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Sample records for paulo brazil estimativa

  1. Desenvolvimento e análise de uma rede neural artificial para estimativa da erosividade da chuva para o Estado de São Paulo Estimates of rainfall erosivity in São Paulo state by an artificial neural network

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    Michel Castro Moreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do valor da erosividade da chuva (R de determinada localidade é fundamental para a estimativa das perdas de solo feitas a partir da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo, sendo, portanto, de grande importância no planejamento conservacionista. A fim de obter estimativas do valor de R para localidades onde este é desconhecido, desenvolveu-se uma rede neural artificial (RNA e analisou-se a acurácia desta com o método de interpolação "Inverso de uma Potência da Distância" (ID. Comparando a RNA desenvolvida com o método de interpolação ID, verificou-se que a primeira apresentou menor erro relativo médio na estimativa de R e melhor índice de confiança, classificado como "Ótimo", podendo, portanto, ser utilizada no planejamento de uso, manejo e conservação do solo no Estado de São Paulo.Knowledge on rainfall erosivity (R of particular sites is fundamental for soil loss estimation by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and therefore highly important in conservation planning. In order to obtain the R value estimates for places where it is unknown, an artificial neural network (ANN was developed for the state of São Paulo, and its accuracy compared with the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method. The developed ANN presented a smaller mean relative error in the R estimation and a confidence index classified as "excellent", better than the IDW. ANN can therefore be used to estimate R values for soil use planning, management and conservation in São Paulo state.

  2. Modelo agrometeorológico regional para estimativa da severidade da mancha de Phaeosphaeria em milho safrinha no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Regional agrometeorological model to estimate Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on off-season maize crop in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Glauco de Souza Rolim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O milho safrinha, cultivado no outono-inverno, no Estado de São Paulo, tem apresentado com freqüência significativas reduções de produtividade devidas à mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria. Como estratégia para minimizar esses danos, os modelos agrometeorológicos de previsão de doenças podem auxiliar no planejamento e na tomada de decisões para o controle da doença na cultura. Dessa forma, este trabalho tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento e teste de modelos agrometeorológicos para previsão da porcentagem da área foliar afetada pela doença (%AFA em função do acúmulo diário de temperatura média e de chuva, em escala regional. Para tanto, foram utilizadas informações sobre a severidade da mancha de Phaeosphaeria em 158 cultivares de milho com diferentes níveis de resistência, durante a safrinha, em 14 diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Modelos foram desenvolvidos para cultivares suscetíveis, moderadamente resistentes e resistentes e os resultados indicaram haver boa performance na estimativa da %AFA, com altos valores de coeficiente de determinação (0,92; 0,81 e 0,83 respectivamente e índice de concordância de Willmott (0,98; 0,87; 0,94 respectivamente, além de teste F significativo a 1% de probabilidade para todos os casos. Os resultados também permitiram sugerir que a chuva e a temperatura são os fatores preponderantes para a ocorrência da mancha de Phaeosphaeria no Estado de São Paulo. Esses modelos têm a vantagem de utilizar variáveis usualmente obtidas em estações meteorológicas e poderão ser empregados em sistemas de alerta fitossanitários para monitoramento da doença no Estado.The off-season maize crop (named as "Safrinha" has been frequently suffering significant yield losses due to Phaeosphaeria leaf spot in state of São Paulo, Brazil. As a strategy for minimizing these losses, agrometeorological disease forecasting models can help in the planning and decision-making for disease control

  3. Estimativa de horas de frio abaixo de 7 e de 13°C para regionalização da fruticultura de clima temperado no estado de São Paulo Temperate fruit crop zoning in the State of São Paulo - Brazil based upon estimated number of hours with temperature below 7 and 13°C

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    Mário J. Pedro Júnior

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimativa e mapeamento do número de horas com temperaturas abaixo de 7 e 13°C no Estado de São Paulo e análise comparativa do comportamento de fruteiras de clima temperado constituem os objetivos do presente trabalho. Foi cotado o número de horas com temperaturas inferiores a 7 e 13°C, índices considerados limites necessários à dormência dessas plantas. Foram selecionados termogramas de doze postos agrometeorológicos do Instituto Agronômico, situados em altitudes variáveis entre 25 e 1.000m, correspondentes ao período 1964-1973. Estabeleceram-se equações para estimativa do número de horas com temperaturas inferiores a 7°C (HF-7 e 13°C (HF-13 em função da temperatura média do mês de julho, cujos coeficientes de correlação foram de -0,88 e -0,93, respectivamente. Com base nessas equações foram mapeadas as isolinhas de HF-7 e HF-13 para o Estado de São Paulo, encontrando-se desde valores médios anuais de HF-7 inferiores a 20 horas, característicos das regiões de transição de clima mesotérmico a megatérmico do Planalto Ocidental e das regiões mais baixas do norte e oeste do Estado, até valores anuais de HF-7 superiores a 200 horas, característicos das áreas acima de 1.500 metros de altitude no Sul do Estado, na serra da Mantiqueira, limítrofe com Minas Gerais, e na serra do Mar, limítrofe com o Rio de Janeiro. Com base na introdução de diferentes frutíferas de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo, verificou-se uma relação muito grande entre os índices HF-7 e HF-13 mapeados com o comportamento e potencialidade de exploração comercial.The behavior of temperate climate fruit crops in the State of São Paulo - Brazil as function of "dormancy units" (DAMARIO, 1969 was analysed with the object of providing a simple method for mapping areas with aptitude for commercial development of the crop trees. Thermographs from 12 agrometeorological stations located at altitudes varying from 25 to 1000 meters above

  4. Use, access, and equity in health care services in São Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, C.N. (Camila Nascimento); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); Barros, M.B.A. (Marilisa Berti de Azevedo); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic

  5. Utilização de series temporais de imagens AVHRR/NOAA no apoio a estimativa operacional da produção da cana-de-açucar no Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Rodrigues Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O Brasil é líder mundial na fabricação, exportação de açúcar e na produção de álcool. O estado de São Paulo responde por 60% da produção de açúcar e 61% de todo o álcool produzido no país. Em função da alta relevância da produção, é importante que se tenham estimativas e levantamentos seguros das áreas cultivadas com a cultura. O avanço das diferentes técnicas de sensoriamento remoto tem permitido utilizar imagens de satélites para monitorar e auxiliar a estimativa dessas áreas. São i...

  6. Estimativa de populações canina e felina domiciliadas em zona urbana do Estado de São Paulo Estimate of the owned canine and feline populations in urban area in Brazil

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    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dada a importância do conhecimento acerca da população de cães e gatos domiciliados para o adequado planejamento e avaliação das ações de controle da raiva em áreas urbanas, propõe-se a utilização de um valor preciso de estimativa dessas populações com base em indicadores populacionais humanos. MÉTODOS: Foi calculada a razão entre as populações humana e animal (canina e felina por meio de inspeções domiciliares, no Município de Taboão da Serra, SP. O município foi dividido em duas áreas homogêneas distintas socioeconomicamente, de acordo com o algoritmo da média k, de modo a permitir a comparação das razões homem:animal (cão e gato das áreas homogêneas. RESULTADOS: A razão entre a população humana e a população canina foi 5,14 e a entre a humana e a felina foi 30,57. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao comparar-se as razões entre as populações humana e animal das áreas homogêneas. CONCLUSÕES: A adoção de uma metodologia de estimativa populacional canina e felina domiciliada, baseada em indicadores populacionais humanos, é a mais indicada e facilmente exeqüível quando comparada ao censo canino.OBJECTIVE: Given the importance of assessing owned dog and cat populations to adequate planning and evaluation of rabies control measures in urban areas, it is proposed the use of an estimate of these populations based on human population parameters. METHODS: The ratio between human population and owned animal (dogs and cats population was calculated in the municipality of Taboão da Serra, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This municipality was divided into two distinct social and economic homogeneous areas through k-mean algorithm, allowing for comparison between the ratios of the two homogeneous areas. RESULTS: A 5.14 ratio was calculated for human and dog populations and a 30.57ratio for human and feline populations. A significant difference was not observed when comparing the ratios for

  7. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S[atilde]o Paulo, Brazil, August 30-September 6, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of...

  8. Estimativa de graus-dia em função de altitude e latitude para o estado de São Paulo Degree-day estimation in respect to altitude and latitude for São Paulo State

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    Mário J. Pedro Júnior

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau-dia é uma unidade térmica utilizada, principalmente, na determinação de épocas de plantio e colheita dos vegetais, contribuindo para uma agricultura racional. Pode ser estimado através de dados termométricos, ou seja, de médias mensais de temperaturas máximas e mínimas, obtidas em abrigos meteorológicos padrões, para regiões climaticamente homogêneas. No presente trabalho foi utilizada a temperatura base de 10° C, abaixo da qual grande parte das plantas anuais não têm bom desenvolvimento. Devido à pequena quantidade de estações meteorológicas no Estado, determinaram-se equações de regressão múltipla, pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, para a estimativa do total mensal de graus-dia em função da altitude e latitude da localidade. Os resultados obtidos mostram que tal metodologia pode ser empregada no Estado de São Paulo, com razoável probabilidade de acerto, na estimativa dos graus-dia, podendo ser usados na determinação de épocas de plantio e colheita.Multiple regression equations were developed to determine the total monthly degree-days in function of altitude (meters and latitude (minutes, in order to estimate the amount of heat unit for annual crops in localities where meteorological data are not available. The degree-day was determined through thermometric data, using monthly mean values of maximum and minimum temperatures obtained in several meteorological stations of São Paulo State. The base temperature of 10° C, below which great part of the crops does not nave a good development was used to determine the heat-units.

  9. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of 226 Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Hepatitis A antibodies in two socioeconomically distinct populations of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Claudio Sergio Pannuti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A in two socioeconomically distinct populations of a developing country, 540 serum specimens from children and adults living in São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for IgG anti HAV by a commercial radioimunoassay (Havab, Abbott Laboratories. The prevalence of anti-HAV in low socioeconomic level subjects was 75.0% in children 2-11 years old and 100.0% in adults, whereas in middle socioeconomic level significantly lower prevalences were observed (40.3% in chidren 2-11 years old and 91.9% in adults. Voluntary blood donors of middle socioeconomic level showed a prevalence of 90.4%. These data suggest that hepatitis A infection remains a highly endemic disease in São Paulo, Brazil.

  12. Origin and evolution of the Pirituba aluminous calc-alkalic magma, state of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, Eberhard

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Late Proterozoic calc-alkalic Pirituba magmatism near the city of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil, are presented and discussed on the basis of geological, petrographic, mineralogical, chemical (rocks and minerals), isotopic and zircon typology data. (author)

  13. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Karina Camasmie Abe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10, <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3, São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  14. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  15. Problems of small hydroelectric power plants - SHP: the example of Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Problematica de desenvolvimento das pequenas centrais hidreletricas-PCH: o exemplo do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matajs, R.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Fabrizy, M.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of the small hydroelectric potential in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Three projections will be presented as as attempt to show the possible participation of the SHP in a sort, medium and long term, in the State of Sao Paulo energetic matrix.

  16. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  17. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing.

  18. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  19. Características do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo Aspects of anticontraception methods used on São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar dados coletados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde, de 1996, sobre o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados obtidos foram analisados comparativamente com os do Brasil e com os de outra pesquisa similar realizada em 1986. Foi examinado o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais entre mulheres não-solteiras (casadas ou em coabitação, focalizando-se idade, número de filhos, escolaridade, idade na esterilização feminina e momento da esterilização. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se o teste t-Student e o teste não-paramétrico de Kendall. RESULTADOS: Diferentemente do Brasil, houve estabilização dos índices de esterilização feminina no Estado de São Paulo no período estudado. Observou-se um mesmo padrão de uso de métodos no Brasil e em São Paulo: até os 30 anos, o método predominante foi a pílula; e, depois dos 30 anos, predominou a esterilização feminina, que aumenta com o número de filhos e diminui com a escolaridade. O uso de métodos masculinos aumentou nos últimos anos, sendo maior em São Paulo, que também apresenta maior diversidade no uso de métodos reversíveis. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar das diferenças, o uso predominante de apenas dois métodos anticoncepcionais, em São Paulo e no Brasil, reflete distorções na oferta do planejamento familiar e na saúde reprodutiva no contexto da nova regulamentação do planejamento familiar.OBJECTIVE: To analyze data on contraceptive use in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in 1996. METHODS: The study data were compared to 1986 DHS and 1996 data on the Brazilian population. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women was evaluated focusing on age, number of children, schooling, and age and timing of female sterilization. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Kendall's non-parametric test. RESULTS: Unlike data on

  20. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

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    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  1. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  2. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  3. Leishmaniose visceral adquirida no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil A case of visceral leishmaniasis contracted in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a notificação de um caso de leishmaniose visceral em uma criança com dois anos de idade, tendo sempre residido em Capão Redondo, localidade situada na Grande São Paulo (Brasil. Apesar de transmissão congênita ou por transfusão de sangue ter sido cogitada, é provável que a infecção tenha decorrido de mecanismo habitual, consubstanciando ocorrência autóctone relativa do Estado de São Paulo.A case of visceral leishmaniasis in a two-year-old child who has always lived in Capão Redondo, situated in Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, was reported. Although congenital transmission or blood transfusion were considered, it is probable that the infection originated in the usual mechanism, thus constituting an autochthonous occurrence in the State of S. Paulo. The State Health Department was notified of the case in order that it could be investigated and necessary measures taken.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  5. New multilocus sequence typing of MRSA in São Paulo, Brazil

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    M.S. Carmo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been observed worldwide. The molecular characterization of MRSA has played an important role in demonstrating the existence of internationally disseminated clones. The use of molecular biology methods in the surveillance programs has enabled the tracking of MRSA spread within and among hospitals. These data are useful to alert nosocomial infection control programs about the potential introduction of these epidemic clones in their areas. Four MRSA blood culture isolates from patients hospitalized at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed; one of them was community acquired. The isolates were characterized as SCCmec, mecA and PVL by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE profile and molecular sequence typing (MLST genotyping. The isolates presented type IV SCCmec, and none proved to be positive for PVL. The isolates showed a PFGE profile similar to the pediatric clone. MLST genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 (CC5, showing a new yqiL allele gene, resulting in a new sequence typing (ST (1176. Our results showed that strains of MRSA carrying a new ST are emerging in community and nosocomial infections, including bacteremia, in São Paulo, Brazil.

  6. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  7. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  9. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25% ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5%

  10. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Afonso; Lorena Berdasco; Thais Medeiros; Mirian Rejowski

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising ma...

  11. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 %

  12. Crescimento urbano e doença: a esquistossomose no município de São Paulo (Brasil Urban growth and disease: schistosomiasis in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se mostrar o papel da evolução urbana da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, no surgimento das condições propícias para o estabelecimento da transmissão da esquistossomose que no Sudeste brasileiro é usualmente considerada como conseqüência do processo migratório Nordeste-Sudeste. Nas análises dos determinantes da distribuição da esquistossomose em São Paulo (Brasil, importância desmesurada tem sido atribuída ao processo migratório. O processo de expansão da doença no município de São Paulo é exemplo de uma instância em que o padrão de urbanização foi fator mais relevante do que a migração. A ocupação dos fundos de vale, a partir, do final da década de 1950, pela urbanização desordenada de São Paulo, criou condições ecológicas para o estabelecimento de focos de transmissão de esquistossomose, o que, até então, não era possível, pois a urbanização se verificava exclusivamente nas áreas mais elevadas. Sem a mudança do padrão de urbanização, a esquistossomose não teria se estabelecido no município de São Paulo, não obstante a intensa migração.The role of the urban development of the city of S. Paulo (Brazil is presented, in this study, in the light of the appearance of condition favorable to the establishment of the transmission of schistosomiasis in southeastern Brazil which is usually seen as a consequence of migration from the Northeast where the disease in endemic. Studies of the distribution of schistosomiasis in S. Paulo have given an exaggerated importance to migration. The spread of the disease in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil is an example of a situation where the pattern of urban growth has been more relevant than migration. The occupation of the lowlands from the late 1950's onwards brought about the conditions for the establishment of disease foci. Up to then this was not possible for urbanization occurred exclusively in more elevated areas. Without a shift in the pattern

  13. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  14. Control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at IEA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, M.A.V.; Matsuda, K.; Hukai, R.

    1974-01-01

    The control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at the IEA (Institute of Atomic Energy - Sao Paulo, Brazil) is described. Technical specifications of the main items of equipment are presented in a general way. Information is also given on the connection between the system described and the electrical supply system of the IEA reactor physics laboratory [pt

  15. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  16. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  17. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  18. Thyroid Cancer Incidence Patterns in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the U.S. SEER Program, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ron, Elaine; Devesa, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has risen steadily over the last few decades in most of the developed world, but information on incidence trends in developing countries is limited. Sao Paulo, Brazil, has one of the highest rates of thyroid cancer worldwide, higher than in the United States. We examined thyroid cancer incidence patterns using data from the Sao Paulo Cancer Registry (SPCR) in Brazil and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program in the United States. Methods Data on thyroid cancer cases diagnosed during 1997–2008 were obtained from SPCR (n=15,892) and SEER (n=42,717). Age-adjusted and age-specific rates were calculated by sex and histology and temporal patterns were compared between the two populations. Results Overall incidence rates increased over time in both populations and were higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States among females (SPCR/SEER incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65) and males (IRR=1.23). Papillary was the most common histology in both populations, followed by follicular and medullary carcinomas. Incidence rates by histology were consistently higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States, with the greatest differences for follicular (IRR=2.44) and medullary (IRR=3.29) carcinomas among females. The overall female/male IRR was higher in Sao Paulo (IRR=4.17) than in SEER (IRR=3.10) and did not change over time. Papillary rates rose over time more rapidly in Sao Paulo (annual percentage change=10.3% among females and 9.6% among males) than in the United States (6.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Regardless of sex, rates rose faster among younger people (8 among both Sao Paulo males and females, in contrast to increases from 9 to 12 and from 6 to 7 among U.S.males and females, respectively. Conclusions Increased diagnostic activity may be contributing to the notable rise in incidence, mainly for papillary type, in both populations, but it is not likely to be the only reason. Differences in

  19. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in São Paulo: the most populated city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lage Alencar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber. In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.

  20. [a Monitoring System For Work-related Accidents In Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives ar...

  1. Exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Nadia Zanon

    2011-02-01

    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: to analyse the exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses and/or midwives in the public health system of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil. to develop a profile of the public health institutions and of the nurses and/or midwives who care for women before, during and following childbirth; to identify the activities performed in providing such care, as well as their frequency; and to specify the possible obstacles or difficulties encountered by them when exercising their competencies. a descriptive and exploratory research design, using a quantitative approach. the study was conducted in all public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil, namely 59 basic health-care units and six hospitals, during the period of October 2006-December 2007. the study population consisted of 272 nurses and/or midwives who provide care for pregnant women and newborns at the primary health-care units and maternity hospitals of the public health system. Participants comprised 100% of hospital nurse coordinators (n=6), 61% of hospital maternity nursing and/or midwifery staff (n=62) and 64% (n=204) of nursing and/or midwifery staff working at primary health-care units. the data collection was based on a single form given to the coordinators and two questionnaires, one handed out to antenatal and postnatal nursing and/or midwifery staff and another handed out to labour and birth nursing and/or midwifery staff. The results showed that nurses and/or midwives providing care for women during pregnancy, labour, birth and the postnatal period did not put the essential competencies for midwifery care into practice, because they encountered institutional barriers and personal resistance, and lacked protocols based on best practice and on the exercise of essential competencies needed for effective midwifery care. the model of care in the public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone) is based much more on hierarchical positions than on

  2. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito JA Luna

    Full Text Available With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  3. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  4. [Traffic related air pollution and population health: a review about São Paulo (SP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Giovana Iara Ferreira Moser; Nardocci, Adelaide Cássia

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution is an important problem for São Paulo city and vehicles are the main source. About 11 million people are exposed to this pollution. To examine studies realized about air pollution and its effects on health of the population of São Paulo (Brazil) and methods of assessing exposure to pollution related to traffic. We performed a literature review using the keywords "air pollution", "São Paulo", and traffic-related air pollution. As results were obtained several studies that found relation between air pollution in São Paulo and respiratory and cardiovascular problems, fetal growth, increased mortality and hospitalizations, particularly in children and elderly people. In order to estimate the exposure, most of these studies consider the isotropic distribution of pollutants throughout the area, what prevents the evaluation of and the influence of traffic. Several methods have been used to analyze the air traffic exposure, which can be used isolated or combined. It is believed that the combination of models used to calculate pollutant concentrations to methods of georeferencing is the most appropriate approach for similar studies in São Paulo. The advantages of these methods are the ability to identify priority areas and situations, obtaining detailed information for adoption of public policies or measures, and to simulate different scenarios. The application of these methods in studies at São Paulo depends on the improvement of input data, air quality meteorological monitoring net enhancement and data of traffic volume.

  5. Epidemiologia do câncer do esôfago em São Paulo, Brasil Epidemiology of cancer of the oesophagus in S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pedro Mirra

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available São examinados aspectos da incidência de câncer do esôfago para residentes no município de São Paulo, (Brasil, no ano de 1975. Dados coletados pelo Registro de Câncer mostram um coeficiente de 6,4 e 1,3 por cem mil homens e mulheres, respectivamente; quando padronizados pela "população mundial" os coeficientes são 9,2 e 2,0 por cem mil. As taxas do sexo masculino mostram que São Paulo está a um nível de risco maior do que outras três cidades brasileiras, com dados conhecidos, Fortaleza, Recife e Rio de Janeiro; no sexo feminino não há evidências de diferenças, a não ser possivelmente em relação a Fortaleza. As curvas de incidência específica segundo idade e sexo concordam com o padrão descrito por Higginson e Muir; valores para a inclinação do 1nI (incidência específica por idade nas idades 35 a 75 foram 5,7 para o sexo masculino e 4,4 para o feminino, ajustando-se uma linha reta. Os nativos de São Paulo apresentam uma menor incidência do que os nascidos fora da cidade; para as duas categorias de imigrantes brasileiros residentes de São Paulo, as incidências para homens são consistentemente altas. As razões masculino-feminino de incidência apresentam regularidade nos grupos brasileiros; entre os estrangeiros as razões são maiores.Aspects of the incidente of cancer of the oesophagus in residents of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, for 1975, are examined. Data collected by the Cancer Registry yield a rate of 6.4/100,000 and 1.3/100,000 for males and females, respectively; when adjusted to the «world-population» the rates are 9.2/100,000 and 2.0/100,000. Male rates put S. Paulo at higher risk than three other Brazilian cities with known data, namely Fortaleza, Recife and Rio de Janeiro; for females there is no strong indication of differences, except in the case of Fortaleza. The specific age-sex incidence curves conform well to the pattern described by Higginson and Muir; values for the curves of 1nI (age

  6. Estimativa das necessidades nutricionais de bananeiras do subgrupo Cavendish cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo Estimate nutrition needs of Cavendish banana trees subgrup grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A acumulação na planta e a exportação de nutrientes pela colheita dos cachos são alguns dos fatores que determinam a necessidade de adubação para a cultura da bananeira. Visando a estimar as quantidades de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por bananeiras do subgrupo Cavendish, nas condições de cultivo do Estado de São Paulo, foram considerados 293 registros de um banco de dados contendo teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos e em engaços e massa dos cachos das cultivares Grande Naine e Nanicão. Esses registros provieram de experimentos de adubação realizados no Planalto Paulista e no Vale do Ribeira, em áreas irrigadas e de sequeiro, durante sete ciclos de cultivo, variando fontes, doses e formas de aplicação de fertilizantes. Para produzir 40 t ha-1, em média, o nutriente exportado pelos cachos em maior quantidade foi o K (182 kg ha-¹ seguido pelo N (68 kg ha-¹, Mg (10 kg ha-¹, P (8 kg ha-¹, Ca (6 kg ha-¹, S (3 kg ha-¹, Mn (191 g ha-¹, Fe (147 g ha-¹, B (89 g ha-¹, Zn (68 g ha-¹ e Cu (25 g ha-¹. A recomendação de adubação para bananeira para o Estado de São Paulo, aparentemente, subestima a necessidade de K na implantação da cultura e preconiza doses de N muito superiores à exportação de N pelos cachos. Para P, a recomendação está coerente com as necessidades estimadas para a cultura.Fertilizer recommendations for banana take into consideration the accumulation of nutrients in plants and the amount removed in the bunches, among other factors. Nutrient contents accumulated in plants and removed by bunches of Cavendish bananas in the State of São Paulo (Brazil were assessed from a data bank of nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in bunches (fruits+peduncle and bunch weight with 293 samples. Data bank comprises information from plants of Grand Naine and Giant Cavendish cultivars growing in irrigated and non-irrigated areas, with different sources and

  7. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  8. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lições para a história das ciências no Brasil: Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo Lessons for the history of science in Brazil: São Paulo's Pasteur Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Rosa Ribeiro

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar a importância e o papel do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo (1903-16 no desenvolvimento da ciência microbiológica no Brasil e no surgimento da indústria farmacêutica de capital nacional.The article highlights the role played by São Paulo's Pasteur Institute (1903-16 in the development of microbiological science in Brazil and in the emergence of a pharmaceutical industry owned by Brazilian capital.

