem casual estratificada, foram selecionados 40% dos hospitais com UTI de cada uma das regiões integrantes do SUS no Município. A amostra estudada foi de 43 UTIs e o instrumento para coleta de dados foi um questionário respondido pelo enfermeiro responsável pela Unidade. O número de UTIs nos hospitais variou de 1 a 4 , sendo mais frequentes aqueles com urna única Unidade (68,8%. 79,2% das UTIs pertenciam a hospitais particulares e 51,2% localizavam-se na região centro-oeste do Município. Os leitos de terapia intensiva corresponderam a 8,0% do total de leitos hospitalares. Cada Unidade tinha, em média, 10 leitos. Predominaram as UTIs gerais (60,5%, as destinadas somente a pacientes adultos (51,2% e as que atendiam tanto a pacientes clínicos como cirúrgicos ( 95,3%. Na maioria das Unidades, a porcentagem de ocupação mensal dos leitos foi de 80 a 100% e a média de permanência, de 4,5 dias.This study is the first part in a series of the articles reporting results of a project conducted to analyse the structural resources of ICUs in São Paulo city. This article describes the characteristics of those Units, considering the quantity and geographic location, bed number, maintainer entity, type of assistance, type of client, as well the percentage of beds usage and lenght of stay. Forty three ICUs were analysed and a questionnaire answered by the ICU nurse coordinator was used to collect data. The results showed that the number

  10. Desigualdade social no adoecimento e morte por câncer de boca e orofaríngeo no município de São Paulo, Brasil: 1997 a 2008 Social inequality in morbidity and mortality from oral and oropharyngeal cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: 1997-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Fernandes Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocupação do espaço geográfico é determinada historicamente pelo modelo socioeconômico e pelo dinamismo de suas relações sociais, políticas e ideológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a distribuição espacial e o efeito de indicadores socioeconômicos no adoecimento e morte por câncer de boca e orofaríngeo no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1997 a 2008. Os dados foram coletados no Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional e no Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações de Mortalidade - PRO-AIM e georreferenciados pelos softwares Terraview e GeoDa. O referencial teórico para avaliação dos resultados foi baseado na teoria de Milton Santos. As taxas de incidência apresentaram um índice de autocorrelação Global de Moran de 0,226 e as taxas de mortalidade de 0,337. A Incidência de câncer de boca e orofaríngeo não apresenta um padrão espacial bem definido no Município de São Paulo, mas é bastante desigual no que se refere à Mortalidade, concentrando as suas menores taxas na área central, mais rica e economicamente menos desigual.Occupation of geographical space is historically determined by the socioeconomic model and the dynamism of its social, political, and ideological relations. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of morbidity and mortality from cancer of the mouth and oropharynx and related socioeconomic variables in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to 2008. Data were collected from the Population-Based Cancer Registry and the Program for Improvement of Mortality Data (PRO-AIM and were georeferenced using Terraview and GeoDa. The theoretical framework for evaluating the results was the work of Milton Santos. The incidence rates showed spatial autocorrelation with a Global Moran index of 0.226 and mortality rates of 0.337. Incidence of cancer of the mouth and oropharynx did not show a well-defined spatial pattern in the city of São Paulo, but mortality rates were

  11. [Laws and policies on illicit drugs in Brazil and the perspective of drug users' family members and acquaintances: a study in the City of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    Brazilian drugs legislation has evolved from a prohibitionist system to a less repressive one in terms of drug users. The objective of this study was to identify the perception of relatives and acquaintances of drug users living in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, about the country's laws and policies on drugs. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 100 drug users' relatives or acquaintances, selected at a public health service. Respondents' relationships with the drug user were as follows: 31% friend, 23% sibling, 15% child and 7% spouse. Most users (78%) were men, with an average age of 26 years. Results confirm that national laws and policies have a direct effect on individuals' attitude and behaviors. There is a lack of trust in the police and a general perception that, despite recent chances that favor user rehabilitation, the laws on drugs do not respect users' human rights.

  12. Hábitos e práticas alimentares em três localidades da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil Eating habits and practices in three localities within the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pedroso de Oliveira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal o estudo do consumo alimentar em três localidades na cidade de São Paulo. Um inquérito alimentar foi realizado, nos meses de julho e agosto de 1993, junto a trinta e duas mulheres, apresentando características socioeconômicas distintas: 11 na Favela de São Remo (baixa renda, 11 na Vila Madalena (renda média e 10 no Parque Continental (renda alta. Utilizou-se o método recordatório de 24 horas e o de freqüência alimentar, além de questões abertas sobre hábitos, práticas e estratégias alimentares. Observou-se semelhanças entre os grupos estudados, como por exemplo, o aumento do consumo de alimentos industrializados, o supermercado como principal local de compra de alimentos, a importância dada à carne, às frutas e aos legumes, a preferência por alimentos frescos em relação aos industrializados, as substituições ligadas à evolução dos preços dos alimentos e/ou preocupações com a saúde. Por outro lado, prevaleceu a diferenciação do consumo em função das condições socioeconômicas das famílias, verificada pela maior diversificação alimentar com a elevação da renda, com diferenças significativas (pThe principal objective of this study was an assessment of food consumption in three localities within the city of São Paulo. A food inquiry was undertaken in the months of July and August, 1993, involving thirty-two women who presented distinct socio-economic characteristics: eleven from São Remo shanty-town (low income, eleven from Vila Madalena (medium income and ten from Parque Continental (high income.The 24-hour recall and the eating frequency methods were used, as well as open questions about eating habits, practices and strategies. Similarities were observed among the groups studied: for example, the increase in the consumption of industrialized food-stuffs, the supermarket as the principal shopping place, the importance given to meat, fruits and vegetables in the

  13. Polifarmácia entre idosos do Município de São Paulo - Estudo SABE Polypharmacy among the elderly in the city of São Paulo, Brazil - SABE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Ferreira Catão Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o uso de cinco ou mais medicamentos (polifarmácia e seus fatores associados por idosos do município de São Paulo. Realizou-se estudo transversal de base populacional: Estudo SABE - Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento, no ano de 2006. A amostra foi composta por 1.115 idosos com 65 anos e mais, que correspondiam a 422.377 indivíduos do Município de São Paulo. Utilizou-se regressão logística múltipla. A prevalência de polifarmácia foi de 36%. Sexo feminino (OR = 1,7; IC 95%: 1,0; 2,9, idade igual ou superior a 75 anos (OR = 1,9; IC 95%: 1,3; 2,7, maior renda (OR = 1,8; IC 95%: 1,2; 2,8, estar trabalhando (OR = 1,8; IC 95%: 1,1; 2,9, auto avaliação de saúde regular (OR = 1,6; IC 95%: 1,1; 2,3 ou ruim (OR = 2,6; IC 95%: 1,4; 4,9, hipertensão (OR = 2,0; IC 95%: 1,4; 2,9, diabetes (OR = 4,1; IC 95%: 2,2; 7,5, doença reumática (OR = 2,3; IC 95%: 1,5; 3,6 e problemas cardíacos (OR = 2,9; IC 95%: 1,9; 4,5 apresentaram associação positiva com polifarmácia. Usar apenas o sistema público de saúde (OR = 0,5; IC 95%: 0,3; 0,7 associou-se inversamente à polifarmácia. Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram os de ação no sistema cardiovascular e trato alimentar e metabolismo. No âmbito da farmacoepidemiologia, o conhecimento dos fatores associados a polifarmácia, como os identificados nesse estudo, pode ser útil para alertar os profissionais da saúde quanto à importância de identificar e monitorar os grupos de idosos mais vulneráveis a polifarmácia.Polypharmacy for the elderly and associated factors were assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the SABE Study (Health, Well-being and Aging, 2006. 1,115 individuals representing 422,377 elderly aged 65 or more, living in São Paulo City, were interviewed. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more medications. A multivariate regression logistics was used. Polypharmacy prevalence was 36%. Female (OR = 1.7; IC 95%: 1.0; 2.9, age over 75

  14. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambiente atmosférico urbano e admissão hospitalar de crianças, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Urban atmospheric environment and hospital admission for children in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil Ambiente atmosférico urbano e ingresos hospitalarios de niños en la ciudad de Sâo Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelci Nunes da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações climáticas constituem risco para a saúde pública. Contudo, poucos estudos têm procurado identificar como a dinâmica do clima afeta a saúde, a fim de se obter dados que alimentem modelos de previsão de riscos para a saúde. Nas cidades tropicais esses estudos são particularmente escassos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar como as condições atmosféricas intraurbanas afetam a saúde respiratória das crianças menores de cinco anos no setor Sul/Sudeste, da cidade de São Paulo, associando as variáveis atmosféricas e o índice bioclimático PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature com as admissões hospitalares. Analisaram-se 12.269 casos de internamento por doenças respiratórias em crianças – CID 10, Capítulo 10 - Doenças Respiratórias (J00-J32; J40-J47; J80-J99. Os dados diários de temperaturas média, mínima e máxima do ar (ºC, humidade relativa média do ar (% e velocidade média do vento (m/s foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do aeroporto de Congonhas e o índice de qualidade do ar, como controle, na CETESB/CONGONHAS. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e modelo de regressão. Os resultados apontaram associação estatística entre as variáveis atmosféricas, a poluição e os internamentos hospitalares. Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o grupo de crianças com doenças respiratórias, menores de cinco anos residentes em distritos com diferentes condições socioambientais.Climatic changes pose public health risks. However, few studies have tried to identify how climate dynamics affect health, in order to obtain evidence-based data for risk-prediction models. Moreover, such studies are particularly scarce for tropical cities. This study aimed to verify how intra-urban atmospheric conditions affect the respiratory health of children under five in the South- eastern part of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by associating atmospheric variables and the

  16. Graves violações de direitos humanos e desigualdade no município de São Paulo Graves violaciones de derechos humanos y desigualdad en el município de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Ruotti

    2009-06-01

    . METHODS:Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. RESULTS: The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693, proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621, and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590. CONCLUSIONS: Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  17. Desfechos de tratamento de tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados no município de São Paulo Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment among inpatients and outpatients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtes Cristina Telles Perrechi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os desfechos de tratamento de tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados e aqueles tratados exclusivamente na atenção primária na cidade de São Paulo (SP, bem como determinar as variáveis mais associadas à internação. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa prospectiva e longitudinal, realizada entre janeiro e dezembro de 2007 em dois hospitais de grande porte e em serviços de saúde em duas regiões na cidade de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário estruturado, no caso dos pacientes internados, e no Banco de Dados de Tuberculose da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Dos 474 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 166 estavam hospitalizados, e 308 eram pacientes ambulatoriais. A análise multivariada mostrou associações entre internação por tuberculose e diagnóstico de tuberculose em hospital/pronto-socorro (OR = 55,42, coinfecção por HIV (OR = 18,57, retratamento (OR = 18,51 e procura por outro serviço anteriormente (OR = 12,32. Para os pacientes hospitalizados e ambulatoriais, as taxas gerais de cura foram de 41,6% e 78,3%, respectivamente, ao passo que, para aqueles coinfectados por HIV, essas foram de 30,4% e 58,5%, enquanto as taxas gerais de mortalidade foram de 29,5% e 2,6%, respectivamente, ao passo que, para aqueles coinfectados por HIV, essas foram de 45,7% e 9,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo evidenciou maior gravidade, maior dificuldade de diagnóstico, menor taxa de cura e maior taxa de mortalidade nos pacientes internados que naqueles ambulatoriais. Além disso, os desfechos foram piores no subgrupo de pacientes coinfectados com HIV.OBJECTIVE: To compare inpatient and outpatient treatment of tuberculosis, in terms of outcomes, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as well to determine which variables are most frequently associated with hospitalization. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal study carried out between January and December of 2007, at two large hospitals and at outpatient

  18. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2004-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  19. Profiles of multiple causes of death related to HIV/AIDS in the cities of São Paulo and Santos, Brazil, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Machado, Carla Jorge; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Após a introdução da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência (TARV), o perfil da morbimortalidade relacionada ao HIV alterou-se, passando de óbitos causados por doenças oportunistas para quadros mórbido-crônicos de doenças "pré-AIDS", ou não definidoras de AIDS, causadas pelos efeitos adversos da terapia. Investigou-se a mortalidade relacionada ao HIV/AIDS através das causas múltiplas de morte, utilizando-se as declarações de óbito de residentes nos municípios de São Paulo e Santos, Brasil, ...

  20. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por niños y adolescentes, comercializados en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil entre los años de 2001 y 2005. Los tenores de nutrientes informados por los rótulos fueron confrontados con los resultados obtenidos por métodos analíticos (fisico-químicos oficiales, considerando la variabilidad de 20% tolerada por la legislación vigente, para aprobar o condenar las muestras. Se calcularon promedios, desvíos estándar e intervalos con 95% de confianza para los nutrientes analizados, así como la distribución de la frecuencia porcentual de muestras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos los productos salados analizados presentaron inconformidades relativas al contenido de fibra alimentar, sodio o de grasas saturadas. Los productos dulces presentaron variación de cero a 36% de condenación relativa al tenor de la fibra alimentar. Más de la mitad (52% de los biscochos rellenos fueron condenados con relación a la cantidad de grasas saturadas. Los nutrientes implicados con la obesidad y sus complicaciones para la salud fueron aquellos que presentaron mayores proporciones de inconformidad. La falta de fidedignidad de las informaciones de rótulos en las muestras analizadas viola las disposiciones de la Resolución de la Directoria Colegiada Anvisa 360/03 y los derechos garantizados por la ley de Seguridad Alimentar y Nutricional y por el Código de Defensa del Consumidor. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron altos índices de no conformidad de los datos nutricionales en los rótulos de alimentos destinados al público adolescente e infantil, indicando la urgencia de acciones de fiscalización y de otras medidas de rotulación nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. METHODS: A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005

  1. [Traffic related air pollution and population health: a review about São Paulo (SP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Giovana Iara Ferreira Moser; Nardocci, Adelaide Cássia

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution is an important problem for São Paulo city and vehicles are the main source. About 11 million people are exposed to this pollution. To examine studies realized about air pollution and its effects on health of the population of São Paulo (Brazil) and methods of assessing exposure to pollution related to traffic. We performed a literature review using the keywords "air pollution", "São Paulo", and traffic-related air pollution. As results were obtained several studies that found relation between air pollution in São Paulo and respiratory and cardiovascular problems, fetal growth, increased mortality and hospitalizations, particularly in children and elderly people. In order to estimate the exposure, most of these studies consider the isotropic distribution of pollutants throughout the area, what prevents the evaluation of and the influence of traffic. Several methods have been used to analyze the air traffic exposure, which can be used isolated or combined. It is believed that the combination of models used to calculate pollutant concentrations to methods of georeferencing is the most appropriate approach for similar studies in São Paulo. The advantages of these methods are the ability to identify priority areas and situations, obtaining detailed information for adoption of public policies or measures, and to simulate different scenarios. The application of these methods in studies at São Paulo depends on the improvement of input data, air quality meteorological monitoring net enhancement and data of traffic volume.

  2. Disposable containers as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in a city with regular refuse collection: a study in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, C A; Macoris, M L; Andrighetti, M T; Yasumaro, S; Silva, M E; Nelson, M J; Winch, P J

    1996-09-01

    In Marília, Brazil, refuse is collected at least every other day, yet non-useful, non-returnable containers such as cans, plastic bottles and tires account for almost half of the container habitats found positive for the Aedes aegypti mosquito. A study was therefore conducted to investigate why these containers exist despite regular refuse collection and a high level of awareness of dengue prevention, and how the control program could most effectively respond. Differing community perceptions as to what constitutes refuse were found to lead people to store a variety of containers in their yard. Other dimensions of the problem include the presence of informal refuse collectors in search of saleable materials, and dumping of refuse in vacant lots and along roads. An intervention based on these data will involve the informal refuse collectors in implementation of a community-based recycling project.

  3. Eating attitudes and body image in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampei, Míriam A; Sigulem, Dirce M; Novo, Neil F; Juliano, Yara; Colugnati, Fernando A B

    2009-01-01

    Despite investigations into the rapid increase in eating disorders across diverse ethnic groups, conclusions concerning ethnicity and eating disorders are contradictory. The objective of the present study was to investigate eating attitudes in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescents in Brazil. The influence of body mass index (BMI), menarche and social-affective relationships on the development of eating disorders was also assessed. Questionnaires evaluating the incidence of eating disorders and the influence of social-affective relationships were applied to 544 Japanese-Brazilian and Caucasian adolescent girls: 10 to 11-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 122) and Caucasian (n = 176) pre-menarcheal adolescents, and 16 to 17-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 71) and Caucasian (n = 175) post-menarcheal adolescents. Caucasian girls obtained higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), showed greater body image dissatisfaction, dieted more often and had more diet models introduced by their mothers and peers than the Japanese-Brazilian girls. CONCLUSION The Caucasian adolescents overall appeared to be more sensitive to aesthetic and social pressures regarding body image than the Japanese adolescents. The high incidence of EAT-26 scores above 20 in the Caucasian pre-menarcheal group indicates that individual body image concerns are developing at an earlier age. Multiple logistic regression revealed several associations between mother-teen interactions and the development of abnormal eating attitudes.

  4. Tendências de mortalidade por câncer de boca e orofaringe no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, 1980/2002 Trends in oral cancer mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever e explorar analiticamente tendências de mortalidade por câncer de boca e orofaringe na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, de 1980 a 2002. Dados sobre os óbitos com esta causa básica foram levantados junto à Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados, discriminados por sexo, idade e localização anatômica. A estimação e ajuste pelo método direto dos coeficientes usaram dados de população fornecidos pelos censos de 1980, 1991 e 2000, e pela contagem populacional de 1996, realizados pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Foi observada tendência crescente da mortalidade devida ao agravo, a uma taxa anual de 0,72%. Responsável por mais de um terço desses óbitos, o câncer de língua foi a categoria com mortalidade mais elevada. Câncer de lábio, gengiva e área retromolar apresentaram tendência decrescente, enquanto orofaringe e partes não especificadas da boca e orofaringe sofreram incremento de mortalidade. O monitoramento da magnitude e tendências da mortalidade por câncer pode configurar importante implemento para o planejamento de iniciativas voltadas à redução da carga de doença em nosso meio.The current study assessed trends in oral cancer mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1980 to 2002. The official mortality information system supplied data on deaths whose underlying cause was classified as oral cancer, stratified by sex, age, and anatomic site. Death rates were estimated and adjusted by the direct method, using population data supplied by national censuses from 1980, 1991, and 2000 and a population count performed in 1996. There was an upward trend in overall cancer mortality, at a yearly rate of 0.72%. Accounting for more than one third of these deaths, tongue cancer was the main mortality category. Labial, gengival, and retromolar cancer showed a downward trend, while oropharyngeal cancer and cancer in unspecified parts of the mouth and oropharynx showed

  5. Birth weight distribution of Hospital Geral do Grajaú population compared to São Paulo city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the growth curves from a population from a large city suburban hospital with those of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods: At Hospital Geral do Grajaú, that serves the high pregnancy risk population lacking health facilities, of low education level and smaller number of prenatal visits and great morbidity, a growth curve was built for the newborns, as the Hospital is provided with updated equipment and personnel. The curve was built from the database available containing information on live births during the 2003 to 2007 period and totaling 9,952 newborns, as their weight at birth and gestational age were taken as parameters. The distribution curves of 3%, 10%, 50% and 90% of the Grajaú were compared to those of the city of São Paulo curve. Results: The curves did not significantly differ from those of the São Paulo curve percentiles, as shown by the mean deviation (Z score calculation, notwithstanding the higher rates for prematurity, low weight, teenager mothers and lack of prenatal visits among the Grajaú population as compared to those of São Paulo. Conclusions: The São Paulo city curve showed to be appropriate for the suburban population despite the existing differences.

  6. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of 226 Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  8. Mortalidade de mulheres em idade fértil no município de São Paulo (Brasil, 1986: II-Mortes por causas maternas Mortality in women of reproductive age in S. Paulo City (Brazil, 1986: II - Deaths by maternal causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Dando seqüência ao projeto de investigação de fidedignidade da certificação da causa básica de morte de mulheres em idade fértil (10-49 anos residentes no Município de São Paulo, em 1986, foram comparados os atestados de óbito "originais" com os "refeitos" com base em informações adicionais. O coeficiente de mortalidade materna elevou-se de 44,5 por 100.000 nascidos vivos (n.v. para 99,6 por 100.000 n.v., alto valor quando comparado com o de outros locais. Comparando-se estes dados com outros anteriores que usaram a mesma metodologia, notou-se que a mortalidade ascendeu no período de 1962/4 a 1974/5, para decrescer em 1986. As principais causas de morte materna foram: hipertensão complicando a gravidez, outras afecções da mãe que complicam a gravidez e complicações do puerpério. Discutem-se ainda a necessidade de ampliação do período de 42 dias da definição de mortes maternas e a relação existente entre condições vistas como não-maternas (câncer, violências e o ciclo gravídico-puerperal.In continuation to the research project on the accuracy of the certification of the underlying causes of death in women of child-bearing age (10-49, resident in the Municipality of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986, "original" death certificates were compared with "revised" death certificates (including additional information. The maternal mortality rate rose from 44.5 per 100,000 live births (l.b. to 99.6 per 100,000 l.b., a high rate when compared with that of other places. When these data were compared with those of previous, similar investigations in the same city, the maternal mortality rate rose in the period 1962/4 through 1972/4 and fell in 1986. The main causes of death were: hypertension complicating pregnancy, other conditions of the mother which complicated pregnancy and puerperal complications. The need to extend the 42-day period related to the concept of maternal death, as well as the relationship between the non

  9. Estudo das condições de saúde das crianças do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, 1984-1985: III. Aleitamento materno A study of children's health in S.Paulo city (Brazil, 1984-1985: III -Breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de amplo estudo epidemiológico sobre condições de saúde na infância, investigou-se a freqüência e duração do alietamento materno em amostra representativa de crianças menores de cinco anos residentes no Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil (n = 1.016. Apesar de a grande maioria das crianças iniciar a amamentação (92,8%, menos da metade chega amamentada aos quatro meses de idade, alcançando os 12 e os 24 meses, respectivamente, 18,8% e 10,7% das crianças. A duração mediana da amamentação no Município de São Paulo foi estimada em 109,25 dias. Para o aleitamento materno exclusivo, a duranção mediana estimada foi ainda menor: 62,55 dias. A estratificação da amostra revelou que a duração mediana tanto da amamentação quanto do aleitamento exclusivo alcançou valores superiores nos estratos de maior nível sócio-econômico, contrariando, portanto, a situação usualmente encontrada em países em desenvolvimento. A comparação dos dados obtidos em 1984/85, com dados obtidos em 1973/74 e em 1981, revela a ocorrência em São Paulo de um movimento recente de retorno à prática da amamentação. Tal movimento, ainda não documentado em nenhum outro grande conglomerado urbano do Terceiro Mundo, assemelha-se ao movimento observado na década de 70 em vários países desenvolvidos, inclusive no que se refere à sua maior intensidade nos estratos de maior nível sócio-econômico. Embora os resultados do referido movimento possam ser considerados modestos, pois uma expressiva proporção de crianças ainda é desmamada precocemente, eles mostram que não há razão para se aceitar como inevitável ou como irreversível a tendência de queda da prática da amamentação nas sociedades urbanas do Terceiro Mundo.A survey of 1,016 children under five years old, randomly sampled was carried out in S.Paulo city, Brazil, with a view to studying the epidemiology of health conditions. In this survey the prevalence and duration

  10. Estudo das condições de saúde das crianças do Município de São Paulo (Brasil, 1984/1985: IX - Cobertura e qualidade da assistência materno-infantil A study of children's health in S. Paulo city (Brazil, 1984/1985: IX - Coverage and quality of maternal and child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1988-06-01

    características relacionadas à qualidade da assistência, sendo imprescindível, sobretudo nos estratos populacionais de pior nível sócio-econômico, elevar a cobertura da assistência pré-natal precoce e a cobertura de puericultura após o primeiro ano de vida. Um item especialmente preocupante relacionado à assistência ao parto foi a alta incidência de cesareanas, uma das maiores já registrada em uma população.A survey of 1,016 randomly selected children under five years of age was carried out in S. Paulo city, Brazil, with a view to studying the epidemiology of health conditions. The quality and the coverage of maternal and child care were observed. Both characteristics were estimated by means of domiciliary interviews. The prenatal care coverage was 92.9%. In 70% of the cases prenatal care started in the first quarter of pregnancy and the number of visits was 6 or more. Ninety-nine percent of the children were born in hospitals and in 47.1% of the cases caesarean section was mentioned. Ninety-eight percent of the children went, at least once, to well-baby clinics, about two thirds of them during the first two months of life. With regard to the activities provided by those clinics, a great concentration of visits in the first year of life (averaging 7.7 visits per child was observed as well as a high percentage of immunized children (Sabin 86.7%, DPT 85.1%, BCG 89.0%, Measles 85.9%, a striking decrease of visits after 12 months of age and a very small proportion of children attended by an odontology specialist (19.5%. Considering the global coverage of maternal and infant care, minimal differences were observed between socioeconomic strata. Nevertheless the differences were impressive when qualitative aspects of the care were taken into account. Compared with other surveys made in Brazil, the present one shows that the situation of S. Paulo city is better than that of other urban areas of the country. It was also observed that there has been an increase in

  11. FEARS AND THE REALITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SÃO PAULO CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Teruo Kawamoto Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is known worldwide as one of the countries with large numbers of people with entrepreneurial profile. São Paulo, for its population concentration, has the highest number of people with this profile. The objective of this study is to quantify the opinion of the population of 39 cities in the state of Sao Paulo regarding their main fears and difficulties when considering opening their own businesses or after starting it. In order to reach the objective, we prepared a questionnaire based on exploratory research and in articles on the subject. As a result, we observed that funding, bureaucracy, overcoming the competition and the lack of preparation in conducting a business are considered the main difficult factors.

  12. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  13. Does public transportation improve the accessibility of primary dental care in São Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Aidan; Martins Rocha, Carla; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Advances in geospatial technologies have recognized the role of geographic distance as a barrier to healthcare accessibility. Frequent transportation is supposed to buffer issues with distance, while infrequent services impede the uptake of care. The role of public transportation on the accessibility of health care-including oral health care-is not well elucidated in the context of megacities, such as the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. This study aimed to compare the supply of public transportation to primary dental clinics and the population between advantaged and disadvantaged areas in São Paulo city. A total of 4101 primary dental clinics in São Paulo city were identified and geocoded. Geographic coordinates were also retrieved for the 19 242 bus stops, 56 commuter rail stations and 64 rapid transit stations. Clinic locations and transport points were integrated with the city's 19 128 constituent census tracts-each containing sociodemographic data on the 11 252 204 residents-using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Almost all clinics were located within 0.5 km of public transportation. Half of all clinics were within 0.5 km of high-frequency transport points, and three-quarters were within 1 km. Likewise, 99% of the population resided within 0.5 km of any public transportation. However, only 22% were within 0.5 km of high-frequency options, and half were within 1 km. Those within 0.5 km of high-frequency points had higher average monthly household incomes and lower illiteracy rates, with lower proportions of children and ethnic minorities, and higher proportions of older people. Clinics and populations in sociodemographically disadvantaged tracts have poorer public transportation links in São Paulo city. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  15. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing.

  16. Efeitos adversos no tratamento da tuberculose: experiência em serviço ambulatorial de um hospital-escola na cidade de São Paulo Adverse effects of tuberculosis treatment: experience at an outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Eri Onodera Vieira

    2008-12-01

    the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Adverse effects and the timing of their appearance, as well as subsequent modifications in the treatment regimen, were investigated. RESULTS: We included 297 patients, 146 (49.1% of whom presented one or more adverse effects related to antituberculosis medications. The frequency of minor side effects was 41.1%, and that of major side effects was 12.8%. The most common reactions were those involving the gastrointestinal tract (40.3% and the skin (22.1%. Adverse effects were more common in the first and second months of treatment (58.4%. Modification of the treatment regimen was necessary in 11 cases (3.7% of the total sample. Drug-induced hepatitis was the adverse effect that demanded the most regimen changes. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of patients, the frequency of adverse effects related to treatment with Regimen I was 49.1%. However, in most of the cases, it was not necessary to modify the treatment regimen due to side effects.

  17. Resultados maternos e neonatais em Centro de Parto Normal peri-hospitalar na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Resultados maternos y neonatales en un Centro de Parto Normal perihospitalario en la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil Maternal and perinatal outcomes of an alongside hospital Birth Center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Fagundes Lobo

    2010-09-01

    describe the maternal and perinatal results of care in the alongside hospital birth center Casa de Maria (CPN-CM, located in the city of São Paulo. The random sample included 991 women and their newborns, attended between 2003 and 2006. The results showed that 92.2% of women had a companion of her choice during childbirth and the practices commonly used were shower or immersion bath (92.9%, amniotomy (62.6%, walking (47.6%, massage comfort (29.8% and episiotomy (25.7%. Regarding newborns, 99.9% of them had Apgar scores =7 in the fifth minute, 9.3% received aspiration of the upper airway, no one needed to be intubated and 1.4% were removed to the hospital. The model of care in the CPN-CM provides maternal and perinatal outcomes expected for low obstetric risk women, and means a safe option and less interventionist model in normal childbirth.

  18. Presence of Salmonella Spp and Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Raw Meat, in São Paulo City, Brazil and Evaluation of Low Temperature (Refrigeration and Freezing) Resistance of these Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakabi, M.; Gelli, D. S.; Ristori, C. A.; De Paula, A. M.R.; Sakuma, H.; Lopez, G. I.S. [Seção de Microbiologia Alimentar (Brazil); Fernandes, S. A. [Seção de Bacteriologia Médica (Brazil); Luchesi, R. B. [Seção de Meios de Cultura (Brazil); Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-01-15

    A total of 253 samples of raw meat (bovine, swine and poultry) were collected in local supermarkets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and analysed for Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7, in order to determine their microbiological quality and compliance with the established standards for these two bacteria. Additionally, samples of ground beef were artificially contaminated with S. enteritidis and E. coli 0157:H7, in order to determine the effect of refrigeration and freezing temperature during the storage period (4ºC for 5 days, and - 18ºC for 90 days, respectively). Twenty-three samples (9.1%) were positive to Salmonella and seven different serotypes were isolated, S. enteritidis being the most common serotype founded (34,8%). The results of the artificially contaminated samples showed that E. coli 0157:H7 was sensitive to refrigeration as well as freezing temperature. S. enteritidis was only affected by freezing temperature during the storage time. (author)

  19. Validation of self-reported diabetes in a representative sample of São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Mello Fontanelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults, participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo. Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3, specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9, positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8, and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2. The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5 than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.

  20. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  1. Variáveis maternas e infantis associadas à ocorrência de anemia em crianças nos serviços de atenção básica em São Paulo Mother and child factors related to occurrence of anemia in children assisted at primary health care centers of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Colombo Compri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis maternas e infantis associadas à ocorrência de anemia em crianças atendidas por serviços de atenção básica à saúde do município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 357 crianças, de quatro a 24 meses, de três serviços de atenção básica à saúde da região sul da cidade. As variáveis foram separadas em categorias relacionadas à mãe e à criança. A dosagem de hemoglobina foi realizada por punção digital, com ponto de corte de 11g/dL para o diagnóstico de anemia. O teste t de Student foi aplicado para comparar as médias de hemoglobina de dois grupos independentes; a ANOVA, para três ou mais grupos; e o teste de Mann-Whitney para comparar a velocidade de crescimento e o grupo etário. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de hemoglobina abaixo de 11g/dL foi de 60%. Entre as variáveis maternas, não se constatou associação com a ocorrência de anemia. Houve associação entre anemia, gênero da criança e velocidade de ganho de peso. Quanto à alimentação, não foi encontrada associação entre tempo de aleitamento materno e anemia, mas houve associação com a ingestão quantitativa e qualitativamente pobre em ferro. CONCLUSÕES: A alta prevalência de anemia relacionou-se ao gênero masculino, no qual a velocidade de crescimento em menores de seis meses e naqueles com 18 a 24 meses foi maior, além de se associar à baixa ingestão de ferro na dieta.OBJECTIVE: To analyze mother and child factors associated with the occurrence of anemia in children assisted at primary health care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODS: The study enrolled 357 children from four to 24 months assisted at three health care centers in the southern region of the city. Possible factors associated to anemia and related to mother and children characteristics were categorized. Hemoglobin was determined by digital puncture and the cut value for anemia diagnosis was 11g/dL. Student t test was used to compare the

  2. Inquérito entre migrantes atendidos pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: I. Aspectos demográficos Survey conducted among migrants going through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN" in S. Paulo City, Brazil: I. Demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Roncada

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos demográficos de uma pesquisa sobre hipovitaminose A, realizada entre migrantes nacionais que passaram pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Entre 1.097 indivíduos entrevistados, oriundos de todas as Regiões do país, de 15 a 60 anos de idade, cerca de dois terços eram do sexo masculino. A idade modal foi 22 anos. Foi apurada a procedência imediata e remota, originando resultados que mostraram ser os Estados de Minas Gerais, Bahia e Pernambuco, zonas de repulsão de populações, atuando os Estados de São Paulo (Capital e interior e Paraná como áreas de atração. Dentre os motivos apontados para o deslocamento atual, 45,3% referiram-se a atividades primárias (trabalho em lavoura.In the present study the demographic aspects of migrants are described. The data were collected at the same time as blood was collected for a study on vitamin A among the same subjects. A sample of migrants passing through the CETREN in S. Paulo, SP, Brazil, was taken, comprising 1.097 subjects. The subjects came from all regions of Brazil, buing 15 to 60 years of age. Roughly two thirds were males. Modal age was 22 years. Both remote and immediate origin were investigated and it was found that the States of Minas Gerais, Bahia and Pernambuco were repulsion areas and that, on the other hand, the States of S. Paulo (both Capital and hinterland and Paraná were attraction areas. Among the motives for migration mentioned by the subjects 45.3% refered to primary activities (agricultural labor.

  3. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  4. Trans fatty acid intake among the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil Consumo de ácidos grasos trans en la población de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Consumo de ácidos graxos trans na população da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alessandra de Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acid intake among the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003, on a representative sample of 2,298 male and female subjects, including 803 adolescents (12 to 19 years, 713 adults (20 to 59 years and 782 elderly people (60 years or over. Food intake was measured using 24-hour recall. Mean trans fatty acid intake was described according to gender and age group. RESULTS: The mean trans fatty acid intake was 5.0 g/day (SE = 0.1, accounting for 2.4% (SE = 0.1 of total energy and 6.8% (SE = 0.1 of total lipids. The adolescents had the highest mean intake levels (7.4 g/day; 2.9% of energy while the adults and the elderly had similar intake (2.2% of energy for both; 6.4% of lipids and 6.5% of lipids, respectively. The mean trans fatty acid intake among adult and elderly women (approximately 2.5% of energy and 7.0% of lipids was higher than among men in the same age group. The food item with the highest contribution towards trans fatty acids was margarine, accounting for more than 30% of total intake, followed by filled cookies among adolescents and meat among adults and the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The trans fatty acid intake is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Replacement of the trans fatty acids in manufactured food items may be an effective measure for reducing trans fatty acid intake in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de ácidos grasos moninsaturados y polinsaturados de configuración trans en la población general. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, 2003, con muestra representativa de 2.298 individuos, siendo 803 adolescentes (12 a 19 años, 713 adultos (20 a 59 años y 782 ancianos (60 años o más, de ambos sexos. El consumo alimentario fue medido por medio del recordatorio alimentario de 24 horas. Los valores promedios de ingestión de

  5. Desigualdades entre pacientes hospitalizados por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, 1986 Inequalities among patients hospitalized for cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases in the City of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Stuardo Yazlle Rocha

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Valendo-se de um sistema de informações sobre hospitalizações no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil foram estudadas as características clínico-epidemiológicas referidas dos pacientes internados, em 1986, por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais (DCVC. De 43.499 hospitalizações ocorridas naquele ano, 4.673 foram ocasionadas por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais. Utilizando a fonte de financiamento da internação como indicador do estrato social ao qual pertence o paciente, foram compostos 4 grupos de estudo: particulares, "outros", previdenciários e "não pagantes"; estes grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a coeficiente de internações por DCVC, média e mediana de idade na hospitalização, perfil ocupacional, duração da internação, freqüência dos sub-grupos diagnósticos, coeficientes de mortalidade e a idade média e mediana nos casos de óbitos. Estas diferenças foram atribuídas às disparidades sociais no nível de vida e condições de trabalho dos grupos estudados o que determina diferenças no adoecer, ser assistido e no morrer.The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalizations due to cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases (CCVD - ICD 390 - 438, which occurred in 1986, were studied on the basis of data from an information system relating to medical care in the City of Ribeirão Preto, State of S. Paulo, Brazil. These causes accounted for 4,673 of the annual total of 43,449 hospital admissions. Using the sources of payment of the hospitalization as an indicator of the patients' social strata, the following four study groups were defined: private, social insurance, non-paying and "others". These groups showed significant differences in relation to the following variables: hospitalization rates due to CCVD, mean and median age at admission and time of death, occupation, average length of stay in the hospital, mortality rates and relative frequencies of specific

  6. The use of Tillandsia usneoides L. as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Alcala, A.L.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Saiki, M.; Domingos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides was used as a biomonitor of metal atmospheric pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed for 8 weeks in 10 sites of the city and in a control site. The data obtained showed that the control site presented lower concentration for most elements analyzed and the highest concentrations of Na, Cl, Br, K. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and V were observed in stations submitted to industrial and vehicular sources. The results obtained for rare earth elements, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Rb and Sc indicate mineral dust origin. The elements Ba, As and Sb presented higher values in stations near streets with heavy traffic. (author)

  7. Estudo das condições de saúde das crianças do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, 1984/1985: X - Consumo Alimentar A study of children's health in S. Paulo City (Brazil, 1984-1985: X - Food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de amplo estudo epidemiológico sobre condições de saúde na infância, uma amostra probabilística de menores de cinco anos residentes no Município de São Paulo (n = 305 foi estudada com relação à adequação nutricional de suas dietas. Através do inquérito recordatorio do consumo alimentar nas últimas 24 horas evidenciou-se que: a a partir de um ano de idade, as dietas tornam-se insuficientes para cobrir as necessidades energéticas de grande parte da população; b em todas as idades, mas particularmente nos primeiros dois anos de vida, o aporte dietético de ferro está muito abaixo das quantidades recomendadas para o consumo do nutriente; c em todas as idades, o aporte de proteína e de vitamina A alcança valores satisfatórios. Tais achados mostraram-se compatíveis com a avaliação clínico-laboratorial do estado nutricional realizada simultaneamente ao inquérito alimentar. A estratificação social da amostra revelou que o nível sócio-econômico familiar influencia fortemente o consumo energético e, de forma menos intensa, o consumo de ferro. Na discussão dos prováveis fatores responsáveis pelos déficits dietéticos encontrados, hipóteses distintas são aventadas para o déficit energético e para o déficit de ferro. No caso do déficit energético, a origem básica do problema pareceria residir no baixo poder aquisitivo da população que condiciona insuficiente disponibilidade de alimentos e ingestão quantitativamente deficiente. No caso do déficit de ferro, a mesma hipótese valeria inteiramente apenas a partir da idade de dois anos. Antes desta idade, fatores relacionados ao desmame precoce e ao atraso na introdução de alimentos ricos em ferro aparentemente seriam mais importantes.As part of a broad epidemiological survey of the health conditions of under-fives, a random sample (n = 305 of children living in S. Paulo city (Brazil was submitted to a 24-hour dietary recall. The main results were: a

  8. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil Características microscópicas de queijos prato, mussarela e mineiro comercializados em feiras livres da Cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.INTRODUÇÃO: Os queijos devem ser produzidos com matéria-prima de boa qualidade, processados em condições de higiene e transportados, armazenados e comercializados de forma adequada, a fim de evitar, entre outros, a incorporação de matérias estranhas (sujidades de origem biológica ou não, as quais não são permitidas pela legislação bromatológica em vigor. Foram avaliadas as condições higiênicas de queijos prato, mussarela e mineiro comercializados em feiras livres da Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MATERIAL E M

  9. Analysis of prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications in two cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Análise da prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Noto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications through the analysis of the prescriptions/notices kept at various institutions in two cities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: The prescriptions kept at drugstores, magistral pharmacies, primary care settings and hospitals were collected and analyzed in collaboration with the Sanitary Vigilance agencies in the year of 1999. The information in the prescriptions/notices were typed and tabulated. RESULTS: A total of 108,215 prescriptions were processed, being 76,954 for benzodiazepines, 26,930 for anorexigenic drugs, 3,540 for opiates and 788 for other drugs. The benzodiazepines most frequently prescribed were: diazepam (31,644, bromazepam (16,911 and clonazepam (7,929. Among the anorexigenic drugs, diethylpropion (14,800 and femproporex (10,942 were the most common. When compared to men, women were given more prescriptions, mainly for anorexigenic drugs: the ratio was 10:1 in the prescriptions for diethylpropion and femproporex. The few magistral pharmacies (n=6 handled even more prescriptions than did the drugstores (n=49. A number of errors and inconsistencies were detected in the prescriptions analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the occurrence of an irrational use of such medications and a series of inadequate practices related to their prescription in Brazil. Therefore, they point out to the need of a comprehensive review of the government's control system of these substances.OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos por meio da análise das receitas/notificações retidas em diferentes estabelecimentos de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Em parceria com as Vigilâncias Sanitárias dos municípios, foram coletadas e analisadas as prescrições retidas em drogarias, farmácias de manipulação, postos públicos e hospitais no ano de 1999. Os dados contidos nas receitas/notificações foram

  10. Aceitabilidade de pão fortificado com ferro microencapsulado por crianças de creches das regiões sul e leste da cidade de São Paulo Acceptability of bread fortified with microencapsulated iron by children of daycare centers in the south and east regions of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Stumpf Souto

    2008-12-01

    -for-profit daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Children in two daycare centers received the mini-rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron in breakfast from Monday to Friday (exposed daycare centers. Children in the other 2 daycare centers received regular, yet identical, mini-rolls in the same manner. Observation lasted 120 days. Acceptance was noted daily on specific log-sheets. Data were compared using the chi-square and Student's t tests, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Mean weekly consumption of mini-rolls was lower in exposed daycare centers (1.17 than in unexposed centers (1.54. Variance was greater in unexposed daycare centers. Acceptance was lower among children in exposed daycare centers in all stratified variable categories, except among children younger than 36 months or aged between 36 and 47 months. CONCLUSION: Although the children's acceptance of the rolls fortified with iron was significantly lower than that of rolls without iron fortification, this type of food might be a viable alternative in the prevention of iron-deficiency anemia in children of daycare centers.

  11. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  12. Introdução de alimentos complementares nos primeiros dois anos de vida de crianças de escolas particulares no município de São Paulo Introduction of complementary foods in the first two years of life of children attending private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela N Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a idade de introdução de alimentos complementares nos primeiros dois anos de vida e sua relação com variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas de crianças matriculadas em pré-escolas particulares do município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com informações demográficas e socioeconômicas de 566 crianças, sendo verificada a idade em meses de introdução dos alimentos complementares. Foi considerada como variável dependente a idade em meses da introdução dos alimentos complementares e, como variáveis independentes ou explanatórias, a idade e escolaridade maternas, a condição de trabalho materno e a renda familiar. Para análise da relação entre as variáveis, utilizou-se a técnica de regressão múltipla de Cox. RESULTADOS: 50% das crianças eram do sexo masculino e 61% maiores de 4 anos. A maior proporção das mães tinha nível superior de escolaridade e trabalhava fora. A renda familiar mostrou uma população de alto nível socioeconômico. A água e/ou chá, frutas e leite não-materno foram introduzidos antes do sexto mês de vida. A variável 'idade da mãe' mostrou associação com introdução de três grupos de alimentos: cereais, carne e guloseimas. CONCLUSÃO: Alimentos complementares foram introduzidos precocemente nessa população de nível socioeconômico elevado e a única variável que se associou à introdução desses alimentos foi a idade materna.OBJECTIVE: To verify the age of complementary food introduction in the first two years of life and its relation to demographic, social, and economic status of preschool children of private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with demographic, social and economic status information. The studied population included 566 children. The age in months of complementary foods introduction was verified. The dependent variable was the age in months of complementary foods introduction. Independent or

  13. Perfis de causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas ao HIV/AIDS nos municípios de São Paulo e Santos, Brasil, 2001 Profiles of multiple causes of death related to HIV/AIDS in the cities of São Paulo and Santos, Brazil, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Após a introdução da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência (TARV, o perfil da morbimortalidade relacionada ao HIV alterou-se, passando de óbitos causados por doenças oportunistas para quadros mórbido-crônicos de doenças "pré-AIDS", ou não definidoras de AIDS, causadas pelos efeitos adversos da terapia. Investigou-se a mortalidade relacionada ao HIV/AIDS através das causas múltiplas de morte, utilizando-se as declarações de óbito de residentes nos municípios de São Paulo e Santos, Brasil, que faleceram de causas relacionadas à doença pelo HIV em 2001. Utilizou-se o método Grade of Membership (GoM, que possibilitou criar perfis de causas de morte. Foram encontrados três perfis de mortalidade: o primeiro, relacionado às causas de morte identificadas no período pré-TARV, com predominância de doenças oportunistas; no segundo, houve uma mistura de características do período pré e pós-TARV; o terceiro perfil, residual, não contemplou a doença pelo HIV, mas incorporou grupos de causas de morte associadas aos períodos pré e pós-TARV. Espera-se que este estudo contribua para a elaboração de políticas direcionadas à adequação dos serviços de saúde ao novo cenário de morbimortalidade relacionada ao HIV.Following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the HIV-related morbidity-mortality profile has changed. Opportunistic infections are not as prevalent as before, and "pre-AIDS" diseases have become more common, related mostly to the side effects of HAART. This study focused on HIV/AIDS-related mortality, based on multiple causes of death among individuals who died of HIV-related causes in the cities of São Paulo and Santos, Brazil, in 2001. Grade of Membership (GoM analysis was used. Three mortality profiles were detected: (1 causes of death normally observed before the introduction of HAART, marked by opportunistic infections; (2 causes of death with mixed characteristics, both pre

  14. Aspectos sócio-econômicos dos indivíduos com malária importada na região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil: I - Caracterização da população e conhecimento sobre a doença Social and economic aspects of patients with imported malaria in the metropolitan region of S. Paulo City, S. Paulo State, Brazil: I - Characterization of the population and knowledge of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Chinelatto Pinheiro Alves

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer o perfil sócio-econômico dos indivíduos que se deslocaram das áreas endêmicas de malária do país, foram estudadas 566 pessoas com suspeita de malária que procuraram a confirmação diagnostica no Laboratório de Malária da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo da Superintendência de Controle de Endemias (SUCEN. As informações foram obtidas através da aplicação de formulário, no período de novembro de 1986 a junho de 1987. Da população estudada, 345 (61,0% residiam na área endêmica, 479 (84,6% eram do sexo masculino, 513 (90,7% estavam na faixa etária de 15 a 55 anos e 307 (54,2% apresentaram hemoscopia positiva para plasmódio. Com relação à ocupação na área de transmissão, observou-se que 109 (19,3% estavam ligados a atividade de extração de minerais, 74 (13,2% à agricultura e 46 (8,1% à atividade de transporte. A análise da escolaridade mostrou que 486 (85,9% tinham 1° ou 2° grau. Quanto ao conhecimento sobre a doença, 384 (67,8% declararam pelo menos 1 malária anterior e 491 (86,8% associavam à doença a presença do vetor. Dentre os 221 indivíduos residentes em São Paulo, 207 (93,7% conheciam o risco de contrair malária por ocasião do deslocamento para área de transmissão. Daqueles residentes na área endêmica, 336 (97,4% tinham conhecimento do risco de contrair a doença naquela região. O intervalo transcorrido entre os primeiros sintomas e a procura de atendimento médico em 386 (68,2% indivíduos variou de 0 a 3 dias. As freqüências das variáveis estudadas mostraram de acordo com o resultado hemoscópico e o local da residência, diferenças estatísticas relevantes.With a view to discovering the social and economic characteristics of people from endemic malarial areas of Brazil, 566 suspected malaria cases were studied at the S. Paulo City Metropolitan Region Malaria Laboratory. Data were obtained by means of the application of standardized questionnaires over the

  15. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  16. New multilocus sequence typing of MRSA in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Carmo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been observed worldwide. The molecular characterization of MRSA has played an important role in demonstrating the existence of internationally disseminated clones. The use of molecular biology methods in the surveillance programs has enabled the tracking of MRSA spread within and among hospitals. These data are useful to alert nosocomial infection control programs about the potential introduction of these epidemic clones in their areas. Four MRSA blood culture isolates from patients hospitalized at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed; one of them was community acquired. The isolates were characterized as SCCmec, mecA and PVL by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE profile and molecular sequence typing (MLST genotyping. The isolates presented type IV SCCmec, and none proved to be positive for PVL. The isolates showed a PFGE profile similar to the pediatric clone. MLST genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 (CC5, showing a new yqiL allele gene, resulting in a new sequence typing (ST (1176. Our results showed that strains of MRSA carrying a new ST are emerging in community and nosocomial infections, including bacteremia, in São Paulo, Brazil.

  17. Sistema de vigilância epidemiológica para acidentes do trabalho: experiência na Zona Norte do Município de São Paulo (Brasil Epidemiological vigilance system for accidents at work: first results from an experience in the Northern zone of S. Paulo City (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan de Paula Santos

    1990-08-01

    do SUDS-R-6.The epidemiological approach to occupational accidents and diseases adopted in Brazil is inadequate for many reasons, among them being: 1 the fact that only employers may notify work accidents, thus permitting notorious undernotification of these occupational hazards; 2 the available information does not permit a better understanding of the causal relationship between work accidents and diseases; 3 the official policy exists only for purposes of insurance compensation. The official documents for occupational disease and accident registration are the CTA (Work accident report and FTA (Casualty treatment card. The Worker's Health Program of SUDS-R-6 proposed, in October, 1988 a method for the codification, registration in a micro-computer data bank and analysis of this information, based on the records presently in use (CAT for public health service planning and accident prevention purposes. The major interest was in identifying the most common types of accidents in the region and the work environments in which they most frequently occur. The target population were the workers who attended the health units licenced to deal with work accidents and diseases, in the Northern region of S. Paulo City. The data presented below refer to the months of October, November and December, 1988, the first three months of the project. During that period a total of 2,339 accidents were registered. They were classified as: typical work accidents - 87%: commuting accidents which occurred between the home and the work-place - 18% and work diseases (only 2 cases. The majority of workers (50% were between 25 and 45 years of age, approximately 7% were under 18. Male workers represented 83.2% of accident cases. The most affected area of the body were the fingers and hands (31.5%. Collisions with objects present in the work environment (17.5% and heavy weights falling on the body (16.9% were the main causes of accidents. The medical diagnosis showed that about 60% were contusions

  18. Evolução de condicionantes ambientais da saúde na infância na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996 Secular trends in environmental determinants of child health in S. Paulo city, Brazil (1984-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2000-12-01

    influência que mudanças em condições ambientais podem ter exercido sobre a evolução de diferentes indicadores do estado de saúde das crianças da cidade é examinada em artigos subseqüentes.OBJECTIVE: Two consecutive household surveys undertaken in mid-80s and mid-90s in the city of S. Paulo Brazil, made possible to establish time trends of several child health determinants and indicators as well as to analyse the relationships among them. The study intends to report trends in environmental determinants of child health. METHODS: Random samples of the population aged from zero to 59 months were studied: 1,016 children in the period of 1984-85 and 1,280 children in 1995-96. Both surveys investigated several housing characteristics -- materials used in the building, size, occupation density, existence of shower, toilet, running water in the kitchen, and the presence of smoker dwellers -- as well as access to water supply, sewage, garbage disposal and pavement of public areas. RESULTS: Improvements from mid-80s to mid-90s are observed regarding both housing characteristics and the implementation of basic services public services. The only indicator showing no improvement was the proportion of children living in slums, near 12% in both surveys. However, housing characteristics in slums showed an impressive improvement in the period between the surveys as well as the access of this population to water supply and garbage disposal services. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in housing characteristics are consistent with increases in the purchasing power reported in the same period. The expansion of public basic services resulted from both public investments and a significant reduction in population growth. The noticeable increase in the coverage of water supply and garbage disposal in the slums indicates a more equitable delivery of the basic services. The same trend was not seen regarding sewage and street paving, which are not widespread in slum areas. The influence that

  19. Proportional cancer incidence according to selected sites: comparison between residents in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil: Japanese and Brazilian/Portuguese descent Incidência proporcional por câncer: comparação entre residentes no Município de São Paulo de diferentes origens: japonesa e brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Pacheco de Souza

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The percentual distributions of selected sites of cancer cases according to origin, sex and age are compared. Data were obtained from the Registry of Cancer of S. Paulo (School of Public Health of the University of S. Paulo, Brazil. The reference period for inhabitants of Japanese descent was 1969/78 and for those of Brazilian descent, the period was 1969/75. Standardized Proportionate Incidence Ratios (SPIR with approximate 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were evaluated using age specific Incidence Ratios of S. Paulo, 1973, as standards. The results agree with findings of previous works on mortality, but show different patterns according to origin. The well known fact that some sub-groups of a population may be different from the overall group is once again brought to the fore. Attention should be drawn to the differences detected for stomach, skin and prostate, in males, and for stomach, skin, cervix and uterus in females.São comparadas as distribuições percentuais dos casos de câncer de algumas localizações anatômicas segundo país de nascimento, sexo e idade. Os dados foram coletados no Registro de Câncer de São Paulo da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP, referentes aos períodos 1969-1978, para os japoneses, e 1969-1975, para os brasileiros. Razões padronizadas de incidência proporcional e respectivos intervalos com 95% de confiança foram calculados, usando como padrão a incidência proporcional específica por idade de São Paulo, em 1973. Os resultados, consistentes com trabalhos anteriores relativos à mortalidade, mostraram haver possíveis padrões distintos de incidência de câncer em japoneses e brasileiros. Chamou atenção para o fato de que alguns sub-grupos de uma população apresentam comportamentos diferentes e, no presente caso, principalmente quanto à incidência de cânceres de estômago, próstata, pele, em homens, e estômago, pele, colo uterino e útero, em mulheres.