  10. The bacterial meningitis score to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Alves, Anna Cláudia Dominguez; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2013-09-01

    In a retrospective cohort of 494 children with meningitis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Bacterial Meningitis Score identified all the children with bacterial meningitis (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval: 92-100% and negative predictive value 100%, 95% confidence interval: 98-100%). Addition of cerebrospinal fluid lactate to the score did not improve clinical prediction rule performance.

  11. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  12. Energy matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2006 to 2016; Matriz energetica do Estado de Sao Paulo 2006 a 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the economic and social energy scenarios in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; the analysis and projection of the energy consumption in the state concerning to industrial, residential, farming and cattle-raising, transportation, commercial, energy and public sectors. Analysis of the energy production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the production projection, the supply and consumption balance of energy is also presented.

  13. HIV-1 subtypes among intravenous drug users from two neighboring cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Rossini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in two neighboring cities located near the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil (Santos and São Paulo, we investigated 83 HIV-1 strains obtained from samples collected in 1995 from intravenous drug users. The V3 through V5 region of the envelope of gp 120 was analyzed by heteroduplex mobility analysis. Of the 95 samples, 12 (12.6% were PCR negative (6 samples from each group; low DNA concentration was the reason for non-amplification in half of these cases. Of the 42 typed cases from São Paulo, 34 (81%, 95% confidence limits 74.9 to 87.0% were B and 8 (19%, 95% confidence limits 12.9 to 25.0% were F, whereas of the 41 typed cases from Santos, 39 (95%, 95% confidence limits 91.6 to 98.4% were B and 2 (5%, 95% confidence limits 1.6 to 8.4% were C. We therefore confirm the relationship between clade F and intravenous drug use in São Paulo, and the presence of clade C in Santos. The fact that different genetic subtypes of HIV-1 are co-circulating indicates a need for continuous surveillance for these subtypes as well as for recombinant viruses in Brazil.

  14. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Nathalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  15. Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly in cerrado vegetation of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare lignicolous gasteroid fungus of the tropics, Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly is recorded for the first time from State of São Paulo and for de second time from Brazil, growing on decaying wood, occasionally on other plant debris, on soil under cerrado vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described from fresh and dried basidiocarps using the traditional methods for Gasteromycetes. The substrate and the taxonomic characteristics agree closely with the literature consulted.Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly, um raro gasteromicete lignícolo nos tropicos, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Estado de São Paulo e pela segunda vez para o Brasil, crescendo sobre madeira em decomposição e ocasionalmente sobre outros fragmentos de plantas em solo, sob vegetação de cerrado. É dada a descrição das características macro e microscópicas a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, usando a metodologia tradicional para estudos de Gasteromycetes. O substrato e as características taxonômicas concordam com a literatura consultada.

  16. Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega City of São Paulo - SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Santos, Rafael; Saraiva Lopes, António Manuel; Prata-Shimomura, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega city of São Paulo - SP, Brazil Tropical megacities have presented a strong trend in growing urban. Urban management in megacities has as one of the biggest challenges is the lack of integration of urban climate and urban planning to promote ecologically smart cities. Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) are considered as important and recognized tool for urban climate management. Classes are local in scale, climatic in nature, and zonal in representation. They can be understood as regions of uniform surface cover, structure, material and human activity that have to a unique climate response. As an initial tool to promote urban climate planning, LCZs represent a simple composition of different land coverages (buildings, vegetation, soils, rock, roads and water). LCZs are divided in 17 classes, they are based on surface cover (built fraction, soil moisture, albedo), surface structure (sky view factor, roughness height) and cultural activity (anthropogenic heat flux). The aim of this study is the application of the LCZs classification system in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil. Located at a latitude of 23° 21' and longitude 46° 44' near to the Tropic of Capricorn, presenting humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with diversified topographies. The megacity of São Paulo currently concentrates 11.890.000 inhabitants is characterized by large urban conglomerates with impermeable surfaces and high verticalization, having as result high urban heat island intensity. The result indicates predominance in urban zones of Compact low-rise, Compact Mid-rise, Compact High-rise and Open Low-rise. Non-urban regions are mainly covered by dense vegetation and water. The LCZs classification system promotes significant advantages for climate sensitive urban planning in the megacity of São Paulo. They offers new perspectives to the management of temperature and urban ventilation and allows the formulation of urban planning

  17. Challenges in modern biomarker discovery--17th HUPO BPP workshop: May 24-25, 2012, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Esselmann, Hermann; May, Caroline; Schrötter, Andreas; Woitalla, Dirk; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 17(th) workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on May 24 and 25, 2012. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects in clinical neuroproteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Os abortos no atendimento hospitalar do Estado de São Paulo, 1995 Hospitalizations by abortion, 1995 - S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romera Sorrentino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o aborto provocado no Brasil seja importante problema de saúde, é difícil conhecer a exata medida de sua ocorrência, em função da ilegalidade dessa prática. Com a disponibilidade das informações sobre as hospitalizações pelo Ministério da Saúde, tornou-se possível conhecer, ainda que de forma incompleta, o quadro dos abortos atendidos na rede hospitalar do SUS. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as 53.861 internações com diagnóstico de aborto entre mulheres de 10 a 49 anos na rede hospitalar conveniada com o SUS no Estado de São Paulo no ano de 1995, segundo o tipo do aborto, idade e local de residência. As internações de mulheres em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995, representaram 37,8% do total das hospitalizações pagas pelo SUS, sendo que dessas 59,6% foram por questões ligadas à gravidez, parto e puerpério, dentre as quais os abortos representam cerca de 10%. Sua distribuição nas regiões da Grande São Paulo e Interior do Estado mostra que é maior a proporção aborto/parto entre as mulheres da Grande São Paulo do que do Interior (127,4 abortos a cada 1.000 partos na Grande São Paulo contra 90,9 no Interior. O tipo de aborto mais freqüente foi o aborto espontâneo (57,4% e a distribuição por idade mostra uma concentração entre os 20 e 29 anos, além de revelar que cerca de 20% deles ocorreram em adolescentes com menos de 19 anos.Despite the importance of the issue of abortion in Brazil, it is difficult to know the exact extent of the problem owing to the fact that it is an illegal practice. Information about hospitalizations from the Ministry of Health has helped an admittedly incomplete understanding of the situation with regard to abortions carried out in the SUS (Unified Health System hospital network. The objective of the study was to investigate the 53,861 hospitalizations diagnosed as abortion among women from 10 to 49 years of age in hospitals affiliated to SUS in the state

  19. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  20. First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed.

  1. [Privatization of health care management through Social Organizations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: description and analysis of regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreiras, Henrique; Matta, Gustavo Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    The article describes and discusses privatization of the municipal health system in São Paulo, Brazil, from an administrative and political perspective. The methodology consisted of a literature review and analysis of legislation and public documents. The study showed that although legislation governing the so-called "Social Organizations" (OS) in Brazil dates to the year 2006, half of the administrative privatization is still regulated by a previous provisional instrument in the form of an "agreement" ("convênio" in Portuguese). In 2011, 61% of services were administered by private organizations, which received 44% of the health budget in 2012. The twenty participating organizations include five of the ten largest health care companies in Brazil. Inspection agencies have detected flaws in the management contracts, but the "agreements" (convênios) are subject to less rigorous control and have proven invisible to inspection. Finally, the legal framework is unstable. The study uses the experience in São Paulo as the basis for discussing the political versus technical nature of private management in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).

  2. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal,Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa,Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro,Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and g...

  3. Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil, was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

  4. Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Cátia Regina Branco da [UNESP; Louzada Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de [UNESP; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. the purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the...

  5. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m 3 . (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Dose absorbed in x-rays toraxicas executed in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.B.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the contribution of radiography exams in the dose received by the population of the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil), we made mensurations of the doses absorbed in toraxicas x-rays (projections PA and LAT) taken in several teams of rays X used in hospitals. The work is supplemented with demography data and the knowledge of the quantity of exams executed in each team

  8. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  9. Educational and sex differentials in life expectancies and disability-free life expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-08-01

    To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter's decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex, and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites.

  10. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  11. Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Osti Spinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Spinelli M.O., da Cruz R.J., de Godoy C.M.S.C., Motta M.C. & Damy S.B. [Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.] Estudo da variação sazonal dos parâmetros bioquímicos de roedores e lagomorfos do biotério da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:219-225, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão Técnica de Apoio ao Ensino e Pesquisa, Biotério Central, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 455, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brasil. E-mail: marilda@biot.fm.usp.br This work aimed to study the seasonal variation of the biochemical parameters of mice inbred BALB / c and C57BL / 6 mice, rats and rabbits New Zealand, the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo. Which is its clinical significance, assessing the analytes plasma ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate aminotransaminase, urea, urea-BUN (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol and fractions VLDL (very low density lipoprotein, HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein? The results showed an increase in concentrations of analytes, statistical significance, especially in summer. The hypotheses that causes nutritional, infectious, water stress or climatic variations did not affect them, suggesting that to assess the health status of colonies of laboratory animals, biochemical parameters must be considered within the range of variation expected for each colony under study.

  12. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising market for two segments: a exclusive pet hosting and b shared hosting (people with their pets. Hotel products and services for pets mean both broadening of the hospitality concept, and diversification. It means also new professionals are needed at managerial and operational levels to attend pet owners´ expectations and pets comfort themselves.

  13. Trends in the profile of blood donors at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalez Thelma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in the profile of blood donors from 1995 through 2001 at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, particularly following the initiation in 1998 of marketing strategies aimed at substituting replacement donors with altruistic repeat donors. METHODS: Using an information system that had been established at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo in 1994, we collected information on sex, age, and type of donation for the years 1995-2001. We classified blood donors as either replacement blood donors (if they stated that the reason for donating was that they had a friend or relative in the hospital or as altruistic donors. First-time blood donors were those who had not donated in our institution since the establishment of the information system. RESULTS: The percentage of repeat altruistic blood donors increased over time as first-time replacement donors declined for both genders. The proportion of altruistic donors climbed from 20% of all blood donors in 1995 to 57% in 2001. In 2001, first-time blood donors represented only 52% of all donors, as contrasted to 88% in 1995. Female donors increased from 20% to 37% of the donors over the period studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that the São Paulo population has responded well to the marketing strategies that have been introduced in our institution. We believe that similar promotional efforts elsewhere in Brazil would produce comparable, positive results.

  14. Basic and ultrabasic coastal dykes adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (North coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria; Schorscher, Johann Hans Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The portions of the Precambrian Costeiro Complex adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by mafic dykes of basic to intermediate composition, lamprophyres and trachytes. The former have been correlated with the basalts of the Parana Basin, while the lamprophyres are expressions of an alkaline magmatism different from the one that happened approximately 80 Ma ago in the Sao Sebastiao, Buzios, Vitoria and Montao de Trigo islands, where more acid terms predominate with associated trachytes and rare phonolites. The basic-ultrabasic lamprophyric magmatism is widespread along the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro coasts; they are independent from and most likely older than the stocks and alkaline massifs. (author)

  15. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  16. Regiões homogêneas e tamanho de amostra para atributos do clima no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Homogeneous regions and sample size for attributes of the climate in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram demarcar regiões homogêneas e estimar o número de anos de avaliações para as variáveis insolação, radiação solar global e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para o Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados da média mensal de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 18 locais do Estado de São Paulo. A homogeneidade das variâncias entre os meses do ano para os 18 locais (variabilidade temporal e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os locais em cada mês (variabilidade espacial foram testadas pelo teste de homogeneidade de Bartlett. Estimou-se o tamanho de amostra para cada local durante o ano. Como resultados há variabilidade temporal e espacial para as estimativas de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para os 18 municípios avaliados. Além disso, a variabilidade do tamanho de amostra para a insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa depende do local e da época do ano no Estado de São Paulo.The purpose of this study was to separate homogeneous regions and to estimate the numbers of years necessary to evaluate the variables: sunshine, global solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation in Sao Paulo State. Monthly data of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for 18 places in Sao Paulo State were used in the analysis. The homogeneity of the variances among the months for the 18 places (seasonal variability and the homogeneity of variances among places in each month (spatial variability were tested by the test of homogeneity of Bartlett. In addition, the sample size for each place was calculated during the year. The results show the existence of seasonal and spatial variability in the estimates of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for the 18 cities evaluated in Sao Paulo State. Moreover, the variability of the sample size for sunshine

  17. Ocorrência de Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M.A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.

  18. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Nogueira, C.A.; Saiki, M.; Milian, F.M.; Domingos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America

  19. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  20. Fish, Ribeirão do Feijão Basin, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Souza, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ribeirão do Feijão Basin is the main water supplier for the municipality of São Carlos, in the state of SãoPaulo, Brazil. Field work was carried out from February to November 2005, using sieves, casting nets, and drag nets. Atotal of 7,286 specimens of fish were collected, belonging to 30 species, 13 families and six orders. The richest orderwas Characiformes with 14 species, followed by Siluriformes with seven.

  1. [Work accidents in Brazil. A study in São Paulo state, Brazil, the Botucatu region, using the causal tree method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M C; Almeida, I M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses, within the prevailing Brazilian situation, the possibility of applying "causal tree" (CT) method in investigating occupational accidents by safety personnel in the public health services and workers' unions. The method was developed during the seventies in France, for use by plant safety personnel. The authors used this method in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to investigate 40 serious occupational accidents that occurred in industrial plants during the second half of 1993, that had been registered by social security. In these cases, the predominance of situations in which the lack of safety measures were identified by inspection indicates that in most instances, the use of CT is unnecessary. However, the authors discuss its use by safety personnel from the public health services and workers' unions to investigate certain accidents to contribute to the knowledge base and help overcome the cultural based guilt which, in Brazil, has turned the victim into the person responsible for the accident.

  2. Menopausa, hormônios, envelhecimento: discursos de mulheres que vivem em um bairro na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brasil Menopause, hormones, aging: the discourse of women living on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Trench

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar os discursos de mulheres usuárias de unidade básica de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brazil, sobre a menopausa para compreender os sentidos que elas atribuem a este evento. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas oito mulheres entre 44 e 75 anos, empregando-se a metodologia qualitativa na perspectiva do construcionismo social, de modo que os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante, história de vida e entrevistas. RESULTADOs: nas mulheres estudadas, a menopausa é vivida de modo geral como um acontecimento inevitável, relacionado ao corpo e à vida, e é considerada uma entidade estranha, ou inimiga, que ataca as mulheres de maneira inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: nas mulheres estudadas os resultados indicam que este período deve ser percebido em seu caráter particular e relativo, não como sendo da ordem do universal ou como algo padronizado.OBJECTIVES: to analize the discourse regarding the menopause in women attending a health service unit on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to understand the meaning they attribute to this event. METHODS: eight women aged between 44 and 75 years were interviewed using qualitative methods and a social constructionist approach. The data were collected using participant observation, life histories and interviews. RESULTS: in the group of study the menopause is experienced by these women as an inevitable occurrence related to their bodies and lives and is also considered a strange inimical event that afflicts them unexpectedly. CONCLUSIONS: in ghe group of study the results indicate how important it is to approach the menopause is such a way that is viewed as something relative and particular to each individual, not as something universal and standardized.

  3. Estimativas da cobertura de mamografia segundo inquéritos de saúde no Brasil Estimaciones de la cobertura de mamografía según encuestas de salud en Brasil Estimates of mammography coverage according to health surveys in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Viacava

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Inquéritos populacionais constituem ferramenta fundamental para monitorar a cobertura de mamografia e os fatores associados à sua realização. Em inquéritos baseados na população residente em domicílios com telefone as estimativas tendem a ser superestimadas. O estudo teve por objetivo estimar a cobertura de mamografia com base em pesquisas de base populacional. MÉTODOS: A partir das coberturas por mamografia em mulheres de 50 a 69 anos, com e sem telefone fixo, observadas na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 2003, calcularam-se as razões entre elas e o respectivo coeficiente de variação. A razão de cobertura foi multiplicada pela cobertura estimada pelo sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, permitindo estimar a cobertura entre mulheres sem telefone em 2007. Essas estimativas foram aplicadas à população de mulheres, com e sem telefone, obtidas a partir da PNAD 2006, obtendo-se assim as estimativas finais para as capitais. RESULTADOS: Em 2007, para o conjunto das capitais, estimou-se a cobertura de mamografia em aproximadamente 70%, variando de 41,2% em Porto Velho (RO a 82,2% em Florianópolis (SC. Em 17 municípios a cobertura foi maior que 60%; em oito, de 50%-60%; e em dois, a cobertura foi inferior a 50%. Em termos absolutos, a diferença entre as coberturas do VIGITEL e as estimadas foi de 6,5% para o conjunto dos municípios, variando de 3,4% em São Paulo (SP a 24,2% em João Pessoa (PB. CONCLUSÕES: As diferenças nas magnitudes das estimativas da cobertura de mamografia por inquéritos populacionais são em grande parte reflexo dos desenhos dos estudos. No caso específico da mamografia, seria mais apropriado estimar sua cobertura combinando dados do VIGITEL com aqueles de outros inquéritos, que incluam informações sobre mulheres com e sem telefone fixo, especialmente em municípios de baixa cobertura de telefonia

  4. A Long Journey from Childhood to Senility: The 23rd HUPO BPP Workshop: 16-17 April 2015, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magraoui, Fouzi El; Schrötter, Andreas; Heinsen, Helmut; Leite, Renata; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T

    2015-09-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 23rd workshop in São Paulo, Brazil, April 16-17, 2015. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and predictive therapies concerning neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Air Pollution and Deaths among Elderly Residents of São Paulo, Brazil: An Analysis of Mortality Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Amine Farias; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Ponce de Leon, Antônio C M

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. We quantified mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. We performed a daily time series of nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011. Effects of particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were estimated in Poisson generalized additive models. Single-day lag effects of air pollutant exposure were estimated for 0-, 1- and 2-day lags. Distributed lag models with lags of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 days were used to assess mortality displacement and potential cumulative exposure effects. PM 10 , NO 2 and CO were significantly associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific deaths in both single-day lag and cumulative lag models. Cumulative effect estimates for 0-10 days were larger than estimates for single-day lags. Cumulative effect estimates for 0-30 days were essentially zero for nonaccidental and circulatory deaths but remained elevated for respiratory and cancer deaths. We found evidence of mortality displacement within 30 days for nonaccidental and circulatory deaths in elderly residents of São Paulo. We did not find evidence of mortality displacement within 30 days for respiratory or cancer deaths. Citation: Costa AF, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Ponce de Leon AC. 2017. Air pollution and deaths among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of mortality displacement. Environ Health Perspect 125:349-354; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP98.

  6. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  7. Donald Pierson e a escola sociológica de Chicago no Brasil: os estudos urbanos na cidade de São Paulo (1935-1950 Donald Pierson and the Sociological School of Chicago in Brazil: urban studies in the city of São Paulo (1935-1950

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    Edgar S.G. Mendoza

    2005-12-01

    influência da Escola de Chicago e sua repercussão no Brasil.This paper is an overview of the influence of Donald Pierson, formed in the Sociological School of Chicago, which had more repercussion on urban research in Brazil in the 1930s and 1950s, both within Sociology and Anthropology, in the city of São Paulo. Urban research in Brazil - both sociological and anthropological - had theoretical references that left their marks on the works of that time. According to my argument, regarding the scientific fields of anthropology and urban Sociology in Brazil, one of the theoretical trends in a certain historical and theoretical context was the Sociological School of Chicago. Revisiting pioneer urban studies in São Paulo could assert the influence of the School of Chicago. In spite of being isolated studies, they have strongly stressed properly urban issues. It would be risky to define them these days as Urban Sociology in its own right, in São Paulo. The reason for bringing them up is to demonstrate that they really represented antecedents to urban studies in Brazil between 1035-1950. Therefore, I can say that the sociology of the School of Chicago had its impact on three fields in Brazil: a racial relations (blacks, whites, and immigrants; b community studies (small rural towns; and c studies in the city (especially in São Paulo. Therefore, I think of the city of São Paulo as a scenario in general terms, as an agenda for institutional research in 1935-1950. Among the few and modest sociology studies having the city of São Paulo as their object, an ethnography of the city or urban ethnography was conducted that was different from classic studies on communities or small rural towns. Initially, we have eight works published mainly as journal articles, and their research object was some neighborhoods in São Paulo or other cities. The main feature of the article is the extensive bibliography found and presented at the end of the text, about the impact of the Scholl of

  8. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  9. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  10. Satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women from primary health care services in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women attending primary health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: crosssectional study conducted with a sample of 668 women aged 1849 years, who were enrolled in 38 primary health care facilities in São Paulo city, Brazil, in 2015. Exclusion criteria were no sexual initiation, use of irreversible contraceptive methods for more than five years, pregnancy and no contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed using chisquare and multivariate logistic regression. Results: in general, women were satisfied with current contraceptive method (78.7%. The higher percentage of satisfaction was observed among IUD users (94.7%, and female and male sterilization users (93.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Withdrawal users were less satisfied (52.9%. Contraceptive method itself was the only factor associated with satisfaction. Barrier or traditional method users were less likely to be satisfied with their contraceptive methods than irreversible method users. Conclusions: long acting contraceptive method and irreversible method users were more satisfied with their contraceptive methods. Efforts should be undertaken in order to make these contraceptives available and accessible in primary health care facilities in Brazil.

  11. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  12. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  13. Novos encontros de flebotomíneos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com especial referência à Lutzomyia longipalpis New finding of Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with special reference to Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de várias espécies de Phleboteminae, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, até agora raramente ou mesmo não assinaladas nessa região. São registrados novos achados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e fornecidos alguns dados sobre as circunstâncias desses encontros.New records on Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Special attention is dedicated to Lutzomyia longipalpis. Several behavioural aspects of these observations were recorded.