  20. Atenção básica e dinâmica urbana nos grandes municípios paulistas, Brasil Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Estudos de Linha de Base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família construíram indicadores e modelos de atenção básica para os 62 municípios paulistas com mais de 100 mil habitantes, e apontaram uma diversidade de comportamento destes indicadores e modelos em relação às diferentes dinâmicas urbanas do estado. Nesse sentido, houve a necessidade de realizar uma reflexão sobre saúde e uso urbano do território. O principal objetivo desta reflexão foi compreender melhor sobre como a dinâmica urbana tem influência no perfil, na organização e no funcionamento do sistema de saúde. A partir daí, foi possível extrair algumas hipóteses e discussões sobre como a urbanização paulista impõe desafios à expansão e consolidação da atenção básica e do Programa Saúde da Família nos municípios estudados.The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities.

  1. Use, access, and equity in health care services in São Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, C.N. (Camila Nascimento); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); Barros, M.B.A. (Marilisa Berti de Azevedo); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic

  2. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil) Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo; Patricia Constante Jaime; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência de consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras por adultos e analisar os fatores associados ao seu consumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 no município de São Paulo (SP). Foram realizadas entrevistas telefônicas em amostra probabilística da população adulta (>18 anos) residente em domicílios servidos por linhas fixas de telefone, totalizando 1.267 mulheres e 855 homens. A freqüência do consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras foi...

  3. City/invisibility and city/estrangement: São Paulo, before and after the "Clean City" law Cidade/invisibilidade e cidade/estranhamento: São Paulo antes e depois da lei "Cidade Limpa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ogécia Drigo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available City/invisibility and city/estrangement: São Paulo, before and after the "Clean City" law — This paper reflects on the relation between street advertising and the urban context in the city of São Paulo (SP/Brazil before and after the implementation of the "Clean City" law, and offers some suggestions about how these sign systems could dialogize. The methodological approach whereby the urban context and street advertising are seen as sign systems, according to the semiotics of Charles S. Peirce, involved the collection and analysis of data — photographic records of São Paulo (before and after the "Clean City" law, and the presentation of suggestions founded upon Lynch's ideas about urban context; on Legorreta's ideas about educating the eyes to see architecture; and on Baudrillard's ideas about advertising, notably his concept of functionality. The relevance of this approach lies in the fact that the suggestions are relevant to multiple urban and cultural contexts, and because they consider that urban landscape studies are pertinent for communication professionals. O propósito deste artigo é refletir sobre a relação entre a publicidade de rua e o contexto urbano na cidade de São Paulo antes e depois da lei "Cidade Limpa" e apresentar sugestões para que esses sistemas de signos estabeleçam diálogos. O percurso metodológico que tomou o contexto urbano e a publicidade de rua como sistemas de signos, segundo a semiótica de Charles S. Peirce, se deu com coleta de dados — registros fotográficos ou recortes de lugares da cidade —, análise e elaboração de sugestões fundamentando-se em ideias de Lynch, sobre contexto urbano; Legorreta, sobre a educação do olhar para a arquitetura e de Baudrillard sobre publicidade, notadamente o conceito de funcionalidade. A relevância do estudo se deve ao fato de que as sugestões são pertinentes para múltiplos contextos urbanos e culturais, bem como por considerar que

  4. [Challenges in primary health care: the experience in Vila Mariana District, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso de; Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Cuginotti, Aloísio Punhagui; Hayana, Eliana Tiemi; Brito, Francisco Carlos de; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This article presents the results of a case study aimed at identifying challenges for the delivery of primary health care in a health district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, considering comprehensiveness as a central device for organizing work at this level of care. Five units in the district's primary care network were studied. We collected the data by observing work routines and flows, conducting interviews with managers and health professionals from different backgrounds, and through focus groups with family health teams. The analysis shows a mismatch between users' characteristics and their presumed needs and the heterogeneity of the health professionals' perceptions concerning their work. Lack of staff and time and difficulties with referrals were the main problems identified by interviewees.

  5. Avaliação da estrutura dos centros de atenção psicossocial do município de São Paulo, SP Evaluación de la estructura de los centros de atención psicosocial del municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Evaluation of psychosocial healthcare services in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Fátima Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    de las regiones de la ciudad, bien como a las diferentes composiciones de los equipos observados. Diferentes modelos de atención psicosocial fueron encontrados, desde la constitución de "equipos-síntesis" de los cuales los usuarios no reciben alta, hasta servicios que encaminan y dan alta posterior a la estabilización de los síntomas de los usuarios, en un intento de construcción de una red de cuidados.OBJECTIVE: To describe infrastructure, human resources, and care approaches in psychosocial healthcare services. METHODS: Descriptive study including 21 psychossocial healthcare services for adults affiliated to the local health department in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, conducted between 2007 and 2008. Information about infrastructure of facilities, human resources available and patient care was collected using a standardized instrument. There were performed descriptive data analysis and chi-square test to test the association between care activities and service source and location. RESULTS: Ten services were first created as outpatient clinics and later adapted, eight were day hospitals and only three were created as psychosocial healthcare services. None of them was open 24 hours a day. Half of them were located in rented buildings with inadequate infrastructure especially for group activities. Staff composition was very different among services, with emphasis on on-site group activities and little integration to other health services. All services provided mostly arts and cultural activities. Earlier outpatient services provided mainly craft activities and former day-hospitals offered mostly psychophysical integration activities. The profile of activities varied according to the geographical distribution of services. CONCLUSIONS: Current heterogeneous character of psychosocial healthcare services seems associated to the history of mental health care programs that have been implemented in São Paulo since 1980s and to social, economic and

  6. Fatores de risco para uso do tabaco em adolescentes de duas escolas do município de Santo André, São Paulo Risk factors for tobacco use in adolescent students of two high schools of Santo André city, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Ferraro Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco para uso de tabaco em estudantes de duas escolas do ensino médio do município de Santo André (SP em 2005, bem como traçar o perfil do adolescente experimentador do fumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com questionário padronizado, autoaplicável e anônimo aplicado a adolescentes escolares de ambos os sexos, matriculados no primeiro ano do ensino médio de duas escolas de Santo André, uma particular e outra pública. Foram levantadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, sexo, raça, prática de esportes, religião e hábitos do adolescente e da família. Definiu-se como "experimentador do fumo" o adolescente que experimentou cigarro (tabaco e não continuou o hábito tabagista. Foi feita a análise descritiva com o teste do qui-quadrado e os fatores de risco para "experimentar fumo" foram analisados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Dos 232 questionários aplicados, 226 (90% foram respondidos, sendo 137 (61% na escola particular e 89 (39% na estadual. Dentre os entrevistados, 54 (24% referiram já ter experimentado tabaco uma vez na vida (35 na escola privada e 19 na pública. Foram fatores de risco significativos para experimentar fumo na escola particular: mãe fumante (OR 12,4; IC95% 4,1-37,8 e amigos fumantes (OR 9,6; IC95% 3,1-29,9. Na escola pública, os fatores de risco para a mesma variável foram: consumo de bebida alcoólica (OR 8,8; IC95% 1,9-40,1, amigos fumantes, (OR 7,9; IC95% 1,9-31,3 e contato com fumaça do cigarro (OR 6,4; IC95% 1,6-26,2. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se influência significativa do meio ambiente do adolescente, inclusive social e familiar, para a experimentação do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for tobacco use in high school students of two schools of the city of Santo Andre (São Paulo, Brazil in 2005, as well as to describe the profile of the adolescent who uses tobacco. METHODS: Cross sectional study that applied a standardized anonimous self

  7. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  8. Erros alimentares na dieta de crianças frequentadoras de berçários em creches públicas no município de São Paulo, Brasil Errores alimentares en dietas de niños frecuentadores de nidos en guarderías públicas en el municipio de São Paulo, Brasil Dietary errors in the diet of children attending nurseries of public daycare centers in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kochi Golin

    2011-03-01

    stos fueron transcriptos y analizados en el programa estadístico Epi-Info 2000. Las variables evaluadas fueron la introducción de leche no materna, introducción de alimentos y la consistencia inicial de la alimentación complementaria. RESULTADOS: La introducción de la leche no materna ocurrió en 40% de los niños hasta 3 meses y en 78% de los niños hasta 6 meses. A los 3 meses de edad, un 50% recibía líquidos no lácteos y un 15% papillas de frutas, legumbres, verduras y carnes. En la introducción de la leche no materna, 68% de los bebés recibieron leche de vaca y 31%, fórmulas infantiles. Hígado y pescado fueron los alimentos más tardíamente ofrecidos. Respecto a la consistencia de las comidas ofrecidas, el 49% fue inadecuada. CONCLUSIONES: El hecho de que los niños son frecuentadores de guarderías públicas señala la importancia de la capacitación de los profesionales que ahí actúan, y que eventualmente son los responsables de la introducción de la alimentación complementar.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary errors occurring when supplementary feeding is introduced and non-maternal milk is offered to children attending public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional and descriptive study of 255 children aged between five to 29 months. Pre-coded and structured questionnaires with open and closed questions were developed for data collection that occurred between April and November 2007. Such data were transcribed and analyzed by Epi-Info 2000 statistical software. The analyzed variables were the introduction of non-maternal milk, the introduction of foods and the initial solidity of supplementary feeding. RESULTS: The introduction of non-maternal milk occurred in 40% of children aged up to three months and in 78% up to six months. By the age of three months, approximately 50% received non-dairy liquids and 15%, strained fruits, vegetables, greens and meat. Regarding the introduction of non-maternal milk, 68% of babies

  9. O estado de nutrição de crianças internadas por tôdas as causas em hospital assistencial do município de S. Paulo The nutritional status in children interned irrespective of diagnosis in an assistencial Hospital in the city of S. Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondina Rosenburg

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sôbre o estado de nutrição de 2.007 crianças entre 0 e 24 meses de idade, internadas num Hospital Assistencial do Município de São Paulo, revela que o percentual total de desnutridos corresponde a cêrca de 3/4 da população observada. O percentual total de distróficos foi menor em 1963 do que em 1961, mas em 1969 ultrapassou o de 1963. O maior percentual de desnutridos em grau mais avançado (D³, que se encontrava, em 1961 e 1963, no primeiro semestre do segundo ano de vida, deslocou-se em 1969, para o segundo semestre do primeiro ano de vida.The nutritional status of 2.007 children, between zero to 24 months, admitted to an Assistential Hospital of S. Paulo City irrespective of diagnosis, was studied. The total percentage of distrophics in all grades reached almost 3/4 of the supervisioned children. The percentual decrease of undernourished children observed in 1963 did not persist in 1969. The greatest percentage of children in D3 which in 1961 and 1963 was found in the first semester of the 2nd year of life, displaced itself in 1969 to the 2nd semester of the first year of life.

  10. Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família: desafios e potencialidades na visão dos profissionais da Atenção Primária do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Family Health Support Centers: challenges and opportunities from the perspective of primary care professionals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tenório Correia da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Os Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF foram criados para ampliar a resolutividade da atenção primária. A iminência da implantação na região oeste do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, motivou a realização de oficinas para elaborar uma proposta de NASF por profissionais da atenção primária à saúde. Utilizamos a análise hermenêutica para estudar o material transcrito. As categorias temáticas foram: papel, constituição, funcionamento, relação com a equipes de saúde da família e interdisciplinaridade. A expectativa dos participantes foi de que o NASF seja um dispositivo potencializador da integralidade do cuidado, intervindo na cultura dos encaminhamentos desnecessários e na articulação com os outros níveis de atenção; além de contribuir para a discussão da formação dos profissionais e de estimular a reflexão junto aos gestores sobre indicadores de saúde vinculados exclusivamente ao número de atendimentos, que não refletem o impacto das ações desenvolvidas nem a qualidade do cuidado oferecido à população adscrita.Family Health Support Centers (NASF were created in Brazil to increase the case-resolution capacity of primary healthcare. Prior to their implementation in the West Side of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, a series of workshops were held for primary healthcare professionals to prepare a proposal for such centers. Hermeneutic analysis was used to study the transcribed material. The thematic categories were: role, constitution, and functioning of the NASF, relationship with family health teams, and interdisciplinarity. The participants' expected the NASF to be an empowering device for comprehensiveness of care, intervening in an existing culture of unnecessary referrals while fostering linkage with other levels of care. The participants also expected the NASF to contribute to the discussion on health professionals' training and stimulating reflection with policymakers on health indicators

  11. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  12. Níveis de imunidade contra a poliomielite em uma amostra de escolares do município de São Paulo, Brasil Immunity levels to poliomyelitis in a sample of school children from the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1977-06-01

    levels were determined in 13 Public Administrative Regions, as well as in the three geographical zones of S. Paulo city. The results showed that only about a half of the children had antibodies to all three poliovirus types in the different age groups examined, except in the 13 year age bracket, where the percentage of triple-immunes was 68.0%. Consequently, the immune status of the population does not reach the desirable levels of 75% of triple positives and the principal cause for this situation was the relative low prevalence of antibodies to the type 3 poliovirus, in almost all the age groups studied. It was also shown that the immune status of the school population was similar in the three geographical zones of the city. However, significant differences in immunity were detected in the 13 Public Administrative Regions of S. Paulo city, where the percentages of triple positive children varied from 38.6% to 66.9%. Booster doses of oral vaccine were recommended for children at school age.

  13. Epidemiologia do câncer do esôfago em São Paulo, Brasil Epidemiology of cancer of the oesophagus in S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pedro Mirra

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available São examinados aspectos da incidência de câncer do esôfago para residentes no município de São Paulo, (Brasil, no ano de 1975. Dados coletados pelo Registro de Câncer mostram um coeficiente de 6,4 e 1,3 por cem mil homens e mulheres, respectivamente; quando padronizados pela "população mundial" os coeficientes são 9,2 e 2,0 por cem mil. As taxas do sexo masculino mostram que São Paulo está a um nível de risco maior do que outras três cidades brasileiras, com dados conhecidos, Fortaleza, Recife e Rio de Janeiro; no sexo feminino não há evidências de diferenças, a não ser possivelmente em relação a Fortaleza. As curvas de incidência específica segundo idade e sexo concordam com o padrão descrito por Higginson e Muir; valores para a inclinação do 1nI (incidência específica por idade nas idades 35 a 75 foram 5,7 para o sexo masculino e 4,4 para o feminino, ajustando-se uma linha reta. Os nativos de São Paulo apresentam uma menor incidência do que os nascidos fora da cidade; para as duas categorias de imigrantes brasileiros residentes de São Paulo, as incidências para homens são consistentemente altas. As razões masculino-feminino de incidência apresentam regularidade nos grupos brasileiros; entre os estrangeiros as razões são maiores.Aspects of the incidente of cancer of the oesophagus in residents of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, for 1975, are examined. Data collected by the Cancer Registry yield a rate of 6.4/100,000 and 1.3/100,000 for males and females, respectively; when adjusted to the «world-population» the rates are 9.2/100,000 and 2.0/100,000. Male rates put S. Paulo at higher risk than three other Brazilian cities with known data, namely Fortaleza, Recife and Rio de Janeiro; for females there is no strong indication of differences, except in the case of Fortaleza. The specific age-sex incidence curves conform well to the pattern described by Higginson and Muir; values for the curves of 1nI (age

  14. Crescimento físico em estatura de escolares de ascendência japonesa na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Physical growth in stature of school children of Japanese ancestry in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um inquérito transversal que visou caracterizar o crescimento físico em estatura de uma amostra de escolares de ascendência japonesa (três ou quatro avós nascidos no Japão e de alto status sócio-econômico residentes na cidade de São Paulo. A amostra inclui 124 indivíduos entre 7 e 10 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os resultados demonstram que as crianças de ascendência japonesa apresentam médias de estatura inferiores às medianas das curvas da referência NCHS ("National Center for Health Statistics", E.U.A.. As médias são similares às medianas de uma amostra de crianças japonesas e inferiores àquelas de maior renda da PNSN ("Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição", Brasil. Os achados não apóiam a hipótese de uniformidade do potencial de crescimento físico em estatura em crianças, lançando dúvidas acerca da utilização de uma única referência de crescimento na avaliação antropométrica do estado nutricional.This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey describing the growth in stature of a sample of school children of Japanese ancestry (three or four grandparents born in Japan and of high socio-economic status living in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprises 124 individuals 7-10 years of age, of both sexes. The results show that the children present mean values of stature below the median values of the NCHS curves ("National Center for Health Statistics", U.S.A.. The values are similar to the medians of a sample of Japanese children and below those of well-to-do Brazilian children of non-Japanese ancestry studied by the PNSN ("Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição", Brazil. The findings do not support the hypothesis of uniformity of growth potential in stature, casting doubts on the utilization of a single anthropometric reference in the assessment of nutritional status.

  15. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7 Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of 7 Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of 7 Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7 Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of 7 Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  16. Prehospital pediatric trauma classification (PHPTC as a tool for optimizing trauma care resources in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Classificação do atendimento pré-hospitalar pediátrico como instrumento para otimizar a alocação de recursos no atendimento do trauma na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Campos Vieira Abib

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pediatric prehospital care in São Paulo, the databases from basic life support units (BLSU and ALSU, and to propose a simple and effective method for evaluating trauma severity in children at the prehospital phase. METHODS: A single firemen headquarter coordinates all prehospital trauma care in São Paulo city. Two databases were analyzed for children from 0 to 18 years old between 1998 and 2001: one from the Basic Life Support Units (BLSU - firemen and one from the Advanced Life Support Units (ALSU - doctor and firemen. During this period, advanced life support units provided medical reports from 604 victims, while firemen provided 12.761 reports (BLSU+ALSU. Pre-Hospital Pediatric Trauma Classification is based on physiological status, trauma mechanism and anatomic injuries suggesting high energy transfer. In order to evaluate the proposed classification, it was compared to the Glasgow Coma Score and to the Revised Trauma Score. RESULTS: There was a male predominance in both databases and the most common trauma mechanism was transport related, followed by falls. Mortality was 1.6% in basic life support units and 9.6% in ALSU. There was association among the proposed score, the Glasgow Coma Score and to the Revised Trauma Score (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o atendimento pré-hospitalar de crianças e adolescentes em São Paulo, avaliar o banco de dados das Unidades de Suporte Básico (UR e Avançado (USA e propor um método simples e eficaz para a avaliação da gravidade do trauma pediátrico na fase pré-hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Uma única central do Corpo de Bombeiros (COBOM coordena todo o atendimento pré-hospitalar em São Paulo. Dois bancos de dados foram analisados para crianças de 0 a 18 anos de idade, entre 1998 e 2001: um das Unidades de Suporte Básico de Vida (UR- bombeiros e outra de Unidades de Suporte Avançado (USA - médico e bombeiros. Neste período, o Serviço de Atendimento Médico de Urgência do Estado de

  17. Assessment of Urban Heat Islands in Small- and Mid-Sized Cities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs in large cities and different climatic regions have been thoroughly studied; however, their effects are becoming a common concern in smaller cities as well. We assessed UHIs in three tropical cities, analyzing how synoptic conditions, urban morphology, and land cover affect the heat island magnitude. Data gathering involved mobile surveys across Paranavaí (Paraná, Rancharia (São Paulo, and Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil, during summer evenings (December 2013–January 2014. Temperature data collected over five days in each city point to heat islands with magnitudes up to 6 °C, under calm synoptic conditions, whereas summer average UHI magnitudes peak at 3.7 °C. In addition, UHI magnitudes were higher in areas with closely spaced buildings and few or no trees and building materials that are not appropriate for the region’s climate and thermal comfort.

  18. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em escolares da região de Parelheiros do município de São Paulo Prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children of Parelheiros region in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luiza N. Fagundes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar, em uma amostra de escolares de uma região de baixo nível socioeconômico, a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 218 crianças selecionadas de modo aleatório, a partir de um universo estimado de 1.500 crianças e adolescentes, com idade entre seis e 14 anos, provenientes de três escolas de ensino fundamental de Parelheiros, São Paulo, sem distinção de sexo ou etnia. Foram excluídas aquelas portadoras de qualquer doença metabólica ou endócrina diagnosticada ou em tratamento. Os indivíduos foram submetidos à avaliação antropométrica, com medida do peso corporal e altura para cálculo do índice de massa corpórea e relação peso/altura. Todas as crianças responderam a um questionário aplicado pelos pesquisadores sobre hábitos alimentares. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de obesos e de portadores de sobrepeso foi respectivamente 14,7 e 16,5%. Entre os alunos obesos e com sobrepeso, o baixo consumo de frutas (10,8 e 10,8%, de verduras e legumes (16,4 e 9,1% e o alto consumo de doces (72,2 e 78,1% foram associados ao excesso de peso. A prática esportiva esteve ausente ou escassa nos obesos (81,3% e portadores de sobrepeso (77,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Os alunos avaliados, embora provenientes de uma região pobre de São Paulo, apresentaram um perfil de transição nutricional, com altas taxas de obesidade e sobrepeso.OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children from low socioeconomical status. METHODS: This cross sectional study randomly enrolled 218 eighteen students out of 1.500 students with six to 14 years old from three schools located in Parelheiros, São Paulo, Brazil. Children with a diagnosis and or treatment of metabolic or endocrine diseases were excluded. The studied children had an anthropometric evaluation of weight and height, and body mass index was calculated. All children answered a questionnaire about daily food

  19. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliavao da concentracao de elementos traco e de mercurio total em pescados comercializados na cidade de Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T., E-mail: ba_cortopassi@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the non predator species, and the 1000 {mu}g{sup -1} for the predator species (humid weight)

  20. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  1. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially in low and middle

  2. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. O olhar tropicalista sobre a cidade de São Paulo The tropicalim looks over São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Napolitano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Tropicália pode ser considerada um movimento cultural ancorado em São Paulo, pois foi a partir desta cidade que ele explodiu para o mundo, constituindo-se num dos capítulos mais importantes de sua história cultural. Foi resultante de uma conjuntura sociocultural específica, a agitação em torno dos festivais da canção e da retomada do ethos vanguardista nos anos 1960. O movimento tropicalista foi rapidamente enquadrado na tradição de ruptura que marcou a cidade de São Paulo a partir da Semana de Arte Moderna de 1922."Tropicalism" may be considered a cultural movement anchored in São Paulo, for it was from that city that it burst onto the world, constituting one of the most important chapters of its cultural history. It was the result of a specific socio-cultural set of circumstances, the agitation around the song festivals and the return to the avant-garde ethos of the Sixties. The tropicalist movement was rapidly placed within the tradition of rupture notable for the city of São Paulo beginning with the Modern Art Week of 1922.

  4. Tendência secular da altura na idade adulta de crianças nascidas na cidade de São Paulo entre 1950 e 1976 Secular trends in the adult height of children born in S. Paulo city, Brazil, from 1950 to 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan França Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a tendência/mudança secular das estaturas de jovens do sexo masculino, aos 18 anos de idade, nascidos na cidade de São Paulo, SP, entre 1950 e 1976. MÉTODOS: Foi coletada amostra aleatória e representativa de 6.942 indivíduos avaliados no alistamento militar. A análise estatística compreendeu a avaliação da normalidade da distribuição estatural (teste de Shapiro-Wilk e a análise da tendência pelas técnicas de regressão linear. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição das estaturas foi considerada normal para todas as coortes. O aumento total das estaturas foi de 3,42 centímetros ao longo dos 27 anos do estudo (1,26 cm/década. A tendência no período não foi linear, havendo aumento significativo na década de 50 (0,84 cm/década, aumento não significativo na década de 60 (0,5 cm/década e aumento expressivo no período 1970-76 (2,9 cm/década. O ritmo de mudança secular observado é comparável ao de outros países e estados do Brasil. As coortes mais recentes (1975 e 1976 atingiram a maior estatura (~175 cm; contudo, este valor ainda indica déficits de 1,8 cm e 6,2 cm quando comparado às estaturas de jovens americanos nascidos em 1961 (NCHS e holandeses em 1972. Mantidas as aceleradas taxas de mudança secular da década de 70, os jovens paulistas poderão recuperar estes déficits entre uma a três décadas. Isto indica a necessidade de contínua monitoração da tendência secular das alturas na cidade de São Paulo.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the secular trend/change in the height of young males born in the city of S. Paulo between 1950 and 1976 and measured in the year they turn 18 years. METHODS: A random and representative sample (6,942 individuals was evaluated in military draft. Statistical analyses included Shapiro-Wilk test for normality of height distribution in each birth cohort, and linear regression analysis for trend on heights. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Stature has

  5. Hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares associadas à contaminação atmosférica no Município de São Paulo, Brasil Respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A constatação de que os atuais níveis de poluição atmosférica são suficientes para causar danos à saúde torna imprescindível a definição de processos reguladores para a qualidade do ar. Este estudo analisa a associação entre exposição à poluição atmosférica e internações hospitalares no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, visando subsidiar a elaboração de medidas para redução dos riscos à saúde. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico de séries temporais, analisando hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares em crianças e idosos em relação aos níveis diários observados de poluentes, por meio de modelos aditivos generalizados em regressão de Poison. Todos os poluentes, com exceção do ozônio, apresentaram associação significante com internações respiratórias e cardiovasculares. Um aumento de 10µg/m³ no nível de material particulado inalável associa-se ao incremento de 4,6% nas internações por asma em crianças, de 4,3% por doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica em idosos e de 1,5% por doença isquêmica do coração também em idosos. Essas associações entre aumento no nível de poluentes na atmosfera e o aumento de hospitalizações estão de acordo com a literatura nacional e internacional sobre o assunto e indicam que os níveis atuais de contaminação do ar no Município de São Paulo têm impacto na saúde de sua população.The recognition that current air pollution levels cause harmful health effects makes the definition of the air quality regulatory process imperative. This study examines the association between exposure to air pollution and hospital admissions in the city of São Paulo, aiming to support the development of measures to reduce such health risks. The authors conducted an ecological time series study of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in children and the elderly in relation to daily air pollution levels, using generalized additive

  6. [Spatial regimes: dynamics of intentional homicides in the city of São Paulo between 2000 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Marcelo Batista; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Cardia, Nancy; Vicentin, Diego; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    To identify the existence of spatial and temporal patterns in the occurrence of intentional homicides in the municipality of São Paulo (MSP), Brazil, and to discuss the analytical value of taking such patterns into account when designing studies that address the dynamics and factors associated with the incidence of homicides. A longitudinal ecological study was conducted, having as units of analysis 13 205 census tracts and the 96 census districts that congregate these sectors in São Paulo. All intentional homicides reported in the city between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. The gross homicide rates per 100 000 population was calculated as well as the global and local Bayesian estimates for each census tract during the study period. To verify the possibility of identifying different patterns of the spatial distribution of homicides, we used BoxMap and Moran's I index. The homicide trends in the city of São Paulo in the last decade were not homogeneous and systematic. Instead, seven patterns of spatial distribution were identified; that is, seven spatial regimes for the occurrence of intentional homicides, considering the homicide rates within each census tract as well as the rates in adjacent tracts. These spatial distribution regimes were not contained within the limits of the census tracts and districts. The results show the importance of analyzing the spatial distribution of social phenomena without restriction of political and administrative boundaries.