  14. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2009-01-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  15. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

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    Almeida-Pititto B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  16. A cross-cultural comparison of eating behaviors and home food environmental factors in adolescents from São Paulo (Brazil) and Saint Paul-Minneapolis (US).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estima, Camilla C P; Bruening, Meg; Hannan, Peter J; Alvarenga, Marle S; Leal, Greisse V S; Philippi, Sonia T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Describe cross-cultural differences in nutrition-related factors among adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil and St Paul-Minneapolis, US. Two large-population-based studies with cross-cultural comparisons. Twelve São Paulo and 10 St Paul-Minneapolis high schools in 2009-2010. A total of 1,148 adolescents from São Paulo and 1,632 adolescents from St Paul-Minneapolis. Meal consumption, family meals, fast-food consumption, and home food availability. Binomial regressions, weighted for age distributions and adjusted for gender, were used to compare identical measures from each sample. Generally, São Paulo adolescents reported healthier nutritional outcomes than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents. São Paulo adolescents were 7 times less likely to report high fast-food consumption than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents (P culture. Interventions are needed to encourage youth and their families to maintain these patterns. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis chemotype populations in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Shaw, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.

  18. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for adults of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Carvalho, Aline Martins de; Verly-Junior, Eliseu; Carlos, Jackeline Venâncio; Teixeira, Juliana Araujo; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-12-01

    To assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire developed for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo, Brazil, based population study. A sample of individuals aged above 20 years, of both genders, living in São Paulo, was used for the validation study (n = 77) and reproducibility study (n = 74) of the food frequency questionnaire. To verify the validity and reproducibility of energy and 19 nutrients were applied two food frequency questionnaires (60 items) and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR - reference method). The validity was verified by Spearman correlation coefficient (crude and de-attenuated) and weighted Kappa, and reproducibility by intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted kappa. In analyzes of validity de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.21 (carbohydrate) to 0.74 (energy), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 30% of the nutrients. Polyunsaturated fat and folate did not show significant correlation and weighted kappa. In reproducibility correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0.69 (calcium), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 80% of the nutrients. The food frequency questionnaire analyzed has good validity and reproducibility for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo compared to the reference method, so it is an appropriate instrument to be used in epidemiological studies on similar populations. Estimates of polyunsaturated fat and folate should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucio Garcia de; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes; Ponce, Julio de Carvalho; Malbergier, André; Stempliuk, Vladimir de Andrade; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    2009-09-01

    To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. Over a five-year period (1996-2001), we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days). The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants) was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.

  20. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  1. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  2. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  3. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  4. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  5. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  6. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  7. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae) at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Bruno S; Borges, Roberto P; Hattori, Gustavo Y; Pinheiro, Marcelo A A

    2014-09-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the "andada" phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The "andada" occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the "andada" occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January.

  8. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  9. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  10. Detecting alcohol and illicit drugs in oral fluid samples collected from truck drivers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonamine, Mauricio; Sanches, Livia Rentas; Paranhos, Beatriz Aparecida Passos Bismara; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use by truck drivers is a current problem in Brazil. Though there is evidence that alcohol consumption is occurring in higher proportions, the use of stimulant drugs to avoid fatigue and to maintain the work schedule has also been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of alcohol and illicit drug use among truck drivers on São Paulo state roads. São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil and has the largest industrial park and economic production in the country. Data were assessed not only using a questionnaire but also, and more reliably, through toxicological analysis of oral fluid samples. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 1250 oral fluid samples were collected from truck drivers on the roads during morning hours. The samples were tested for the presence of alcohol, cocaine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and amphetamine/methamphetamine. A previously published, validated gas chromatographic (gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) method was applied to the samples for alcohol and drug detection. Of the total analyzed samples, 3.1 percent (n = 39) were positive: 1.44 percent (n = 18) were positive for alcohol, 0.64 percent (n = 8) for amphetamines, 0.56 percent (n = 7) for cocaine, and 0.40 percent (n = 5) for THC. In one case, cocaine and THC were detected. The results are indicative of the extent of alcohol and drug use by truck drivers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This research provides evidence that not only alcohol but also illicit drug use is a real problem among professional drivers. The use of these substances should be controlled to better promote safe driving conditions on Brazilian roads.

  11. Entomological investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever area in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Neves, Vera L F de; Poletto, Daniela W; Rodas, Lílian A C; Pachioli, Márcio L; Cardoso, Rubens P; Scandar, Sirle A S; Sampaio, Susy M P; Koyanagui, Paulo H; Botti, Mauricio V; Mucci, Luis F; Gomes, Almério de C

    2005-01-01

    Following reports of two autochthonous cases of sylvatic yellow fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000, entomological surveys were conducted with the objective of verifying the occurrence of vector species in forest environments close to or associated with riparian areas located in the western and northwestern regions of the State. Culicidae were captured in 39 sites distributed in four regions. Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species and were captured in all the regions studied. H. leucocelaenus was the most abundant species in the municipalities of Santa Albertina and Ouroeste, where the two cases of sylvatic yellow fever had been reported. Mosquitoes from the janthinomys/capricornii group were only found at eight sites in the São José do Rio Preto region, while Sabethes chloropterus was found at one site in Ribeirão Preto. H. leucocelaenus showed its capacity to adapt to a secondary and degraded environment. Our results indicate a wide receptive area for yellow fever transmission in the State of São Paulo, with particular emphasis on the possibility of H. leucocelaenus being involved in the maintenance of this sylvatic focus of the disease.

  12. Estimativa dos coeficientes específicos de mortalidade infantil segundo peso ao nascer no município de São Paulo (Brasil An estimate of the specific infant mortality rates by birth-weight in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a distribuição do peso ao nascer da coorte dos recém-nascidos que deu origem aos óbitos infantis estudados pela Investigação Interamericana de Mortalidade na Infância no projeto de São Paulo (1968-70 e determinados os riscos de óbito associados a cada intervalo de peso de nascimento. Assim, foram apurados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil de 305,5, 50,2 e 34,4 para recém-nascidos de baixo peso, peso deficiente e peso superior a 3.000 g. A comparação destes coeficientes com os registrados na área americana incluída na investigação citada (Califórnia, revelou excesso de mortalidade, particularmente notável não para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso, mas para os recém-nascidos de peso superior a 3.000 g. O ajuste da mortalidade de São Paulo (Brasil à distribuição do peso ao nascer observada na Califórnia foi capaz de explicar 15% do excesso da mortalidade infantil e 21% do excesso da mortalidade neonatal de São Paulo.By means of the birth-rate distribution found to exist during the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood in S. Paulo (1968-70 the infant death rate association with each birth-weight interval was estimated. The infant mortality rates were 305.5, 50.2 and 34.4 respectively for low birth-weight, deficient weight and weight above 3,000 grams. Compared with the rates found in California, USA, by the same Investigation, the infant mortality rates in S. Paulo are higher, particularly for mortality associated with birth-weight of above 3,000 grams. The adjustment of infant mortality rates in S. Paulo according to the birth-weight distribution found in California led to the conclusion that, at that period, only 15% of the excess of the infant mortality of S. Paulo could be attributed exclusively to birth-weight. In the case of neonatal mortality, 21% of the mortality excess in S. Paulo could be attributed to birth-weight.

  13. Isolation of yellow fever virus (YFV from naturally infectied Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (diptera, cukicudae in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2009

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    Renato Pereira de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available After detecting the death of Howlers monkeys (genus Alouatta and isolation of yellow fever virus (YFV in Buri county, São Paulo, Brazil, an entomological research study in the field was started. A YFV strain was isolated from newborn Swiss mice and cultured cells of Aedes albopictus - C6/36, from a pool of six Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes (Dyar & Shannon collected at the study site. Virus RNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The MCC Tree generated showed that the isolated strain is related to the South American I genotype, in a monophyletic clade containing isolates from recent 2008-2010 epidemics and epizootics in Brazil. Statistical analysis commonly used were calculated to characterize the sample in relation to diversity and dominance and indicated a pattern of dominance of one or a few species. Hg. leucocelaenus was found infected in Rio Grande do Sul State as well. In São Paulo State, this is the first detection of YFV in Hg. leucocelaenus.

  14. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natália H; Melo, Fernando Af; Santos, Adolfo Cb; Pandolfi, José Rc; Almeida, Elisabete A; Cardoso, Rosilene F; Berghs, Henri; David, Suzana; Johansen, Faber K; Espanha, Lívia G; Leite, Sergio Ra; Leite, Clarice Qf

    2011-07-29

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis). Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8%) were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4%) showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT), and 21 (22.6%) showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) (26 isolates), followed by the T family (24 isolates) and Haarlem (H) (11 isolates), which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database) comprised 51.8% (37/72) of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1). Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates in the remaining

  15. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Espanha Lívia G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis. Findings Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8% were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4% showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT, and 21 (22.6% showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM (26 isolates, followed by the T family (24 isolates and Haarlem (H (11 isolates, which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database comprised 51.8% (37/72 of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1. Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Conclusions Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic

  16. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Anaruma Filho Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  17. The Preparation for the Equivalence Examinations, First and Second Levels in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Traditional Means and Educational Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Bernardete A.

    1988-01-01

    Yearly in Sao Paulo (Brazil), official external examinations allow students outside the regular school system to obtain a certificate of education equivalent to grade 8 or 11. A television program that prepares candidates for the examinations and other forms of preparation are compared, using data collected for three years. (TJH)

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Does public transportation improve the accessibility of primary dental care in São Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Aidan; Martins Rocha, Carla; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Advances in geospatial technologies have recognized the role of geographic distance as a barrier to healthcare accessibility. Frequent transportation is supposed to buffer issues with distance, while infrequent services impede the uptake of care. The role of public transportation on the accessibility of health care-including oral health care-is not well elucidated in the context of megacities, such as the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. This study aimed to compare the supply of public transportation to primary dental clinics and the population between advantaged and disadvantaged areas in São Paulo city. A total of 4101 primary dental clinics in São Paulo city were identified and geocoded. Geographic coordinates were also retrieved for the 19 242 bus stops, 56 commuter rail stations and 64 rapid transit stations. Clinic locations and transport points were integrated with the city's 19 128 constituent census tracts-each containing sociodemographic data on the 11 252 204 residents-using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Almost all clinics were located within 0.5 km of public transportation. Half of all clinics were within 0.5 km of high-frequency transport points, and three-quarters were within 1 km. Likewise, 99% of the population resided within 0.5 km of any public transportation. However, only 22% were within 0.5 km of high-frequency options, and half were within 1 km. Those within 0.5 km of high-frequency points had higher average monthly household incomes and lower illiteracy rates, with lower proportions of children and ethnic minorities, and higher proportions of older people. Clinics and populations in sociodemographically disadvantaged tracts have poorer public transportation links in São Paulo city. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Marcos J.; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Hattori, Gustavo Y.

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  1. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  2. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

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    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  3. Pollen spectrum of propolis samples from São Paulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18389

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    Ricardo Oliveira Orsi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pollen spectrum of propolis is a good indicative of the phytogeographical origin of the bee product and the local flora available for bee visiting. The present study aimed to perform pollen analysis of propolis produced by Apis mellifera L., in the São Paulo State, Brazil. Propolis samples were directly obtained from beekeepers and slides were prepared for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen after propolis extraction. According to the results twenty-eight types of pollen were found and distributed in fifteen botanical families. Pollens from Mimosoideae and Myrtaceae types were found in all samples. In São Paulo State, there is a wide variety of vegetal sources which are components of the final propolis composition.   

  4. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  5. Fee - fishing operation evaluation at Nothwest São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lopes Ruy Bessa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fee-fishing operations developed recently in Brazilian agricultural scenery in a rather disordered manner. This study, carried out at the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, focuses on the productive performance of fee-fishing system. Several visits were made monthly to nine fee-fishing establishments, for six months. A questionnaire by owners targeting 13 indicators of the operation's productive performance. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis (MANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis. MANOVA indicated significant differences between the fee-fishing operations. The PCA analyses indicated, from the higher coefficient eigenvectors, three attributes for the lakes, such as productive system, fishery management and operational administration. The cluster analyses classified the fishing lakes in four groups. The indicators angler frequency (AF, stocking density (SD, stocking biomass (SB, total capture (TC and capture/lake/day (CLD, which are part of the attribute productive system, were the most important indicators of "fee-fishing" operations performance in this study.

  6. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  7. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  8. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.; Braghin, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  9. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  10. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil The Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse breeding in Bromeliaceae on the outskirts of an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Delsio Natal

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.Larvae of Aedes albopictus from a plant of the Bromeliaceae family on the outskirts of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil, were collected. This occurrence sheds new light on the attempt to determine the potential of this plants as a breeding site for this mosquito in Brazil.

  11. Black Carbon, Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom Exponent in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P. J.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a major absorber of solar radiation, and its impact on the radiative balance is therefore considered important. Fossil fuel combustion processes and biomass burning result in the emission of BC. Black carbon is being monitored since 2014 with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer-MAAP (5012; Thermo Scientific) in the East Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo Metropolitan Area with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Vehicles can be considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Concentration of the pollutant had an average of 1.95 ug.m-3 ± 2.06 and a maximum value of 19.93 ug.m-3. These large variations were due to meteorological effects and to the influence of anthropogenic activities, since samples were collected close to important highways. Winds coming from the East part predominate. Higher concentrations were found in the winter months (June, July and August). Optical data from AERONET (Aerosol Optical Depth-AOD 550 nm and Angstrom Exponent 440-675 nm) were related to BC concentrations for the period from August, 2016. Average values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom Parameter (440-675nm) were 0.16±0.11 and 1.44±0.23, respectively. Higher BC concentrations were related to lower Angstrom values.

  12. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  13. Unified costs for the rural electrification in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Custos unificados para a eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: kurahass@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social - BNDES, a Brazilian bank for the economic and social development - worried about the high connections costs practiced by the energy utilities, made some demands to the Sao Paulo State Government, Brazil to become the agent backer of the rural electrification 'Luz da Terra' program. Two of them was the elaboration and adoption of an unified technical norm privileging the adoption of simplified systems of electric energy distribution and an only system of costs establishment compatible with the goals of low medium connection costs for the state. A model of costs establishment was elaborated through the medium prices of market materials and labor activities whose values were more significant in the final composition of the projects. The model was accepted by the utilities participants of the program as a pattern to establish a reference cost for each project to be executed. The advantage of an unified system is that it allows to each project of grid extension to have its costs of materials and labor activities estimated in the same base, independent of the company involved. In spite of not having been adopted by all the utilities ones, the adoption of an unified system and the establishment of reference costs was essential for the control of rural distribution grids prices in the Sao Paulo State. (author)

  14. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  15. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São Paulo State , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season

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    Katia Corrêa de Oliveira Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016. In addition, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.

  16. Preliminary report on management of neonatal jaundice in maternity clinics of São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Fernando Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains aproblem because it can lead to sequelae in both children and adults. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate how neonatal jaundice is treatedin maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Prospective andtransversal study on maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Aquestionnaire was applied to doctors working at neonatal wards withinmaternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, divided into public (n = 6 andprivate maternity clinics (n = 18. The results obtained from the differentitems of the questionnaire were then compared. Statistical analysis wasperformed using the Student’s t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitneytest when appropriate, and a p value < 0.005 was considered significant.Results: There were no significant differences between the two typesof maternity hospitals in relation to the treatment method for neonataljaundice. However, among private maternities there were some that didnot have written guidelines (5/17 and those that performed exchangetransfusion (3/18. Teaching was significantly more present amongpublic (100% than private maternity hospitals (17.6%. The mean serumbilirubin levels to initiate treatment did not show significant differencesbetween the two types of maternities. Some clinical practices in use bymaternity hospitals are not evidence based. Conclusions: The presentdata were considered preliminary and showed that further research inthe area is required and if our findings are confirmed, indicate the needfor continuous medical education on the part of health professionals incharge of newborns.

  17. Catalogue of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Lamas, Carlos josÉ Einicker

    2018-04-20

    This paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). Label information and type condition of the six type specimens (three holotypes and three paratypes) of four species are provided, along with high resolution images of the types and their labels.

  18. Evolução Diurna do Balanço de Radiação na Superfície da Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Barbaro, E.W.; Codato, G.; Fonseca, F.L.A.; Silva, da M.

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a evolução temporal das componentes do balanço de radiação na superfície da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo durante o ano de 2004. E avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar estimativas de satélite para representar os padrões espaciais das componentes

  19. [Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

    2011-01-01

    Two serological surveys were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of measures put into effect in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) to control Chagas disease vectors. The first one, during the period from 1968 to 1970; the complement fixation reaction was performed on serum samples from school-children resident in all municipalities of the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the Greater São Paulo. The second one, annually, from 1973 to 1983, involving school-children resident in municipalities with high trypanosomiasis prevalence values; the indirect immuno-fluorescence test was performed on filter paper total blood eluates. Data on the occurrence of triatomines and their infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in each municipality formed the basis of insight into the epidemiological situation associated with the school-children's dates of birth. Most positive serological results, as well as the highest proportion of autochthonous cases associated with Triatoma infestans were observed in the region of Sorocaba until the early 1970s, while the proportions of both autochthonous and imported cases were kept in equilibrium elsewhere. It has been inferred that as recently as 1974, vectorial transmission of Chagas disease could still be observed in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that, even rather lacking in coverage, no seropositive cases have been observed in people inhabiting the regions included in the Control Program for the State of São Paulo and now aged less than 15 years.

  20. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  1. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  2. Consumo de fertilizantes e produtividade da laranja em São Paulo ao longo das décadas de 1970, 1980 e 1990

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    Margarida Garcia de Figueiredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, além de representar sozinho cerca de 80% do total de suco de laranja concentrado e congelado comercializado no mercado internacional, juntamente com os EUA responde por cerca de 50% da produção mundial de laranja. O estado de São Paulo, por sua vez, responde por cerca de 80% da produção nacional de laranja e 98% das exportações brasileiras de suco concentrado. A relevância econômica dessa atividade tem estimulado inúmeras pesquisas no sentido de analisar diversos aspectos relacionados ao sistema de produção da cultura. Dentre os diversos fatores de produção, o fertilizante é um insumo de grande importância para a cadeia citrícola, especialmente na composição dos custos. Dessa forma, o presente estudo procurou estimar o consumo de fertilizantes pela cultura da laranja em São Paulo ao longo das três últimas décadas. Os resultados encontrados foram satisfatórios, seguindo tendência condizente com a realidade do estado. Também foram desenvolvidos modelos teóricos para estimar o consumo dos nutrientes N, K2O e P2O5, em função da produtividade dos pomares. Finamente, foi desenvolvido um modelo teórico de produtividade (caixas/pé em função da idade do pomar, baseado em estimativas estocásticas de produtividade para cada idade do pomar. Os modelos ficaram bem ajustados, atendendo a todos os requisitos exigidos do ponto de vista econométrico.Brazil represents approximately 80% of the total frozen concentrate orange juice (FCOJ traded in the international market. In addition, Brazil and the United States represent 50% of the total fresh orange produced around the world. Sao Paulo state is responsible by 98% of Brazilian FCOJ exports and by 80% of the national fresh orange production. The economic importance of Sao Paulo's citrus industry has been stimulated researches in order to analyze all aspects related to citrus production system. Fertilizer is a very important input into citrus industry, especially in

  3. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  4. A longitudinal study of mortality and air pollution for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Denise A; Jørgensen, Bent; Peres, Antonieta A Q

    2002-09-01

    We study the effects of various air-pollution variables on the daily death counts for people over 65 years in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1993, controlling for meteorological variables. We use a state space model where the air-pollution variables enter via the latent process, and the meteorological variables via the observation equation. The latent process represents the potential mortality due to air pollution, and is estimated by Kalman filter techniques. The effect of air pollution on mortality is found to be a function of the variation in the sulphur dioxide level for the previous 3 days, whereas the other air-pollution variables (total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone) are not significant when sulphur dioxide is in the equation. There are significant effects of humidity and up to lag 3 of temperature, and a significant seasonal variation.

  5. Health impact modelling of different travel patterns on physical activity, air pollution and road injuries for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Tainio, Marko; Goodman, Anna; Edwards, Phil; Haines, Andy; Gouveia, Nelson; Monteiro, Carlos; Woodcock, James

    2017-11-01

    São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-07

    Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.

  7. A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Vanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac. Homalocerus bimaculatus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, São Paulo is described and illustrated, and comments on the sclerites of the internal sac of aedeagus and on color pattern are provided. The new species is compared to other similar species of the genus, being distinguished by having three clusters of carmine pubescence on pronotum and two lateral whitish oval spots located slightly before the middle of each elytron. Six species of Homalocerus, including the new one, are known from the State of São Paulo. The previously published identification key for species of Homalocerus is updated to include H. bimaculatus.

  8. Evolution of the Cubatão urban mangrove in São Paulo State (Brazil) over space and time

    OpenAIRE

    Flandroy, J.; Cunha-Lignon, M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2009-01-01

    With 120,000 inhabitants and an area of 140km2 Cubatão (São Paulo State, Brazil) qualifies as an urban area. The mangrove of this coastal area occupies 136,538m2 but only 40% is in good condition. Many anthropogenic activities cause pollution, but despite these environmental impacts, the region is important for its biodiversity. The aim of this research is to study the evolution of the urban mangrove forest in Cubatão between 1962 and 2008.Imagery of 1962, 1994 and 2008 was used to detect the...

  9. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  10. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (pacne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-pacne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  11. O ensino profissionalizante na imperial cidade de são Paulo, Brasil (1823-1889 - Vocational education in the imperial city of São Paulo, Brazil (1823-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Etchebéhère-Júnior, Sandra Farto Botelho Trufem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo deste trabalho a realização de um resgate histórico no  sentido  de demonstrar  que  o  Ensino  Profissionalizante,  hoje significativamente  valorizado e  discutido,  não  se configura como novidade  na história educacional de nossa província. Desde a  época da  Imperial Cidade de São  Paulo  existiram  varias  iniciativas no sentido de estabelecê-lo, de modo geral com história bem sucedida, de tal modo que alguns deles constituíram-se em embriões de afamadas escolas ou faculdades atuais. Palavras-chave: ensino profissionalizante; período     imperial; província de São Paulo.   VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE IMPERIAL CITY OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (1823  - 1889 Abstract The objective of this work is the realization of a historical rescue of the Vocational Education, now significantly enhanced and discussed as a novelty in the educational history of our province. Since of the time of the Imperial City of São Paulo, there were several initiatives to  establish it,  in  general with successful history, so that  some of them  consisted  in  the  embryos of  many  renowned schools  and colleges today. Keywords: vocational education; the imperial period; the province of Sao Paulo.   EDUCACIÓN  PROFESIONAL  EN LA CIUDAD IMPERIAL DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL (1823  - 1889 Resumen Objetivo de este trabajo es la realización de un histórico en el sentido de mostrar  que la  enseñanza  profesional,  ahora  mucho  mayor  y discutido,  no  está  diseñado   como  una   novedad  en  la  historia educativa de nuestra provincia. Desde la época de la imperial ciudad de São Paulo había varias iniciativas para su creación, en general con la historia de éxito, por lo que algunos de ellos consistió en embriones de muchas escuelas e universidades de renombre hoy en día. Palabras -clave:  formación   profesional;  la   época   imperial;  la provincia de Sao Paulo.   L

  12. A characterization of ecosystem services, drivers and values of two watersheds in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    N. A. Periotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evaluation of ecosystem services is a tool to raise awareness about benefits of ecosystem functions for human well-being. In Brazil, few studies and reports assess ecosystem services in a watershed context. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by assessing ecosystem services of Jacaré-Guaçu and Jacaré-Pepira Watersheds (São Paulo State, Brazil in a temporal scale of 10 years. Land cover and uses’ capacity to provide ecosystem services and drivers were assessed as a result of mapping these areas. Economic values were estimated based on literature information. Results showed that cultivated and managed terrestrial areas stands out over other areas and then, regulation and maintenance services are reduced in these areas. Wetlands and natural vegetation, with smaller areas, are important for the supply of regulation and maintenance services of both watersheds and economic values indicate the magnitude of degradation or maintenance/restoration.