  7. Estado imunitário relativo à poliomielite das crianças de 0-12 anos, residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil e assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus Immunity status to poliomyelitis of 0-12 years old children living in S. Paulo city, Brazil and using the Menino Jesus Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Barbosa

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência dos anticorpos neutralizantes contra os três tipos de poliovírus e os níveis de imunidade para diferentes grupos etários foram determinados, através de um inquérito soro-epidemiológico, numa população de crianças de 0-12 anos de idade, residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil e assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus. Os resultados mostraram um número elevado de crianças suscetíveis à infecção por poliovírus no primeiro ano de vida, particularmente no grupo etário de 9-12 meses, em que a proporção de crianças completamente desprotegidas (triplo-suscetíveis alcançou 42,5%. Neste grupo, a prevalência de anticorpos dos tipos 1, 2 e 3 foi apenas em torno de 40%. Dentre as crianças do grupo etário de 0-5 anos, que receberam três ou mais doses de vacina oral trivalente, verificou-se a baixa proporção de 60% de duplo mais triplo-imunes. Os resultados mostraram que o estado imunitário das crianças deste grupo foi o mesmo nas três zonas geográficas da Capital, sendo em torno de apenas 50% a proporção de crianças duplo mais triplo-imunes. Estes resultados indicam níveis precários de imunidade, particularmente nas crianças do primeiro ano de vida. Existe, pois, uma necessidade evidente de realizar novos inquéritos sorológicos, além de intensificar e melhorar a vacinação de manutenção contra a poliomielite em nosso meio.The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies for the three types of polioviruses and the immunity levels of different age groups were determined through a seroepidemiological survey, in a population of 0 to 12 year old children, living in the city of S. Paulo and attending the Menino Jesus Hospital. The results showed a high number of children susceptible to infection by polioviruses, mainly in the 9-12 month age bracket where the proportion of individuals completeley susceptible was 42.5%. In this group the prevalence of type 1, 2 and 3 antibodies was only about 40%. For the 0

  8. A survey of congenital Chagas’ disease, carried out at three Health Institutions in São Paulo City, Brazil Doença de Chagas congênita em três instituições de saúde da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vera Vichr NISIDA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The congenital transmission of Chagas’ disease was evaluated in 57 pregnant women with Chagas’ disease and their 58 offspring. The patients were selected from three Health Institutions in São Paulo City. The maternal clinical forms of Chagas’ disease were: indeterminate (47.4%, cardiac (43.8% and digestive (8.8%; 55 were born in endemic areas and two in São Paulo City. The transmission of Chagas’ disease at fetal level was confirmed in three (5.17% of the 58 cases studied and one probably case of congenital Chagas’ disease. Two infected infants were born to chagasic women with HIV infection and were diagnosed by parasitolological assays (microhematocrit, quantitative buffy coat-QBC or artificial xenodiagnosis. In both cases the placenta revealed T. cruzi and HIV p24 antigens detected by immunohistochemistry. In one case, a 14-week old abortus, the diagnosis of congenital T. cruzi infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The other probable infection, a 30-week old stillborn, the parasites were found in the placenta and umbilical cord. The Western blot method using trypomastigote excreted/secreted antigens of T. cruzi (TESA was positive for IgG antibodies in 54/55 newborns and for IgM in 1/55 newborns. One of the two newborns with circulating parasites had no detectable IgG or IgM antibodies. The assessment of IgG antibodies in the sera of pregnant women and their newborns was performed by ELISA using two different T. cruzi antigens: an alkaline extract of epimastigotes (EAE and trypomastigote excreted/secreted antigens (TESA. The analysis showed a linear correlation between maternal and newborn IgG antibody titers at birth.A transmissão congênita da doença de Chagas continua a ser um problema no Brasil. Em um estudo com 58 recém-nascidos, de 57 mães com a forma crônica da doença de Chagas, selecionadas em três Instituições de Saúde da Cidade de São Paulo, a transmissão congênita foi demonstrada em 5,17% (3/58 dos

  9. Crescimento urbano e doença: a esquistossomose no município de São Paulo (Brasil Urban growth and disease: schistosomiasis in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se mostrar o papel da evolução urbana da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, no surgimento das condições propícias para o estabelecimento da transmissão da esquistossomose que no Sudeste brasileiro é usualmente considerada como conseqüência do processo migratório Nordeste-Sudeste. Nas análises dos determinantes da distribuição da esquistossomose em São Paulo (Brasil, importância desmesurada tem sido atribuída ao processo migratório. O processo de expansão da doença no município de São Paulo é exemplo de uma instância em que o padrão de urbanização foi fator mais relevante do que a migração. A ocupação dos fundos de vale, a partir, do final da década de 1950, pela urbanização desordenada de São Paulo, criou condições ecológicas para o estabelecimento de focos de transmissão de esquistossomose, o que, até então, não era possível, pois a urbanização se verificava exclusivamente nas áreas mais elevadas. Sem a mudança do padrão de urbanização, a esquistossomose não teria se estabelecido no município de São Paulo, não obstante a intensa migração.The role of the urban development of the city of S. Paulo (Brazil is presented, in this study, in the light of the appearance of condition favorable to the establishment of the transmission of schistosomiasis in southeastern Brazil which is usually seen as a consequence of migration from the Northeast where the disease in endemic. Studies of the distribution of schistosomiasis in S. Paulo have given an exaggerated importance to migration. The spread of the disease in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil is an example of a situation where the pattern of urban growth has been more relevant than migration. The occupation of the lowlands from the late 1950's onwards brought about the conditions for the establishment of disease foci. Up to then this was not possible for urbanization occurred exclusively in more elevated areas. Without a shift in the pattern

  10. Use of psychotherapy in a representative adult community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; da Silva, Paula Freitas R.; Peluso, Erica T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of psychotherapy to treat common mental disorders in a major city in a middle income country. Data come from in-home interviews with a stratified random sample of 2,000 community residents age 18–65 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The information obtained included sociodemographic characteristics; psychotropic drugs; mental status; and lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy. Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of use of psychotherapy. Of the sample, 22.7% met General Health Questionnaire-12 criteria for common mental disorders. Lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy were reported by 14.6%, 4.6%, and 2.3% of the sample respectively. Users were typically women, more educated, higher income, not married, unemployed, with common mental disorders. Further analysis found that 47% (with higher education and income) paid out-of-pocket, and 53% used psychotropic medication. Psychotherapy does not appear to be the preferred treatment for common mental disorders. PMID:25118139

  11. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Nogueira, C.A.; Saiki, M.; Milian, F.M.; Domingos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America

  12. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  13. Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de adolescentes de um centro de juventude da cidade de São Paulo Nutritional status and food consumption of adolescents registered at a center of youth from the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Christina Barbosa Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar de 153 adolescentes dos sexos masculino e feminino, com média de idade de 11,90 ± 1,26 anos, de baixo nível socioeconômico, matriculados em um Centro de Juventude da cidade de São Paulo. Para a classificação do estado nutricional foram utilizados como pontos de corte os percentis da distribuição de Índice de Massa Corporal por idade e sexo. Aplicou-se recordatório de 24 horas, com auxílio do álbum de registros fotográficos, para estimar o consumo alimentar. Calculou-se o Índice de Qualidade Nutricional para cálcio e ferro. As médias dos valores de energia, proteína, carboidrato, lipídios, cálcio, ferro e colesterol foram de 1953kcal, 69g, 264g, 69g, 517mg, 10mg e 329mg, respectivamente. Com relação ao estado nutricional, 78,4% dos adolescentes encontravam-se na faixa de normalidade, 11,8% apresentavam risco de sobrepeso, 7,8% estavam com sobrepeso e 2,0% tinham baixo peso. Detectou-se consumo insuficiente de cálcio, especialmente entre as meninas (98,4%, que também apresentaram maior proporção de qualidade da dieta "pobre" e "regular" em ferro (73,8%.This paper evaluated the nutritional status and the food consumption of 153 adolescents (males and females, with a median age of 11.9 years (±1.26, and with low socioeconomic level, registered at a Center of Youth from the city of São Paulo. To evaluate the nutritional status, cutoff points based on percentiles of the distribution of Body Mass Index for age and sex were adopted. A 24-hour recall, with an album of photographic registers, was applied to estimate the food consumption. The Nutritional Quality Index for calcium and iron was calculated. The average values of energy, protein, carbohydrate, lipids, calcium, iron and cholesterol were 1953kcal, 69g, 264g, 69g, 517mg, 10mg and 329mg, respectively. According to the assessment of the nutritional status, 78.4% of the adolescents were within the range of

  14. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and basic nuclear

  15. Ambientes verdes e saudáveis: formação dos agentes comunitários de saúde na Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Green, healthy environments: training of community health agents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima de Sousa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever a experiência de formação dos agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS no contexto do Projeto Ambientes Verdes e Saudáveis: Construindo Políticas Públicas Integradas na Cidade de São Paulo (PAVS. A execução do PAVS foi conduzida pelas secretarias do Verde e Meio Ambiente, de Saúde, de Assistência e Desenvolvimento Social e de Educação, em colaboração com as 31 subprefeituras da Cidade e as cinco coordenadorias regionais de saúde. Além do setor público municipal, foi constituída, para cogestão do PAVS, uma rede de parceiros, entre os quais instituições de cooperação técnica internacional multilateral e acadêmicas. A formação e qualificação de ACS e agentes de proteção social e o desenvolvimento de projetos comunitários que levem em conta as potencialidades e especificidades locais foram os objetivos centrais dessa rede. A gestão localmente integrada para o desenvolvimento de uma agenda de proteção e de promoção de ambientes verdes e saudáveis configurou-se no contexto das redes já existentes nos territórios de atuação da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF, junto às Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Os 705 projetos atualmente em funcionamento são evidência dos resultados positivos, em nível local, da gestão intersetorial.The aim of this article is to describe the training of community health agents (ACSs in the context of an intersectorial initiative (Green, Healthy Environments Project: Building Integrated Public Policies in the City of São Paulo. The initiative was developed by four city departments-Environment, Health, Social Support and Development, and Education-in collaboration with the city's 31 superintendencies and five regional health administrations. In addition to these municipal bodies, a network of partners was established, including institutions involved in multilateral international technical cooperation and academic institutions. The training of ACSs

  16. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao de Neutrons; Kunioshi, Leonardo; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 mug kg{sup -1}) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 mug kg{sup -1}) - Pescada; (3 to 23 mug kg{sup -1}) - Tainha; (43 to 184 mug kg{sup -1}) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 mug kg{sup -1}) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 mug kg{sup -1}); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 mug kg{sup -1}); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 mug kg{sup -1}) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg{sup -1}). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  17. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  18. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.

    2009-01-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 μg kg -1 ) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 μg kg -1 ) - Pescada; (3 to 23 μg kg -1 ) - Tainha; (43 to 184 μg kg -1 ) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 μg kg -1 ) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 μg kg -1 ); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 μg kg -1 ); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 μg kg -1 ) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg -1 ). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  19. [Art, mental health, and public healthcare: profile of a care culture in the history of São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanese, Ana Tereza Costa; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Lima, Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo; Pereira, Lygia Maria de França; Nascimento, Ana Paula; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    By studying the inclusion of artistic and cultural activities in the care provided throughout the history of public mental healthcare in greater São Paulo, Brazil, we can better understand and characterize the practices adopted in the Psychosocial Care Centers in the city today. Experiments carried out between the 1920s and 1990s are investigated, based on bibliographic research. The contemporary data were obtained from research undertaken at 126 workshops at 21 Psychosocial Care Centers in the same city between April 2007 and April 2008. The findings indicate that the current trend in mental healthcare, whose clinical perspective spans the realms of art and mental health and has territorial ramifications, has maintained some of the features encountered in earlier mental healthcare experiments.

  20. Fluoride level in public water supplies of cities from the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil Concentração de flúor nas águas de abastecimento público de municípios da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It may be difficult for small and medium cities to obtain information about the fluoride content of public water, because of the lack of equipments and technicians. This study aimed to analyze the fluoride levels of the water supplied by the public treatment stations of 40 cities situated in the northwest region of São Paulo State, during a period of 6 months, to verify if fluoridation occurs in a continuous manner and if the fluoride levels are within the recommended. Maps of the water distribution system were obtained from the water treatment companies and utilized to randomize the addresses of the collection sites, so that they included all regions with treated water sources. One water sample by month was collected and analyzed in duplicate using an ion-specific-electrode. Samples with 0.6 to 0.8 mgF/L were considered acceptable. In the 38 cities that regularly provided the samples in the 6 months of the study, water from 144 collection sites was collected and a total of 864 samples were analyzed, of which 61.81 percent were classified as unacceptable. It was observed that 33 cities performed fluoridation but in 78.79 percent of these cities there were variations in the fluoride level among the sites and in the same site during the period of study. One can conclude that most of these cities do not control the fluoride levels in the public water, since fluoridation occurs in a discontinuous manner and in most of the situations not within the recommended concentrations.Municípios de pequeno e médio porte podem ter dificuldades em realizar o controle da adição de flúor nas águas de abastecimento público em função da falta de infra-estrutura laboratorial e técnica. Este estudo realizou análises do teor de flúor das águas de abastecimento de 40 municípios situados na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, durante 6 meses, para verificar se a adição ocorre de forma contínua e se os teores adicionados encontram-se dentro dos par

  1. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  2. The bacterial meningitis score to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Alves, Anna Cláudia Dominguez; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2013-09-01

    In a retrospective cohort of 494 children with meningitis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Bacterial Meningitis Score identified all the children with bacterial meningitis (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval: 92-100% and negative predictive value 100%, 95% confidence interval: 98-100%). Addition of cerebrospinal fluid lactate to the score did not improve clinical prediction rule performance.

  3. Control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at IEA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, M.A.V.; Matsuda, K.; Hukai, R.

    1974-01-01

    The control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at the IEA (Institute of Atomic Energy - Sao Paulo, Brazil) is described. Technical specifications of the main items of equipment are presented in a general way. Information is also given on the connection between the system described and the electrical supply system of the IEA reactor physics laboratory [pt

  4. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  5. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R 2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R 2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  6. Evaluation of pesticide residues in oranges from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Emi NAKANO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides in “PERA” orange samples (N = 57 from São Paulo City, Brazil were assessed and the pesticide intake contribution was estimated for chronic risk assessment. Seventy-six pesticides were evaluated by the gas chromatography multi-residue method, including isomers and metabolites (4.332 determinations. The mean recoveries at the limit of quantification level were in the range of 72-115% and the relative standard deviation for five replicate samples was 1-11%. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg.kg−1 and from 0.01 to 0.8 mg.kg−1, respectively. Pesticides were found in 42.1% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.06 to 2.9 mg.kg−1. Of the contaminated samples, 3.5% contained residues (bifenthrin and clofentezine above the maximum residue level and 12.3% contained unauthorized pesticides (azinphos-ethyl, parathion, myclobutanil, profenofos, and fenitrothion. The estimated risk characterization for orange intake by adults and children, respectively, ranged from 0.04 to 6.6% and from 0.1 to 26.5% of the acceptable daily intake. The detection of irregular residues emphasizes the need for better implementation of Good Agriculture Practices and greater control of formulated products. Other pesticides surveyed did not pose a health risk due to consumption.

  7. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elene Paltrinieri Nardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%, and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  8. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  9. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  10. Prevalence and counts of Salmonella spp. in minimally processed vegetables in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2011-09-01

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) may be important vehicles of Salmonella spp. and cause disease. This study aimed at detecting and enumerating Salmonella spp. in MPV marketed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 512 samples of MPV packages collected in retail stores were tested for Salmonella spp. and total coliforms and Escherichia coli as indication of the hygienic status. Salmonella spp. was detected in four samples, two using the detection method and two using the counting method, where the results were 8.8 × 10(2) CFU/g and 2.4 × 10(2) CFU/g. The serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (three samples) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica O:47:z4,z23:- (one sample). Fourteen samples (2.7%) presented counts of E. coli above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian regulation for MPV (10(2) CFU/g). Therefore, tightened surveillance and effective intervention strategies are necessary in order to address consumers and governments concerns on safety of MPV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim; Medeiros, Regina B.

    2013-01-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  12. Intentional Homicides in São Paulo City: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Ingrid Risso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of São Paulo faced a sharp decline, more than 70 per cent, in homicides rates in the first decade of 2000. This paper outlines some of the actions cited as having contributed to this reduction. The second part of the paper analyses homicides occurring in the city of Sao Paulo in 2012 and the first semester of 2013 with a focus on the involvement of police officers as perpetrators. The analysis reveals that one in every five killings in the city was committed by a police officer in 2012. It also discusses problems regarding the classification of homicides that can cause a bias in the statistics.

  13. Porcionamento dos principais alimentos e preparações consumidos por adultos e idosos residentes no município de São Paulo Portion sizes of the main foods and preparations consumed by adults and elderly living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Venancio Carlos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar o tamanho das porções dos alimentos e das preparações mais consumidas ou que mais contribuem com o valor energético total da dieta de adultos e idosos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito domiciliar de base populacional em 2003, com amostra representativa de 1 477 indivíduos acima de 20 anos residentes no município de São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi verificado pelo recordatório de 24 horas, digitado no programa Nutrition Data System. Os alimentos e as preparações selecionados para averiguação da porção foram os consumidos por, no mínimo, 10% da população de estudo ou que contribuíram com até 80% do valor energético total. As porções médias, obtidas pelo percentil 50, foram comparadas segundo sexo e estado nutricional, por meio do teste de Kruskal Wallis. RESULTADOS: Arroz e feijão foram os alimentos mais consumidos e que mais contribuíram para o valor energético da dieta. Os homens consumiram maior porção destes alimentos, quando são comparados às mulheres. Observou-se que a porção de leite está abaixo do estipulado pelo Guia Alimentar Brasileiro, porém a maior diferença encontrada foi em relação à alface e ao tomate. Verificou-se que indivíduos com excesso de peso consomem maiores porções de peito de frango. CONCLUSÃO: O tamanho das porções de alguns alimentos é maior entre homens, porém, na prática, não há como diferenciar, em medidas caseiras, valores tão próximos como os encontrados na maioria dos alimentos. As porções dos principais alimentos dos grupos de verduras e legumes e leite e derivados são menores que o proposto pelo Guia Alimentar.OBJECTIVE: Identify the portion sizes of the most consumed foods and preparations or those that contribute most to the total energy of the diet of adults and seniors. METHODS: A population-based household survey with a representative sample of 1 477 individuals older than 20 years living in the city of São Paulo was done in

  14. Homicídios, desenvolvimento socioeconômico e violência policial no Município de São Paulo, Brasil Homicide mortality, socioeconomic development, and police violence in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre violência policial e coeficientes de mortalidade por homicídio, considerando o efeito de variáveis contextuais. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico de corte transversal considerando os 96 distritos censitários do Município de São Paulo. A associação entre as variáveis foi determinada através de correlação de Spearman e de análise de regressão linear simples e múltipla. RESULTADOS: Nas análises univariadas, encontramos associação forte e significativa entre os coeficientes de mortalidade por homicídio e todos os indicadores de desenvolvimento socioeconômico e violência policial. Após controle dos potenciais confundidores, a associação entre a violência policial e os coeficientes de mortalidade por homicídio manteve-se forte e significativa. Apenas com o controle para o tamanho da população residente a associação perdeu a significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que uma ação policial centrada na violação de direitos humanos básicos não parece ser a resposta correta para o enfrentamento da violência urbana. A combinação de homicídios que resultam de violência interpessoal com mortes por violência policial representa uma situação de socialização negativa, favorecendo ainda mais violência.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between police violence and homicide mortality rates taking into consideration the effect of contextual variables. METHODS: This was an environmental, cross-sectional study that included the 96 census districts in the City of São Paulo. The association between the variables was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation and simple and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed a strong and significant association between homicide mortality coefficients and all the indicators of socioeconomic development and police violence. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the association between

  15. Fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas de São Paulo Risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day-care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas no município de São Paulo e discutir o impacto das ações da creche no controle desta carência nutricional específica. MÉTODO: Estudo seccional compreendendo 212 lactentes de duas creches públicas e três filantrópicas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com as mães, coleta de sangue por punção digital e antropometria. Considerou-se como anemia, hemoglobina inferior a 11g/dL. Foi ajustado um modelo de regressão logística para fatores de risco entre grupos de lactentes com e sem anemia. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 51,9%. O modelo logístico final foi composto por 4 variáveis: presença de 1 ou mais irmãos menores que 5 anos (Odds Ratio=2,57; p=0,005; estar freqüentando creche de administração exclusivamente pública (Odds Ratio=2,12; p=0,020; uso de aleitamento materno exclusivo inferior a 2 meses (Odds Ratio=1,88; p=0,044, e idade inferior a 15 meses (Odds Ratio=2,32; p=0,006. CONCLUSÃO:Concluiu-se que a alta prevalência de anemia evidencia a ineficiência das creches estudadas para controlar e prevenir esta carência nutricional; portanto, cabe ao planejador de saúde considerar os riscos de anemia identificados e quantificados quando da elaboração de programas de controle e prevenção.OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day care centers in São Paulo city and discuss the impact of the actions of day care centers in controlling this specific nutritional deficiency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 212 infants of two public and three philanthropic day care centers. Interviews with the mothers, collection of blood by digital puncture and anthropometry were performed. Anemia was characterized by hemoglobin levels below 11g/dL. A logistic regression model for risk factors between groups of infants with

  16. Prevalência de alguns fatores de risco para doenças crônicas na cidade de São Paulo Prevalence of a set of risk factors for chronic diseases in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Marcopito

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis e compará-las com as obtidas há 15-16 anos em inquérito semelhante. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra aleatória de pessoas com 15 a 59 anos de idade, realizado no Município de São Paulo entre 2001 e 2002. Foram entrevistadas 2.103 pessoas que responderam a um questionário, quando também foram feitas medidas de pressão arterial, peso, estatura e circunferências do abdome e do quadril. Em um terço dos entrevistados foram dosados colesterol total, HDL-colesterol, triglicérides e glicose de jejum. RESULTADOS: As prevalências totais ajustadas por idade, na faixa etária de 15 a 59 anos, foram as seguintes: tabagismo, 22,6%; pressão arterial não controlada, 24,3%; obesidade, 13,7%; circunferência abdominal aumentada, 19,7%; colesterol total >240 mg/dl, 8,1%; HDL-colesterol 200 mg/dl, 14,4%; e glicemia >110 mg/dl, 6,8%. Tabagismo, pressão arterial não controlada, colesterol total elevado, HDL-colesterol diminuído e triglicérides elevados foram significantemente mais prevalentes em homens do que em mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados quanto à prevalência de alguns fatores de risco para doenças crônicas mostraram que os homens estão em pior situação do que as mulheres. Comparados aos resultados de inquérito anterior, a percentagem de pressão arterial não controlada permaneceu inalterada, mas a de tabagismo diminuiu significantemente.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of a set of risk factors for non-transmissible chronic diseases and compare it to that found 15-16 years ago in a similar survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out comprising a random sample of people aged 15-59 years in the city of São Paulo between 2001 and 2002. The total of 2,103 people answered a questionnaire and had their blood pressure, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences measured. For a

  17. Trajetórias afetivo-amorosas e perfil reprodutivo de mulheres adolescentes residentes no Município de São Paulo Love life and reproductive profile of female adolescents residents in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a trajetória afetivo-amorosa e o perfil reprodutivo de adolescentes do sexo feminino entre os 15 e 19 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal cuja população foi constituída de 222 adolescentes inscritas em uma unidade de saúde da família da zona leste do Município de São Paulo. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares entre junho e dezembro de 2002. RESULTADOS: entre as 45,5% adolescentes que já haviam iniciado a vida sexual, a idade média na primeira relação sexual foi 15,3 anos. Uma considerável parte (17,1% já havia engravidado alguma vez, tendo sido relatados três casos de aborto. Entretanto, aos 19 anos de idade, 2,9%, 14,3% e 34,3% das adolescentes ainda não haviam beijado, namorado ou iniciado a vida sexual, respectivamente, mostrando que as práticas sexuais na adolescência são diversas e heterogêneas. CONCLUSÕES: as adolescentes mostraram um perfil reprodutivo diversificado, contemplando desde aquelas que nunca estiveram envolvidas em um contexto de namoro ou sequer de relacionamento sexual até aquelas que já estiveram grávidas ou optaram por um aborto, trazendo à tona a necessidade de considerar esses aspectos na elaboração de políticas públicas voltadas para a saúde reprodutiva e sexual das adolescentes brasileiras.OBJECTIVES: to describe the love life and reproductive profile of female adolescents between 15 and 19 years old. METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 222 adolescents registered in a family health clinic in the East Zone of the city of São Paulo. Home surveys were performed between June and December of 2002. RESULTS: among 45.5% adolescents who had already began their sexual life, the mean age of the first sexual intercourse was 15.3 years old. A considerable number (17.1% had already experienced pregnancy and three cases of abortion were reported. Nevertheless, at 19 years old, 2.9%, 14.3% and 34.3% of the adolescents had not kissed, had a boy friend or

  18. A qualidade das refeições de empresas cadastradas no Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador na cidade de São Paulo The quality of meals in companies participating in the worker's food program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Bandoni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade global das refeições oferecidas por Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição de empresas beneficiárias do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador, na cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 72 empresas cadastradas no programa. Foram coletadas informações de três dias consecutivos das refeições oferecidas no almoço, no jantar e na ceia. A qualidade das refeições oferecidas foi avalia pelo Índice de Qualidade da Refeição, e sua análise foi feita de forma estratificada segundo o perfil da empresa obtido pela análise de cluster. RESULTADOS: A média do Índice de Qualidade da Refeição para as grandes refeições foi de 66,25. Foram obtidos dois grupos de empresas na análise de cluster. As empresas do primeiro, composto em sua maioria por empresas do setor de comércio de micro e pequeno porte, cadastradas na modalidade de autogestão e sem supervisão de nutricionista, obtiveram pior qualidade da refeição (Índice=56,23. As empresas do segundo cluster, constituído principalmente por empresas de médio e grande porte do setor industrial, com gestão terceirizada e supervisão de nutricionista, obtiveram pontuação média do Índice de 82,95. CONCLUSÃO: As refeições oferecidas pelas empresas participantes do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador não estavam adequadas, segundo o Índice de Qualidade da Refeição. As empresas de menor porte e estrutura tiveram refeições de pior qualidade quando comparadas com as demais, demonstrando que empresas deste perfil são prioritárias para intervenções dentro do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the global quality of the meals offered in the Food and Nutrition Units of companies participating in the Worker's Food Program, in the city of São Paulo . METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 72 companies participating in the program. Information regarding three

  19. Varredores de rua: acidentes de trabalho ocorridos na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Barredores de la calle: accidentes de trabajo ocurridos en la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto, Provincia de São Paulo, Brasil Street orderlies: occupational accidents occurred in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Aparecida Araújo da Silveira

    1998-01-01

    datos específicos de los accidentes de trabajo. Para el logro de los objetivos, fueron analizadas las informaciones contenidas en las notificaciones de accidentes de trabajo archivadas en el Intituto Nacional de Seguridad Social, en la Oficina Regional de Salud (ERSA local y en la empresa de limpieza urbana empleadora de barredores. Los resultados fueron dados a conocer al empleador y al ERSA y los autores se colocaron a disposición para discutir en conjunto soluciones para los problemas ocupacionais encontrados.The work of street sweepers is to sweep waste materials thrown at public streets. It is considered insalubrious due to the close contact that exposes workers to agents present in the urban waste. As street orderlies perform their duties in an open environment, they are submitted to different types of problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the registered occupational accidents occurred among street orderlies in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, during 1993 and 1994. Authors aimed at verifying: the number of works that suffered accidents and the notified occupational accidents; data related to the identification of those accidents at the employer company and specific data regarding the occupational accidents.Therefore, authors analyzed the occupational health reports recorded at the National Institute of Social Security at the Regional Bureau of Health (RBH and at the employer company. Results were shown to the employers and to the RBH. Authors organized meetings to discuss with them the occupational problems they found.

  20. Health impact modelling of different travel patterns on physical activity, air pollution and road injuries for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Tainio, Marko; Goodman, Anna; Edwards, Phil; Haines, Andy; Gouveia, Nelson; Monteiro, Carlos; Woodcock, James

    2017-11-01

    São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos

    1999-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used

  2. Disposição e alternativas ao dirigir alcoolizado entre jovens paulistanos Willingness and alternatives to drunk driving among young people from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pinsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No novo código de trânsito brasileiro, a infração de dirigir sob efeito do álcool passou a ser considerada um crime de trânsito. Um modelo do comportamento de saúde dos jovens sugere que muito do seu comportamento "arriscado" não é planejado e que questões que examinam a disposição de dirigir alcoolizado são úteis em pesquisas sobre o assunto. Pela importância da questão do dirigir alcoolizado como assunto na saúde pública nacional, esse estudo utilizou-se do modelo de protótipo/disposição para analisar esse comportamento em jovens prestes a obter carteiras de habilitação em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no DETRAN-SP (Departamento de Trânsito de São Paulo, em 1998, entre 2.166 jovens de 18 a 25 anos de idade. Examinou-se desde medidas de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas a disposição e alternativas ao dirigir alcoolizado no ano seguinte. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos sujeitos admitia disposição tanto para o comportamento de risco (dirigir alcoolizado quanto para o comportamento seguro (alternativas como pegar taxi e pedir carona. Foram efetuadas análises de regressão linear com a divisão da amostra em três grupos. De maneira geral, as várias diferenças com significado estatístico encontradas sugeriam que as atitudes e comportamentos seguem uma trajetória crescente de mais seguros a mais arriscados do grupo 1 ao grupo 3. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem, entre outras coisas, que campanhas de prevenção apresentando uma variedade de alternativas ao dirigir alcoolizado e o aumento da fiscalização desse comportamento seriam dois adendos básicos para a eficácia das leis mais severas do código de trânsito de 1998.The new Brazilian Traffic Code considers drinking and driving as a traffic crime. A health behavior model suggests that much of the young people's risky behavior is not planned and that questions measuring the willingness to drink and drive are useful. In face of the importance of drinking and

  3. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharovsky R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate, and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001, with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6ºC. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05 for each 10 µg/m³ increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  4. Uranium levels in the diet of São Paulo City residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Barioni, A; Arruda-Neto, J D T; Deppman, A; Milian, F; Mesa, J; Rodriguez, O

    2006-07-01

    Natural levels of uranium in the diet of São Paulo City residents were studied, and radionuclide concentrations were measured by the fission track method on samples of typical adult food items. This information was used to evaluate the daily intake of uranium in individuals living in São Paulo City which is, according to our findings, around 0.97 microg U/day. Using the ICRP Uranium-model, we estimated the uranium accumulation and committed doses in some tissues and organs, as function of time. We compared the output of the ICRP uranium biokinetic model, tailored for the conditions prevailing in São Paulo, with experimental data from other localities. Such comparison was possible by means of a simple method we developed, which allows normalization among experimental results from different regions where distinct values of chronic daily intake are observed.

  5. Novas curvas de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde: comparação com valores de crescimento de crianças pré-escolares das cidades de Taubaté e Santo André, São Paulo New World Health Organization growth standards: comparison with growth data of preschool children of the cities of Taubaté and Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Leone

    2009-03-01

    children. METHODS: 2,830 children between three and six years old from Taubaté and Santo André cities, in São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied regarding weight, height and body mass index (BMI. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles (P were calculated in several ages for both genders and compared to the WHO reference values. RESULTS: Concerning height, the WHO reference values were closer to or a little higher than the Brazilian studied samples until five years. At this time, an opposed tendency was noticed with WHO height percentiles becoming progressively below the Brazilian samples until the age of seven. For weight and BMI in all considered ages, the 5thP and the 50thP of the WHO referential were slightly lower than the children's ones, but the 95thP shows a trend of a progressively lower growth close to seven years: the BMI 95thP from the preschool samples were around 4kg/m² higher than WHO values. CONCLUSIONS: The use of WHO reference growth chart will produce a lower prevalence of malnutrition and short stature between five and seven years and, at the same time, an important rise of obesity prevalence between ages three and seven.

  6. Contribuição para o estudo do significado da evolução do coeficiente de mortalidade infantil no município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil nas três última décadas (1950-1979 A contribution to the study of the significance of the trends in infant mortality rates for the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, during the last three decades (1950-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Buscando contribuir ao estudo da relação evolução da mortalidade infantil - evolução da qualidade de vida, foram examinadas no município de São Paulo as correlações existentes nas três últimas décadas entre as séries históricas da mortalidade e as séries históricas do valor do salário mínimo e da cobertura do abastecimento público de água. Estes dois últimos, salário e água, entendidos como fatores de maior e menor abrangência para o conjunto das condições de vida da população. O descenso da mortalidade na década de 50 e o ascenso da mesma na década de 60 estiveram significativamente relacionados à evolução do salário-mínimo real. Entretanto, a evolução da mortalidade na década de 70, com importante queda a partir de 1974, esteve relacionada especificamente à evolução do abastecimento de água. Conclui-se que no período 1950-1979 são diferentes as implicações para a qualidade de vida que podem ser tiradas a partir da evolução da mortalidade infantil e que parece equivocado afirmar-se que a reversão das altas mortalidades a partir de 1974 tenha significado idêntica reversão na deterioração das condições de vida que ensejaram o ascenso da mortalidade no período anterior.The possible correlations between infant mortality statistics and those, first, on the real value of the legal minimum salary and, sencondly, on the extent of the public water-supply system, for the city of S. Paulo (Brazil over the last three decades, were studied with a view to determining the relationship between the historical trends in the infant mortality rates and in the quality of life. The abovementioned factors - salary and water-supply - are taken as factors of greater and lesser relevance, respectively, for the overall picture of the living conditions of the population. The mortality decline in the 50s and its increase in the 60s were found to be related, significantly, to the trends in the real value of the legal

  7. Estimativa dos coeficientes específicos de mortalidade infantil segundo peso ao nascer no município de São Paulo (Brasil An estimate of the specific infant mortality rates by birth-weight in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a distribuição do peso ao nascer da coorte dos recém-nascidos que deu origem aos óbitos infantis estudados pela Investigação Interamericana de Mortalidade na Infância no projeto de São Paulo (1968-70 e determinados os riscos de óbito associados a cada intervalo de peso de nascimento. Assim, foram apurados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil de 305,5, 50,2 e 34,4 para recém-nascidos de baixo peso, peso deficiente e peso superior a 3.000 g. A comparação destes coeficientes com os registrados na área americana incluída na investigação citada (Califórnia, revelou excesso de mortalidade, particularmente notável não para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso, mas para os recém-nascidos de peso superior a 3.000 g. O ajuste da mortalidade de São Paulo (Brasil à distribuição do peso ao nascer observada na Califórnia foi capaz de explicar 15% do excesso da mortalidade infantil e 21% do excesso da mortalidade neonatal de São Paulo.By means of the birth-rate distribution found to exist during the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood in S. Paulo (1968-70 the infant death rate association with each birth-weight interval was estimated. The infant mortality rates were 305.5, 50.2 and 34.4 respectively for low birth-weight, deficient weight and weight above 3,000 grams. Compared with the rates found in California, USA, by the same Investigation, the infant mortality rates in S. Paulo are higher, particularly for mortality associated with birth-weight of above 3,000 grams. The adjustment of infant mortality rates in S. Paulo according to the birth-weight distribution found in California led to the conclusion that, at that period, only 15% of the excess of the infant mortality of S. Paulo could be attributed exclusively to birth-weight. In the case of neonatal mortality, 21% of the mortality excess in S. Paulo could be attributed to birth-weight.

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  9. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  10. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  11. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Experiência de um ano de modelo de programa de prevenção contínua do melanoma na cidade de Jaú-SP, Brasil One year experience of a model for melanoma continuous prevention in the city of Jaú (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Salvio

    2011-08-01

    and early detection. METHODS: A city of around 130,000 inhabitants in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was chosen for the development of a pilot project covering primary prevention and early diagnosis of melanoma. A nursing team worked for approximately 30 days in each of the 13 health centers in the city of Jaú (SP, providing guidance on self-examination of the skin, photoprotection and recognition of early signs of melanoma. Patients with suspicious lesions were immediately sent to the reference hospital for medical and dermoscopic screening. Excisional biopsies were performed on suspected melanomas. RESULTS: 4 four cases of early stage melanoma and 3 dysplastic nevi were diagnosed. Of the people interviewed, 74% worked either part-time or full-time exposed to sun and over 60% claimed to never use sunscreen. CONCLUSION: This is a new and effective model for melanoma prevention and early diagnosis. In short, the melanoma prevention program is able to quickly identify suspicious lesions, leading to early diagnosis and better chances of survival

  13. A survey of body practices and primary health care in a district of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara M. Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study surveyed the profile of people who did or did not take part in programs and activities in primary healthcare units in the Butantã district, the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The rationale for the study was the concept of body practice understood as a practice of health and care. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 1090 individuals mostly middle-aged housewives. Only 5.78% of respondents were enrolled in some program and activities, mainly walking and stretching. There was a consensus between participants and non-participants on the importance of initiatives geared to care for the body and attention to health. The difficulties for having access to programs and the lack of options in the health public service were pointed out as the main obstacles for a greater involvement by local population.

  14. Hepatitis A antibodies in two socioeconomically distinct populations of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sergio Pannuti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A in two socioeconomically distinct populations of a developing country, 540 serum specimens from children and adults living in São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for IgG anti HAV by a commercial radioimunoassay (Havab, Abbott Laboratories. The prevalence of anti-HAV in low socioeconomic level subjects was 75.0% in children 2-11 years old and 100.0% in adults, whereas in middle socioeconomic level significantly lower prevalences were observed (40.3% in chidren 2-11 years old and 91.9% in adults. Voluntary blood donors of middle socioeconomic level showed a prevalence of 90.4%. These data suggest that hepatitis A infection remains a highly endemic disease in São Paulo, Brazil.

  15. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; de Fátima Andrade, María.; de Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  16. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. [a Monitoring System For Work-related Accidents In Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives ar...

  18. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  19. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  20. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  1. Detection of natural occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta P. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in the area surrounding the city of Araçatuba municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples from 129 cats were collected by rectal flush technique. It was compared two diagnosis methods, direct examination of feces and PCR. The presence of T. foetus DNA was verified using PCR by amplification of 347-bp fragment from the primers TFR3 and TFR4 and amplicons of positive cases were sequenced. Statistical analyses were performed investigating the associations between T. foetus infection with gender, age, breed, presence of diarrhea and/or history of diarrhea, previous treatment, lifestyle, origin, environment, and co-infection. T. foetus was observed in one sample (n=129 by direct microscopic examination of feces while PCR was positive in five samples (3.9%. Giardia species and Cryptosporidium species co-infection was also observed. Statistical analyses showed no significant associations between T. foetus infection and all listed factors, although most positive cats were asymptomatic and lived in multi-cat household. The isolates of T. foetus showed 100% identical sequences with other T. foetus isolates from cats around the world. So, the occurrence of T. foetus was confirmed in cats in Araçatuba city (Brazil. This parasite must be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with diarrhea and also in asymptomatic carriers as source of infection in multi-cat environments.

  2. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  3. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F.; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente

    2013-01-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  4. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Prevalência de excesso de peso e seus fatores associados em adolescentes da rede de ensino público de Piracicaba, São Paulo Prevalencia de exceso de peso y sus factores asociados en adolescentes de la red de enseñanza pública de Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brasil Prevalence of overweight and associated factors in adolescents from public schools of Piracicaba city, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Verzinhasse Peres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de excesso de peso e os fatores associados à sua ocorrência em adolescentes da rede de ensino público da cidade de Piracicaba, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 269 adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre dez a 14 anos. Foram aplicados questionários para obtenção do consumo alimentar, maturação sexual, nível de atividade física e características demográficas. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se a regressão logística univariada e múltipla. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de excesso de peso foi de 35,7% entre os meninos e 26,2%, entre as meninas. Os fatores associados foram observados somente entre as meninas, mostrando-se protetor ao excesso de peso o 2º tercil de consumo de carboidrato (OR ajustada 0,28 e a fase de aceleração/pico do crescimento (OR ajustada 0,37. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de excesso de peso nos adolescentes é preocupante. A fase de aceleração/pico do crescimento e o alto consumo de carboidrato foram relacionados como fatores protetores para o excesso de peso entre as meninas. Sugere-se ainda que este último fator seja analisado com cautela, dado que tal associação não foi observada em outros estudos.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de exceso de peso y los factores asociados a su ocurrencia en adolescentes de la red de enseñanza pública de la ciudad de Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de 269 adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades entre 10 y 14 años. Se aplicaron cuestionarios para obtención del consumo alimentar, maturación sexual, nivel de actividad física y características demográficas. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó la regresión logística univariada y múltiple. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de exceso de peso fue de 35,7% entre los muchachos y de 26,2% entre las muchachas. Los factores asociados fueron observados solamente entre las muchachas, mostrándose protector al exceso de peso el 2º tercil

  6. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  7. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, D.

    1991-01-01

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3σ(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 4n- ] n layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca 2+ ions and H 2 O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 (P O 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 .4 H 2 O must be changed to Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 .7 H 2 O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author)

  8. The Monitoring Of Thunderstorm In Sao Paulo's Urban Areas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, R. B.; Pereira, A.; Beneti, C.; Jusevicius, M.; Kawano, M.; Bianchi, R.; Bellodi, M.

    2005-12-01

    A monitoring of thunderstorm in urban areas occurred in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo from November 2004 to March 2005. Eight thunderstorms were monitored by local electric field, video camera, Brazilian Lightning Location Network (RINDAT) and weather radar. The most of these thunderstorms were associated with the local convection and cold front. Some of these events presented floods in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) being associated with local sea breeze circulation and the heat island effect. The convectives cells exceeding 100km x 100 km of area, actives between 2 and 3 hours. The local electric field identified the electrification stage of thunderstorms, high transients of lightning and total lightning rate of above 10 flashes per minute. About 29.5 thousands of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were analyzed . From the total set of CG flashes analyzed, about 94 percent were negative strokes and presented average peak current of above 25kA, common for this region. Some lightning images were obtained by video camera and compared with transients of lightning and lightning detection network data. The most of these transients of lightning presented continuing current duration between 100ms and 200ms. A CG lightning occurred on 25th February was visually observed 3.5km from FEI campus, Sao Bernardo do Campo. This lightning presented negative polarity and estimed peak current of above 30kA. A spider was visually observed over FEI Campus at 17th March. No transients of lightning and recording by lightning location network were found.

  9. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L -1 ) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  10. Perfil epidemiológico de cárie dentária em crianças de 12 anos de idade, residentes em cidades fluoretadas e não fluoretadas, na Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil An epidemiological profile of dental caries in 12-year-old children residing in cities with and without fluoridated water supply in the central western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo pautou em analisar o perfil epidemiológico de cárie dentária na Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em crianças de 12 anos de idade, segundo o gênero, comparando o índice CPOD em municípios fluoretados e não fluoretados. Foram utilizados os dados do Levantamento Epidemiológico do Estado de São Paulo - 1998, referentes à Direção Regional de Saúde - DIR X, representada por oito municípios. A amostra foi composta por 485 escolares, de ambos os gêneros, distribuídos pelos municípios. Os resultados demonstraram que na cidade de Pederneiras (médio porte, com flúor o CPOD foi igual a 7,06, valor maior do que o encontrado no Brasil em 1986. A maior prevalência de cárie dentária ocorreu nos meninos, quando comparados às meninas, demonstrando uma nova tendência à cárie dentária na região centro-oeste. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre CPOD de municípios de mesmo porte, independente da presença ou ausência de flúor na água, sugerindo o fenômeno da convergência. Possivelmente, pela ação da ingestão de outras fontes de flúor e a presença do efeito "halo". A prevalência de cárie na região esteve "alta", com CPOD igual a 4,82, não atingindo as metas para o ano 2000.This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological profile of dental caries in the central western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, focusing on 12-year-old children by gender, comparing the DMFT index in fluoridated and non-fluoridated cities. The study used data from the Epidemiological Surveys in the State of São Paulo, 1998, pertaining to the 10th Regional Health Directorate, including 8 cities. The sample consisted of 485 schoolchildren, both boys and girls, distributed by city. In Pederneiras (a medium-sized city with a fluoridated water supply, DMFT was 7.06, higher than the Brazilian national mean for 1986. Boys showed a higher prevalence of dental caries than girls, showing

  11. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  12. Estudo de aspectos da assistência à saúde da pessoa idosa em instituições não hospitalares do município de São Paulo, Brasil Health care for the elderly - a study on some aspects of non hospital institutions in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine M. Bastian

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito levantamento das instituições para pessoas idosas, exceto em hospitais, no município de São Paulo, Brasil, do número de leitos nestas casas, e de aspectos de assistência prestada à saúde das pessoas nelas residentes. Formulou-se a pergunta se o número de leitos influi nesta assistência, no sentido de que instituições com grande número de leitos possa oferecer maior número e variedade dos componentes desta assistência. O resultado da indagação respondeu positivamente a esta pergunta.A survey was done in institutions for elderly people, except in hospitals, in the county of São Paulo, on the number of beds in these homes and aspects of health care offered to their residents. The question was raised whether the number of beds had an influence on health care, in the way that homes with a larger number of beds offered a greater number and more variety of the components of this care. The outcome of the research answered this question positively.

  13. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  14. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  15. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  16. Retrospective seroepidemiological analysis of patients with suspicion of paracoccidioidomycosis in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Kamikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM in the Brazilian state of São Paulo was evaluated in a retrospective study using secondary data from serological analyses, carried out by double immunodiffusion assay of patients with PCM suspicion, from January 1999 to May 2010. Sixty percent of 10,176 patients, from 239 cities, were serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis. The cities that showed the most serological reactivity among patients were São João da Boa Vista (85%, Piracicaba (75%, Sorocaba (73%, Campinas (72% and São Paulo (62%. São Paulo state has an area of 248,209.4 km²; the climate is tropical and sub-tropical with annual temperatures between 18 and 24ºC, high rainfall (900 to 1800 mm/year, rainy summers and mild winters. It also features large areas composed of acidic soils, and is one of the greatest contributors to Brazilian agricultural production and, separately, the largest producer of orange juice and, the ninth greatest producer of soy and sugar cane and the fourth largest coffee producer. We suggest that the climatic characteristics associated with soil type and development of primary activities can contribute to the endemic potential of PCM in São Paulo state.

  17. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S[atilde]o Paulo, Brazil, August 30-September 6, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of...

  18. Public stigma and schizophrenia in São Paulo city Estigma público e esquizofrenia na cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess public stigma in relation to people with schizophrenia and possible factors associated with this phenomenon. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample of 500 individuals who live in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and are aged between 18 and 65 years. A structured questionnaire was used, and it was applied in person. Questionnaire began with the presentation of a vignette describing an individual with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. This was followed by questions that assessed perceived negative reactions and discrimination, perceived dangerousness and emotional reactions in relation to the case presented in the vignette. RESULTS: People with schizophrenia were perceived as potentially dangerous by 74.2% of interviewees. In addition, 59.0% of the sample perceived them as capable of arousing negative reactions, and 57.2% as capable of arousing discrimination in society. However, emotional reactions reported by the interviewees themselves were mainly pro-social in nature. The most important factors associated with these responses were: attribution of "biological" causes and perceived dangerousness. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that beliefs related to public stigma towards people with schizophrenia are commonly held in São Paulo city. An important focus for future studies is to investigate the scope and impact of public stigma on the everyday experiences of people with schizophrenia in the Brazilian context.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estigma público em relação a pessoas com esquizofrenia e possíveis fatores associados a este fenômeno. MÉTODO: Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar com uma amostra probabilística de 500 indivíduos residentes na cidade de São Paulo, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Utilizou-se um questionário estruturado que se iniciava com a apresentação de uma vinheta descrevendo um indivíduo com esquizofrenia (segundo o DSM-IV e a CID 10, seguido de

  19. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1

  20. Statistical analysis aiming at predicting respiratory tract disease hospital admissions from environmental variables in the city of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO₂ and CO, PM₁₀ and O₃, and PM₁₀, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes.

  1. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  2. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, Goro; Peres, Ana C.; Taddei, Maria H. Tirolo; Soares, Marcio R.; Alleoni, Luis R. Ferracciu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137 Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg -1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, -1 for 210 Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg -1 for 137 Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  3. Health, environmental, and economic costs from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Avaliação dos custos econômicos, ambientais e de saúde pública devido ao uso de mistura diesel/etanol estabilizada por um aditivo comercial na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10, which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considered operational installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs, with an overall positive balance of US$ 2.851 million. Adding the estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits far outweigh the measured costs. Greater Metropolitan São Paulo would benefit from any form of biodiesel use, producing environmental, health and socioeconomic gains, the three pillars of sustainability.A poluição atmosférica na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, é devida principalmente à queima de combustíveis fósseis utilizados no sistema de transportes. A fim de melhorar a qualidade do ar, são necessárias políticas e melhorias tecnológicas em combustíveis e motores veiculares. Neste sentido, foi realizada uma avaliação dos impactos ambientais e sociais da mistura estabilizada do uso de diesel/etanol na frota de ônibus e caminhões na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Essa avaliação mostrou reduções nos poluentes atmosféricos, especialmente o MP10, o que contribuiu para um número de eventos de morbidade e mortalidade evitáveis estimados por meio de funções dose-resposta de estudos epidemiológicos em termos de doen

  4. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  5. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  6. Cycling for Transportation in Sao Paulo City: Associations with Bike Paths, Train and Subway Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Turrell, Gavin; Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Cabral-Miranda, William; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2018-03-21

    Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses in 1500-m buffers. We used multilevel logistic regression, taking account of clustering by census tract and households. The prevalence of cycling for transportation was low (5.1%), and was more prevalent in males, singles, those active in leisure time, and in people with bicycle ownership in their family. Cycling for transportation was associated with bike paths up to a distance of 500 m from residences (OR (Odds Ratio) = 2.54, 95% CI (Confidence interval) 1.16-5.54) and with the presence of train/subway stations for distances >500 m from residences (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.10-3.86). These results are important to support policies to improve cycling for transportation in megacities such as Sao Paulo.

  7. Cárie dentária e práticas alimentares entre crianças de creches do município de São Paulo Dental caries and food practices among children attending daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Manrubia Biral

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar associações entre a cárie dentária e a introdução de alimentos complementares em crianças de 11 a 34 meses matriculadas em creches. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal com 288 crianças de oito creches do município de São Paulo, realizado em 2007. Para o diagnóstico da cárie dentária foi utilizado o Índice de Cárie Modificado, que foi investigado por uma equipe de três cirurgiãs-dentistas treinadas quanto à precisão e acurácia. A introdução de alimentos foi avaliada por meio de questionário pré-codificado e pré-testado. Para quantificar as associações foi utilizado o teste Quiquadrado. Para análise multivariada foram ajustados modelos de regressão logística (pOBJECTIVE: The present study investigated associations between the prevalence of dental caries and introduction of complementary foods in children aged 11 to 34 months attending daycare centers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 288 children from eight daycare centers in São Paulo, 2007. The modified decay-missing-filled index, used for diagnosis, was investigated by a team of three trained dentists aiming at precision and accuracy. Food introduction was assessed using a pre-codified and pre-tested questionnaire. The Chisquare test was used to quantify associations and logistic regression models (p<0.05 were adjusted for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 228 children aged 11 to 34 months (M=24 months, SD=6.02. Of these, 53.9% were male and 57.45% attended philanthropic daycare centers. Seventy-seven percent of the sample had modified decay-missing-filled index ≥1 and the average modified decay-missing-filled index of the population is 3.8. Significant risk factors according to modified decay-missing-filled index were being male (OR=1.815, p=0.03 and paternal formal education of less than eight years (OR=1.94, p=0.02. The logistic regression model identified the exposure to

  8. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  9. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.; Braghin, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  10. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  11. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil Saúde mental dos imigrantes coreanos em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Kang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%; mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants.Este estudo verificou a freqüência de transtornos psiquiátricos em uma comunidade de imigrantes coreanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A amostragem snowball com vários focos foi utilizada para contatar os imigrantes coreanos, acima de 18 anos e residentes em São Paulo. Foram selecionados 324 sujeitos, cuja saúde mental foi avaliada por meio de uma entrevista estruturada, Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, nas versões em português e coreano. Foi utilizado o critério de diagnóstico CID-10. A freqüência de algum diagnóstico psiquiátrico na vida foi de 41,9%. As freqüências de principais diagnósticos na vida foram

  12. Study of mural paintings by Fulvio Pennacchi in São Paulo City by mineralogical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Del Lama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research deals with two mural paintings made in 1947 with the fresco technique by Fulvio Pennacchi in the Catholic Chapel of the Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo City, Brazil, namely the Virgin Annunciation and the Supper at Emmaus. This study regards the materials and painting techniques used by the artist, based on historical research,on in situ observations and laboratory analytical techniques (stereomicroscopy,scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffractometry, electron microprobe, images obtained with UV-light, aiming to improve the methods of characterization of objects of our cultural heritage, and to enhance its preservation accordingly. The results lead to the identification of the plaster components and of distinct layers in the frescoes, besides further information on grain size, impurities and textures, composition of pigments, and features of deterioration, such as efflorescences. The degree of degradation of the murals painting was assessed by this way. Our data suggest that a single layer of plaster was used by Pennacchi, as a common mortar with fine- and medium-grained aggregates. Differences in texture were obtained by adding gypsum to the plaster.A presente pesquisa trata de duas pinturas murais feitas em 1947 por Fulvio Pennacchi com a técnica do afresco na Capela Católica do Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo, Brasil, intituladas Anunciação da Virgem e Ceia de Emaús. Este estudo considera os materiais e as técnicas de pintura usadas pelo artista, baseado na pesquisa histórica, observações in situ e técnicas analíticas de laboratório (estereomicroscopia, microscopia eletrônica de varredura com detector de espectro de energia dispersiva, difração de raios X, microssonda eletrônica, imagens obtidas com luz ultravioleta, visando aperfeiçoar os métodos de caracterização de objetos do nosso patrimônio cultural, e otimizar sua preservação adequadamente. Os

  13. An educational process to strengthen primary care nursing practices in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A M; Fracolli, L A

    2007-12-01

    To describe the experience of a registered nurse (RN) training process related to the Family Health Program (FHP) developed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The FHP is a national, government strategy to restructure primary care services. It focuses on the family in order to understand its physical and social structure in regards to the health-illness process. In the FHP, the RN is a member of a team with the same number as medical doctors - an unprecedented situation. The FHP requires a discussion of the RNs' practice, by qualifying and empowering them with tools and knowledge. The training process was based on Freire's approach founded on critical pedagogy in order to address the fundamental problem of inequalities in health. The first phase included workshops and the second one included a course. The workshops identified the following problems related to the RN's work: lack of tools to identify the population's needs; overload of work due to the accumulation of management and assistance activities; difficulties regarding teamwork; lack of tools to evaluate the impact of nursing interventions; lack of tools to improve the participation of the community. The course was organized to tackle these problems under five thematic headings. The RN's training process allowed the group to reflect deeply on its work. This experience led to the need for the construction of tools to intervene in the reality, mainly against social exclusion, rescuing and adapting of the knowledge accumulated in the healthcare practice, identifying settings which demand institutional solutions and engaging the RN in research groups in order to develop projects according to the complexity of the primary care services. The application of the concept of equity in the health sector represented a reaction against the processes of social exclusion, starting from performance at a local level to become a reality in the accomplishments achieved by the Brazilian National Health System. This training