  13. Dieta de Tropidurus Itambere Rodrigues (Sauria ; Iguanidae) na Fazenda Manga, Municipio de Valinhos, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Van Sluys

    1991-01-01

    Resumo: Foi estudada a dieta de Tropidurus itambere, na Fazenda Manga, Valinhos, São Paulo. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente com laço, mortos e fixados no campo. No laboratório processou-se a triagem do conteúdo estomacal, sob lupa. Também foram coletados artrópodos no ambiente para estimativa da disponibilidade relativa de presas. A dieta de T. itambere é onívora, sendo constituída basicamente por formigas (98,3% dos estômagos analisados). Outras presas bastante freqüentes são aranhas,...

  14. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  15. [Challenges in primary health care: the experience in Vila Mariana District, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso de; Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Cuginotti, Aloísio Punhagui; Hayana, Eliana Tiemi; Brito, Francisco Carlos de; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This article presents the results of a case study aimed at identifying challenges for the delivery of primary health care in a health district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, considering comprehensiveness as a central device for organizing work at this level of care. Five units in the district's primary care network were studied. We collected the data by observing work routines and flows, conducting interviews with managers and health professionals from different backgrounds, and through focus groups with family health teams. The analysis shows a mismatch between users' characteristics and their presumed needs and the heterogeneity of the health professionals' perceptions concerning their work. Lack of staff and time and difficulties with referrals were the main problems identified by interviewees.

  16. The use of Tillandsia usneoides L. as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Alcala, A.L.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Saiki, M.; Domingos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides was used as a biomonitor of metal atmospheric pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed for 8 weeks in 10 sites of the city and in a control site. The data obtained showed that the control site presented lower concentration for most elements analyzed and the highest concentrations of Na, Cl, Br, K. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and V were observed in stations submitted to industrial and vehicular sources. The results obtained for rare earth elements, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Rb and Sc indicate mineral dust origin. The elements Ba, As and Sb presented higher values in stations near streets with heavy traffic. (author)

  17. Alguns aspectos da mortalidade entre japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of mortality in Japanese and their descendants in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Sabina Léa Davidson Gotlieb

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available São analisadas algumas características da mortalidade entre imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, comparando-as com a população do Japão e geral do município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes apresentam padrão de mortalidade de nível intermediário entre o do local de origem e o de destino, aproximando-se mais do nível de saúde do Japão. A mortalidade infantil entre os descendentes dos imigrantes, nascidos no município de São Paulo, é bem inferior à do município de São Paulo. O risco de morrer por lesões vasculares que afetam o sistema nervoso central é mais alto no Japão. Por outro lado, o risco de morrer por doenças cardíacas é muito mais alto no município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses apresentam-se num nível intermediário de mortalidade pelas causas acima referidas. Tal fato sugere atuação de fatores ambientais, levando os imigrantes a adquirirem padrão de mortalidade do local de destino.Some mortality characteristics of Japanese immigrants and their descendants living in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, are analysed. Comparison between these characteristics and those among the populations of Japan and the city of S. Paulo has been made. The Japanese immigrants and their descendants have an intermediate pattern of mortality ranking between the pattern of Japan and the S. Paulo one, being closer to the former. The infant mortality rate among the Japanese born in S. Paulo is much lower than the S. Paulo rate. The death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is higher in Japan. On the other hand, the death rate for diseases of the heart (except rheumatic heart disease is much higher in S. Paulo. The association of a low death rate for diseases of the heart with a high death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is observed. The Japanese immigrants tend to occupy an intermediate mortality level

  18. Access to medication in the Public Health System and equity: populational health surveys in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2016-03-01

    Since 2003, the access to medication has been increasing in Brazil and particularly in São Paulo. The present study aimed to analyze the access to medication obtained in the public sector and the socioeconomic differences in this access in 2003 and 2008. Also, we explored the difference in access to medication from 2003 to 2008. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys from São Paulo, Brazil (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008). Concentration curve and concentration index were calculated to analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and access to medication in the public sector. Additionally, the differences between 2003 and 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and access to medication were studied. Access to medication was 89.55% in 2003 and 92.99% in 2008, and the proportion of access to medication did not change in the period. Access in the public sector increased from 26.40% in 2003 to 48.55% in 2008 and there was a decrease in the concentration index between 2003 and 2008 in access to medication in the public sector. The findings indicate an expansion of Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde ) users, with the inclusion of people of higher socioeconomic position in the public sector. As the SUS gives more support to people of lower socioeconomic position in terms of medication provision, the SUS tends to equity. Nevertheless, universal coverage for medication and equity in access to medication in the public sector are still challenges for the Brazilian public health system.

  19. Use of psychotropic medications in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: pattern of healthcare provision to general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Angela Maria; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Milhorança, Igor André; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the proportion of psychotropic medication use (PMU) among adults in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. We investigated whether socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, and disease severity influence PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based study, the Brazilian branch of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Trained lay interviewers face-to-face assessed psychiatric disorders and PMU through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Respondents were asked about use of healthcare service and prescribed medications for mental disorders in the previous year. Information on PMU was collected for 2935 adult residents in the area and among those with disorders who received treatment. Around 6% of respondents reported PMU in the past year: hypnotics or sedatives were used by 3.7% and antidepressants by 3.5%. Among individuals with 12-month disorders, only 14% reported past year PMU. Gender, age, education, income, occupational status, comorbidity, and severity were significant predictors for PMU. Among those with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who obtained treatment in healthcare settings, almost 40% received medication only. Among those treated in specialty mental health service, around 23% received combination of medication and psychotherapy. Our study has pointed out that the recent trend of access to mental healthcare in Brazil depicts unmet needs, characterized by a low prevalence of PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Policies that improve appropriate access to prescribed drugs for those most in need are urgent public health priority. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Education in nuclear science at IPEN - CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Advanced School of Nuclear Energy-EAEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, R.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    EAEN (Advanced School of Nuclear Energy, 2010) is an annual school that consists of a week of activities in the area of Nuclear Physics, Radiochemistry and uses of Nuclear Energy for a public made of high school students. The EAEN project represents a pioneering program on science education and dissemination of knowledge, conducted by researchers and focused mainly on high school and scientific education for the population in general. The school's priority is to explore the failures and the lack of education in the dissemination of nuclear energy for high school students as well as to attract prospective students with great potential for graduate courses of IPEN and other institutions in Sao Paulo and in Brazil. (author)

  1. Duas espécies novas de membracídeos (Hemiptera, Membracidae da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Two new species of treehopper (Hemiptera, Membracidae from the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies são descritas da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo: uma pertencente ao gênero Antonae Stål (Smiliinae-Ceresini, Antonae brasiliensis sp. nov. e outra a Hypheodana Metcalf (Darninae-Darnini, Hypheodana gargionei sp. nov., ambas de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. O gênero Antonae é registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil e Hypheodana, por outro lado, para a Mata Atlântica.Two species are described: one belonging to the genus Antonae Stål (Smiliinae, Ceresini, Antonae brasiliensis sp. nov., and another to Hypheodana Metcalf (Darninae-Darnini, Hypheodana gargionei sp. nov., both from Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. The genus Antonae Stål is recorded for the first time in Brazil, and Hypheodana, on the other hand, in the Atlantic Forest.

  2. Compressão da mortalidade: um estudo da variabilidade da idade à morte na população do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1980-2005 Compression of mortality: a study on the variability of age at death in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Gonzaga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou as mudanças na estrutura de mortalidade da população do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1980 e 2005, na tentativa de identificar os efeitos destas mudanças na variabilidade da idade à morte. As evidências de um deslocamento da distribuição de óbitos para as idades mais avançadas foram claras, pois o tempo médio de vida da população aumentou cerca de sete anos. Buscou-se analisar se esse deslocamento foi acompanhado por uma redução na variabilidade da idade à morte, o que daria suporte para o início de um processo de compressão da mortalidade. Dois períodos distintos de mudança na variabilidade da idade à morte foram evidenciados. No primeiro (1980 a 1995, identificou-se aumento na variabilidade da idade à morte. Já no segundo (1995 a 2005 reconheceu-se tendência de redução nessa variabilidade. Estimativas acima de determinado quartil da distribuição dos óbitos por idade indicaram que o processo de compressão da mortalidade ocorreu em quase todo o período. Destaca-se que as mulheres apresentaram variabilidade da idade à morte significativamente menor que os homens em todo o período analisado.In the present study, changes in the population mortality structure in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed from 1980 to 2005, aimed at identifying the effects of these changes on the variability of age at death. Evidence of a change in the distribution of deaths toward more advanced ages was found, and the mean lifespan for the overall population increased by seven years during the period. Two different scenarios were observed. The first (1980-1995 showed an increase in the variability of age at death. The second (1995-2005 showed a downward trend in variability. Estimates beyond a given quartile of the death distribution by age indicated that compression of mortality took place throughout the entire period. However, variability of age at death was lower for males as compared to females.

  3. Plano amostral para cálculo de densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Sampling desing for larval density computation of Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília G.P. Alves

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Controle de Vetores de Febre Amarela e Dengue, desenvolvido pela Superintendência de Controle de Endemias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, prevê a realização de pesquisa para avaliação da densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em edificações de municípios com infestação domiciliar. Descreve-se o plano amostral que vem sendo aplicado, desde outubro de 1987, nos municípios da Região de Presidente Prudente. Para acompanhamento da densidade está sendo utilizado o índice de Breteau. São sorteados, nos municípios infestados, mensalmente e de forma independente, amostras de edificações para a obtenção das estimativas do índice. O plano amostral prevê a seleção de conglomerados em 2 estágios: quadras e edificações. O tamanho da amostra foi definido estimando-se o coeficiente da correlação intraconglomerado e variância relativa por elemento através de pesquisas realizadas anteriormente em municípios do Serviço Regional de São José do Rio Preto. O plano propõe que os valores relativos ao tamanho da amostra sejam atualizados periodicamente em função dos valores obtidos para o estimador do Índice de Breteau e sua variância, em meses anteriores.The Yellow Fever and Dengue Vector Control Program developed by the Superintendency for the Control of Endemic Diseases in the State of S. Paulo recommends Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. The sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the Presidente Prudente region (SP- Brazil since 1987 is described. The infestation is measured by using the Breteau Index. A sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, in the infested cities, in which measurements are to be made. The sample is stratified and the elementary unit selection is made by using two-stage cluster sampling: of blocks and buildings. The sample sizes were defined using the coefficient of variation

  4. Media and Cultural Consumption by Young Students in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Evidences of Digital Divide, Possibilities of Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Bekesas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial findings of a Brazilian project, which is part of an international research group, studying youth cultures in the age of globalization. It aims to develop a comparative study from the cultural perspective of globalization on the construction of aesthetic cosmopolitanism among young people from France, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Our aim here specifically is to understand the cultural consumption of young students from São Paulo and their uses of different media for this matter, in hybrid forms (mainly digital. The analysis of empirical data presented is built upon 52 exploratory questionnaires and 40 interviews conducted with young students (from 18 to 24 year old living in São Paulo, Brazil. In order to understand the Brazilian context in this analysis, we performed a triangulation with secondary data from “Brazilian digital youth” by IBOPE (2012 and “Connected youth” by Telefonica Foundation/USP (2014. Based on the analysis, we reflect on two central topics: 1 evidence of a digital divide, according to their socio-economic profile and their access to information/entertainment, and 2 possibilities of cosmopolitan encounters, through the consumption of international cultural products and the search of information regarding other countries and cultures.

  5. Isolation of Leptospira borgpetersenii in synanthropic Didelphis albiventris in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Felipe Jorge da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease and, therefore, stands out for the possibility of environmental contamination, the cross transmission between domestic and wild animals and humans. Opossum species are important reservoirs of this disease making them potential pathogen spreaders. Aiming to verify the presence of Leptospira spp. and the antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the Campus of São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, freeliving wild life opossum (Didelphis albiventris were captured for blood and urine sampling. Serological analysis was performed Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. Aliquots of urine were seeded in media Ellinghausen-McCullough- Johnson-Harris (EMJH and Fletcher without antibiotics. The samples in which there was growth of leptospires were forwarded to the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Institute of Pathobiology in the National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina and were genotyped using Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA. Of the 15 analyzed animals, nine (60.0% were reactant to Patoc serovar. The pathogenic specie Leptospira borgpetersenii was isolated and identified in three Didelphis albiventris. The isolation findings of pathogenic specie Leptopsira borgpetersenii in the urine culture of three Didelphis albiventris in a university campus are a major discovery in the area of preventive veterinary medicine and public health and open a discussion about the important role of free-living wild animals as reservoirs of this agent to domestic animals and humans, a condition that serves as a warning for the improvement of health practices.

  6. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Maldonado, Caio; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  7. Temporal evaluation of radiation detection system, used by the division of radiation protection of the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Acosta, Clarice de Freitas; Ikari, Andreza Iris R.; Ferreira, Marcio de Oliveira; Alves, Henrique da Silva; Duarte, Marcelo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a temporal evaluation of the radiation detection system used by in division of radiation protection of the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. About fifty efficiencies results of the system were compiled over the last two years for this purpose. Less than 1% of the standard deviation was found for both portable and fixed detectors, which indicates a significant stability of the detection system used in CTMSP over the period analyzed. (author)

  8. [A monitoring system for work-related accidents in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives are triggered by identification of sentinel events; spatial distribution analysis of work-related accidents is a basic tool in designing accident awareness strategies and accident prevention policies. The system was implemented in November 2003 and by October 2004 had identified 5,320 work-related accidents, or a 3.8% annual proportional incidence of work-related accidents in the municipal area. We illustrate spatial analysis of registered work-related accidents and present a detailed investigation of one example of a serious accident.

  9. Ethnicity and cutaneous melanoma in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda C Luiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogeneous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe-Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03-8.77, Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41-8.57, a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.93, or ≥ 2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06-7.47; eye color-light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14-3.84 and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22-9.58; pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21-6.49; no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03-9.22; and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants.

  10. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  11. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  12. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  13. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Freitas Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.

  14. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.

  15. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  16. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Desirée Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  17. Factors associated with undernourishment among people 20 years old or over with HIV/AIDS, attending public health services in the São Paulo municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Garcia, Vania Regina Salles; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena

    2014-12-01

    The study evaluated the nutritional status of 629 people living with HIV/AIDS attended at 12 specialized services of São Paulo's Municipal Health Department, Brazil. Data were obtained from medical records and through interviews during nutritional consultation. We used the classification criteria established by World Health Organization to assess malnourished individuals, a BMI health care of individuals at nutritional risk.

  18. Descrição de um novo foco endêmico de esquistossomose mansônica no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil The description of a new endemic focus of schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Dinis Costa Passos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrito novo foco endêmico de esquistossomose mansônica situado na Cidade de Bebedouro, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram analisados 221 casos diagnosticados da doença segundo a idade, sexo e origem (autóctone ou não, bem como foram discutidos os fatores envolvidos no aparecimento do foco, alertando-se para a necessidade de medidas de controle.A new endemic focus of schistosomiasis mansoni in the town of Bebedouro, S. Paulo, Brazil, is described. Two hundred and twenty-one cases are analyzed according to sex, age, and origin (autochthonous or not, the factors involved in the emergence of the focus are discussed and the necessity for control measure is emphasized.

  19. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; de Fátima Andrade, María.; de Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  20. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  1. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  2. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

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    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  3. Variability of extreme climate indices at Rio claro, São Paulo, Brazil Variabilidade dos índices de extremos climáticos em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear trends in climate extreme indices derived from precipitation and temperature data at the Rio Claro station, São Paulo-Brazil, are examined for the 40-year period 1966-2005 and the dataset is available at the Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP. The precipitation based climate indices did not show statistically significant trends. When correlated with the SST related indices in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the analysis shows some weak but positive influence of El Niño and the TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index over the rainfall behavior of the Rio Claro region. Overall, the temperatures are rising in the last 40 years with an indication of increasing the diurnal temperature range, especially in the recent past due to an increase in the maximum temperature.Foram examinadas tendências lineares nos índices de extremos climáticos derivados de dados de precipitação e temperatura para a estação meteorológica de Rio Claro, São Paulo - Brasil, para o período de 1966 - 2005, correspondente a 40 anos e os dados estão disponíveis no Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET da Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP. Os índices climáticos baseados na precipitação não mostraram tendências com significância estatística. Quando correlacionados com os índices relacionados à TSM dos Oceanos Pacífico e Atlântico, as análises mostram influência fraca, mas positiva do El Niño e TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index sobre o comportamento das chuvas sobre a região de Rio Claro. De forma geral, as temperaturas estão aumentando nos últimos 40 anos com um sinal de aumento na amplitude térmica diária, especialmente nos últimos anos devido ao aumento das temperaturas máximas.

  4. Tropical Daoism: transplant of Daoism to Brazil through the Taoist Society of Brazil and the Taoist Society of São Paulo

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    Matheus Oliva da Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daoism is a religion of Chinese origins that since the 19th century started to have contact with the Brazilian culture, beneath the Orientalism force.  Since the second half of the 20th century, we see a second wave of Daoism spread, albeit indirectly. In the 1970s the Wǔ family – Wu Jyh Cherng within them (Wǔ Zhìchéng – migrates from Taiwan to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the 1990s, this Taiwanese naturalized Brazilian priest of the Way of the Celestial Masters founded the Daoist Society of Brazil (Sociedade Taoísta do Brasil - STB along Brazilians, and later the Daoist Society in São Paulo (Sociedade Taoísta SP - ST-SP, which is our object of study. The goal here was to analyze the Daoism transplantation process in Brazil through the STB and ST-SP. In addition to a systematization of the authors regarding the transplantation of religions theory, we were based on the theory of cultural hybridization, and a set of interpreters of Brazilian culture and Brazilian religion. We created the central hypothesis that in the STB and ST-SP the Daoism would be increasingly a hybrid result of the Brazilian religious matrix and an ideal model of Daoist linked to China. Methodologically, we conducted an extensive and constant literature review, and we refer to primary printed sources, virtual and audiovisual sources, participatory research, semi-structured interviews and informal conversations. With these data, we performed an analysis using the theoretical framework, which allowed us to confirm the central hypothesis. We also wove systematic contributions on: the presence and the type of Daoism entry in Brazil, identification of socio-historical phases of STB and ST-SP, and several observations about the process and results of transplantation of this Daoist group, such as the accommodation of the Brazilian religious demands on the liturgical rituals of these institutions.

  5. Rollout of community-based family health strategy (programa de saude de familia) is associated with large reductions in neonatal mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentani, Alexandra; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Taniguchi, Mauro T; Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; de Moraes Bourroul, Maria Lúcia; Fink, Günther

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies suggest that Brazil's Estratégia Saude de Familia (Family Health Strategy-FHS) has contributed to declines in mortality at the national and regional level. Comparatively little is known whether this approach is effective in urban populations with relatively easy access to health services. To use detailed medical data collected as part of São Paulo's Western Region project to examine whether the FHS program had an impact on child health in São Paulo, Brazil. No associations were found between FHS and birth weight (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.29), gestational length (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.83-1.15) or stillbirth (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75-3.03). FHS eligibility was associated with a 42% reduction in the odds of child mortality (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34, 0.91), with largest effect sizes for the early neonatal period (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.79). Community based health delivery platforms may be a highly effective way to reduce neonatal mortality in urban areas of low and middle income countries, even when access to general health services is almost universal.

  6. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  7. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-01-01

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  9. Estimativa do coeficiente Priestley-Taylor em floresta monodominante Cambarazal no Pantanal Estimation of the Priestley-Taylor coefficient in the monospecific forest in northern Pantanal, Brazil

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    Luciana Sanches

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O coeficiente Priestley-Taylor (α foi calculado baseado na estimativa da evapotranspiração pelo método de Bowen para floresta monodominante Vochysia divergens no Pantanal, Brasil. A área em estudo estava localizada no noroeste do Pantanal a aproximadamente 160 km de Cuiabá, Mato Grossso, Brasil (16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''O. Medições micrometeorológicas contínuas, em uma torre a uma altura de 32 m de altura, foram feitas de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. A evapotranspiração variou de 2,50 mm dia-1 (estação seca a 4,10 mm dia-1 (estação úmida. O coeficiente Pristley-Taylor (α variou durante o ano com valores máximos e mínimos nas estações seca e úmida, respectivamente, com média anual de 0,65 ± 0,18 de acordo com o padrão climático da área em estudo em função do aumento do conteúdo de água no solo/lâmina d'água de inundação e/ou diminuição na demanda evaporativa. Com a determinação empírica das dimensões de α, as estimativas da evapotranspiração podem ser melhoradas para florestas de Vochysia divergens na planície de inundação do Pantanal.The Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α was calculated based on the Bowen method evapotranspiration estimative for Vochysia divergens monospecific forests in Pantanal, Brazil. The study area was located at the northeastern Pantanal, approximately 160 km from Cuiabá city, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''W. Continuous micrometeorological flux measurements at a 32 m tower height were made from January to December of 2007. The evapotranspiration ranged from 2.26 mm day-1 (dry season to 4.50 mm day-1 (wet season. The average estimated α value ranged along the year from a maximum and a minimum during the dry and wet season respectively, with an annual average of 0.65±0.18 according to the weather pattern over the study area due to the increase of water content in soil/water flooding depth and/or decrease in evaporative demand. Based on empirical α values

  10. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on the energy conservation project aimed at the future CDM in relation with energy consumption in the lighting equipment at the Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Out of about 5,500 primary schools existing in Sao Paulo, 3,414 schools were selected as the objects of the surveys and discussions. The present program intends to introduce energy saving facilities such as high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and controls for illuminating the primary schools to save the energies and reduce emission of the global warming gases. In this economy project, the owners do not need to make initial investments, wherein the required funds are taken care by conservation of electric power during the service contract period. If about 3,000 schools are selected as the object, a fund of about 2.3 billion yen will be required in total. Total energy conservation quantity during 15 years from 2002 to 2016 as achieved by this project will be 532,740 MWh, corresponding to 114,540 tons of crude oil. The effect of reducing the emission of global warming gases will be 110,949 t-CO2 during the same period of time. (NEDO)

  11. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soils and vegetables from the macroregion of São Paulo, Brazil: availability for plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and accumulation of heavy metals or so-called potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils and plants have driven long-standing concerns about the adverse effects such metals have on the environment and human health. Furthermore, contaminated food products are known to be a leading source of exposure to heavy metals for the general population. It is crucial to accurately assess the concentrations of metals in crops and the bioavailable contents of these elements in the soil. The state of São Paulo is the largest consumer market of horticultural products in Brazil with production focused essentially on urban and industrial areas, which greatly increases the degree of exposure to contaminants. The objective of the authors in this study was to evaluate the soil-plant relationships between concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in vegetable and garden soils in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. To accomplish this, 200 soil (0-20 cm) and plant samples were collected from 25 species in the production areas. With the exception of Cd, there was positive correlation between pseudototals (USEPA 3051a) and bioavailable contents (extracted with DTPA) of heavy metals. However, the Cd and Pb contents in plants were not significantly correlated with any of the variables studied. All random forest and tree models proved to be good predictors of results generated from a regression model and provided useful information including covariates that were important for specifically forecasting Zn concentration in plants.

  12. The exotic wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): first record and damage on the Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius drupes, in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Piña-Rodrigues, Fátima C M; Silva, José M S; Guerreiro, Julio C; Ghiotto, Thaís C; Piotrowski, Ivonir; Dias, Luiz P; Wilcken, Carlos F; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-01-01

    This paper records the first report of Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) in Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) drupes in Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This wasp is an invasive species and was found damaging S. terebinthifolius drupes in urban areas (35.0 ± 15.8%), natural forests (21.5 ± 10.2%) and restoration areas (15.8 ± 8.4%). The bio-ecology and damage caused by M. transvaalensis in the S. terebinthifolius drupes warrants further study focused upon the management of this phytophagous wasp. Megastigmus transvaalensis has a potential to be disseminated throughout Brazil and is posing a threat to the natural regeneration of S. terebinthifolius in the native forests and restoration areas and ecological regions of this country.

  13. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  14. YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF, which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population.

  15. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R 2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R 2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  16. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  17. Radon and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in urban water-supply systems of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Padron-Armada, Priscilla Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Many water-supply systems in South America utilize the waters of the Guarani aquifer at least as part of their networks. However, there is little present knowledge in Brazil of the factors affecting Rn presence in the water supplied for end-users, despite the economic importance of Guarani aquifer. 222 Rn analyzes of 162 water samples were performed at 8 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of investigating the major factors affecting its presence in solution. The 222 Rn activity concentration ranged from 0.04 up to 204.9 Bq/L, with three samples exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq/L. Aeration was confirmed as the most important factor for Rn release, as expected due to its gaseous nature. Accumulation in pipes and stratification in the water column were other significant factors explaining the data obtained in some circumstances. The Rn daughters 214 Pb and 214 Bi were also determined in a set of selected samples and their presence was directly related to the occurrence of Rn dissolved in water

  18. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  19. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elene Paltrinieri Nardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%, and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  20. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  1. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  2. Notas sobre a industrialização no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Paulo F. Jurado da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Notes about the industrialization in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.This note aims to discuss the industrialisation in the context of the State of São Paulo. The topic of industrialisation will be approached from the historical and geographical perspectives.Thus, we will try to understand the industrial dimension taking into account its differentmoments, relating, when possible, the variables concerning the transformation in territorial dynamics in São Paulo State both in the past and in the present.

  3. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; O controle sanitario do uso das radiacoes ionizantes em servicos de saude no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services 19 refs.

  4. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil; Impacto ambiental decorrente da acao de poluentes no Reservatorio Billings na area metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, S; Braghin, P L [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig.

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  6. Rehearsal for Assessment of atmospheric optical Properties during biomass burning Events and Long-range transportation episodes at Metropolitan Area of São Paulo-Brazil (RAPEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Benavent-Oltra, Jose A.; Román, Roberto; Moreira, Gregori A.; Marques, Marcia T. A.; da Silva, Jonatan J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Artaxo, Paulo; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    During the period of August-September 2016 an intensive campaign was carried out to assess aerosol properties in São Paulo-Brazil aiming to detect long-range aerosol transport events and to characterize the instrument regarding data quality. Aerosol optical properties retrieved by the GALION - LALINET SPU lidar station and collocated AERONET sunphotometer system are presented as extinction/ backscatter vertical profiles with microphysical products retrieved with GRASP inversion algorithm.

  7. Trace elements in the urban aerosol of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.M.Q.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1983-07-01

    The first trace-element data-set measured on the atmosphere aerosol of Sao Paulo City, Brazil, is presented. These measurements have been based on samplings by 6-stage cascade impactors combined with the analytical procedure by the PIXE method of elementary analysis. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Microscopic fungi in the Atlantic Rainforest in Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil Fungos microscópicos de Mata Atlântica em Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a survey of fungi obtained from soil, water and mixed leaf litter samples taken from the Atlantic Rainforest in the municipality of Cubatão, in the State of São Paulo, during the years of 1993 to 1995. Using different techniques for the isolation of microscopic fungi, a total of 280 taxa was obtained (66 zoosporic fungi, 40 Mucorales, 45 Glomales, 125 anamorphs, three Ascomycota and one Basidiomycota, with 23 species being reported for the first time in Brazil.Este artigo apresenta o levantamento dos fungos obtidos de amostras de solo, água e folhedo mixto coletados da Mata Atlântica no município de Cubatão, estado de São Paulo, durante os anos de 1993 a 1995. Utilizando diferentes técnicas para isolamento de fungos microscópicos, um total de 280 táxons foram obtidos (66 fungos zoospóricos, 40 representantes de Mucorales, 45 de Glomales, 125 fungos anamorfos, três de Ascomycota e um representante de Basidiomycota, sendo 23 espécies reportadas pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  9. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Characterization of the PROALCOOL in the State of Sao Paulo:, Brazil establishment of homogeneous groups of plants and distilleries; Caracterizacao do PROALCOOL no Estado de Sao Paulo: formacao de grupos homogeneos de usinas e destilarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.C.; Hwa, C.M.F.; Andreoni, S.; Myiake, M.Y. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    A methodology to stratify the ethanol plants operating in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in homogeneous groups is presented. This group was obtained by multivariate stratification techniques considering factors as scale of production, agricultural productivity, industrial efficiency and effective industrial capacity utilization. This methodology differs from those adopted by the Fundacao Getulio Vargas and the Organizacao dos Plantadores de Cana-Orplana who consider only one variable- the scale of production. The advantage of this multivariate stratification is that the result clusters reflect more accurately the differences among the existing distilleries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Relationship between Black Carbon and heavy traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in air quality, human health and global climate change. Black Carbon (BC) can be considered the most efficient light absorber in the visible spectrum and is mainly found in the fine fraction of aerosol. Typically is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels related to traffic, industrial processes and biomass burning. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter and vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Since November 2014, Black Carbon and PM2.5 are being monitored using a MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer) Thermo 5012 and a Dust Trak DRX-8533 TSI in the East Campus of University of São Paulo, close to important highways and also to the largest airport of Brazil (Guarulhos Airport). Average BC concentration was 1.7 μg/m3 with some peaks above 17.0 μg/m3 and for PM2.5 average was 10.2 μg/m3. Particle concentrations reached values greater than the air quality standard (60 μg/m3) in the winter months. Winds coming from the East direction predominate. Traffic restrictions to heavy duty vehicles in the road-rings next to the sampling site during some hours of the day are the responsible for the daily BC and PM2.5 behavior (figure below), where high concentrations occur early in the morning and late at night, when heavy diesel vehicles are released for transit. Seasonal variations are different for BC and PM2.5 due to local sources of BC and meteorological conditions that have more influence on the particles. The weekly variation indicates that concentrations are lower on Sundays and higher from Tuesday to Thursday. Emission factors for BC were calculated based on traffic information.

  13. GPR applied to mapping utilities along the route of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel construction in São Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Ruy, Yang Boo; Ramos, Fernanda Pereira; Yamanouth, Gisele R. B.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid industrial development and disorganized population growth in huge cities bring about various urban problems due to intense use of physical space on and below the surface. Subsurface problems in metropolitan areas are caused by subway line construction, which often follows the routes of utility networks, such as electric and telephone cables, water and gas pipes, storm sewers, etc. Usually, the main problems are related to damage or destruction of preexisting utilities, often putting human lives at risk. With the purpose of minimizing risks, GPR-profiling with 200 MHz antennae was done at two sites, both located in downtown São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives of this work were to map utilities or existing infrastructure in the subsurface in order to orient the construction of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo. GPR profiles can detect water pipes, utility networks in the subsurface, and concrete foundation columns or pilings in subsoil up to 2 m depth. In addition, the GPR profiles also provided details of the target shapes in the subsurface. GPR interpretations combined with lithological information from boreholes and trenches opened in the study areas were extremely important in mapping of the correct spatial distribution of buried utilities at these two sites in São Paulo. This information improves and updates maps of utility placement, serves as a basis for planning of the geotechnical excavation of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo, helps minimize problems related to destruction of preexisting utilities in the subsoil, and avoids risk of dangerous accidents.

  14. Estimativa da área foliar de Sida cordifolia e Sida rhombifolia usando dimensões lineares do limbo foliar Estimate of Sida cordifolia and Sida rhombifolia leaf area using leaf blade linear dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da área foliar pode auxiliar na compreensão de relações de interferência entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas. Com o objetivo de obter uma equação que, por meio de parâmetros lineares dimensionais das folhas, permita a estimativa da área foliar de Sida cordifolia e Sida rhombifolia, estudaram-se as correlações entre área foliar real (Af e parâmetros dimensionais do limbo foliar, como o comprimento (C ao longo da nervura principal e a largura máxima (L perpendicular à nervura principal. Foram analisados 200 limbos foliares de cada espécie, coletados em diferentes agroecossistemas na Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus de Jaboticabal. Os modelos estatísticos utilizados foram linear: Y = a + bx; linear simples: Y = bx; geométrico: Y = ax b; e exponencial: Y = ab x. Todos os modelos analisados podem ser empregados para estimação da área foliar de S. cordifolia e S. rhombifolia. Sugere-se optar pela equação linear simples, envolvendo o produto C*L, considerando-se o coeficiente linear igual a zero, em função da praticidade desta. Desse modo, a estimativa da área foliar de S. cordifolia pode ser obtida pela fórmula Af = 0,7878*(C*L, com coeficiente de determinação de 0,9307, enquanto para S. rhombifolia a estimativa da área foliar pode ser obtida pela fórmula Af = 0,6423*(C*L, com coeficiente de determinação de 0,9711.Leaf area estimate may contribute to understand the relationship of interference between weeds and crops. The objective of this research was to obtain a mathematical equation to estimate Sida cordifolia and Sida rhombifolia leaf area based on linear measures of leaf blade. Correlation studies were conducted between real leaf area (Af and dimensional leaf blade parameters such as leaf length (C and maximum leaf width (L. Around 200 leaf blades of each species were analyzed, collected from several agro-ecosystems at São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. The statistical

  15. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.

  16. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  17. [The sexual behavior of adolescents in some schools in the city of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira

    2008-12-01

    It is a descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying some aspects related to teenagers' sexual behavior. The subjects of the study were 920 adolescents aged 10 to 19, who were attending primary and secondary schools in the region of Santo Eduardo, municipality of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected through a questionnaire with 28 structured questions. The results show that 77% of adolescents liked their bodies, 71% looked for information about sexuality, and 35% thought their parents were the primary source of information; 26% of them said they had an active sexual life, 79% had had the first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 or younger, and 81% used condoms. The results of the study emphasize the importance of providing sexual guidance for adolescents in order to encourage prevention attitudes.

  18. Evaluation of pesticide residues in oranges from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Emi NAKANO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides in “PERA” orange samples (N = 57 from São Paulo City, Brazil were assessed and the pesticide intake contribution was estimated for chronic risk assessment. Seventy-six pesticides were evaluated by the gas chromatography multi-residue method, including isomers and metabolites (4.332 determinations. The mean recoveries at the limit of quantification level were in the range of 72-115% and the relative standard deviation for five replicate samples was 1-11%. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg.kg−1 and from 0.01 to 0.8 mg.kg−1, respectively. Pesticides were found in 42.1% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.06 to 2.9 mg.kg−1. Of the contaminated samples, 3.5% contained residues (bifenthrin and clofentezine above the maximum residue level and 12.3% contained unauthorized pesticides (azinphos-ethyl, parathion, myclobutanil, profenofos, and fenitrothion. The estimated risk characterization for orange intake by adults and children, respectively, ranged from 0.04 to 6.6% and from 0.1 to 26.5% of the acceptable daily intake. The detection of irregular residues emphasizes the need for better implementation of Good Agriculture Practices and greater control of formulated products. Other pesticides surveyed did not pose a health risk due to consumption.

  19. Infection of Amblyomma ovale with Rickettsia species Atlantic rainforest in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; McIntosh, Douglas; Furusawa, Guilherme P; Flausino, Walter; Rozental, Tatiana; Lemos, Elba R S; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, that is considered to represent a genetic variant of Rickettsia parkeri, are confirmed as being capable of infecting humans in Brazil. This study reports the detection and characterization, by PCR and nucleotide sequencing, of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rain forest in Amblyomma ovale parasitizing a human, in ticks infesting dogs and in free-living ticks collected from the environment where the human infestation was recorded. The data contribute to our knowledge of infection rates in A. ovale with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and identified an additional location in the state of São Paulo populated with ticks infected with this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Canine rabies epidemiology in Araçatuba and neighborhood, Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil

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    Silva Luzia Helena Queiroz da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological characteristics of canine rabies in the northwest region of São Paulo State (Araçatuba region, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997 are presented. Out of 1,984 dogs, a total of 351 (17.7% were positive for rabies diagnosis; 89% (312/351 of these occurred in urban areas and 85% (266/312 of the urban positive cases were among owned dogs. The mean age of the rabid dogs was 34 months and 61% were male. Aggressive behavior was observed in 77% of rabid dogs, followed by lack of coordination and paralysis (42% and 48% of these dogs were responsible biting people or other animals. Information about vaccination status was obtained from 182 records and 51% of rabid dogs were non-vaccinated. The number of unvaccinated rabid dogs indicates a low vaccination index and this factor added to the high dog/man ratio must have contributed to the canine rabies epizootic observed in the studied area.

  1. Air quality status and trends over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil as a result of emission control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Mazzoli, Caroline Rosario; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollutants concentrations shows benefits of Brazil's emission control policies. • Reduction in concentrations were due to vehicular emission control program. • SO 2 concentration reduction was due to a decrease in sulphur content used in fuels. • Monthly, weekly and diurnal cycle averages indicate the effects of vehicle emissions. - Abstract: Fourteen years of regulated air pollutants concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the benefits of Brazil's emission control policies on air quality conditions and to evaluate the temporal patterns between 1996 and 2009 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP includes one of the largest cities in the world (São Paulo) and its light-duty vehicular fleet has a very important characteristic in that it uses, on a large scale, fuels such as ethanol derived from sugar cane and compressed natural gas. Nowadays, ethanol makes up more than 50% of the fuel used in Brazil. The frequent episodes with high ozone and PM 10 concentration values in the MASP are mostly associated with vehicular emissions – primary emission of particles and gases enrolled in ozone photochemical production and formation of secondary fine particles. Although the fleet has increased at a substantial rate, annual mean values show a diminishing tendency for all pollutants except for ozone, which presents no significant tendency. This diminishing tendency in the analyzed period is due to the vehicular emission control program established by the Brazilian Government in 1986, called PROCONVE (Program for the Control of Vehicular Emission). Monthly mean values, as expected, show higher concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone during wintertime. The diurnal cycle of the pollutants in most of the stations shows two peaks, associated with rush hours, except for ozone, whose peak follows the maximum radiation incidence. Secondary (nocturnal) ozone concentration maxima were sometimes verified around

  2. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil Saúde mental dos imigrantes coreanos em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Sam Kang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%; mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants.Este estudo verificou a freqüência de transtornos psiquiátricos em uma comunidade de imigrantes coreanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A amostragem snowball com vários focos foi utilizada para contatar os imigrantes coreanos, acima de 18 anos e residentes em São Paulo. Foram selecionados 324 sujeitos, cuja saúde mental foi avaliada por meio de uma entrevista estruturada, Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, nas versões em português e coreano. Foi utilizado o critério de diagnóstico CID-10. A freqüência de algum diagnóstico psiquiátrico na vida foi de 41,9%. As freqüências de principais diagnósticos na vida foram

  3. Characterization of sporotrichosis cases treated in a dermatologic teaching unit in the state of São Paulo - Brazil, 2003 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gabriela Franco; Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Sousa, Juliana Martins Prazeres; Brandão, Letícia Stella Gardini; Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a transversal retrospective study with secondary data collection from 25 cases of sporotrichosis, treated at a teaching unit in inner São Paulo (Brazil), between the years 2003-2013. We found that the prevalence was higher in men (72%), rural workers (44%) and those living in rural areas (60%), with an average age of 42.48 years. The median between the onset of lesions and diagnosis was six weeks. Lesions predominated in the upper limbs (92%), and were classified as lymphocutaneous (80%) and fixed cutaneous (20%) forms. Clinical cure was observed in 62.5% of the cases treated with potassium iodide and 100% of cases treated with itraconazole.

  4. Biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Anostomidae in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    GA. Villares Junior

    Full Text Available Four biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil were analysed. These were accomplished during the year seasons. The fish diet and the feeding activity were investigated by studying the repletion index, which showed no significant differences between seasons. The food items analysed by frequency of occurrence and dominance showed a predominance of vegetable items in the diet. The reproduction, analysed by using the gonadosomatic index, indicated that the reproductive period occurs during the summer period when temperatures are higher and rainfalls are more intense. The amount of accumulated fat and condition factor varied according to reproduction, especially for females.

  5. Inquérito entre migrantes atendidos pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: I. Aspectos demográficos Survey conducted among migrants going through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN" in S. Paulo City, Brazil: I. Demographic aspects

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    Maria José Roncada

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos demográficos de uma pesquisa sobre hipovitaminose A, realizada entre migrantes nacionais que passaram pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Entre 1.097 indivíduos entrevistados, oriundos de todas as Regiões do país, de 15 a 60 anos de idade, cerca de dois terços eram do sexo masculino. A idade modal foi 22 anos. Foi apurada a procedência imediata e remota, originando resultados que mostraram ser os Estados de Minas Gerais, Bahia e Pernambuco, zonas de repulsão de populações, atuando os Estados de São Paulo (Capital e interior e Paraná como áreas de atração. Dentre os motivos apontados para o deslocamento atual, 45,3% referiram-se a atividades primárias (trabalho em lavoura.In the present study the demographic aspects of migrants are described. The data were collected at the same time as blood was collected for a study on vitamin A among the same subjects. A sample of migrants passing through the CETREN in S. Paulo, SP, Brazil, was taken, comprising 1.097 subjects. The subjects came from all regions of Brazil, buing 15 to 60 years of age. Roughly two thirds were males. Modal age was 22 years. Both remote and immediate origin were investigated and it was found that the States of Minas Gerais, Bahia and Pernambuco were repulsion areas and that, on the other hand, the States of S. Paulo (both Capital and hinterland and Paraná were attraction areas. Among the motives for migration mentioned by the subjects 45.3% refered to primary activities (agricultural labor.

  6. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  7. Animal-assisted therapy in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Amanda O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since ancient times, humans and animals have interacted for different purposes. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT is used for the assistance and treatment in humans and educational projects where animals are used as co-therapists or co-educators. The use of animals facilitates the process of teaching and learning, and stimulates physical and therapeutic activities. So that knowledge on AAT could be expanded, current study analyzes the opinion of people directly involved in education on AAT implementation as an educational model in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Questionnaires were handed out to 10 pedagogical coordinators, 32 teachers, 23 parents and 26 children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed that AAT is not well-known for most interviewees, including pedagogical coordinators, teachers and parents. However, interviewees believe in the benefits of child-pet interactions and are favorable to the implementation of AATs in schools. Projects should be interdisciplinary and must involve professionals from other areas, such as psychologists and veterinarians. Regarding the educational model, interviewees believe in the innovation capacity of AAT and in the possibilities of interdisciplinarity among teachers in the use of animals. Research also demonstrated that children like and support the use of animals in the school.

  8. Use of psychotherapy in a representative adult community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; da Silva, Paula Freitas R.; Peluso, Erica T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of psychotherapy to treat common mental disorders in a major city in a middle income country. Data come from in-home interviews with a stratified random sample of 2,000 community residents age 18–65 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The information obtained included sociodemographic characteristics; psychotropic drugs; mental status; and lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy. Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of use of psychotherapy. Of the sample, 22.7% met General Health Questionnaire-12 criteria for common mental disorders. Lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy were reported by 14.6%, 4.6%, and 2.3% of the sample respectively. Users were typically women, more educated, higher income, not married, unemployed, with common mental disorders. Further analysis found that 47% (with higher education and income) paid out-of-pocket, and 53% used psychotropic medication. Psychotherapy does not appear to be the preferred treatment for common mental disorders. PMID:25118139

  9. Sperm characteristics in a sample of healthy adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcos Mitsuyoshi Mori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary data from a prospective investigation in a sample of healthy 14-17-year-old students from a technical school in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-six Tanner stage 5 and thirty-one Tanner stage 4 adolescents were evaluated: testicular volume was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and semen analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Median testicular volume was 20.0ml among Tanner 5 students and 15.0ml in Tanner 4 students in both the right and left testes. No significant differences were found in sperm volume or motility. Median concentration was 66.0 million/ml for Tanner 5 and 47.0 million/ml for Tanner 4 subjects. Morphological patterns showed abnormal forms in 81.9% of Tanner 5 and 93.6% of Tanner 4 adolescents. Oligospermia (sperm concentration < 5 million/ml was observed in 7.3% of Tanner stage 5 and 12.9% of Tanner stage 4 individuals. Azoospermia was observed in 3 students (1.8%, with counts less than 1.0 in 8 students (4.8%. The authors discuss the observed results, analyzing the potential implications arising from biological development and potential environmental exposures.

  10. Total Diet Study. Mg and Mn content estimation of a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state (Brazil) by Instrumental Neutron Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseane Pagliaro Avegliano; Vera Akiko Maihara

    2014-01-01

    Total Diet Studies (TDS) have been carried out to estimate dietary intakes of the essential and toxic elements for a large-scale population over a specific period of time. In this study, the TDS was based on the evaluation of food representing a Market Basket (MB), which reflected the dietary habits of the Sao Paulo State population, corresponding to 72 % of the average food consumption for the state of Sao Paulo. In the present Total Diet Study, magnesium and manganese concentrations were determined in 30 of the most consumed food groups of a MB of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. Element concentrations were determined by INAA in freeze-dried samples and ranged in mg kg -1 . Mg 41.4 (fats)-5287 (coffee) and Mn 0.12 (prime grade beef)-32.9 (coffee). The average daily Mg and Mn intake was calculated by multiplying the concentration of each element in each table-ready food group by the respective weight (g day -1 ) of the food group in the MB and adding the products from all food groups. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study were: Mg 174.8 and Mn 1.34 mg day -1 . Theses values were lower than the adequate intake (AI) proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (USA National Academy) for adults. The low levels of Mg and Mn intakes presented in this TDS are probably due to the fact that MB of this study represented only 72 % of the weight of the most consumed household foods of Sao Paulo State. (author)

  11. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out between May and November 2011 to investigate the epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions. Three hundred farms from each region, with reproductive activity, were randomly chosen and included as primary sample units. A fixed number of bovine females, older than 2 years of age, were randomly selected and tested, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test. An epidemiological questionnaire based survey was conducted in the selected farms. Our results show that in the state of São Paulo, the apparent prevalence of positive farms was 9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 7.8 – 10.5%. The prevalence in the individual regions varied between 3.5% (95% CI = 1.7 ? 6.8% and 13.9% (95% CI = 10.2 – 18.8%. The apparent prevalence of positive animals in the state was 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9 – 1.7% and varied from 0.3% (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.6% to 2.5% (95% CI = 1.4 – 4.5% in the regions. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in the state were (i number of adult females in a herd is ? 24 (Odds ratio, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.32 – 2.75, (ii type of farm enterprise (dairy: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.40 – 5.21; mixed: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.08 – 3.82, (iii milking process (milking parlor: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.46 – 11.64; portable milking machine: OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.09, and (iv pasture sharing (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07 – 2.33. The state of São Paulo should implement a structured surveillance system to detect and mitigate the disease. Further, an efficient animal health education program, which encourages the farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds and to avoid pasture sharing with farms of unknown sanitary conditions should also be implemented.