  14. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  15. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  16. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for adults of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Carvalho, Aline Martins de; Verly-Junior, Eliseu; Carlos, Jackeline Venâncio; Teixeira, Juliana Araujo; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-12-01

    To assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire developed for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo, Brazil, based population study. A sample of individuals aged above 20 years, of both genders, living in São Paulo, was used for the validation study (n = 77) and reproducibility study (n = 74) of the food frequency questionnaire. To verify the validity and reproducibility of energy and 19 nutrients were applied two food frequency questionnaires (60 items) and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR - reference method). The validity was verified by Spearman correlation coefficient (crude and de-attenuated) and weighted Kappa, and reproducibility by intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted kappa. In analyzes of validity de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.21 (carbohydrate) to 0.74 (energy), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 30% of the nutrients. Polyunsaturated fat and folate did not show significant correlation and weighted kappa. In reproducibility correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0.69 (calcium), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 80% of the nutrients. The food frequency questionnaire analyzed has good validity and reproducibility for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo compared to the reference method, so it is an appropriate instrument to be used in epidemiological studies on similar populations. Estimates of polyunsaturated fat and folate should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  18. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, São Paulo, México City, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L; Borja-Aburto, V H; Gouveia, N; Thurston, G; Davis, D L

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, we develop scenarios of GHG mitigation for México City, México; Santiago, Chile; São Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. We estimate that the adoption of readily available technologies to lessen fossil fuel emissions over the next two decades in these four cities alone will reduce particulate matter and ozone and avoid approximately 64,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18,000-116,000) premature deaths (including infant deaths), 65,000 (95% CI 22,000-108,000) chronic bronchitis cases, and 46 million (95% CI 35-58 million) person-days of work loss or other restricted activity. These findings illustrate that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  19. Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, Andre R; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-08-28

    In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Suicide rates in Brazil, the State of SP, and the city of SP were 6.2, 6.6, and 5.4 per 100,000, respectively. Taking suicide rates of the poorest area (3) as reference, the RR for the wealthiest area was 1.64, 0.88, and 1.65 for Brazil, State of SP, and city of SP, respectively (p for trend <0.05 for all analyses). Spatial cluster of high suicide rates were identified at Brazilian southern (RR = 2.37), state of SP western (RR = 1.32), and city of SP central (RR = 1.65) regions. A direct association between income and suicide were found for Brazil (OR = 2.59) and the city of SP (OR = 1.07), and an inverse association for the state of SP (OR = 0

  20. Exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Nadia Zanon

    2011-02-01

    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: to analyse the exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses and/or midwives in the public health system of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil. to develop a profile of the public health institutions and of the nurses and/or midwives who care for women before, during and following childbirth; to identify the activities performed in providing such care, as well as their frequency; and to specify the possible obstacles or difficulties encountered by them when exercising their competencies. a descriptive and exploratory research design, using a quantitative approach. the study was conducted in all public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil, namely 59 basic health-care units and six hospitals, during the period of October 2006-December 2007. the study population consisted of 272 nurses and/or midwives who provide care for pregnant women and newborns at the primary health-care units and maternity hospitals of the public health system. Participants comprised 100% of hospital nurse coordinators (n=6), 61% of hospital maternity nursing and/or midwifery staff (n=62) and 64% (n=204) of nursing and/or midwifery staff working at primary health-care units. the data collection was based on a single form given to the coordinators and two questionnaires, one handed out to antenatal and postnatal nursing and/or midwifery staff and another handed out to labour and birth nursing and/or midwifery staff. The results showed that nurses and/or midwives providing care for women during pregnancy, labour, birth and the postnatal period did not put the essential competencies for midwifery care into practice, because they encountered institutional barriers and personal resistance, and lacked protocols based on best practice and on the exercise of essential competencies needed for effective midwifery care. the model of care in the public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone) is based much more on hierarchical positions than on

  1. Validade da aferição da acuidade visual realizada pelo professor em escolares de 1ª à 4ª série de primeiro grau de uma escola pública do município de São Paulo, Brasil The validity of the visual acuity screening in school children carried oat by the teacher - comparative study of the visual acuity measurement by the teacher and the ophthalmologist from the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de avaliação da medida da acuidade visual pelo professor, comparativamente àquela efetuada pelo médico-oftalmologista, utilizando-se ambos da tabela optométrica de Snellen. Éste estudo foi realizado em decorrência do Plano de Oftalmologia Sanitária Escolar (POSE, em desenvolvimento no Estado de São Paulo, que atinge escolares de 1ª série, classe especial e pré-primário das escolas estaduais de 1º grau, onde a atuação dos professores constitui fator básico da programação, principalmente no seu aspecto educativo e na verificação da acuidade visual. Foram testados 1.352 escolares de 1ª a 4ª série de 1º grau de um estabelecimento de ensino do município de São Paulo (SP em 1975. Encontrou-se uma concordância de resultados em 80,86% dos casos. Com a diferença de 2 linhas entre os resultados do professor e do médico, constataram-se 122 casos (9,02% e, com a diferença de 3 linhas, 54 casos (3,99%. À medida em que se consideravam diferenças maiores, decrescia progressivamente o número de casos discordantes encontrados. Observou-se que, à medida em que aumentava a desigualdade de aferição entre o professor e o oftalmologista, isto se verificava em ambos os olhos, o que evidencia uma dificuldade de interpretação daquelas crianças para responder o teste. Considerou-se altamente válida a aplicação do teste de acuidade visual pelo professor devidamente treinado, com a finalidade de triagem a nível de escola, como um dos aspectos para identificar alunos necessitados de exame médico-oftalmológico.The Sanitary Ophthalmology School Plan is in process in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. It includes 1st grade primary school children, special classes and kindergarten of the government schools. The teachers play an important part in the programme as to the educational aspect and the visual acuity screening. This report presents an evaluation of the visual acuity test done by the teacher in comparison with the one

  2. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Furcalita e outros minerais uraniferos secundarios de Perus, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, D

    1992-12-31

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3{sigma}(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} {sup 4n-}]{sub n} layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca{sup 2+} ions and H{sub 2} O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4}.4 H{sub 2} O must be changed to Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2}.7 H{sub 2} O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author).

  4. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  5. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Camasmie Abe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10, <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3, São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  6. [The crowdsourcing and cyberactivism agenda in São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study that analyzed 144 Facebook profiles to identify how digital media are used in setting the agendas for discussions and in organizing and mobilizing people about social, political and cultural topics like ethnic, racial, gender, and citizens' rights issues in São Paulo city. This platform was chosen because of its growing appropriation for political actions. The study found that the incorporation of digital tools in political action is bringing about a number of changes in the discussion of social, political, and cultural topics, and redefining the ways that agendas and deliberations are organized, fostering innovative forms of participation by social actors.

  7. O uso da fitoterapia no cuidado de crianças com até cinco anos em área central e periférica da cidade de São Paulo El uso de la fitoterapia en el cuidado de ninõs menores de cinco años en áreas central y periférica de la ciudad de São Paulo-Brasil The use of phytotherapy in the care of children up to 5 years of age in urban and suburban areas of São Paulo city-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Regiani Alves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa verifica a utilização da fitoterapia em crianças que freqüentam um centro de saúde da área central e um centro de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo. É um estudo exploratório descritivo, com 120 mães que freqüentam os dois centros de saúde (sendo 60 na região central e 60 na região periférica durante o mês de dezembro de 2001. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética, as mães foram questionadas individualmente e verificamos que 79 (66% delas utilizam com maior freqüência a camomila, a erva-doce e a hortelã para cólicas intestinais, sintomas de gripe e tranqüilizar seus filhos. As informações sobre como e o que utilizar vieram, segundo as mães, principalmente de pais e avós 45 (57% e, concluindo, não encontramos grandes diferenças entre o uso nas duas regiões de São Paulo.El uso de la fitoterapia en el cuidado de ninõs menores de cinco años en áreas central y periférica de la ciudad de São Paulo.Esta investigación constató la utilización de la fitoterapia en ninõs que acuden a un centro de salud del área central y a un centro de salud de la periferia de São Paulo. Es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, con 120 madres que acudieron a los dos centros de salud (60 en la región central y 60 en la región periférica durante el mes de diciembre de 2001. Después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética, las madres fueron preguntadas individualmente y verificamos que el 79 (66% de ellas utilizam con mayor frecuencia la manzanilla, el anís y la hierba buena para los cólicos intestinales, síntomas de gripe y tranquilizante para sus hijos. Las informaciones sobre cómo y qué utilizar, vinieron principalmente de padres y abuelos 45 (57% y no encontramos gran diferencia entre el uso de las hierbas en las regiones de São Paulo.This research evaluated the use of phytotherapy in children who attend a Health Center in an urban area and a Health Center in the suburbs of São Paulo city. This

  8. Atitudes alimentares e imagem corporal em meninas adolescentes de ascendência nipônica e caucasiana em São Paulo (SP Eating attitudes and body image in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam A. Sampei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Há muita controvérsia nos estudos que analisam a relação entre etnia e transtornos alimentares a despeito do rápido aumento desses distúrbios em diversos grupos étnicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar as atitudes alimentares em adolescentes de ascendência nipônica e caucasiana no Brasil. A influência do índice de massa corporal (IMC, da menarca e das relações socioafetivas no desenvolvimento dos transtornos alimentares também foi discutida. MÉTODOS: Questionários sobre atitudes alimentares e influências socioafetivas foram aplicados a 544 adolescentes de origem nipo-brasileira e caucasiana: adolescentes pré-menarca de 10 e 11 anos nipo-brasileiras (n = 122 e caucasianas (n = 176 e adolescentes pós-menarca de 16 e 17 anos nipo-brasileiras (n = 71 e caucasianas (n = 175. RESULTADOS: Adolescentes caucasianas apresentaram maiores escores no Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26, mostraram maior insatisfação com suas imagens corporais, faziam mais dieta e tinham mais modelos de dietas representados pelas mães e pares do que as adolescentes nipo-brasileiras. CONCLUSÃO: As adolescentes caucasianas, de um modo geral, parecem sentir mais as pressões culturais e estéticas sobre a imagem corporal do que as nipônicas. A frequência alta de meninas caucasianas pré-menarca com escore acima de 20 no EAT-26 mostra que a preocupação com a imagem corporal vem ocorrendo cada vez mais cedo. A análise de regressão múltipla revelou muitas associações entre a interação das adolescentes com suas mães e o desenvolvimento de atitudes alimentares inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: Despite investigations into the rapid increase in eating disorders across diverse ethnic groups, conclusions concerning ethnicity and eating disorders are contradictory. The objective of the present study was to investigate eating attitudes in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescents in Brazil. The influence of body mass index (BMI, menarche and

  9. Problems of small hydroelectric power plants - SHP: the example of Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Problematica de desenvolvimento das pequenas centrais hidreletricas-PCH: o exemplo do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matajs, R.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Fabrizy, M.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of the small hydroelectric potential in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Three projections will be presented as as attempt to show the possible participation of the SHP in a sort, medium and long term, in the State of Sao Paulo energetic matrix.

  10. Declaração de nascido vivo: análise do seu preenchimento no Município de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Certificates of live birth: analysis of completion in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristiane Mishima

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivos identificar o fluxo de preenchimento das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNs e analisar a consistência das informações contidas nas mesmas. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma DN-Controle, preenchida com base nas informações contidas nos prontuários do recém-nascido e da mãe, as quais foram comparadas com os dados contidos na DN-Oficial, disponível no Departamento de Informática da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de Ribeirão Preto. A amostragem constitui-se de 911 DNs dos nascimentos ocorridos no mês de julho de 1996. Da análise dos dados verificou-se que o fluxo de preenchimento da DN é heterogêneo entre os hospitais, envolvendo desde o pediatra até a escriturária, e às vezes, funcionários administrativos. Em relação à consistência das informações, identificou-se uma concordância elevada, acima de 90% em 13 das 18 variáveis comparadas nas DNs e em metade dos hospitais investigados; a discordância ocorreu, principalmente, naquelas informações referentes ao número de filhos tidos, número de consultas pré-natal, grau de instrução da mãe e nome do pai.The study aims to identify the frequency with which certificates of live birth are filled out and to analyze the data they provide. To gather the data, the authors used a model birth certificate filled out by research assistants based on information obtained from the reports on mothers and newborns. This information was then compared to data contained in the official birth certificates available in the Information Technology Division of the Municipal Health Department. The sample consisted of 911 certificates of live birth from July 1996 in the ten maternity wards of the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data analysis showed that frequency of completion of birth certificates differs by hospital, involving both physicians and administrative personnel. The authors identified a high level of agreement in the data, i.e., over 90% in 13 of 18

  11. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a

  12. Challenges in modern biomarker discovery--17th HUPO BPP workshop: May 24-25, 2012, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Esselmann, Hermann; May, Caroline; Schrötter, Andreas; Woitalla, Dirk; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 17(th) workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on May 24 and 25, 2012. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects in clinical neuroproteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m 3 . (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs

  14. First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed.

  15. Long-term association between the intensity of cosmic rays and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. L. Z.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Lage, C.; Pacini, A.; Koutrakis, P.; Cury, P. R.; Shaodan, H.; Pereira, L. A.; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    2018-02-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to many kinds of environmental agents which affect their health and lifespan. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are the main source of ionizing radiation in the lower troposphere, in which secondary products can penetrate the ground and underground layers. GCRs affect the physical-chemical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as the biosphere. GCRs are modulated by solar activity and latitudinal geomagnetic field distribution. In our ecological/populational retrospective study, we analyzed the correlation between the annual flux of local secondary GCR-induced ionization (CRII) and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1951-2012. The multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted by demographic and weather parameters showed that CRII are significantly correlated with total mortality, infectious disease mortality, maternal mortality, and perinatal mortality rates (p < 0.001). The underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Further cross-sectional and experimental cohort studies are necessary to understand the biophysical mechanisms of the association found here.

  16. Complementary feeding: study on prevalence of food intake in two health centers of São Paulo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, D M; Latorre, M do R; Szarfarc, S C; de Souza, S B

    2001-06-01

    The infant feeding practices in the first year of life are of fundamental importance for their growth and development. This study was carried out aiming at checking on the prevalence of food intake by the infants during their first year of life. One-hundred-and-seventy-five children aged up to one year, attended to in two Health Centers of São Paulo city, Brazil, participated in this study. Their feeding practices, obtained through the status quo approach, were analyzed through multiple logistic regression models, using curves of prevalence for complementary food consumption. Fruit was the first solid food to be part of the infant diet, followed by vegetables, cereal, meat and/or eggs and, beans. Animal-protein-containing source foods (meat and eggs) entered the diet much later, being consumed by practically all children only at the end of their first year of life. The early introduction of complementary foods into the infant diet was made evident. The introduction of solid foods to complement breastfeeding is started with low-calorie density foods, in disagreement with the recommendations for Brazilian children. Results of this paper disclose a need for having programmatic actions in health education being carried out, in special those regarding exclusive breastfeeding promotion and orientation on the adequate introduction of complementary feeding.

  17. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Silvia R. [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: souzasrd@terra.com.br

    2008-01-15

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil.

  18. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  19. Frequency and characteristics of induced abortion among married and single women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza e Silva, Rebeca de; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aimed at estimating the frequency of induced abortion among women 15 to 49 years of age. The objective was to characterize the occurrence of induced abortion by comparing the ideal number of children, age, and contraceptive use between married and single women. Based on random sampling, 1,749 interviews were held, including 764 married women, 658 single women, and 327 with other marital status. The analysis included: mean number of abortions per woman by analysis of variance and proportions of abortions and pregnancy, using the chi-square test. The mean abortion rate for married women (45 per thousand) did not differ statistically from that of single women. However, the pregnancy rate was much lower in single women, and when single women became pregnant they used abortion more frequently; while fewer than 2% of pregnancies in married women ended in induced abortions, among single women the abortion rate exceeded 18%. Therefore, the priority in the reproductive health field should be to invest in the supply and dissemination of appropriate contraceptive methods for women's early sexually active life.

  20. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  1. Occurrence of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from São Paulo State, Brazil, and Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.

  2. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  3. An ergonomic approach to reorganize parking inspection agents' work productivity, health and safety in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R M A; Lancman, S; Trudel, L; Jardim, T A; Sznelwar, L I; Santos, M C; Freeman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Traffic Engineering Company of the City of São Paulo (Brazil) observed a decrease in productivity, and an increase in sick leave, accidents and psychological distress among their parking inspection agents. To document this situation, qualitative research was undertaken to obtain an in-depth comprehension of work activity. Workers, managers and health and safety professionals contributed to the documentation of the problem and to the proposal of possible solutions. Ergonomic work analysis focusing on real work activity, as well as interviews with individual or groups of stakeholders, were conducted. This research revealed that political-economic factors gradually contributed to: 1) an increasing work load; 2) growing fatigue throughout the day, increasing the workers' vulnerability to incidents and accidents and their tendency to react inappropriately to violence experienced on the street; and 3) excessive individual responsibility to manage dangerous situations. Recommendations to ameliorate the situation are proposed. These suggestions are discussed in terms of feasibility given the impact of macro social factors upon micro work activity, and the associated potential expansion of the ergonomist's role.

  4. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-11-01

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leishmaniose visceral adquirida no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil A case of visceral leishmaniasis contracted in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Amato Neto

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a notificação de um caso de leishmaniose visceral em uma criança com dois anos de idade, tendo sempre residido em Capão Redondo, localidade situada na Grande São Paulo (Brasil. Apesar de transmissão congênita ou por transfusão de sangue ter sido cogitada, é provável que a infecção tenha decorrido de mecanismo habitual, consubstanciando ocorrência autóctone relativa do Estado de São Paulo.A case of visceral leishmaniasis in a two-year-old child who has always lived in Capão Redondo, situated in Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, was reported. Although congenital transmission or blood transfusion were considered, it is probable that the infection originated in the usual mechanism, thus constituting an autochthonous occurrence in the State of S. Paulo. The State Health Department was notified of the case in order that it could be investigated and necessary measures taken.

  7. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis chemotype populations in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Shaw, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.

  8. Entomological investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever area in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Neves, Vera L F de; Poletto, Daniela W; Rodas, Lílian A C; Pachioli, Márcio L; Cardoso, Rubens P; Scandar, Sirle A S; Sampaio, Susy M P; Koyanagui, Paulo H; Botti, Mauricio V; Mucci, Luis F; Gomes, Almério de C

    2005-01-01

    Following reports of two autochthonous cases of sylvatic yellow fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000, entomological surveys were conducted with the objective of verifying the occurrence of vector species in forest environments close to or associated with riparian areas located in the western and northwestern regions of the State. Culicidae were captured in 39 sites distributed in four regions. Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species and were captured in all the regions studied. H. leucocelaenus was the most abundant species in the municipalities of Santa Albertina and Ouroeste, where the two cases of sylvatic yellow fever had been reported. Mosquitoes from the janthinomys/capricornii group were only found at eight sites in the São José do Rio Preto region, while Sabethes chloropterus was found at one site in Ribeirão Preto. H. leucocelaenus showed its capacity to adapt to a secondary and degraded environment. Our results indicate a wide receptive area for yellow fever transmission in the State of São Paulo, with particular emphasis on the possibility of H. leucocelaenus being involved in the maintenance of this sylvatic focus of the disease.

  9. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (pacne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-pacne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  10. Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly in cerrado vegetation of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare lignicolous gasteroid fungus of the tropics, Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly is recorded for the first time from State of São Paulo and for de second time from Brazil, growing on decaying wood, occasionally on other plant debris, on soil under cerrado vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described from fresh and dried basidiocarps using the traditional methods for Gasteromycetes. The substrate and the taxonomic characteristics agree closely with the literature consulted.Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly, um raro gasteromicete lignícolo nos tropicos, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Estado de São Paulo e pela segunda vez para o Brasil, crescendo sobre madeira em decomposição e ocasionalmente sobre outros fragmentos de plantas em solo, sob vegetação de cerrado. É dada a descrição das características macro e microscópicas a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, usando a metodologia tradicional para estudos de Gasteromycetes. O substrato e as características taxonômicas concordam com a literatura consultada.

  11. Black Carbon, Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom Exponent in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P. J.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a major absorber of solar radiation, and its impact on the radiative balance is therefore considered important. Fossil fuel combustion processes and biomass burning result in the emission of BC. Black carbon is being monitored since 2014 with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer-MAAP (5012; Thermo Scientific) in the East Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo Metropolitan Area with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Vehicles can be considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Concentration of the pollutant had an average of 1.95 ug.m-3 ± 2.06 and a maximum value of 19.93 ug.m-3. These large variations were due to meteorological effects and to the influence of anthropogenic activities, since samples were collected close to important highways. Winds coming from the East part predominate. Higher concentrations were found in the winter months (June, July and August). Optical data from AERONET (Aerosol Optical Depth-AOD 550 nm and Angstrom Exponent 440-675 nm) were related to BC concentrations for the period from August, 2016. Average values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom Parameter (440-675nm) were 0.16±0.11 and 1.44±0.23, respectively. Higher BC concentrations were related to lower Angstrom values.

  12. Isolation of Leptospira borgpetersenii in synanthropic Didelphis albiventris in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jorge da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease and, therefore, stands out for the possibility of environmental contamination, the cross transmission between domestic and wild animals and humans. Opossum species are important reservoirs of this disease making them potential pathogen spreaders. Aiming to verify the presence of Leptospira spp. and the antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the Campus of São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, freeliving wild life opossum (Didelphis albiventris were captured for blood and urine sampling. Serological analysis was performed Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. Aliquots of urine were seeded in media Ellinghausen-McCullough- Johnson-Harris (EMJH and Fletcher without antibiotics. The samples in which there was growth of leptospires were forwarded to the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Institute of Pathobiology in the National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina and were genotyped using Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA. Of the 15 analyzed animals, nine (60.0% were reactant to Patoc serovar. The pathogenic specie Leptospira borgpetersenii was isolated and identified in three Didelphis albiventris. The isolation findings of pathogenic specie Leptopsira borgpetersenii in the urine culture of three Didelphis albiventris in a university campus are a major discovery in the area of preventive veterinary medicine and public health and open a discussion about the important role of free-living wild animals as reservoirs of this agent to domestic animals and humans, a condition that serves as a warning for the improvement of health practices.

  13. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  14. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  15. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  16. [A monitoring system for work-related accidents in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives are triggered by identification of sentinel events; spatial distribution analysis of work-related accidents is a basic tool in designing accident awareness strategies and accident prevention policies. The system was implemented in November 2003 and by October 2004 had identified 5,320 work-related accidents, or a 3.8% annual proportional incidence of work-related accidents in the municipal area. We illustrate spatial analysis of registered work-related accidents and present a detailed investigation of one example of a serious accident.

  17. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  18. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  19. A longitudinal study of mortality and air pollution for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Denise A; Jørgensen, Bent; Peres, Antonieta A Q

    2002-09-01

    We study the effects of various air-pollution variables on the daily death counts for people over 65 years in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1993, controlling for meteorological variables. We use a state space model where the air-pollution variables enter via the latent process, and the meteorological variables via the observation equation. The latent process represents the potential mortality due to air pollution, and is estimated by Kalman filter techniques. The effect of air pollution on mortality is found to be a function of the variation in the sulphur dioxide level for the previous 3 days, whereas the other air-pollution variables (total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone) are not significant when sulphur dioxide is in the equation. There are significant effects of humidity and up to lag 3 of temperature, and a significant seasonal variation.

  20. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  2. Characterization of Black Spot Zones for Vulnerable Road Users in São Paulo (Brazil and Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A. Soares Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motorized transportation modes, especially cycling and walking, offer numerous benefits, including improvements in the livability of cities, healthy physical activity, efficient urban transportation systems, less traffic congestion, less noise pollution, clean air, less impact on climate change and decreases in the incidence of diseases related to vehicular emissions. Considering the substantial number of short-distance trips, the time consumed in traffic jams, the higher costs for parking vehicles and restrictions in central business districts, many commuters have found that non-motorized modes of transportation serve as viable and economical transport alternatives. Thus, local governments should encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation. In return, governments must provide safe conditions for these forms of transportation, and motorized vehicle users must respect and coexist with pedestrians and cyclists, which are the most vulnerable users of the transportation system. Although current trends in sustainable transport aim to encourage and stimulate non-motorized modes of transportation that are socially more efficient than motorized transportation, few to no safety policies have been implemented regarding vulnerable road users (VRU, mainly in large urban centers. Due to the spatial nature of the data used in transport-related studies, geospatial technologies provide a powerful analytical method for studying VRU safety frameworks through the use of spatial analysis. In this article, spatial analysis is used to determine the locations of regions that are characterized by a concentration of traffic accidents (black zones involving VRU (injuries and casualties in São Paulo, Brazil (developing country, and Rome, Italy (developed country. The black zones are investigated to obtain spatial patterns that can cause multiple accidents. A method based on kernel density estimation (KDE is used to compare the two cities and show

  3. Desigualdade ambiental no município de São Paulo: análise da exposição diferenciada de grupos sociais a situações de risco ambiental através do uso de metodologias de geoprocessamento Desigualdad ambiental en el municipio de San Pablo: análisis de la exposición diferenciada de grupos sociales a situaciones de riesgo ambiental a través del uso de metodologías de geoprocesamiento Environmental inequality in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: analysis of differential exposure of social groups to situations of environmental risk by using geoprocessing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Prates da Fonseca Alves

    2007-12-01

    distribuidos de manera desigual entre los diferentes grupos sociales, así como el ingreso y el acceso a servicios públicos. Para comprobar esta hipótesis, se realizó un análisis comparativo de la dinámica demográfica y socioeconómica entre las poblaciones residentes en áreas de riesgo ambiental y aquéllas no residentes en estos tipos de área, con base en una tipología de la distribución espacial de los habitantes del municipio de San Pablo en tres grupos sociales (pobres, clase media y clase alta. Los resultados muestran que, en todos los grupos sociales, las poblaciones residentes en áreas de riesgo ambiental presentan condiciones socioeconómicas significativamente peores que las no residentes en esas áreas. Los resultados también revelan un aumento de la desigualdad ambiental, en el período reciente.This article represents an effort at making operational the concept of environmental inequality, in order to identify and analyze situations of environmental inequality in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, by using geoprocessing methodologies. The objective is to identify and measure the association between unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and greater exposure to environmental risks, by analyzing the level of risk exposure of different social groups in São Paulo. The results show that, in all social groups, people living in risky areas have much lower socioeconomic conditions than those who living in other places. The results also show that environmental inequality in São Paulo has been increasing in recent years.