  13. Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Efeitos da estocagem de vinhaca e das aguas de lavagem da cana-de-acucar na qualidade dos recursos hidricos da regiao de Dobrada, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadia, Jose Antonio Beltrao; Reboucas, Aldo da Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km{sup 2}, Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration and percolation of vinasse and water used for washing cane sugar, through accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs, respectively, in areas of Bauru Aquifer (Cretaceous). The Bauru Aquifer, free and porous, occurs in a extended area of 104.000 km{sup 2} in Sao Paulo State, as a major exploitable aquifer (more than 15.000 wells), used for domestic and industrial water supplies. For the groundwater, the following measures were found in analyses exceeding drinking water standards (WHO; CONAMA/Brazil and Sao Paulo State): manganese (0,03 to 3,5 mg/l), iron (0.45 to 34 mg/l), aluminum (1 to 52 mg/l) and phosphate (0,03 to 0.38 mg/l). For superficial water, the following measures exceeded drinking water standards: total iron (3 mg/l) and phosphate (0,035 mg/l). The main purpose of this research is to improve the field methodology to characterize the impacts of vinasse and washing water of cane sugar infiltration/percolation., detaching the relationship between ground and surface water, with the major aim to supply the legislation to protect drinking water resources. (author) 11 refs.

  14. Review of experience gained in fabricating nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds and their analytical quality control at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Franca Junior, J.M.; Ikuta, A.

    1977-01-01

    The main activities developed at 'Instituto de Energia Atomica' Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the recovery of uranium from ores, the purification of uranium and thorium raw concentrates and their transformation in nuclear grade compounds, are reviewed. The design and assemble of pilot facilities for ammonium diuranate (ADV) uranium tetrafluoride, uranium trioxide, uranium oxide microspheres, uranyl nitrate denitration, uranim hexafluoride and thorium compounds are discussed. The establishment of analytical procedures are emphasized [pt

  15. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil Dengue e risco da reintrodução da febre amarela urbana no Estado de São Paulo

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    Eduardo Massad

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo matemático para a estimativa da reprodutibilidade basal, R0, para a febre amarela urbana em uma área infestada pela dengue. MÉTODOS: O método utilizado considera que, como ambas as doenças são transmitidas pelo mesmo vetor (Aedes aegypti, poder-se-ia aplicar todos os parâmetros quantitativos relativos ao mosquito, estimados pela fase inicial da curva de crescimento de casos de dengue, à dinâmica da febre amarela. Demonstra-se que o R0 da febre amarela é em média 43% menor que o da dengue. Esta diferença deve-se à viremia mais prolongada da dengue, bem como ao menor período de incubação extrínseco daquele vírus no mosquito. RESULTADOS: Apresenta-se a aplicação desta análise matemática à situação epidemiológica da dengue no estado de São Paulo, para o ano de 2001

  16. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao de Neutrons; Kunioshi, Leonardo; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 mug kg{sup -1}) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 mug kg{sup -1}) - Pescada; (3 to 23 mug kg{sup -1}) - Tainha; (43 to 184 mug kg{sup -1}) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 mug kg{sup -1}) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 mug kg{sup -1}); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 mug kg{sup -1}); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 mug kg{sup -1}) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg{sup -1}). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  17. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.

    2009-01-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 μg kg -1 ) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 μg kg -1 ) - Pescada; (3 to 23 μg kg -1 ) - Tainha; (43 to 184 μg kg -1 ) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 μg kg -1 ) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 μg kg -1 ); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 μg kg -1 ); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 μg kg -1 ) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg -1 ). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  18. A survey of body practices and primary health care in a district of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara M. Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study surveyed the profile of people who did or did not take part in programs and activities in primary healthcare units in the Butantã district, the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The rationale for the study was the concept of body practice understood as a practice of health and care. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 1090 individuals mostly middle-aged housewives. Only 5.78% of respondents were enrolled in some program and activities, mainly walking and stretching. There was a consensus between participants and non-participants on the importance of initiatives geared to care for the body and attention to health. The difficulties for having access to programs and the lack of options in the health public service were pointed out as the main obstacles for a greater involvement by local population.

  19. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Mello, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ( 222 Rn) and progeny ( 214 Pb and 214 Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that 214 Pb and 214 Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent 222 Rn

  20. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Mello, C.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent {sup 222}Rn.

  1. Access to Street Markets and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables by Adolescents Living in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Breno Souza; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Goldbaum, Moisés; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto

    2018-01-01

    Food environment and income act as determinants of diet, and consequently, of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 521 adolescents (12 to 19 years) participating in the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo were used. Buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) were drawn around the households and the street markets were counted in each zone. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density. The main results showed that the presence of a street market in the zone closest to the households (500 m) was associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR: 1.73; CI 95% 1.01–3.00). Higher family income was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables for models of 500 m buffer (OR: 2.56; CI 95% 1.47–4.45), 1000 m (OR: 2.30; CI 95% 1.33–3.96), and 1500 m (OR: 2.32; CI 95% 1.35–4.00). These results support the implementation of public policies that jointly consider income and the availability of street markets or healthy food environments. PMID:29538324

  2. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1

  3. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  4. Does the reproductive season account for more records of birds in a marked seasonal climate landscape in the state of São Paulo, Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators have reported that birds from temperate regions are more detectable during their breeding seasons, which should be used to adequately survey avifaunas. In the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, the rainiest months of the year are usually associated with a peak in the reproduction of birds. To test the hypothesis that birds are equally detectable throughout the year, I conducted transect counts of birds in a predominantly open Cerrado landscape in São Paulo during 2005 and 2006. There was no significant difference in the number of species or individuals between breeding (rainy and nonbreeding (dry seasons; 24% of the species with > 50 contacts was likely to be recorded more often in a particular season. Unlike temperate regions, where vocal behavior plays an important role in detections of birds during and after reproductive seasons, my results suggest that Cerrado birds may be evenly detected throughout the year.

  5. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  6. Vascular Flora of a Cerrado sensu stricto remnant in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna has suffered massive destruction in recent years, mainly due tothe expansion of agricultural areas. Many remnants of this vegetation are still poorly studied. Therefore, thepurpose of this study was to carry out a floristic survey in a remnant of Cerrado in the municipality of Pratânia,central-west region of state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In total, 120 species (38 families, 88 genera wereregistered. The families with greater richness were: Fabaceae (23 species, Asteraceae (15, Myrtaceae (10,Malpighiaceae and Rubiaceae (seven each and Bignoniaceae (five. The shrub component was predominant inthe study area representing 37.5 % of the recorded species. A comparison among eight Cerrado areas showedgreater similarity between areas with similar altitude.

  7. Characterization of sporotrichosis cases treated in a dermatologic teaching unit in the state of São Paulo - Brazil, 2003 - 2013*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gabriela Franco; Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Sousa, Juliana Martins Prazeres; Brandão, Letícia Stella Gardini; Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a transversal retrospective study with secondary data collection from 25 cases of sporotrichosis, treated at a teaching unit in inner São Paulo (Brazil), between the years 2003-2013. We found that the prevalence was higher in men (72%), rural workers (44%) and those living in rural areas (60%), with an average age of 42.48 years. The median between the onset of lesions and diagnosis was six weeks. Lesions predominated in the upper limbs (92%), and were classified as lymphocutaneous (80%) and fixed cutaneous (20%) forms. Clinical cure was observed in 62.5% of the cases treated with potassium iodide and 100% of cases treated with itraconazole. PMID:25831006

  8. Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia; Pompeia, Celine; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Surveys were performed using the same three-stage cluster-sampling technique in three consecutive decades to obtain representative samples of the inhabitants of Sao Paulo with respect to gender, age (20-80 years), and socio-economic status. Sample sizes were 1000 volunteers in 1987 and 1995 surveys and 1101 in a 2007 survey. In each survey, the UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire was administered face-to-face in each household selected. For 1987, 1995, and 2007, respectively, difficulty initiating sleep (weighted frequency %; 95% CI) [(13.9; 11.9-16.2), (19.15; 16.8-21.6), and (25.0; 22.5-27.8)], difficulty maintaining sleep [(15.8; 13.7-18.2), (27.6; 24.9-30.4), and (36.5; 33.5-39.5)], and early morning awakening [(10.6; 8.8-12.7), (14.2; 12.2-16.5), and (26.7; 24-29.6)] increased in the general population over time, mostly in women. Habitual snoring was the most commonly reported complaint across decades and was more prevalent in men. There was no statistically significant difference in snoring complaints between 1987 (21.5; 19.1-24.2) and 1995 (19.0; 16.7-21.6), but a significant increase was noted in 2007 (41.7; 38.6-44.8). Nightmares, bruxism, leg cramps, and somnambulism complaints were significantly higher in 2007 compared to 1987 and 1995. All were more frequent in women. This is the first study comparing sleep complaints in probabilistic population-based samples from the same metropolitan area, using the same methodology across three consecutive decades. Clear trends of increasing sleep complaints were observed, which increased faster between 1995 and 2007 than from 1987 to 1995. These secular trends should be considered a relevant public health issue and support the need for development of health care and

  9. Spatial distribution and shell utilization in three sympatric hermit crabs at non-consolidated sublittoral of estuarine-bay complex in São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna, Bruno S. [UNESP; Zangrande, Cilene M. [UNESP; Reigada, Álvaro L.D. [UNESP; Severino-Rodrigues, Evandro

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial distribution and shell utilization of three hermit crab species in the estuarine-bay complex of São Vicente, São Paulo State, Brazil. Monthly samples were done throughout two years, in the non-consolidated sub-littoral at the estuarine-bay complex. The environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity and depth, were measured every month. The three hermit crab species, Clibanarius vittatus, Loxopagurus loxochelis and Isoche...

  10. HIV infection and related risk behaviours in a disadvantaged youth institution of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, D M; Strazza, L; Azevedo, R S; Carvalho, H B; Massad, E; Menezes, R X; Ferreira, D P; Burattini, M N

    1999-02-01

    In order to study the prevalence of HIV and related risky behaviours among disadvantaged youth, we interviewed and bled, between December 1994 and April 1995, 1122 young males and 93 young females who were serving time in FEBEM, a state institution that cares for homeless and offender youth of São Paulo, Brazil. Our questionnaire covered the following areas: sexual practices and use of illicit drugs; knowledge of HIV and STDs and their prevention; and myths and beliefs about AIDS. Seroprevalence of HIV was assessed and related with risk-taking behaviours by means of uni-, bi- and multivariate analysis. We found 2.6% of the males and 10.3% of the females to be positive to HIV. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies resulted in 5.9% for males and 4.6% for females, respectively. The risk for parenterally transmitted HIV among the males was higher than that for sexually related transmission. The inverse relationship was found among the females.

  11. Cadmium, lead, tin, total mercury, and methylmercury in canned tuna commercialised in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Esther Lima; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Milani, Raquel Fernanda

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine levels of inorganic contaminants in 30 samples of five commercial brands of canned tuna, acquired on the local market in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2015. Total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg+) were determined by atomic absorption with thermal decomposition and amalgamation; and cadmium, lead, and tin were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated that 20% of the tuna samples surpassed limits determined by the Brazilian and European Commission legislation for cadmium; for lead, the maximum value found was 59 µg kg -1 and tin was not detected in any samples. The maximum values found for total Hg and MeHg+ were 261 and 258 µg kg -1 , respectively. As from the results obtained, it was estimated that the consumption of four cans per week (540 g) of tuna canned in water could surpass the provisional tolerable monthly intake for MeHg + by 100%.

  12. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil and the challenges of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli K.M. Soares

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3-79.6 g. The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.

  13. Agribusiness opportunity costs and environmental legal protection: investigating trade-off on hotspot preservation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km(2) covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  14. Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil=Pesticidas na própolis do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Alves Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50, which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination.A crescente procura pela própolis tem ocasionado aumento em sua produção. Entretanto, uma agricultura cada vez mais dependente de pesticidas representa preocupação com relação à contaminação ambiental, além das abelhas e seus produtos. Neste sentido, a proposta do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença de pesticidas (organoclorados, organofosforados, piretroides, carbamatos, herbicidas, fungicidas e acaricidas em amostras de própolis do Estado de São Paulo. Apicultores de diversas localidades do Estado forneceram amostras de própolis (50. Estas foram coletadas, armazenadas em sacos plásticos atóxicos e mantidas em freezer até as análises. Os possíveis resíduos de pesticidas foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Não foi observada a presença dos pesticidas analisados nas amostras. Neste caso, a própolis analisada no Estado de São Paulo não apresentou contaminação por pesticidas.

  15. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  16. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jun Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  17. Citrus huanglongbing in São Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the 'Candidatus' Liberibacter species associated with the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Teixeira, Diva; Luc Danet, Jean; Eveillard, Sandrine; Cristina Martins, Elaine; de Jesus Junior, Waldir Cintra; Takao Yamamoto, Pedro; Aparecido Lopes, Silvio; Beozzo Bassanezi, Renato; Juliano Ayres, Antonio; Saillard, Colette; Bové, Joseph Marie

    2005-06-01

    Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of São Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus leaves by PCR amplification of their 16S rDNA with previously described primers. When this technique was applied to 43 symptomatic leaf samples from the Araraquara region, all PCR reactions were negative. This suggested that a new pathogen, not detected by the above primers, could be involved in HLB in the State of São Paulo. Indeed, by using universal primers for amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA, a new liberibacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, has recently been identified. Specific primers for PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA of Ca. L. americanus have been selected. Using these primers, the new liberibacter could be detected in 214 symptomatic leaf samples tested. The leaves of two additional samples were infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, and two further samples contained both Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. asiaticus. The samples came from 47 farms in 35 municipalities. The psyllid vector of Ca. L. asiaticus, Diaphorina citri, is established in South, Central, and North America (Florida and Texas). Ca. L. americanus could be detected by PCR in several batches of D. citri psyllids collected on symptomatic sweet orange trees infected with Ca. L. americanus, strongly suggesting that D. citri is the vector of Ca. L. americanus. The results reported here confirm the presence of HLB in the State of São Paulo. Ca. L. americanus is the most widely distributed pathogen.

  18. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  19. High prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Elizabete Pagotti da Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and possible associated factors. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 962 children (3-12-years from an area within the scope of a basic health unit in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by home interviews and three-sample stool analysis and evaluated with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly high (57.5%. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent (50.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli and Enterobius vermiculares (5.6-7.3% and other parasites of lower prevalence, such as Schistosoma japonicum (1% and Schistosoma mansoni (0.5%. No statistically significant associations were detected between prevalence and the risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: Since the area presents good conditions of environmental sanitation, health education programs should be implemented that emphasize hygiene procedures for the hands and for food and water to be consumed by the population.

  20. Prevalence and counts of Salmonella spp. in minimally processed vegetables in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2011-09-01

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) may be important vehicles of Salmonella spp. and cause disease. This study aimed at detecting and enumerating Salmonella spp. in MPV marketed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 512 samples of MPV packages collected in retail stores were tested for Salmonella spp. and total coliforms and Escherichia coli as indication of the hygienic status. Salmonella spp. was detected in four samples, two using the detection method and two using the counting method, where the results were 8.8 × 10(2) CFU/g and 2.4 × 10(2) CFU/g. The serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (three samples) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica O:47:z4,z23:- (one sample). Fourteen samples (2.7%) presented counts of E. coli above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian regulation for MPV (10(2) CFU/g). Therefore, tightened surveillance and effective intervention strategies are necessary in order to address consumers and governments concerns on safety of MPV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  2. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  3. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  4. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  5. Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of persons with traumatic paraplegia living in São Paulo, Brazil Características clínicas e sócio demográficas de pessoas com paraplegia traumática na cidade de São Paulo

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    Leila Blanes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical profile of individuals with paraplegia living in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: The sample consisted of 60 outpatients with traumatic paraplegia from whom clinical and demographic data were obtained. RESULTS: The patients were predominately men (86.7%, single (61.7%, with mean age of 32.9 (SD=9.47 years, and complete or incomplete primary education (63.3%. Although 41.7% were born in different states, all patients were current residents of São Paulo, Brazil. The most frequent cause of paraplegia was firearm injury (63.3% followed by car accident (20%. The most common complications observed in the patients were urinary (88.3% and anal (45% incontinence, muscle spasm (65%, and pressure ulcers (26.7%. CONCLUSION: The data revealed that the sample consisted predominantly of young males with low education level, showing complications due to SCI, and who were victims of urban violence.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de paraplégicos que vivem na cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 60 paraplégicos por causa traumática. O instrumento de coleta de dados constava de dados demográficos e clínicos. RESULTADOS: A maioria era do sexo masculino (86,7%, com média de idade igual a 32,9 (DP=9,47 anos, sendo 61,7% solteiros. Em relação à naturalidade 41,7% nasceram em outros estados, porém todos residiam em São Paulo. A causa mais freqüente da paraplegia foi por ferimento por arma de fogo (63,3%, seguida por acidente automobilístico (20%. Quanto às complicações decorrentes da lesão medular, destaca-se a presença de incontinência urinária (88,3% e anal (45%, o espasmo muscular (65% e a úlcera por pressão (26,7%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados permitiram verificar uma amostra de pessoas em sua maioria do sexo masculino, jovem, com baixa escolaridade e que apresentam complicações decorrentes da lesão medular e em grande parte, vítimas da violência dos grandes centros urbanos.

  6. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially in low and middle

  7. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M; Mello, C B

    2006-01-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon (222Rn) and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Poços de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for 214Pb and 214Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in São Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that 214Pb and 214Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent 222Rn.

  8. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  9. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

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    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  10. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  11. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos

    1999-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used

  12. Estimativa do total de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base através das medidas diárias da temperatura do ar Number of hours below any base temperature estimated by daily measurements of air temperature

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    Luiz B. Angelocci

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São propostas equações matemáticas para estimar o total diário de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base, em certo período, utilizando-se somente dos valores diários das temperaturas máxima, mínima e das 21 horas (hora local. A comparação entre os totais diários e mensais de "horas de frio" estimados pelas equações propostas e os observados através de termogramas, para várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, mostrou boa concordância entre os métodos de cálculo. O modelo proposto dispensa o uso de registros contínuos de temperatura. As vantagens de tal estimativa residem na maior disponibilidade de registros de temperaturas máximas, mínimas e das 21 horas, permitindo maior densidade de pontos em trabalhos de zoneamento agroclimático e de cartografia, além da eliminação do processo de cotação de termogramas.Mathematical equations are proposed to estimate the daily number of hours in which the air temperature remains below a determined treshold value. The equations require only daily values of maximum, minimum and 9 p.m. local time temperature, measured inside the meteorological shelter. This technique is suitable for machine computation thus avoiding the tremendous task of quantifying a large number of thermograms. This fact permits the utilization of a greater number of stations in studies of crop zonation and cartography. Good correlations were obtained between estimated and observed data of the daily and monthly total number of hours below 7°C, 13°C and 17°C, for five stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, showing relative accuracy of the proposed equations.

  13. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. BRAZIL. Macapá. Manaus. São Paulo. Belém. Fortaleza. Recife. Salvador. Rio de Janeiro. Porto. Alegre. Brasilia. ✪. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. BOLIVIA. PERU. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. VENEZUELA. CHILE. PARAGUAY. Atlantic Ocean. Pacific Ocean.

  14. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  15. Occurrence of Dinarmus basalis in Callosobruchus analis in stored soybean in São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Dinarmus basalis (Rondani em Callosobruchus analis (F. em soja armazenada em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Valmir Antonio Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus analis (F. is considered an important pest in several countries in Africa, Asia and Oceania. It has been observed infesting seeds belonging to 15 Leguminosae genera, including peanut, bean, chickpea, pea, cowpea, and soybean. One of its main natural enemies is the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, whose control efficiency has already been demonstrated in several studies. This paper records the occurrence of C. analis and its parasitoid, D. basalis, in stored soybean of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Callosobruchus analis (F. é uma praga de expressão econômica em diversos países da África, Ásia e Oceania. Já foi observado infestando sementes de espécies de leguminosas pertencentes a 15 gêneros, incluindo-se culturas como amendoim, grão-de-bico, feijão, ervilha, caupi e soja. Um de seus inimigos naturais mais importantes é o parasitóide Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, cuja eficiência de controle já foi demonstrada em vários estudos. Neste trabalho registra-se a ocorrência de C. analis e de seu parasitóide, D. basalis, em grãos armazenados de soja no estado de São Paulo.

  16. Meningococcal Disease Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Serotype 4 in São Paulo, Brazil, 1990 to 1996

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    Sacchi Claudio Tavares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A large epidemic of serogroup B meningococcal disease (MD, has been occurring in greater São Paulo, Brazil, since 1988.21 A Cuban-produced vaccine, based on outer-membrane-protein (OMP from serogroup B: serotype 4: serosubtype P1.15 (B:4:P1.15 Neisseria meningitidis, was given to about 2.4 million children aged from 3 months to 6 years during 1989 and 1990. The administration of vaccine had little or no measurable effects on this outbreak. In order to detect clonal changes that could explain the continued increase in the incidence of disease after the vaccination, we serotyped isolates recovered between 1990 and 1996 from 834 patients with systemic disease. Strains B:4:P1.15, which was detected in the area as early as 1977, has been the most prevalent phenotype since 1988. These strains are still prevalent in the area and were responsible for about 68% of 834 serogroup B cases in the last 7 years. We analyzed 438 (52% of these strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs of rRNA genes (ribotyping. The most frequent pattern obtained was referred to as Rb1 (68%. We concluded that the same clone of B:4:P1.15-Rb1 strains was the most prevalent strain and responsible for the continued increase of incidence of serogroup B MD cases in greater São Paulo during the last 7 years in spite of the vaccination trial.

  17. Alguns grupos de microrganismos em manteigas vendidas no município de São Paulo Microorganism groups found in butter sold in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de manteiga de 5 marcas diferentes vendidas em supermercados da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil com a finalidade de verificar as condições microbiológicas de manteigas e compará-las com os padrões recomendados. Semanalmente foi colhida uma amostra de cada marca, durante 21 semanas. A partir da parte aquosa de cada amostra, foram realizadas as contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrófilas (em ágar padrão e ágar gelisato, coliformes, proteolíticas e de bolores e leveduras e os resultados comparados com alguns parâmetros propostos por vários pesquisadores. Os valores obtidos nas contagens dos vários grupos de microrganismos estudados, em muitos casos podem ser considerados altos, os quais podem ser resultado do processamento e/ou conservação, realizados em condições não satisfatórias.One hundred and five samples of five different brands of butter in the supermarkets of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil were brought in for testing every week for 21 weeks. From the aqueous phase, counts were made for mesophilic and psichrophilic (using the standard plate count, agar and gelysate agar, coliform, proteolytic, and lipolytic bacteria, as well as for yeasts and molds. Results were compared with parameters proposed by several researchers. In many cases, the count values can be considered high, but these high counts may be due to inadequate processing and/or inadequate storage.

  18. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Brazil, inequality has dropped by 9% between 1993 and 2008, while in India,, it increased by 16%. This reflects the different labour markets in both countries, which provide the main source of income for households. This research project brings together The Centre for Analysis and Planning in São Paulo (CEBRAP) and ...

  19. Cataract prevalence in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de catarata na região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gabriel Arantes Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cataract is considered the main preventable cause of blindness and visual impairment mainly in poor countries. This study was done to evaluate if cataract is still an important cause of blindness in Central-West region of State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a systematically randomized sample of households in five cities located in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 4,229 individuals (8,458 eyes of all ages. All household members were considered eligible. They were submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination (visual acuity with and without visual correction, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, tonometry, and refractometry. Cataract diagnosis was given to eyes presenting lens opacity in biomicroscopy exam, according to Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II. Eye with a best correction, presenting visual deficiency or blindness caused by cataract was considered after excluded other pathologies that decrease visual acuity (VA. We considered as visual deficiency eyes with 0.05 OBJETIVO: A catarata é a principal causa tratável de cegueira e deficiência visual em países subdesenvolvidos. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar se a catarata continua sendo uma importante causa de cegueira no centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal, de caráter observacional, realizado em cinco cidades da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, para as quais o centro de referência é a cidade de Botucatu. A amostra estabelecida para este estudo, de forma aleatória, seria composta por 5.555 indivíduos, sendo que foram examinados 4.229 indivíduos (8.458 olhos, ou seja, 78% da amostra pretendida. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo que consistia em avaliação da acuidade visual (com e sem correção, tonometria, biomicroscopia, fundoscopia e exame refracional. O diagnóstico de catarata foi dado aos

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  1. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-11-01

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Yellow fever epizootics in non-human primates, São Paulo state, Brazil, 2008-2009 Epizootias de febre amarela em primatas não humanos no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%. Most of the epizootics (46.6% were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.Desde 2000, vem sendo observada a expansão da febre amarela (FA no Sudeste do Brasil, sendo detectados casos em áreas consideradas silenciosas por décadas. Epizootias em primatas não humanos (NHPs são considerados eventos sentinela para a detecção de casos humanos. É importante relatar eventos epizoóticos que podem ter impacto sobre o estado de conservação de espécies sensíveis. Descrevemos as epizootias, notificadas em NHPs no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Noventa e um eventos epizoóticos, envolvendo 147 animais, foram notificados em 36 municípios. As amostras foram obtidas a partir de 65 animais (44,2%. A maioria das epizootias (46,6% foram

  3. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  4. Correlates of substance use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo, Brazil Correlatos do uso de substâncias durante a gravidez na adolescência em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Marco Antonio Bessa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cocaine and marijuana use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo-SP, Brazil, with psychiatric disorders, social status and sexual history. METHOD: One thousand pregnant adolescents were assessed by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and sociodemographic and socio-economic questionnaire at the obstetric center of a public hospital in São Paulo. Hair samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The following data were associated with cocaine and/or marijuana use during the third trimester of the pregnancy: being younger than 14 years of age, having a history of more than 3 sexual partners, and having psychiatric disorders, specifically, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and somatoform disorder. CONCLUSION: In early adolescence pregnancy, having 3 or more sexual partners in life for this population is significantly associated with the use of cocaine or marijuana during gestation. This association suggests that specific intervention programs should target these young women.OBJETIVO: Investigar, numa população de gestantes adolescentes de uma maternidade pública de São Paulo-SP, Brasil, a associação entre o consumo de cocaína e maconha durante a gravidez com distúrbios psiquiátricos, status social e história sexual. MÉTODO: Mil adolescentes grávidas foram avaliadas por meio do Composite International Diagnostic Interview e de um questionário sociodemográfico e socioeconômico no centro obstétrico de um hospital público de São Paulo. Destas, foi colhida amostra para análise de fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Os seguintes dados foram associados com o uso de cocaína e/ou maconha durante o terceiro trimestre de gravidez: ter menos de 14 anos, ter história de mais do que três parceiros sexuais e ter transtornos psiquiátricos, em especial, transtorno afetivo bipolar, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático e transtorno somatoforme. CONCLUSÃO: Na popula

  5. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  6. Culture versus the law in the decision not to vaccinate children: meanings assigned by middle-class couples in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to learn how middle-class parents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, interpreted the country's prevailing vaccination requirements, based on their experiences with vaccinating, selectively vaccinating, or not vaccinating their children. A qualitative approach was used with in-depth interviews. The analytical process was guided by content analysis and the theoretical framework of the anthropology of the law and morality. For parents that vaccinated, Brazil's culture of immunization outweighed the feeling of compliance with the law; for selective parents, selection of vaccines was not perceived as deviating from the law. In both, the act of vaccinating their children was a matter of moral status. Meanwhile, the non-vaccinators, counter to the legal perspective, attributed their choice to care for the child on grounds that mandatory vaccination was contrary to their way of life; they experienced a feeling of social coercion and fear of legal impositions. Vaccination is an important practice in public health, but it can reveal tensions and conflicts from normative systems, whether moral, cultural, or legal.

  7. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1996-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima R. N. Knoll; Leandro M. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured) were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini) in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71...

  10. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  12. Thermochronology of the South American platform in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through apatite fission tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello Saenz, C.A.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.B.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio A, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fission-track method (FTM) in apatite was applied to 45 samples collected in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira mountain range), the Serra do Mar (Mar mountain range), regions next to these mountain ranges and the coastal region between Ubatuba and Santos in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to study the thermochronology of the South American Platform in southeast Brazil and its influence on Santos and Campos basins. The data presented in this work complement the previously presented data on the same region (Tello Saenz et al., 2003. J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 15, 765-774) with 31 new samples analyzed. The weighted mean of the corrected ages from high Mantiqueira (around 1000m), (121+/-6)Ma, coincides with the South Atlantic opening. The fact that its thermal history starts at a relatively low temperature (∼80 deg. C) suggests that the age of ∼120Ma would be the formation age of Serra da Mantiqueira due to a rapid pulse, in which tracks had no time to be retained at the closure temperature, that is ∼120 deg. C. The Serra do Mar presents a more complicated thermal history, with several reactivations indicated by the changes in the slope of its cooling curve. The thermal histories obtained in the regions next to these mountain ranges are compatible with the results mentioned above. The Santos Basin has unconformities that agree with changes in the slope thermal histories of the studied region

  13. Detection of natural occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Roberta P. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in the area surrounding the city of Araçatuba municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples from 129 cats were collected by rectal flush technique. It was compared two diagnosis methods, direct examination of feces and PCR. The presence of T. foetus DNA was verified using PCR by amplification of 347-bp fragment from the primers TFR3 and TFR4 and amplicons of positive cases were sequenced. Statistical analyses were performed investigating the associations between T. foetus infection with gender, age, breed, presence of diarrhea and/or history of diarrhea, previous treatment, lifestyle, origin, environment, and co-infection. T. foetus was observed in one sample (n=129 by direct microscopic examination of feces while PCR was positive in five samples (3.9%. Giardia species and Cryptosporidium species co-infection was also observed. Statistical analyses showed no significant associations between T. foetus infection and all listed factors, although most positive cats were asymptomatic and lived in multi-cat household. The isolates of T. foetus showed 100% identical sequences with other T. foetus isolates from cats around the world. So, the occurrence of T. foetus was confirmed in cats in Araçatuba city (Brazil. This parasite must be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with diarrhea and also in asymptomatic carriers as source of infection in multi-cat environments.

  14. Estimativa de área de soja por classificação de imagens normalizada pela matriz de erros

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    João Francisco Gonçalves Antunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a área plantada com soja por meio da normalização da matriz de erros gerada a partir da classificação supervisionada de imagens TM/Landsat‑5. Foram avaliados oito municípios no Estado do Paraná, com dados referentes à safra de 2003/2004. As classificações foram realizadas por meio dos métodos paralelepípedo e máxima verossimilhança, dando origem à "máscara de soja". Os valores do índice Kappa dos oito municípios ficaram acima de 0,6. As estimativas de área de soja, corrigidas por matriz de erros, apresentaram alta correlação com as estimativas oficiais do estado e com as estimativas geradas a partir de um método alternativo denominado "expansão direta". A estimativa de área de soja por meio da normalização da matriz de erros apresenta menor custo e pode subsidiar métodos convencionais na estimativa menos subjetiva de safras.

  15. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Reinaldo, Mônica Renata; Sena, Anne de; Granato, Celso F H

    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Silvia R. [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: souzasrd@terra.com.br

    2008-01-15

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  19. Reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.

  20. Obesity among children attending elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil: a case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabela da Costa, Ribeiro; Taddei, José Augusto A C; Colugnatti, Fernando

    2003-10-01

    To describe obesity among students of public schools in São Paulo and to identify risk factors for this nutritional and physical activity disorder. Case-control study of obese and non-obese schoolchildren to study risk factors for obesity. Anthropometric survey including 2519 children attending eight elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 7-10 years, of whom 223 were obese (cases; weight-for-height greater than or equal to two standard deviations (>or=2SD) above the median of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population) and 223 were eutrophic (controls; weight-for-height +/-1SD from NCHS median). Parents or guardians of the 446 cases and controls were interviewed about the children's eating behaviours and habits. The prevalence of obesity (weight-for-height >or=2SD) in the surveyed population was 10.5%. A logistic regression model fitted to the case-control dataset showed that obesity was positively associated with the following factors: birth weight >or=3500 g (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78), child's appetite at meals (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.49-5.83), watching television for 4 h per day or longer (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.32-3.24), mother's schooling >4 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.75) and parents' body mass index >or=30 kg x m(-2) (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.43-4.37). The explanatory multivariate model points to preventive measures that would encourage knowledge of the children and their guardians in relation to a balanced diet and a less sedentary lifestyle, such as reducing television viewing. Schoolchildren with a birth weight of 3500 g or more or whose parents are obese should receive special attention in the prevention of obesity.

  1. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score. To address association with overweight/obesity, a conceptual model was established and used for multiple analysis, performed by logistic regression. Results The children had an overweight/obesity frequency of 39.5%. Multiple analysis adjusted for socioeconomic level showed that overweight/obese children were more likely to eat at the mall (1.55; 95%CI=1.00-2.40, have overweight and obese parents (OR=1.71; 95%CI=1.08-2.71 and OR=3.55; 95%CI=2.18-5.80 respectively, report use of passive school transport (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.04-2.36, and consume chicken nuggets on 3 or more days per week (OR=3.03; 95%CI=1.32-6.95. Conclusion These results support the urgent need of strategies to reduce overweight/obesity and promote its prevention in schoolchildren. Moreover, intervention studies involving parents and addressing environmental factors are important for the development of effective programs.

  2. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim; Medeiros, Regina B.

    2013-01-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  3. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  4. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    William R. Nava

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet. and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids. This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.Os achados de escamados (Reptilia, Squamata são escassos no Cretáceo do Brasil, incluindo cinco registros pontuais, dois do Aptiano-Albiano da Bacia do Araripe (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior e Marques e Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans e Yabumoto, e três do Cretáceo Superior do Grupo Bauru (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. Nesta contribuição apresentamos um novo gênero e espécie de lagarto, Brasiliguana prudentis, baseado numa maxila esquerda com dentição. O material provém de depósitos da Formação Adamantina aflorantes próximos a cidade de Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O novo táxon é considerado um

  5. Comparação de estimativas de inquéritos de base populacional Comparación de estimativas de pesquisas de base poblacional Comparison of estimates of population-based surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar estimativas obtidas de inquéritos domiciliar e telefônico para monitoramento, intervenção e desenvolvimento de políticas de saúde. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados de 2.526 e 1.900 indivíduos de 18 anos e mais, residentes em Campinas, entrevistados pelo inquérito domiciliar e pelo telefônico, respectivamente. As variáveis sexo, faixa etária e escolaridade foram utilizadas para caracterizar a população estudada. Foram calculadas as prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. As estimativas das características sociodemográficas da população foram comparadas pelo teste t. A comparação das estimativas das demais variáveis, segundo o tipo de inquérito, foi feita pela regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as estimativas obtidas pelos dois inquéritos para as prevalências globais de: sobrepeso/obesidade, tabagismo, realização de mamografia no ano prévio e de Papanicolaou alguma vez na vida. Para pior saúde percebida, filiação a plano médico de saúde, realização do exame de mamografia alguma vez e de Papanicolaou no ano prévio, observaram-se diferenças significantes, com tendência de superestimação pelos dados do inquérito telefônico, exceto para pior saúde percebida. CONCLUSÕES: Para melhor compreensão das diferenças observadas, outros estudos serão necessários, pois as pesquisas telefônicas podem fornecer informações rápidas e essenciais para o monitoramento de fatores de risco modificáveis, para a avaliação de intervenções e para o desenvolvimento de políticas de promoção à saúde no País.OBJETIVO: Comparar estimativas obtenidas de pesquisas domiciliar y telefónica para monitoreo, intervención y desarrollo de políticas de salud. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de 2.526 y 1.900 individuos de 18 años y más residentes en Campinas, Brasil, entrevistados por pesquisa domiciliar y telef

  6. Checklist of decapods (Crustacea) from the coast of the São Paulo state (Brazil) supported by integrative molecular and morphological data: I. Infraorder Caridea: families Hippolytidae, Lysmatidae, Ogyrididae, Processidae and Thoridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terossi, Mariana; Almeida, Alexandre O; Buranelli, Raquel C; Castilho, Antonio L; Costa, RogÉrio C; Zara, Fernando J; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2018-01-09

    The current checklist is the result of a long-term multidisciplinary project which combined molecular techniques (mitochondrial DNA markers) and morphological analyses of adult specimens for an accurate and detailed identification of the total biodiversity of decapod crustaceans from marine and coastal (including estuaries) environments of São Paulo State (Brazil). This is the first of a series of reports and providing a checklist of caridean shrimps of the families Hippolytidae (5 spp.), Lysmatidae (6 spp.), Ogyrididae (2 spp.), Processidae (5 spp.) and Thoridae (1 sp.). We collected material of 13 species out of 19 recorded, with sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I - barcode region and 16S generated from 10 species. The previous record of Lysmata cf. intermedia for São Paulo is actually L. jundalini, as the first record in São Paulo/South Atlantic waters. The molecular data were helpful to confirm the identification of some species, as the occurrence of L. wurdemanni which is confirmed in the South Atlantic Ocean based on morphological, color pattern and molecular data.

  7. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Medicoes de densidade IN SITU em fundo vasoso do canal de acesso ao Porto de Santos/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, P S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m{sup 3}. (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs.

  8. Adding value to local resources specifically tailored for developing São Paulo State’s vitiviniculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verdi, Adriana Renata; Otani, Malimiria Norico; Fredo, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    São Paulo state’s vitiviniculture ranks second in Brazil, being characterized by the production of table grapes and wines derived from American and hybrid varieties. Despite its economic, social, and environmental benefits, the state’s vitiviniculture has witnessed an increasing dependence on grapes produced in other states over the last decade. Besides adding to the cost of producing wine in São Paulo, grape imports from the state of Rio Grande do Sul compromises not only product quality, bu...

  9. Three year seroepidemiological study of varicella-zoster virus in São Paulo, Brazil Três anos de estudo soroepidemiológico do vírus varicela-zoster em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Ana Lúcia Frugis YU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of varicella has been carried out in children attending the public school network of São Paulo city, Brazil, from 1992 to 1994. This study was performed in order to establish the age related prevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus (VZV and its age specific transmission dynamics pattern in these children. Among 2500 schools in the city of São Paulo public network, 304 were randomly selected; 7 children of a given age (ranging from 1 to 15 years were randomly selected in each school, and blood samples were obtained by fingerprick into filter paper. Blood eluates were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to VZV by ELISA. Proportion of seropositivity were calculated for each age group. Samples consisted of 1768 individuals in 1992, 1758 in 1993, and 1817 in 1994, resulting in 5343 eluates. A high proportion of seropositive children from 1 to 3 years of age was observed, ascending until 10 years of age and reaching a plateau around 90% afterwards. VZV transmission in this community was similar along the three years of the study. In children attending public schools in the city of São Paulo, contact with VZV occurs in early childhood. If immunization against VZV is considered it should be introduced as soon as possible.Um estudo sorológico para varicela foi realizado em crianças matriculadas na rede pública de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1992 e 1994. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência idade-dependente de anticorpos contra o vírus varicela-zoster (VVZ e definir sua dinâmica de transmissão nestas crianças. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 304 escolas entre os 2500 equipamentos da Rede Pública de Educação e Bem Estar Social na cidade de São Paulo; foram sorteadas em cada escola 7 crianças de determinada idade (de 1 a 15 anos, e o sangue colhido em papel de filtro. Os eluatos foram avaliados para anticorpos contra o vírus varicela zoster através de técnica de ELISA. A

  10. Composição de lancheiras de alunos de escolas particulares de São Paulo Composición de las fiambreras de alumnos de escuelas privadas de São Paulo, Brasil Contents of students lunchboxes in private schools of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Tatiana Tenorio Matuk

    2011-06-01

    ños estudiados, 82% trajeron cereales, 67% jugos artificiales y otras bebidas, 65% leche y alimentos lácteos, 51% bizcocho, galletas y barras de cereales rellenas y/o con cobertura y 35% embutidos en por lo menos un día de recolección. La frecuencia de frutas y jugos naturales fue de 33% y de verduras y legumbres fue de 4%. Niñas llevaron para la escuela con más frecuencia frutas y hortalizas (pOBJETIVE: To evaluate the composition of lunchboxes of children attending second to fifth grades of private schools in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in five units of a private school, located in different regions of the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Every lunchbox was checked for three non-consecutive days in the year 2008. All children from second to fifth grades of these units (n=501 were studied and categorized according to the presence or absence of each food group in the lunchboxes on at least one of the three days of observation. RESULTS: Among the children studied, 82% brought cereals, 67% artificial juices and other beverages, 65% milk and dairy foods, 51% cake, biscuits and cereal bars with filling and/or icing and 35% sausages in at least one day. The frequency of students who brought fruit and natural juices was 33%, and vegetables 4%. Girls more often took fruits and vegetables to school (p<0.05. Older students more often did not carry lunchboxes to the school, compared to younger ones, during the three days of observation (11 and 4% respectively; p<0,05. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of the school lunch-boxes, despite some positive aspects, was inadequate. Lunchboxes presented over-processed foods, usually with a high content of sugar, fat and sodium, and absence of fruits and vegetables.

  11. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, D.

    1991-01-01

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3σ(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 4n- ] n layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca 2+ ions and H 2 O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 (P O 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 .4 H 2 O must be changed to Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 .7 H 2 O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author)

  12. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  13. Associação forética entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Elmidae (Coleoptera, coletados em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brasil Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus and adult of Coleoptera, collected from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa O. Segura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra a ocorrência de foresia entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 e Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. Os exemplares foram obtidos em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.This note reports phoresy between larvae of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironominae, Tanytarsini and adult of Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 and Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. The specimens had been collected in streams from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  14. A Hospitalidade e a Gestão de Restaurantes: Evidências de um Estudo Múltiplo de Casos em São Paulo, Brasil / The hospitality and restaurant management: evidences from a multiple case study in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Mario da Silva Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O setor dos serviços de alimentação mudou significativamente nas últimas três décadas. O estilo familiar que antes imperava deu lugar a empreendimentos profissionalizados. Este artigo busca compreender esta evolução a partir da relação entre os conceitos da gestão de restaurantes e a hospitalidade. Para atender este objetivo elaborou-se um estudo múltiplo de caso envolvendo quatro restaurantes de diferentes posicionamentos, em São Paulo/SP, todos reconhecidos por seu sucesso há mais de quinze anos. O estudo da identidade dos estabelecimentos possibilita a concepção de processos operacionais e sua relação com a hospitalidade. Os resultados do estudo sugerem que a gestão da hospitalidade nos restaurantes pesquisados é prioritária para seus dirigentes, que atestam sua importância na complexa gestão do negócio efazem-no eficientemente. Conclui-se que um plano inicial de ação e o posicionamento temático são, assim como o plano de negóciose procedimentos financeiros,indispensáveis para o sucesso e perenidade destes empreendimentos.  The hospitality and restaurant management: evidences from a multiple case study in São Paulo, SP, Brazil - The sector of food service has changed significantly over the past three decades. The familiar style that prevailed before gave way to professionalized endeavors. This article seeks to understand this evolution from the relationship between the concepts of hospitality and restaurant management. To meet this goal was prepared a multiple case study involving four different positions restaurants in São Paulo (Brazil, all recognized for their success for over fifteen years. The study of the identity of establishments enables the design of business processes and their relationship with the hospitality. The study results suggest that hospitality management in the surveyed restaurants is a priority for their leaders to attest to its importance in the complex management of the business and do

  15. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

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    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  16. Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year Consumo de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em São Paulo: influências de gênero e ano letivo

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    Lucio Garcia de Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. METHOD: Over a five-year period (1996-2001, we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days. The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. DISCUSSION: Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de álcool, tabaco e outras drogas entre os estudantes de Medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo dentro de um período de cinco anos (1996-2001. MÉTODO: Participaram 457 universitários que responderam a um questionário anônimo sobre o uso de drogas (medidas: uso na vida, nos últimos 12 meses e nos últimos 30 dias. A influência do gênero e do ano letivo do universitário sobre o uso de drogas também foi analisada. RESULTADOS: Em cinco anos, houve um aumento do uso de drogas ilegais entre os estudantes de Medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo

  17. Association of ecstasy seizure rates with district Human Development Index in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007

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    Silvio Fernandes Lapachinske

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether ecstasy consumption is associated with the socioeconomic status in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007. We used an official, reliable and unbiased source supplied by the Department of Narcotics of the State of São Paulo (Denarc database and the Human Development Index of the districts (HDId where the seizures occurred. A Spearman correlation test between the average number of ecstasy seizures per million of inhabitants with the HDId was used. There were 190 seizures (totaling 47,934 tablets spread out in 53 of the 96 districts and 51.6% were concentrated in only 8 districts. The higher rates of ecstasy seizures were directly associated with districts with high HDId that confirmed the association of ecstasy consumption with the socioeconomic status. Itaim-Bibi, Jardim Paulista and Moema were the top three districts with the highest HDId. In these districts, the number of tablets per seizure ranged from as few units to thousands, revealing that not only consumption but also traffic coexist at the same place. Districts with many nightclubs can also influence the incidence of seizures. This knowledge can be useful to help the police from other Brazilian cities to combat ecstasy trafficking.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  19. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages.

  20. Prevalência da imunodeficiência severa combinada em cavalos da raça Árabe em plantéis de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Prevalence of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo-Brazil

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    C.S. Teixeira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram genotipados 205 cavalos da raça Árabe, criados nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, via DNA por meio de PCR, para determinação da presença do gene mutante SCID. Os resultados mostraram 98,5% de animais normais (202/205 e 1,5% de portadores (3/205. Pela análise da genealogia dos portadores identificados pode-se, ainda, confirmar a participação de um garanhão anteriormente identificado como provável disseminador da doença.In the present study, 205 Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, were genotyped using the PCR technique. The results showed 98.5% of normals (202/205 and 1.5% of SCID carriers (3/205. Checking the pedigrees of the three carriers was possible to confirm the participation of one stallion first identified as the possible disease disseminator.