  4. Análise da situação da poliomielite em uma amostra de crianças da cidade de São Paulo, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica Analysis of the poliomyelitis situation in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available A situação da poliomielite é analisada em uma amostra de crianças de 0-10 anos de idade da cidade de São Paulo, assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica - o fator r da dinâmica da imunização. Os resultados de um recente inquérito soro-epidemiológico foram transformados matematicamente na curva de crescimento expressa pela função exponencial y = a+(1-a (1-rt, aumentando-se, com isto, consideravelmente o valor informativo do inquérito. A análise mostrou que pela vacinação oral se imunizaram efetivamente cerca de 50% e 60% do total dos indivíduos da população infantil de 0-10 anos de idade contra os poliovírus dos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Além disto, houve em decorrência da circulação de poliovírus, nesta população, em média, cerca de 85 infecções com poliovírus do tipo 1 e 70 infecções com o poliovírus do tipo 2, por 1.000 habitantes, por ano. Tendo em vista que o coeficiente de morbidade da poliomielite alcança cifras da ordem 31 e 27 casos por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente nos grupos etários de 0-1 e 1-2 anos de idade, os autores recomendam que não sejam poupados esforços no sentido de que as crianças sejam efetivamente vacinadas dentro do esquema de imunização estabelecido, recebendo a 1ª dose da vacina já aos 2 ou 3 meses de idade.The situation of poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo is analysed by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter - the "r" factor of immunization events. The results of a recent sero-epidemiologic survey realized in this City were transformed into the catalytic growth curve y = a + (1 - a (1 - e-rt. The informative value of the survey is therefore considerably enhanced. The analysis showed that about 50% and 60% of the population of children 0-10 years old were immunized by oral polio vaccination against type 1 and 2 polioviruses, respectivilly-Further, the average rate of effective contacts

  5. Perfil do consumidor de frutas em cidades do interior do estado de São Paulo - SP Fruit consumer profile in cities of the interior of the state of São Paulo - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matheus Yalenti Perosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos relacionados ao perfil do consumidor colocam-se como importante subsídio à participação competitiva dos diferentes segmentos nas cadeias agroalimentares e para a própria organização da mesma. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de identificar o perfil dos consumidores de frutas em cidades do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A amostra foi constituída de 404 consumidores em pontos de venda previamente selecionados nas cidades de Botucatu, Avaré, Jaboticabal, Ilha Solteira e Tupã. Os resultados sobre o perfil do consumidor de frutas nas cidades pesquisadas sinalizam uma preocupação com as características do produto (saudáveis e saborosos, com o preço e com facilidades de acesso na compra. Os resultados apontam também para a necessidade de maiores estudos sobre a importância da informação relacionada aos aspectos mais valorizados (características do produto e preço na estrutura de consumo.Scientific studies analyzing consumers profile and decision-making processes play an important role on companies' strategies and vertical coordination action to increase efficiency on food chains. This research mapped the profile of food consumers on medium size cities on the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sample considered 404 consumers in sale spots of 5 cities: Botucatu, Avaré, Jaboticabal, Ilha Solteira and Tupã. The results suggested that consumers of the 5 cities are concerned about fruit attributes like healthiness and flavor, but not neglecting price and access to market facilities. These results highlighted the importance of marketing actions to emphasize important characteristics valued by consumers, like price and product related attributes.

  6. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  7. Análise quantitativa sobre a mortalidade precoce de micro e pequenas empresas da cidade de São Paulo A quantitative analysis of the premature mortality of small companies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Filardi Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O vigor da economia de vários países tem origem no sucesso de pequenas empresas. No Brasil, o Estado de São Paulo concentra mais da metade das empresas brasileiras de pequeno porte. Assim sendo, estudos sobre o sucesso ou o insucesso de micro e pequenas empresas têm sua relevância enaltecida. Este estudo busca apresentar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa sobre os fatores associados à mortalidade precoce das micro e pequenas empresas. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa com os gestores de micro e pequenas empresas da cidade de São Paulo que encerraram suas atividades. Para análise quantitativa da amostra, que apresenta representatividade estatística, utilizou-se de técnicas de análise multivariada. Como principal resultado, pode-se destacar que os fatores associados à mortalidade são preponderantemente de natureza estratégica, o que contraria o senso comum que professa a insuficiência de recursos como principal motivador da falência das pequenas empresas. Tal resultado tem importância para orientar as políticas públicas, os empreendedores e as agências de fomento para a formulação de suas estratégias no sentido do desenvolvimento de competências administrativas para o sucesso das micro e pequenas empresas brasileiras.The economic vigor of many countries is due to the success of small businesses. In Brazil, Sao Paulo state concentrates more than half of Brazilian small businesses. Therefore, studies dealing with high or low performance of micro and small businesses are of great relevance. This study aims at presenting a quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors associated to premature mortality of micro and small businesses in the city of Sao Paulo. For the quantitative analysis of the sample, which is statistically significant, multivariate analysis was used. The main result of this investigation is that factors associated with mortality are mainly of strategic nature, contrary to the common belief that

  8. Os abortos no atendimento hospitalar do Estado de São Paulo, 1995 Hospitalizations by abortion, 1995 - S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romera Sorrentino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o aborto provocado no Brasil seja importante problema de saúde, é difícil conhecer a exata medida de sua ocorrência, em função da ilegalidade dessa prática. Com a disponibilidade das informações sobre as hospitalizações pelo Ministério da Saúde, tornou-se possível conhecer, ainda que de forma incompleta, o quadro dos abortos atendidos na rede hospitalar do SUS. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as 53.861 internações com diagnóstico de aborto entre mulheres de 10 a 49 anos na rede hospitalar conveniada com o SUS no Estado de São Paulo no ano de 1995, segundo o tipo do aborto, idade e local de residência. As internações de mulheres em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995, representaram 37,8% do total das hospitalizações pagas pelo SUS, sendo que dessas 59,6% foram por questões ligadas à gravidez, parto e puerpério, dentre as quais os abortos representam cerca de 10%. Sua distribuição nas regiões da Grande São Paulo e Interior do Estado mostra que é maior a proporção aborto/parto entre as mulheres da Grande São Paulo do que do Interior (127,4 abortos a cada 1.000 partos na Grande São Paulo contra 90,9 no Interior. O tipo de aborto mais freqüente foi o aborto espontâneo (57,4% e a distribuição por idade mostra uma concentração entre os 20 e 29 anos, além de revelar que cerca de 20% deles ocorreram em adolescentes com menos de 19 anos.Despite the importance of the issue of abortion in Brazil, it is difficult to know the exact extent of the problem owing to the fact that it is an illegal practice. Information about hospitalizations from the Ministry of Health has helped an admittedly incomplete understanding of the situation with regard to abortions carried out in the SUS (Unified Health System hospital network. The objective of the study was to investigate the 53,861 hospitalizations diagnosed as abortion among women from 10 to 49 years of age in hospitals affiliated to SUS in the state

  9. Study on fatal and nonfatal cancer cases occurred in different regions of SÃO Paulo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Dias, Bruna T.M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Lee, Seung M.; Diz, Maria D.P.E.; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2017-01-01

    São Paulo city has presented an increasing change regarding the causes of mortality. An overview of the distribution and types of cancer in different populations can be obtained from official databases that collect general data de Base Populacional (RCBP) provides data description of patients and monitors the profile of cancer from patients. The system aims to know the incidence of malignant neoplasm. The database named Registros de Câncer incidence in a given population. The RCBP of the city of São Paulo is coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology of the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo .The RCBP allows the assessment of data from all areas of São Paulo. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of data about the cases of fatal and nonfatal cancer in several areas of the city of São Paulo (Midwest, East, North, Southeast and South) in order to establish a comparison among the occurrences of the disease in those areas. The review will be an efficient tool to identify the profile of cancer cases in the city of São Paulo, mainly in the areas where most hospitals, which provide therapy and imaging services that use radiation, are located. Based on the data review a future epidemiological study may be conducted seeking to identify the main types of cancer that may be directly or indirectly related to radiation such as leukemia, thyroid, breast, and bone cancer. The existence of several other risk factors that may interfere with the development of any type of cancer, such as individual lifestyle and genetic predisposition must be considered. (author)

  10. Study on fatal and nonfatal cancer cases occurred in different regions of SÃO Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Dias, Bruna T.M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Lee, Seung M., E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diz, Maria D.P.E., E-mail: maria.pilar@hc.fm.usp.br [Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMU/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina/Dermatologia

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo city has presented an increasing change regarding the causes of mortality. An overview of the distribution and types of cancer in different populations can be obtained from official databases that collect general data de Base Populacional (RCBP) provides data description of patients and monitors the profile of cancer from patients. The system aims to know the incidence of malignant neoplasm. The database named Registros de Câncer incidence in a given population. The RCBP of the city of São Paulo is coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology of the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo .The RCBP allows the assessment of data from all areas of São Paulo. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of data about the cases of fatal and nonfatal cancer in several areas of the city of São Paulo (Midwest, East, North, Southeast and South) in order to establish a comparison among the occurrences of the disease in those areas. The review will be an efficient tool to identify the profile of cancer cases in the city of São Paulo, mainly in the areas where most hospitals, which provide therapy and imaging services that use radiation, are located. Based on the data review a future epidemiological study may be conducted seeking to identify the main types of cancer that may be directly or indirectly related to radiation such as leukemia, thyroid, breast, and bone cancer. The existence of several other risk factors that may interfere with the development of any type of cancer, such as individual lifestyle and genetic predisposition must be considered. (author)

  11. Cosmopolitanism Influence on Destination Image: An Analysis of São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nasrallah Bedran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image building. To accomplish this objective we interviewed foreign people, who know São Paulo, a city with national and international importance, due to its structure, economy, size, population and by its intense cultural and business life. This work reviewed cosmopolitanism that is the desire to know other cultures, besides his native one. This leads to an intention to travel through different regions, countries, to deepen in other societies and try to blend into it. Thus, one has particular characteristics, which influence the way one lives and consume products. The destination image can be defined as the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions that a person has about a destination. To understand how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image, two approaches were used. A qualitative approach used interviews with professionals from SPTuris, as well as personal interviews with foreign tourists at the airport., This data was analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative approach included a survey with 205 foreigners. Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics, ANOVA and structural equation modeling. The result showed that cosmopolitanism and income influences the affective aspect in the destination image formation. It also showed that the stay purpose influenced the cognitive aspect, and that the length of stay influenced both aspects of the destination image. The research result showed that the cosmopolitanism influences mainly the affective aspect of São Paulo destination image. 

  12. Associação entre mortalidade e estado marital: uma análise para idosos residentes no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, Estudo SABE, 2000 e 2006 Asociación entre el estado civil y la mortalidad: un análisis de los ancianos residentes en São Paulo, Brasil, el Estudio SABE, 2000 y 2006 Association between marital status and mortality among elderly residents in São Paulo City, Brazil, SABE Study, 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda A. O. Duarte

    2013-03-01

    una mejor comprensión de los factores asociados con la supervivencia de los ancianos, además de apoyar las políticas de salud dirigidas a este contingente de población.This study aimed to analyze the association between mortality and marital status in the elderly population (60 years and older in São Paulo, Brazil. The authors used data from the SABE Study (Health, Well-Being, and Aging from 2000 and 2006. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression, considering variation in time of mortality risk. The mortality rate among single elderly males was 61% higher than among married men. Separation or divorce and widowhood increased the odds of death in elderly women (separated/divorced women and widows showed mortality rates 82% and 35% higher, respectively, than married women. It is hoped that the current study will improve our understanding of factors associated with survival in the elderly, in addition to supporting health policies for this population group.

  13. Urban policies for downtown São Paulo: renewal or rehabilitation? An assessment of São Paulo city's proposals from 1970 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over urban interventions in central areas is probably one of the most controversial subjects between architects and city planners. Since the cities are built on social grounds, depending on the roles that government and the market play in the production of space, some urban areas" develop" while other" degrade." In response to a" degradation" process, governments around the world have developed urban policies for intervention in central areas of cities. These interventions have changed over time, alternating mainly between two types: eradication and rehabilitation. The current paper analyzes the interventions proposed by the city of São Paulo for its downtown area over the past thirty years, taking into consideration these types of intervention. The article starts out by discussing the evolution of urban policies for central areas in the international arena and then analyzes the process of São Paulo downtown decay and the response of local government, with an emphasis on recent initiatives and their outcomes.

  14. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  15. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  16. Anhaia Mello's contributions to urbanism of the city of São Paulo: from Ebenezer Howard to the Chicago School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alberto Toledo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article draws an analytical panel of the main contributions and interpretations of Anhaia Mello about the problem of growing cities from the perspective of urbanism in the city of São Paulo. Based on a broad review of the literature, this article describes how urban planning migrated to academia and simultaneously to city ordinances, which resulted in the regulatory framework of land use and occupancy that ultimately produced “The Regional São Paulo Plan.” Research in the FAU-USP library revealed family documents and collections that helped reconstruct the intellectual history and career of urban planner and professor Anhaia Mello. The author of this paper organized the data gathered from these collections and compared them to the literature to reconstruct Anhaia Mello’s thoughts on how the city of São Paulo should grow in the mid-20th century. The analyses produced by Anhaia Mello served as a guide to identify the crystallization of a planning proposal for the city, which believed in reversing the metropolitan cycle and containing urban growth by applying the garden-city concept defended by Le Corbusier and the Chicago school.

  17. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  18. Isotopic and hydrochemical study of aquifers from Rio Claro District (Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic and hydrochemical study was performed in three aquifers in Rio Claro city area, Sao Paulo State, to establish the chemical facies of the groundwaters and to evaluate the mechanisms of dissolution of the unstable isotope 234 U and 238 U. Mapped groundwater facies were: calcium-bicarbonate for Rio Claro Formation, sodium-nitrate-chloride for fractures in database and sodium-bicarbonate for Tubarao Group. The highest dissolved U contents were measured in groundwaters from the fractured diabase, however, the groundwaters from Tubarao Group showed the highest base-exchange index. Most of the results showed enhancement of 234 U in solution and the highest 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios were measured for groundwaters from Tubarao Group. (author). 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The prevalence was 71.6%. When considered separately and in association, the highest values found were: HPV (67.7% and Chlamydia (20.5%. HPV typing showed oncogenic genotypes. The prevalence of syphilis was 4.0% and of trichomoniasis 3.0%. No cases of hepatitis B or gonorrhea were identified. It was concluded that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the studied group was high, since approximately two thirds of the women showed some type of disease under this classification.Cambios en el perfil de las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles han ampliando la necesidad de su seguimiento, especialmente donde existe concentración de personas o grupos con comportamientos de riesgo, para que el diagnóstico y tratamiento inmediato se traduzcan en reducción de los problemas causados. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible entre mujeres profesionales del sexo de un municipio de porte medio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Este estudio de prevalencia poblacional fue realizado en el año de 2008 con 102 profesionales del sexo. La prevalencia general de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible fue 71,6%. Considerados aisladamente y en asociación, los mayores valores encontrados fueron: VPH (67,7% e infección clamidiana (20,5%. El tipaje del VPH evidenció genotipos oncogénicos. La prevalencia de sífilis fue de 4,0% y de tricomoníasis 3,0%. Ningún caso de hepatitis B o gonorrea fue identificado. Se concluye

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-07

    Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A M G; Nogueira, C A; Saiki, M; Milian, F M; Domingos, M

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source.

  2. Three year seroepidemiological study of varicella-zoster virus in São Paulo, Brazil Três anos de estudo soroepidemiológico do vírus varicela-zoster em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Frugis YU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of varicella has been carried out in children attending the public school network of São Paulo city, Brazil, from 1992 to 1994. This study was performed in order to establish the age related prevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus (VZV and its age specific transmission dynamics pattern in these children. Among 2500 schools in the city of São Paulo public network, 304 were randomly selected; 7 children of a given age (ranging from 1 to 15 years were randomly selected in each school, and blood samples were obtained by fingerprick into filter paper. Blood eluates were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to VZV by ELISA. Proportion of seropositivity were calculated for each age group. Samples consisted of 1768 individuals in 1992, 1758 in 1993, and 1817 in 1994, resulting in 5343 eluates. A high proportion of seropositive children from 1 to 3 years of age was observed, ascending until 10 years of age and reaching a plateau around 90% afterwards. VZV transmission in this community was similar along the three years of the study. In children attending public schools in the city of São Paulo, contact with VZV occurs in early childhood. If immunization against VZV is considered it should be introduced as soon as possible.Um estudo sorológico para varicela foi realizado em crianças matriculadas na rede pública de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1992 e 1994. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência idade-dependente de anticorpos contra o vírus varicela-zoster (VVZ e definir sua dinâmica de transmissão nestas crianças. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 304 escolas entre os 2500 equipamentos da Rede Pública de Educação e Bem Estar Social na cidade de São Paulo; foram sorteadas em cada escola 7 crianças de determinada idade (de 1 a 15 anos, e o sangue colhido em papel de filtro. Os eluatos foram avaliados para anticorpos contra o vírus varicela zoster através de técnica de ELISA. A

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  4. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  5. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  6. Urban revitalization at downtown areas: discussions on the case of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nigro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon

  7. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out between May and November 2011 to investigate the epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions. Three hundred farms from each region, with reproductive activity, were randomly chosen and included as primary sample units. A fixed number of bovine females, older than 2 years of age, were randomly selected and tested, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test. An epidemiological questionnaire based survey was conducted in the selected farms. Our results show that in the state of São Paulo, the apparent prevalence of positive farms was 9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 7.8 – 10.5%. The prevalence in the individual regions varied between 3.5% (95% CI = 1.7 ? 6.8% and 13.9% (95% CI = 10.2 – 18.8%. The apparent prevalence of positive animals in the state was 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9 – 1.7% and varied from 0.3% (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.6% to 2.5% (95% CI = 1.4 – 4.5% in the regions. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in the state were (i number of adult females in a herd is ? 24 (Odds ratio, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.32 – 2.75, (ii type of farm enterprise (dairy: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.40 – 5.21; mixed: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.08 – 3.82, (iii milking process (milking parlor: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.46 – 11.64; portable milking machine: OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.09, and (iv pasture sharing (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07 – 2.33. The state of São Paulo should implement a structured surveillance system to detect and mitigate the disease. Further, an efficient animal health education program, which encourages the farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds and to avoid pasture sharing with farms of unknown sanitary conditions should also be implemented.

  10. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  12. Frequency of ocular conditions in native Brazilians from Avaí City, São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: To perform an epidemiological study of eye diseases in the population of four indigenous communities in the City of Avai in the state of São Paulo - Brazil: Ekeruá, Kopenoti, Nimuendaju and Tereguá. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, population-based study performed by the Medical Residency Program of the Center of Excellence in Ophthalmology (CEO-Bauru, including all the inhabitants of four indigenous tribes, between the months of March and April 2016. All participants were submitted to a complete eye examination that included refraction test and best-corrected visual acuity, external ocular motility and strabismus, measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP, color vision test, slit lamp examination and a complete evaluation of the fundus. Results: From a total of 584 natives from four villages, 377 (64.55% attended the project. 283 appointments were performed at CEO - Bauru and 94 evaluations in the health center of Kopenoti village using a mobile ophthalmology unit. 48.54% of the participants were male and 51.46% female. The mean age was 32.03 ± 21.45 years. Our study found prevalence of pterygium of 14.05%, cataract of 6.63%, glaucoma of 1.85% and diabetic retinopathy of 1.59%. These numbers are higher than found in other epidemiological studies. Regarding refractive errors, 36.99% presented astigmatism, 4.24% simple myopia and 8.35% simple hyperopia. Conclusion: These information are extremely important because they show higher rates of eye diseases in a needy and remote population of urban health centers, and in need of medical care. It is noteworthy that all patients from this study who presented refractive errors, received glasses with the corrected refractive lenses.

  13. The effect of performing corrections on reported uterine cancer mortality data in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.F. Antunes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Reports of uterine cancer deaths that do not specify the subsite of the tumor threaten the quality of the epidemiologic appraisal of corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality. The present study assessed the impact of correcting the estimated corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The epidemiologic assessment of death rates comprised the estimation of magnitudes, trends (1980-2003, and area-level distribution based on three strategies: i using uncorrected death certificate information; ii correcting estimates of corpus and cervix uteri mortality by fully reallocating unspecified deaths to either one of these categories, and iii partially correcting specified estimates by maintaining as unspecified a fraction of deaths certified as due to cancer of "uterus not otherwise specified". The proportion of uterine cancer deaths without subsite specification decreased from 42.9% in 1984 to 20.8% in 2003. Partial and full corrections resulted in considerable increases of cervix (31.3 and 48.8%, respectively and corpus uteri (34.4 and 55.2% cancer mortality. Partial correction did not change trends for subsite-specific uterine cancer mortality, whereas full correction did, thus representing an early indication of decrease for cervical neoplasms and stability for tumors of the corpus uteri in this population. Ecologic correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indices were unchanged for both strategies of correcting estimates. Reallocating unspecified uterine cancer mortality in contexts with a high proportion of these deaths has a considerable impact on the epidemiologic profile of mortality and provides more reliable estimates of cervix and corpus uteri cancer death rates and trends.

  14. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianni Palmeira Wanderley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  15. The occurrence of UV filters in natural and drinking water in São Paulo State (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudia Pereira; Emídio, Elissandro Soares; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in the formulation of personal care products (PCPs) to prevent damage to the skin, lips, and hair caused by excessive UV radiation. Therefore, large amounts of these substances are released daily into the aquatic environment through either recreational activities or the release of domestic sewage. The concern regarding the presence of such substances in the environment and the exposure of aquatic organisms is based on their potential for bioaccumulation and their potential as endocrine disruptors. Although there are several reports regarding the occurrence and fate of UV filters in the aquatic environment, these compounds are still overlooked in tropical areas. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the organic UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl salicylate (ES), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and octocrylene (OC) in six water treatment plants in various cities in Southeast Brazil over a period of 6 months to 1 year. All of the UV filters studied were detected at some time during the sampling period; however, only EHMC and BP-3 were found in quantifiable concentrations, ranging from 55 to 101 and 18 to 115 ng L(-1), respectively. Seasonal variation of BP-3 was most clearly noticed in the water treatment plant in Araraquara, São Paulo, where sampling was performed for 12 months. BP-3 was not quantifiable in winter but was quantifiable in summer. The levels of BP-3 were in the same range in raw, treated and chlorinated water, indicating that the compound was not removed by the water treatment process.

  16. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Goulart Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the sociodemographic characteristics (SC associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the prevalance ratios (PR. Results: Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683, 4.5% (n = 31 reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043, being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159, having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013, current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454 and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009 were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Conclusions: Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  17. Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters in Megacities: The Case of Floods in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Eduardo; Teixeira, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    The city of São Paulo, home to 11 million people, suffers constantly the effects of flooding caused by extreme precipitation. Localized floods occur every summer in various parts of the city. Besides the losses and inconvenience felt by the residents, floods produce damages that cross the city boundaries, affecting income and output in the metropolitan area as well as in other parts of the state and the country. The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of floods in the ...

  18. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  19. Thyroid Cancer Incidence Patterns in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the U.S. SEER Program, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ron, Elaine; Devesa, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has risen steadily over the last few decades in most of the developed world, but information on incidence trends in developing countries is limited. Sao Paulo, Brazil, has one of the highest rates of thyroid cancer worldwide, higher than in the United States. We examined thyroid cancer incidence patterns using data from the Sao Paulo Cancer Registry (SPCR) in Brazil and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program in the United States. Methods Data on thyroid cancer cases diagnosed during 1997–2008 were obtained from SPCR (n=15,892) and SEER (n=42,717). Age-adjusted and age-specific rates were calculated by sex and histology and temporal patterns were compared between the two populations. Results Overall incidence rates increased over time in both populations and were higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States among females (SPCR/SEER incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65) and males (IRR=1.23). Papillary was the most common histology in both populations, followed by follicular and medullary carcinomas. Incidence rates by histology were consistently higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States, with the greatest differences for follicular (IRR=2.44) and medullary (IRR=3.29) carcinomas among females. The overall female/male IRR was higher in Sao Paulo (IRR=4.17) than in SEER (IRR=3.10) and did not change over time. Papillary rates rose over time more rapidly in Sao Paulo (annual percentage change=10.3% among females and 9.6% among males) than in the United States (6.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Regardless of sex, rates rose faster among younger people (8 among both Sao Paulo males and females, in contrast to increases from 9 to 12 and from 6 to 7 among U.S.males and females, respectively. Conclusions Increased diagnostic activity may be contributing to the notable rise in incidence, mainly for papillary type, in both populations, but it is not likely to be the only reason. Differences in

  20. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  1. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  2. Mortalidade diferencial por causas, São Paulo, Brasil, 1970: tábuas de vida de múltiplo decremento Mortality differentials classified according to cause of death, S. Paulo, Brazil, 1970: multiple decrement life tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Léa Davidson Gotlieb

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas considerações sobre tábua de vida de múltiplo decremento, com o objetivo de avaliar a magnitude da atuação de alguns grupos de agravos à saúde nas probabilidades de morte, de sobrevivência e nas esperanças de vida dos residentes no município de São Paulo (Brasil, em 1970. A esperança de vida ao nascer foi igual a 60,12 anos no sexo masculino e 67,21 anos no sexo feminino. Os principais grupos de doenças em função dos ganhos que propiciariam à esperança de vida ao nascer, caso não tivessem sido fator de risco de morte, foram: no sexo masculino - cardiovasculares; infecciosas e parasitárias; acidentes, envenenamentos e violências e os tumores malignos; no sexo feminino - cardiovasculares; infecciosas e parasitárias; tumores malignos e os acidentes, envenenamentos e violências. Levantou-se a hipótese de que o padrão de mortalidade no município de São Paulo, em 1970, refletiria a existência de problemas de saúde de uma população formada por setores distintos onde coexistiriam condições típicas adversas à saúde, ora de regiões consideradas desenvolvidas, ora de regiões em desenvolvimento.General considerations about multiple decrement life tables are made to evaluate the impact of some diseases and other causes of death on the probabilities of death and survival and on the life expectancy of the inhabitants of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1970. The male life expectancy calculated was 60.12 years, and the female, 67.21. The main groups of causes of death, classified by the gains, were: for males - cardiovascular diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents, poisonings and violences and neoplasms; for women - cardiovascular diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, neoplasms and accidents, poisonings, and violence. A dichotomous population could be considered as an explanatory hypothesis for the pattern of mortality prevailling in 1970 in S. Paulo; that is, the patterns probably

  3. Association of ecstasy seizure rates with district Human Development Index in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Fernandes Lapachinske

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether ecstasy consumption is associated with the socioeconomic status in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007. We used an official, reliable and unbiased source supplied by the Department of Narcotics of the State of São Paulo (Denarc database and the Human Development Index of the districts (HDId where the seizures occurred. A Spearman correlation test between the average number of ecstasy seizures per million of inhabitants with the HDId was used. There were 190 seizures (totaling 47,934 tablets spread out in 53 of the 96 districts and 51.6% were concentrated in only 8 districts. The higher rates of ecstasy seizures were directly associated with districts with high HDId that confirmed the association of ecstasy consumption with the socioeconomic status. Itaim-Bibi, Jardim Paulista and Moema were the top three districts with the highest HDId. In these districts, the number of tablets per seizure ranged from as few units to thousands, revealing that not only consumption but also traffic coexist at the same place. Districts with many nightclubs can also influence the incidence of seizures. This knowledge can be useful to help the police from other Brazilian cities to combat ecstasy trafficking.

  4. [Yellow fever: reemerging in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Melissa; Tengan, Ciléa H; Sato, Helena Keiko; Suzuki, Akemi; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Maeda, Marina; Brasil, Roosecelis; Pereira, Mariza; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Wanderley, Dalva M V; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2013-10-01

    To describe the investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the state of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken. This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti . Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation. Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus . Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported. The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but further studies are required to clarify the dynamics of the spread of this disease.

  5. YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF, which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population.

  6. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Maldonado, Caio; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  7. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  8. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  9. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score. To address association with overweight/obesity, a conceptual model was established and used for multiple analysis, performed by logistic regression. Results The children had an overweight/obesity frequency of 39.5%. Multiple analysis adjusted for socioeconomic level showed that overweight/obese children were more likely to eat at the mall (1.55; 95%CI=1.00-2.40, have overweight and obese parents (OR=1.71; 95%CI=1.08-2.71 and OR=3.55; 95%CI=2.18-5.80 respectively, report use of passive school transport (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.04-2.36, and consume chicken nuggets on 3 or more days per week (OR=3.03; 95%CI=1.32-6.95. Conclusion These results support the urgent need of strategies to reduce overweight/obesity and promote its prevention in schoolchildren. Moreover, intervention studies involving parents and addressing environmental factors are important for the development of effective programs.

  10. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jun Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  11. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

  12. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-01-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author)

  13. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  14. Fee - fishing operation evaluation at Nothwest São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ruy Bessa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fee-fishing operations developed recently in Brazilian agricultural scenery in a rather disordered manner. This study, carried out at the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, focuses on the productive performance of fee-fishing system. Several visits were made monthly to nine fee-fishing establishments, for six months. A questionnaire by owners targeting 13 indicators of the operation's productive performance. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis (MANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis. MANOVA indicated significant differences between the fee-fishing operations. The PCA analyses indicated, from the higher coefficient eigenvectors, three attributes for the lakes, such as productive system, fishery management and operational administration. The cluster analyses classified the fishing lakes in four groups. The indicators angler frequency (AF, stocking density (SD, stocking biomass (SB, total capture (TC and capture/lake/day (CLD, which are part of the attribute productive system, were the most important indicators of "fee-fishing" operations performance in this study.

  15. Sperm characteristics in a sample of healthy adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mitsuyoshi Mori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary data from a prospective investigation in a sample of healthy 14-17-year-old students from a technical school in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-six Tanner stage 5 and thirty-one Tanner stage 4 adolescents were evaluated: testicular volume was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and semen analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Median testicular volume was 20.0ml among Tanner 5 students and 15.0ml in Tanner 4 students in both the right and left testes. No significant differences were found in sperm volume or motility. Median concentration was 66.0 million/ml for Tanner 5 and 47.0 million/ml for Tanner 4 subjects. Morphological patterns showed abnormal forms in 81.9% of Tanner 5 and 93.6% of Tanner 4 adolescents. Oligospermia (sperm concentration < 5 million/ml was observed in 7.3% of Tanner stage 5 and 12.9% of Tanner stage 4 individuals. Azoospermia was observed in 3 students (1.8%, with counts less than 1.0 in 8 students (4.8%. The authors discuss the observed results, analyzing the potential implications arising from biological development and potential environmental exposures.

  16. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  17. Animal-assisted therapy in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since ancient times, humans and animals have interacted for different purposes. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT is used for the assistance and treatment in humans and educational projects where animals are used as co-therapists or co-educators. The use of animals facilitates the process of teaching and learning, and stimulates physical and therapeutic activities. So that knowledge on AAT could be expanded, current study analyzes the opinion of people directly involved in education on AAT implementation as an educational model in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Questionnaires were handed out to 10 pedagogical coordinators, 32 teachers, 23 parents and 26 children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed that AAT is not well-known for most interviewees, including pedagogical coordinators, teachers and parents. However, interviewees believe in the benefits of child-pet interactions and are favorable to the implementation of AATs in schools. Projects should be interdisciplinary and must involve professionals from other areas, such as psychologists and veterinarians. Regarding the educational model, interviewees believe in the innovation capacity of AAT and in the possibilities of interdisciplinarity among teachers in the use of animals. Research also demonstrated that children like and support the use of animals in the school.

  18. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  19. Metallic elements distribution in drainage sediments of the Parque Estadual de Anchieta - Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Sigolo, Joel Barbujiani

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the geochemical behavior of metals in river sediments from Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta which is located in the north coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Anchieta Island presents many natural ecosystems well preserved without anthropogenic contamination. The sediments were collected in two different points in one of the main rivers of the island. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) which permits the quantification of total concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta and Zn), rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb e Yb), actinides (U and Th) and non metals (As, Br and Sb). Elemental content in the samples had remained relatively constant along the deep of the sample and the changes seemed to be well correlated with the size of the particles in the samples. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of two geological reference materials and data obtained were in good agreement with recommended values. The values obtained for the analyzed elements can be considered the natural concentration of those elements, since Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta is preserved from anthropogenic impact. (author)

  20. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  1. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. 232 Th and 228 Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. 232 Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg -1 with mean value of 57 ± 39 Bq kg -1 , for 42 samples. 228 Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 74 ± 23 Bq kg -1 , for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of 232 Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  3. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Günther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. ► Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. ► Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. ► The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized. Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non

  4. Analysis of the Unified Health System funding and expenditure in the municipalities of the "Rota dos Bandeirantes" health region, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Alves Dos; Mendes, Áquilas Nogueira; Pereira, Antônio Carlos; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2017-04-01

    The national scenario of lack of resources in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) has led to major differences in the municipalities funding models. Thus, this study aims to analyze SUS funding and expenditure in seven cities of the Rota dos Bandeirantes health region, State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Settled expenditure indicators were collected from the Public Health Budgets Information System (SIOPS) for analysis, showing descriptive data with absolute and relative frequency calculations. We identified that the per capita income available for the city of Barueri is almost tenfold that of the city of Carapicuíba, and that Barueri's health expenditure per capita is more than double that of the regional average and almost fivefold that of Carapicuíba. The Federal Government is responsible for 95.4% of all funding to municipalities. Most of the available income of the municipalities in the region include their own taxes and state transfers. All the municipalities showed a significant positive trend, both for available income and health expenditure. The regional average of own revenue spent on health is 27.3%. Carapicuíba achieved a level of 37.5%, which is much higher than the minimum of 15% required by the Federal Constitution.

  5. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  6. Unified costs for the rural electrification in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Custos unificados para a eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: kurahass@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social - BNDES, a Brazilian bank for the economic and social development - worried about the high connections costs practiced by the energy utilities, made some demands to the Sao Paulo State Government, Brazil to become the agent backer of the rural electrification 'Luz da Terra' program. Two of them was the elaboration and adoption of an unified technical norm privileging the adoption of simplified systems of electric energy distribution and an only system of costs establishment compatible with the goals of low medium connection costs for the state. A model of costs establishment was elaborated through the medium prices of market materials and labor activities whose values were more significant in the final composition of the projects. The model was accepted by the utilities participants of the program as a pattern to establish a reference cost for each project to be executed. The advantage of an unified system is that it allows to each project of grid extension to have its costs of materials and labor activities estimated in the same base, independent of the company involved. In spite of not having been adopted by all the utilities ones, the adoption of an unified system and the establishment of reference costs was essential for the control of rural distribution grids prices in the Sao Paulo State. (author)

  7. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  8. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  9. Use of doxycycline for leptospirosis after high-risk exposure in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R. GONSALEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial pilot study, double-blinded, randomized, and controlled with a placebo to assess the effectiveness of oral doxycycline (200 mg, single dose in preventing leptospirosis after high exposure to potentially contamined water was performed in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Confirmed cases were defined as those with leptospira IgM antibody and symptoms; asymptomatic cases were those presenting with IgM antibodies but no symptoms; and suspected cases were individuals with symptoms but no IgM antibody. Forty subjects were given doxycycline and 42 were given placebo. In the drug-treated group there were 2 confirmed cases, 11 asymptomatic cases, and 6 suspected cases. In the placebo group there were 5 confirmed, 6 symptomatic, and 5 suspected cases. Even though we found a protective association of doxycycline for confirmed leptospirosis cases (RR = 2.3 and seroconversion only (RR = 2.0, the association was not statistically significant because of the small number of individuals enrolled in this pilot study. We observed that the 22% of the volunteers already had IgM antibodies to leptospirosis at the first sampling. Finally, the attack rate to confirmed, asymptomatic, and suspected cases of Leptospirosis was 8.5%, 22%, and 13%, respectively, in this population.Um ensaio clínico, duplo-cego, ao acaso, e controlado com placebo para aferir a eficácia da doxiciclina (200 mg, dose única em prevenir leptospirose após exposição de alto risco com água potencialmente contaminada foi realizado em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Casos confirmados foram definidos como aqueles que apresentavam anticorpos IgM anti-Leptospira e sintomas; casos assintomáticos eram aqueles que apresentavam somente anticorpo IgM, casos suspeitos apresentavam sintomas, porém sem anticorpo IgM. 40 indivíduos tomaram doxaciclina e 42 tomaram placebo. No grupo tratado houve 2 casos confirmados, 11 assintomáticos e 6 casos suspeitos. No grupo placebo houve 5 casos confirmados, 6

  10. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  11. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  12. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  13. Relationship between Black Carbon and heavy traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in air quality, human health and global climate change. Black Carbon (BC) can be considered the most efficient light absorber in the visible spectrum and is mainly found in the fine fraction of aerosol. Typically is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels related to traffic, industrial processes and biomass burning. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter and vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Since November 2014, Black Carbon and PM2.5 are being monitored using a MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer) Thermo 5012 and a Dust Trak DRX-8533 TSI in the East Campus of University of São Paulo, close to important highways and also to the largest airport of Brazil (Guarulhos Airport). Average BC concentration was 1.7 μg/m3 with some peaks above 17.0 μg/m3 and for PM2.5 average was 10.2 μg/m3. Particle concentrations reached values greater than the air quality standard (60 μg/m3) in the winter months. Winds coming from the East direction predominate. Traffic restrictions to heavy duty vehicles in the road-rings next to the sampling site during some hours of the day are the responsible for the daily BC and PM2.5 behavior (figure below), where high concentrations occur early in the morning and late at night, when heavy diesel vehicles are released for transit. Seasonal variations are different for BC and PM2.5 due to local sources of BC and meteorological conditions that have more influence on the particles. The weekly variation indicates that concentrations are lower on Sundays and higher from Tuesday to Thursday. Emission factors for BC were calculated based on traffic information.

  14. In situ monitoring of mutagenicity of air pollutants in São Paulo City using Tradescantia-SHM bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Maria Izildinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SHM was employed for assessing the environmental mutagenesis in two areas of São Paulo City. The study sites were defined as follows: 1 Celso Garcia Avenue, an industrial area on the outskirts of the urban center (Belém neighborhood, with an average daily traffic volume of 8,750 vehicles; 2 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, in downtown area (Pinheiros neighborhood, with a mostly residential and business offices occupation, with an average daily traffic volume of 46,125 vehicles. The negative control (background site is located in the city of Jaguariúna, 138 km from São Paulo, in an area of low atmospheric pollution. The mutation frequency observed for Belém was similar to the background for clone 4430, whereas plants exposed in Pinheiros showed significant increases in mutation rate. Positive correlation was observed between mutation frequency and the levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. This indicated a relationship between mutation frequency and the amount of atmospheric pollution present at the exposure sites in São Paulo City, with special reference to vehicular emissions.

  15. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-01-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the

  16. Neutron activation analysis characterization procedures for fish consumed at São Paulo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappiz, Bruno; Moreira, Edson G.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of edible tissues of fishes consumed by humans is very important for determination of several toxic and potentially toxic elements, ensuring the food safety. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) comparative method allows the determination of several of these elements, as well as others, for example of nutritional character. This study is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation project of Latin America and Caribbean countries to ensure the quality of food and biomonitoring of contaminants in molluscs and fishes. Ten specimens of 5 of the most consumed fish in São Paulo city: white mouth croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri), smooth weakfish (Cynoscion learchus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) and bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) were analyzed. Complete procedures for analysis, which includes purchase in the largest warehouse in Latin America, transport to the laboratory, storage, freeze-drying, milling, weighting and others preparations of the subsamples, and the short irradiation parameters for the determination of Br, Cl, K, Mn and Na are reported. Results obtained for macro and microelements are presented and are in agreement with analysis of oyster tissue and mussel tissue certified reference materials under the same irradiation conditions, with z-score values ranging from -3.0 to 2.2. (author)

  17. Neutron activation analysis characterization procedures for fish consumed at São Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappiz, Bruno; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: brunotappiz2@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of edible tissues of fishes consumed by humans is very important for determination of several toxic and potentially toxic elements, ensuring the food safety. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) comparative method allows the determination of several of these elements, as well as others, for example of nutritional character. This study is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation project of Latin America and Caribbean countries to ensure the quality of food and biomonitoring of contaminants in molluscs and fishes. Ten specimens of 5 of the most consumed fish in São Paulo city: white mouth croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri), smooth weakfish (Cynoscion learchus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) and bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) were analyzed. Complete procedures for analysis, which includes purchase in the largest warehouse in Latin America, transport to the laboratory, storage, freeze-drying, milling, weighting and others preparations of the subsamples, and the short irradiation parameters for the determination of Br, Cl, K, Mn and Na are reported. Results obtained for macro and microelements are presented and are in agreement with analysis of oyster tissue and mussel tissue certified reference materials under the same irradiation conditions, with z-score values ranging from -3.0 to 2.2. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Marcelli, Marcelo P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at μg g -1 levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g -1 levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  19. Availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary health facilities of the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil: results from the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to describe the availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary care facilities in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, from the results of the first cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care (PMAQ). The PMAQ uses a national cross-sectional multicenter design, with data from 4,249 health facilities distributed among 645 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. Of these facilities, 467 (11%) had herbal medicines and/or medicinal plants. Among the 645 municipalities, 104 (16.1%) had at least one health facility that provided these drugs. We observed that the availability of herbal medicines is greater in larger cities with better social and economic conditions. Furthermore, we found that use of industrialized herbal medicines prevailed over that of vegetal drugs or compounded herbal medicines.

  20. Programa de Capacitação Permanente de Conselheiros Populares de Saúde na cidade de São Paulo São Paulo city: Permanent Skills Improvement Course for elected representatives to the Municipal Health Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Bógus

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O Movimento Popular de Saúde do Município de São Paulo vem elegendo Conselhos Populares de Saúde desde 1979. A questão da formação política e capacitação técnica de lideranças sempre foi uma preocupação do movimento de saúde. Durante a gestão municipal de 1993 a 2000 a interlocução entre o governo local e a representação popular foi rompida e disto decorreu um período de refluxo dos movimentos sociais. Porém, no início de 1998, os movimentos organizados de saúde das regiões leste e sudeste conseguiram se articular para eleger conselheiros para os Conselhos Populares de Saúde. Foram eleitos 1.039 conselheiros. Após vários esforços isolados de capacitação de conselheiros optou-se por realizar um Programa de Capacitação Permanente de Conselheiros de Saúde como forma de envolver o conjunto de bairros e regiões. Por meio de um convênio entre o Ministério da Saúde e o Centro de Educação Permanente da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo foram realizados 52 cursos para 1.011 desses conselheiros eleitos. Neste trabalho, a partir de análise documental, os autores descrevem esse processo de capacitação, caracterizam o perfil sócio econômico dos conselheiros e analisam a avaliação dos participantes nos cursos de capacitação.The popular health movement from São Paulo City has been electing Popular Health Councils since 1979. The issue of political and technical capabilities of its leaders has been an important point for the movement. During the years 1993 to 2000, the communication channels between the municipal government and popular leadership have been broken, leading back the social movement related to public health. However, in the beginningof 1988, the organized health movements located both at the east and southeast parts of São Paulo City, were succeeded in electing 1.039 members for those popular councils. After several scattered efforts to provide capability and skills to the

  1. Use of passive diffusion sampling method for defining NO2 concentrations gradient in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliefste Kees

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000. In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET. Average NO2concentrations were 63μg/m3 and 49μg/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17: 64μg/m3 (95% CI: 59μg/m3 – 68μg/m3; local traffic (n = 16: 48μg/m3 (95% CI: 44μg/m3 – 52μg/m3 (p Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available.

  2. Basic and ultrabasic coastal dykes adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (North coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria; Schorscher, Johann Hans Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The portions of the Precambrian Costeiro Complex adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by mafic dykes of basic to intermediate composition, lamprophyres and trachytes. The former have been correlated with the basalts of the Parana Basin, while the lamprophyres are expressions of an alkaline magmatism different from the one that happened approximately 80 Ma ago in the Sao Sebastiao, Buzios, Vitoria and Montao de Trigo islands, where more acid terms predominate with associated trachytes and rare phonolites. The basic-ultrabasic lamprophyric magmatism is widespread along the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro coasts; they are independent from and most likely older than the stocks and alkaline massifs. (author)

  3. Regeneration through the ‘Pedagogy of Confrontation’: Exploring the Critical Spatial Practices of Social Movements in Inner City São Paulo as Avenues for Urban Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice De Carli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The city centre of São Paulo is increasingly a key site for local housing movements to challenge the rules and practices of spatial injustice in Brazil. In a context where housing for low-income groups is in short supply and, critically, continues to be characterized by highly skewed social and spatial distribution, occupied buildings have emerged as laboratories for the production of novel ways of inhabiting the city. This paper addresses on-going inner-city occupations as possible alternatives to the prevailing modes of conceiving and imagining urban renewal. As such, it outlines an approach to regeneration that engages processes of self-production and self-management as a means to achieve dignified homes and contest exclusionary urbanization.

  4. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Reinaldo, Mônica Renata; Sena, Anne de; Granato, Celso F H

    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Culture versus the law in the decision not to vaccinate children: meanings assigned by middle-class couples in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to learn how middle-class parents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, interpreted the country's prevailing vaccination requirements, based on their experiences with vaccinating, selectively vaccinating, or not vaccinating their children. A qualitative approach was used with in-depth interviews. The analytical process was guided by content analysis and the theoretical framework of the anthropology of the law and morality. For parents that vaccinated, Brazil's culture of immunization outweighed the feeling of compliance with the law; for selective parents, selection of vaccines was not perceived as deviating from the law. In both, the act of vaccinating their children was a matter of moral status. Meanwhile, the non-vaccinators, counter to the legal perspective, attributed their choice to care for the child on grounds that mandatory vaccination was contrary to their way of life; they experienced a feeling of social coercion and fear of legal impositions. Vaccination is an important practice in public health, but it can reveal tensions and conflicts from normative systems, whether moral, cultural, or legal.

  6. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  7. Impact of climate changes on the Santos Harbor, São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Alfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santos Harbor Area (SHA in Sao Paulo Coastline (Brazil is the most important marine cargo transfer terminal in the Southern Hemisphere. A long term relative tidal level variability assessment shows a consistent response to relative sea level rise. A wave data base Wave Watch III was compared with a long term wave data-base generated by the ERA40-ECMWF (2003, both local validated. The current bed level of SHA Outer Channel is -15.00 m (Chart Datum or, in abbreviation, CD, maintained by dredging. According to the cargo throughput forecast, in 2025, the Access Channel will have to be deepened to level of -17.00 m. The feasibility of that choice is discussed from a technical, economical and conceptual navigation point of view in that context. A data set found from a scale model of the whole area of Santos Bay, Estuary and nearby beaches, showed the impact of maritime climate changes upon the coastal area. In the previous researches developed by the authors, it was demonstrated that the wave climate, the tides and tidal currents affect harbor and coastal structures maintenance, beaches stability, tidal inlet, sediment transport, saline intrusion and wetlands. Considering the increasing of the sea hazards and the high values of the infrastructures in that coastline, it is necessary to mitigate the risks. Hence, based on the results obtained by the authors, are highlighted guidelines strategies suggested for Access Channels dimensions, wharves free-board, jetties dimensions, dredging rates, rigid and flexible littoral defenses and land protection against flooding (including wetlands.

  8. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; Miranda, Marina Jorge de; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Santos, Patrícia Carlos Dos; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2017-08-23

    Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil))

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author).

  10. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  11. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  12. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; de Miranda, Marina Jorge; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; dos Santos, Patrícia Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Design Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. Settings The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Participants Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Main outcome measures Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. Results In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). Conclusions The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. PMID:28838894

  13. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  14. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  15. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  18. Evolution of the Cubatão urban mangrove in São Paulo State (Brazil) over space and time

    OpenAIRE

    Flandroy, J.; Cunha-Lignon, M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2009-01-01

    With 120,000 inhabitants and an area of 140km2 Cubatão (São Paulo State, Brazil) qualifies as an urban area. The mangrove of this coastal area occupies 136,538m2 but only 40% is in good condition. Many anthropogenic activities cause pollution, but despite these environmental impacts, the region is important for its biodiversity. The aim of this research is to study the evolution of the urban mangrove forest in Cubatão between 1962 and 2008.Imagery of 1962, 1994 and 2008 was used to detect the...

  19. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaruma Filho Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  20. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  1. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  2. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  3. Fish, Ribeirão do Feijão Basin, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Souza, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ribeirão do Feijão Basin is the main water supplier for the municipality of São Carlos, in the state of SãoPaulo, Brazil. Field work was carried out from February to November 2005, using sieves, casting nets, and drag nets. Atotal of 7,286 specimens of fish were collected, belonging to 30 species, 13 families and six orders. The richest orderwas Characiformes with 14 species, followed by Siluriformes with seven.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated to back pain in adults from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto De Vitta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Back pain has become a serious public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of back pain in a population-based sample of subjects over 20 years old living in the city of Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze the associations to variables- sociodemographic, ergonomic and lifestyle-related - and to morbidity. Methods: a cross-sectional study which evaluated 600 adults over 20 years old, both gender and living in the city. We used a structured protocol and the Nordic questionnaire. Also, we developed a descriptive analysis, bivariate and multivariate by binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of back pain was of 50.3% (CI 46.3 to 54.3, since 42.3% (CI 36.9 to 48.0 in men and 57.6% (CI 51.9 to 63.0 in women, with statistical significant difference (p = 0.001. Different variables remained in final models when assessed by gender. For male to be widowed and divorced and smoking habits and, for women to be widowed and divorced, to work in seated position and to perform occupational activities that demand carrying and lifting weight. Conclusion: We verified high prevalence in back pain in the population of Bauru and high association to widowed/divorced in both gender, with women performing occupational activities usually or always in seated position, those who carry or lift weight in work and men who smoke.

  5. Retrospective study of canine cases of leishmaniasis attended in São Paulo, Brazil (1997-2007Estudo retrospectivo de casos caninos de leishmaniose atendidos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Sonoda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is zoonosis caused by pleomorphic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The spread of the disease in Brazil lead to this retrospective survey of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed at the Service of Dermatology and Medical Clinics of the Small Animal Hospital-USP. We evaluated the records of 36 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania sp, which diagnosis included disease characterization during anamnesis, physical and dermatologic examination, hematology, biochemistry, imaging, serology (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay – ELISA and/or Indirect Fluorescent Reaction – RIFI, skin histopathology and/or agent isolation from aspiration biopsy samples of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow, and immunohistochemistry. All cases were allochtonous without gender predilection; 52.8% were 13 to 48 months old, with greater occurrence in pure breed dogs (66,7%, mostly Poodles and Labradors (20.8% each. Regarding origin: Campinas, Campo Limpo Paulista, Holambra, Ilha Bela, São Roque, Sorocaba, Ubatuba and Uberaba (one case / city. The remaining 28 cases from the State of São Paulo were located in cities with reported canine-human transmission (Araçatuba – three, Bauru – one, intra-canine transmission (Cotia – five, Embu – four or cities under investigation (São Paulo – 11, Mogi das Cruzes – one. Portugal (one and Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte – two reported caninehuman transmission. Prior to the leishmaniasis development dogs remained for short or long periods in 14 cities in the State of São Paulo (Araçatuba, Birigui, Caraguatatuba, Cotia, Eldorado, Embu e Embu Guaçu, Guarujá, Ilha Bela, Itapecerica da Serra, Peruíbe, Presidente Prudente, São Roque and São Paulo and five other Brazilian States (Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina. Most animals were oligosymptomatic (50%, 47.2% symptomatic and 2.8% asymptomatic.A leishmaniose constitui-se em zoonose causada por protozoário pleomórfico do g

  6. [Nutritional information of meals supplied by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Ana Paula Gines; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2008-01-01

    To compare the nutritional value of meals provided by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to the nutritional recommendations and guidelines established by the Ministry of Health for the Brazilian population. The 72 companies studied were grouped according to economic sector (industrial, services, or commerce), size (micro, small, medium, or large), meal preparation modality (prepared on-site by the company itself, on-site by a hired caterer, or off-site by a hired caterer), and supervision by a dietitian (yes or no). The per capita amount of food was determined based on the lunch, dinner, and supper menus for three days. The nutritional value of the meals was defined by the amount of calories, carbohydrates, protein, total fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sugars, cholesterol, and fruits and vegetables. Most of the menus were deficient in the number of fruits and vegetables (63.9%) and amount of polyunsaturated fat (83.3%), but high in total fat (47.2%) and cholesterol (62.5%). Group 2, composed of mostly medium and large companies, supervised by a dietician, belonging to the industrial and/or service sectors, and using a hired caterer, on averaged served meals with higher calorie content (P<0.001), higher percentage of polyunsaturated fat (P<0.001), more cholesterol (P=0.015), and more fruits and vegetables (P<0.001) than Group 1, which was composed of micro and small companies from the commercial sector, that prepare the meals themselves on-site, and are not supervised by a dietitian. Regarding the nutrition guidelines set for the Brazilian population, Group 2 meals were better in terms of fruit and vegetable servings (P<0.001). Group 1 meals were better in terms of cholesterol content (P=0.05). More specific action is required targeting company officers and managers in charge of food and nutrition services, especially in companies without dietitian supervision.

  7. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25, hydrated ethanol (E100, and diesel (with 5 % biodiesel. The experiments were performed at two tunnels: Jânio Quadros (TJQ, where 99 % of the vehicles are LDVs, and RodoAnel Mário Covas (TRA, where up to 30 % of the fleet are HDVs. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively. The samples were analyzed by thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS and by thermal–optical transmittance (TOT. Emission factors (EFs for organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for the HDV and the LDV fleet. We found that HDVs emitted more PM2.5 than LDVs, with OC EFs of 108 and 523 mg kg−1 burned fuel for LDVs and HDVs, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDVs and LDVs exhibited distinct features. Unique organic tracers for gasoline, biodiesel, and tire wear have been tentatively identified. nitrogen-containing compounds contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning or fast secondary production. Additionally, 70 and 65 % of the emitted mass (i.e. the OA originates from oxygenated compounds from LDVs and HDVs, respectively. This may be a consequence of the high oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, additional oxygenation may occur during fuel combustion. The high fractions of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds show that chemical processing close to the engine / tailpipe region is an important factor influencing primary OA emission. The thermal-desorption analysis showed that HDVs emitted compounds with higher volatility, and with

  8. Cataract prevalence in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de catarata na região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arantes Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cataract is considered the main preventable cause of blindness and visual impairment mainly in poor countries. This study was done to evaluate if cataract is still an important cause of blindness in Central-West region of State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a systematically randomized sample of households in five cities located in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 4,229 individuals (8,458 eyes of all ages. All household members were considered eligible. They were submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination (visual acuity with and without visual correction, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, tonometry, and refractometry. Cataract diagnosis was given to eyes presenting lens opacity in biomicroscopy exam, according to Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II. Eye with a best correction, presenting visual deficiency or blindness caused by cataract was considered after excluded other pathologies that decrease visual acuity (VA. We considered as visual deficiency eyes with 0.05 OBJETIVO: A catarata é a principal causa tratável de cegueira e deficiência visual em países subdesenvolvidos. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar se a catarata continua sendo uma importante causa de cegueira no centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal, de caráter observacional, realizado em cinco cidades da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, para as quais o centro de referência é a cidade de Botucatu. A amostra estabelecida para este estudo, de forma aleatória, seria composta por 5.555 indivíduos, sendo que foram examinados 4.229 indivíduos (8.458 olhos, ou seja, 78% da amostra pretendida. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo que consistia em avaliação da acuidade visual (com e sem correção, tonometria, biomicroscopia, fundoscopia e exame refracional. O diagnóstico de catarata foi dado aos

  9. Pr