  1. Imigração e médicos italianos em São Paulo na primeira república Immigration and Italian physicians in São Paulo during the First Republic

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    Maria do Rosário R. Salles

    2007-05-01

    European immigration to the southeastern region of Brazil due to the necessity of labor in the coffee plantations in the last decades of the 19th century and beginning of the 20 is a well-kown topic of study. But what still remains to be explored is the relation between immigration and the sanitary reform that took place at the time. The state of São Paulo has a very sad story of Italian immigrants exposed to the virulance of the transmissible diseases. This caotic situation was the beginning of a movement for the health reform. The farmers considered immigration a vital input to the coffee economy and there was a strong commitment of the urban elites and the national government to show the world that Brazil wanted to erase its bad public health reputation. Reformists and their actions elected the European Immigrant as the first target for health improvement. This paper presents some data related to such actions and analyses the way foreign countries – particularly Italy – sent medical and other missions to evaluate and improve the health conditions of their countrymen, workers in the rural and urban areas in Brazil. A phenomenon related to the efforts of the health inspectors was the consolidation of a fairly large “Italian” medical profession and the opening of “Italian” hospitals in São Paulo and other parts in Brazil. These two aspects of the beginning of the public health movement in Brazil – the impact of immigration and the setting up of the medical profession - are the main focus of analysis inthis paper. Keywords: Italian immigration. São Paulo. Brazil. Public health. Italian physicians.

  2. Mortalidade diferencial por causas, São Paulo, Brasil, 1970: tábuas de vida de múltiplo decremento Mortality differentials classified according to cause of death, S. Paulo, Brazil, 1970: multiple decrement life tables

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    Sabina Léa Davidson Gotlieb

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas considerações sobre tábua de vida de múltiplo decremento, com o objetivo de avaliar a magnitude da atuação de alguns grupos de agravos à saúde nas probabilidades de morte, de sobrevivência e nas esperanças de vida dos residentes no município de São Paulo (Brasil, em 1970. A esperança de vida ao nascer foi igual a 60,12 anos no sexo masculino e 67,21 anos no sexo feminino. Os principais grupos de doenças em função dos ganhos que propiciariam à esperança de vida ao nascer, caso não tivessem sido fator de risco de morte, foram: no sexo masculino - cardiovasculares; infecciosas e parasitárias; acidentes, envenenamentos e violências e os tumores malignos; no sexo feminino - cardiovasculares; infecciosas e parasitárias; tumores malignos e os acidentes, envenenamentos e violências. Levantou-se a hipótese de que o padrão de mortalidade no município de São Paulo, em 1970, refletiria a existência de problemas de saúde de uma população formada por setores distintos onde coexistiriam condições típicas adversas à saúde, ora de regiões consideradas desenvolvidas, ora de regiões em desenvolvimento.General considerations about multiple decrement life tables are made to evaluate the impact of some diseases and other causes of death on the probabilities of death and survival and on the life expectancy of the inhabitants of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1970. The male life expectancy calculated was 60.12 years, and the female, 67.21. The main groups of causes of death, classified by the gains, were: for males - cardiovascular diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents, poisonings and violences and neoplasms; for women - cardiovascular diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, neoplasms and accidents, poisonings, and violence. A dichotomous population could be considered as an explanatory hypothesis for the pattern of mortality prevailling in 1970 in S. Paulo; that is, the patterns probably

  3. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg -1 and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg -1 , respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  4. Ocorrência de astrovírus humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of human astrovirus in S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Klaus Eberhard Stewien

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram detectados astrovírus humanos durante estudo longitudinal de 13 meses sobre a incidência de vírus diarréicos em 146 crianças menores de 2 anos de idade, hospitalizadas em clínica pediátrica de um hospital universitário, na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Das 67 crianças internadas com diarréia aguda, 3% foram positivas para astrovírus, por ocasião de sua admissão, pelo Ensaio Imunoenzimático Monoclonal Amplificado (ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, CDC, USA. As 79 crianças sem diarréia, admitidas durante o mesmo período por outra causa (controles, foram negativas para astrovírus, por ocasião de seu internamento. Entretanto, 4,8% do total de crianças hospitalizadas sofreram infecções por astrovírus durante sua permanência no hospital. Este é o primeiro estudo sobre a ocorrência de astrovírus humanos no Brasil, que assim participam significativamente na etiologia da gastroenterite infantil em nosso meio.Human astrovirus was detected during a 13-month longitudinal study of the incidence of diarrhoea viruses among hospitalized children (<2 years of age in a pediatric clinic of the city of S. Paulo (University Hospital. Serial fecal samples (intervals of 4 days were collected from 146 children with and without acute diarrhoea at admission and during their stay in the hospital. Two (3% of the 67 children with diarrhoea were positive at admission to the clinic by the highly sensitive ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, using CDC monoclonal antibodies (MAb SE7. All 79 children without diarrhoea (controls were negative for astrovirus at admission. However, astrovirus was detected in 7 (4.8% of the 146 hospitalized children during their stay in the clinic. Three of the positives shed astroviruses in 2 successive stool samples. All children positive for astrovirus were negative for rotavirus, adenovirus and bacterial and parasitic enteric agents. This is the first study of the detection of human astrovirus in Brazil. Astrovirus

  5. Additional information about a mange outbreak by Allopsoroptoides galli (Acari: Psoroptoididae in commercial laying hens in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna C. Tucci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports additional information about a mange outbreak by the mite Allopsoroptoides galli in a commercial egg-laying hen facility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. About half of the 76,000 multi-age birds of the flock were affected. Experimental infestations carried out on naive hens resulted in clinical signs similar to those diagnosed in naturally infested hens, such as generalized scaly dermatitis, presence of mucus-like material and yellowish crusts on the skin and around the calami, feather loss and strong unpleasant odor. About 30% drop of egg production was estimated. The possible source of infestation were wild birds identified on the ground and roofs of the sheds.

  6. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  7. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  8. Soil-plant transfer models for metals to improve soil screening value guidelines valid for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina N; Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Moreno, Fabio Netto; Alleoni, Luís R F

    2017-11-07

    In Brazil, there is a lack of combined soil-plant data attempting to explain the influence of specific climate, soil conditions, and crop management on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by plants. As a consequence, soil-plant relationships to be used in risk assessments or for derivation of soil screening values are not available. Our objective in this study was to develop empirical soil-plant models for Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn, in order to derive appropriate soil screening values representative of humid tropical regions such as the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Soil and plant samples from 25 vegetable species in the production areas of SP were collected. The concentrations of metals found in these soil samples were relatively low. Therefore, data from temperate regions were included in our study. The soil-plant relations derived had a good performance for SP conditions for 8 out of 10 combinations of metal and vegetable species. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in lettuce and for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in carrot were determined under three exposure scenarios at pH 5 and 6. The application of soil-plant models and the BCFs proposed in this study can be an important tool to derive national soil quality criteria. However, this methodological approach includes data assessed under different climatic conditions and soil types and need to be carefully considered.

  9. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Marilena dos Anjos; ARAÚJO, Evangelina da Motta Pacheco Alves de; KUWAKINO, Marcelo Hisato; HEINS-VACCARI, Elisabeth Maria; DEL NEGRO, Gilda Maria Bárbaro; VOZZA JÚNIOR, João Antonio; LACAZ, Carlos da Silva

    1997-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil) and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast) for 6 yea...

  10. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species

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    W. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  11. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  12. Brazil joins IPPOG as a member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    ignacio de Bediaga Hickman from the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE) has signed the IPPOG MoU on behalf of Brazilian Particle physics outreach community. Marcelo Munhoz from University of Sao Paulo will be the official representative of Brazil in IPPOG

  13. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  14. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  15. How Brazil turned one public health school into 40

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Brazil built its public health education system through the work of the renowned Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, which established courses across the whole country. The courses eventually became the core curriculum for small schools and now Brazil boasts 40 schools of public health. Foundation President Paulo Buss argues that there are ways that resource-poor countries can improve their public health education.

  16. Estimativa das máximas pistas de vento no reservatório da barragem de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i1.112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos métodos empregados na estimativa da altura de ondas, geradas pela ação do vento, necessita da determinação do comprimento da pista sobre a qual o vento atua. A escolha do método depende da natureza do corpo de água, podendo ser aplicável a áreas oceânicas ou a corpos d’água interiores, como baías, lagos e reservatórios. Uma das soluções rotineiras tem sido a aplicação direta do método validado em águas oceânicas para águas interiores sem levar, portanto, em consideração, o efeito de restrição oferecido pelas margens. Não obstante, a excessiva quantidade de operações do método aplicado a corpos de água interiores (onde a margem é condição de restrição, pode, se não usado uma base gráfica suficientemente precisa da margem acrescido da subjetividade do operador, não assegurar um grau de precisão satisfatório. Assim exposto, esta comunicação científica traz à luz esta discussão, propondo uma solução clássica baseada na aplicação do método adequado a águas interiores (Saville et al., 1954, via processamento automatizado. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido um programa em linguagem computacional AutoLISP. A aplicação do programa determinou as máximas pistas de vento no reservatório da barragem de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo, como estando entre 9,5 e 12,5 km, contrariamente a um estudo anterior que havia previsto pistas bem superiores (fator da ordem de 3.

  17. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  18. Frequency and characteristics of induced abortion among married and single women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza e Silva, Rebeca de; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aimed at estimating the frequency of induced abortion among women 15 to 49 years of age. The objective was to characterize the occurrence of induced abortion by comparing the ideal number of children, age, and contraceptive use between married and single women. Based on random sampling, 1,749 interviews were held, including 764 married women, 658 single women, and 327 with other marital status. The analysis included: mean number of abortions per woman by analysis of variance and proportions of abortions and pregnancy, using the chi-square test. The mean abortion rate for married women (45 per thousand) did not differ statistically from that of single women. However, the pregnancy rate was much lower in single women, and when single women became pregnant they used abortion more frequently; while fewer than 2% of pregnancies in married women ended in induced abortions, among single women the abortion rate exceeded 18%. Therefore, the priority in the reproductive health field should be to invest in the supply and dissemination of appropriate contraceptive methods for women's early sexually active life.

  19. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  2. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  3. Patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotics prescriptions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stella de Azevedo Silveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of its global underuse, clozapine is still the golden standard antipsychotic for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS. Objective To evaluate the patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs prescription in TRS in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A multiple-choice questionnaire was applied to fifteen psychiatrists at five centers inquiring about patients’ clinical condition, adherence to oral treatment and current antipsychotic treatment. History of previous and current antipsychotic treatment was collected through medical chart review. Results Out of 442 schizophrenia patients, 103 (23.3% fulfilled the criteria for TRS. Fifty-eight patients (56.3% were receiving polypharmacy; 30 (29.1% were on atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, 14 (13.6% were on typical antipsychotic monotherapy, 25 (24.3% were taking depot antipsychotic medication and only 22 (21.4% were receiving clozapine. Discussion As well as in other parts of the world, many TRS patients (78.6% receive other drugs instead of clozapine in São Paulo, the best evidence-based medication for patients with TRS. The government should make every effort to provide medical training and the equipment and logistic support to adequately serve those who could benefit from clozapine treatment at the community health centers.

  4. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

  5. Metallic elements distribution in drainage sediments of the Parque Estadual de Anchieta - Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Sigolo, Joel Barbujiani

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the geochemical behavior of metals in river sediments from Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta which is located in the north coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Anchieta Island presents many natural ecosystems well preserved without anthropogenic contamination. The sediments were collected in two different points in one of the main rivers of the island. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) which permits the quantification of total concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta and Zn), rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb e Yb), actinides (U and Th) and non metals (As, Br and Sb). Elemental content in the samples had remained relatively constant along the deep of the sample and the changes seemed to be well correlated with the size of the particles in the samples. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of two geological reference materials and data obtained were in good agreement with recommended values. The values obtained for the analyzed elements can be considered the natural concentration of those elements, since Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta is preserved from anthropogenic impact. (author)

  6. Estimativa das máximas pistas de vento no reservatório da barragem de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo = Estimation of the maximum wind fetches in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos métodos empregados na estimativa da altura de ondas,geradas pela ação do vento, necessita da determinação do comprimento da pista sobre a qual o vento atua. A escolha do método depende da natureza do corpo de água, podendo ser aplicável a áreas oceânicas ou a corpos d’água interiores, como baías, lagos e reservatórios.Uma das soluções rotineiras tem sido a aplicação direta do método validado em águas oceânicas para águas interiores sem levar, portanto, em consideração, o efeito de restrição oferecido pelas margens. Não obstante, a excessiva quantidade de operações do métodoaplicado a corpos de água interiores (onde a margem é condição de restrição, pode, se não usado uma base gráfica suficientemente precisa da margem acrescido da subjetividade do operador, não assegurar um grau de precisão satisfatório. Assim exposto, esta comunicação científica traz à luz esta discussão, propondo uma solução clássica baseada na aplicação do método adequado a águas interiores (Saville et al., 1954, via processamento automatizado.Para tanto, foi desenvolvido um programa em linguagem computacional AutoLISP. A aplicação do programa determinou as máximas pistas de vento no reservatório da barragem de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo, como estando entre 9,5 e 12,5 km, contrariamente aum estudo anterior que havia previsto pistas bem superiores (fator da ordem de 3.Most methods employed to estimate the height of waves generatedby the wind require the surface length over which the wind blows. The choice of method depends on the nature of the water body, being applicable to ocean areas or interior water bodies, such as bays, lakes and reservoirs. One of the usual solutions has been the directusage of the method validated in ocean waters for interior waters, therefore, not taking into consideration the effect of the restriction imposed by the shores. Nevertheless, the excessivequantity of

  7. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in the retina in eye banks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Deise F; Nascimento, Heloisa; Sutili, Aline; Nobrega, Fernando A J; Fowler, Flavio; Nobrega, Mario Junqueira; Garrido, Cristina; de Oliveira Dias, Janaina; Adán, Consuelo B D; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Silveira, Claudio; Belfort, Rubens; Commodaro, Alessandra G

    2017-07-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16). The retinas were macroscopically analyzed and collected for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed using the T. gondii B1 marker. By qPCR, a higher frequency of T. gondii DNA in the retinas from the eye bank of Joinville (25%) was found when compared to Manaus (5%). The retinas from Sao Paulo and Chapeco were qPCR negative. Clinical examination determined the retina lesions to be compatible with toxoplasmosis in the following frequencies: Joinville (62.5%), Manaus (10%), Sao Paulo (6.7%), and Chapeco (15.4%).

  8. Estimativa da distribuição da energia solar no Estado de São Paulo An estimative on the distribution of solar energy in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admar Cervellini

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores analisam a distribuição da energia solar no Estado de São Paulo, área limitada pelas latitudes de 20°S a 25°S. É apresentada uma equação média para determinação da radiação na superfície, partindo de dados de insolação para as condições da referida área. Utilizou-se o método clássico da correlação entre dados de actinógrafo e heliógrafo.The authors analyse the distribution of solar energy in the State of São Paulo, an area which is limited within 20° and 25° south. An average equation is presented for the determination of radiation on the surface, starting from insolation data for the conditions of the mentioned area. For this purpose the classic method was utilized of correlation between data from actinograph and heliograph.

  9. Sources of Brazil's Counter-Hegemony

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    Marcos Aurelio Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been two key initiatives taken in the last two decades in Brazil to create a counter-hegemonic project for the country. One initiative resulted from Brazil's business community and high-level State bureaucracy and aimed at forming a regional economic and political bloc that would guarantee and enlarge a relative independence from the hegemonic powers. The other resulted from the emergence of the new unionist movement in São Paulo and from the formation of Partido dos Trabalhadores and aimed at promoting radical democratization and reducing social exclusion. Both initiatives have created policies and changes that have converged to enhance Brazil's counter-hegemonic position as a regional and emerging power.

  10. Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, Andre R; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-08-28

    In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Suicide rates in Brazil, the State of SP, and the city of SP were 6.2, 6.6, and 5.4 per 100,000, respectively. Taking suicide rates of the poorest area (3) as reference, the RR for the wealthiest area was 1.64, 0.88, and 1.65 for Brazil, State of SP, and city of SP, respectively (p for trend <0.05 for all analyses). Spatial cluster of high suicide rates were identified at Brazilian southern (RR = 2.37), state of SP western (RR = 1.32), and city of SP central (RR = 1.65) regions. A direct association between income and suicide were found for Brazil (OR = 2.59) and the city of SP (OR = 1.07), and an inverse association for the state of SP (OR = 0

  11. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  12. Prevalência de hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares de município da Área Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Prevalence of hypovitaminosis A in preschool children in a town of the Metropolitan Area of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria José Roncada

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas dosagens de vitamina A e caroteno plasmáticos em 362 pré-escolares de 3 a 6 anos de idade, residentes na área urbana do Município de Cotia, situado a 34 km de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, usando-se amostra representativa. O método utilizado foi o de Carr-Price e os critérios de classificação dos resultados foram propostos pelo "Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense" (ICNND. A prevalência de hipovitaminose A em nível bioquímico foi de 30,2%.Three-hundred and sixty-two preschool children between the ages of three and six years were examined for plasma levels of vitamin A and carotene. All were residents of the urban area of the city of Cotia, thirty-four km from S. Paulo, Brazil. A representative sample was taken for the purpose. The Carr-Price laboratory method was used as were the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND criteria for classifying results. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency at biochemical level was 30.2%.

  13. Occurrence of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from São Paulo State, Brazil, and Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.

  14. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  15. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomtempo, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m -1 day -1 . (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  16. Ocorrência de Halysidota orientalis Rothschild (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) em amoreira (Morus alba L.) no Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Romano, Fabiana C.B.; Nakano, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de lagartas de Halysidota orientalis Rothschild em plantas de amoreira (Morus alba L.) no estado de São Paulo. Alguns aspectos da morfologia externa do adulto, larva e pupa são descritos. The occurrence of larvae of Halysidota orientalis Rothschild on mulberry plants (Morus alba L.) is recorded for the first time in São Paulo, Brazil. Morphological aspects of adult, larva and pupa are described.

  17. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  18. Public awareness of dementia: A study in Botucatu, a medium-sized city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a progressive and debilitating disease affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. Despite its importance, only a few studies have examined public awareness of dementia. We present a study of the public awareness of dementia in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A sample of 73 individuals answered a questionnaire approved by the Medical Ethics Research Committee inquiring about the characteristics of healthy old-aged and demented individuals. Results: Those interviewed believed that dementia is characterized by prevalent memory impairment (41% and behavioral changes (32.9% with onset in the 60's or older (42.5% and upon suspecting dementia, only a few would seek specialized medical help. Discussion: Better understanding of public awareness of dementia provides the clue to more effective health and social policies in order to achieve a higher rate of early diagnosis and thereby possibly decreasing patient, family and caregiver distress.

  19. Public health challenges and emerging diseases: the case of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luiz Jacintho da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases in 100 years of public health in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With an advanced and organized public health system, São Paulo responded to the emergence of infectious diseases by creating research institutions and control programs. The late 19th century witnessed the first modern research institution in microbiology, in response to the bubonic plague. A changing economy led to constant changes in ecosystems. The late 20th century presents a wide array of both emerging and rapidly changing infectious diseases. The present situation calls for creative solutions. Ecosystem analysis and more agile epidemiological surveillance are seen as the best alternatives.

  20. Cultura e interculturalidade na educação popular de Paulo Freire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanilde Apoluceno de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains partial data from a survey conducted in 2010 and financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, in order to analyze the influence of Freirean popular education on intercultural education in the Brazilian context. It consists of a bibliographic search, which is based on the reading of the Paulo Freire's works and authors who deal with popular education, as well as issues of interface with the topic studied. In this article I bring to the study the Paulo Freire's popular education focusing on the concepts of culture and interculturality, underlining his contribution for the construction of intercultural education in Brazil.

  1. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  2. Tillandsia usneoides: a successful alternative for biomonitoring changes in air quality due to a new highway in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Alves, Edenise Segala; Victorio, Mariana Pereira; Moura, Barbara Baesso; Domingos, Marisa; Rodrigues, Caroline Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2016-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that absorbs water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere by scales covering its surface. We expanded the use of this species as a broader biomonitor based on chemical and structural markers to detect changes in air quality. The usefulness of such comprehensive approach was tested during the construction and opening of a highway (SP-21) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The biomonitoring study was performed from 2009 to 2012, thus comprising the period during construction and after the highway inauguration. Metal accumulation and structural alterations were assessed, in addition to microscopy analyses to understand the metal chelation in plant tissues and to assess the causes of alterations in the number and shape of scale cells. Altogether, our analyses support the use of this species as a wide biomonitor of air quality in urbanized areas.

  3. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    : Aleyrodidae infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia. Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species has been introduced in Brazil.

  4. [The contribution of living arrangements in the provision of care for elderly persons with functional impairments in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Lima, Fernão Dias de

    2005-01-01

    To describe the functional performance, need for assistance, and living arrangements of elderly persons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as part of a project called Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (the "SABE project"). In 2000, 2 143 individuals 60 years of age or older were interviewed, using the standardized SABE questionnaire. The sample was obtained in two stages, using census sectors with replacement and probability proportional to population. To have the desired number of respondents 75 or older, additional homes close to the selected census sectors were found, with weighting of the final results. The functional performance of the elderly persons was measured in terms of their ability to perform basic activities of daily living (walking across a room, eating, lying down on a bed and getting up from it, using the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and bathing) and to carry out instrumental activities of daily living (buying and preparing food, performing light and heavy household chores, using the telephone, taking medications, and handling money). Functional impairment was defined as the need for assistance in performing at least one of the basic or instrumental activities. There were 66 types of living arrangements (household composition) identified and grouped into seven categories, according to with whom an elderly person lived and whether the other residents of the household were relatives or not. Of the individuals interviewed, 19.2% presented a functional impairment in basic activities and 26.5% in instrumental activities. The impairments were more common among women and among persons 75 or older. The proportion of elderly persons with an impairment who received help with basic activities ranged from 25.6% (lying down on the bed and getting up) to 70.5% (eating). With instrumental activities, the proportion receiving assistance ranged from 79.7% (light domestic chores) to 97.8% (buying food). With respect to living

  5. Vitiviniculture in the State of São Paulo (Brazil: Governance and technological strategies meeting market challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdi Adriana Renata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The viticulture in the State of São Paulo is expressive in the Brazilian context, as it holds the second place in planted area and third in production. Considering that the main practice is table viticulture, a good proportion of the grapes processed at the most relevant wine producer counties, come from the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this work is to characterize the current context of the vitiviniculture sector in the State of São Paulo, based on the main strategies of governance and technological strategies of governmental and private agents. For that, the work is fundamented on the results of the projects financed by FAPESP: “Revitalization of the vitivinicultural productive chain in the State of São Paulo: competitiveness, governance and sustainability” (2006/51949-7 and “The Territorial Governance Modalities in the State of São Paulo: coordination, territories, public policies and development” (2011/50837-9, besides following the Chamber for the Grape and Wine Sector and interviews with leaders of the sector. Therefore, the work approaches the major improvements of the more favorable governance of the vitiviniculture sector: formation of cooperatives, technological innovation, policies, public and private investment focused on building the identity of the wine from the State of São Paulo.

  6. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  7. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  8. Piranha attacks in dammed streams used for human recreation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Ataques de piranhas em riachos represados usados para atividades de lazer, no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attacks by piranhas have become a common problem in dammed portions of rivers and streams in the State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. In two outbreaks recorded in two neighboring counties in the Northwest region of the state, 74 bathers were bitten. Only one bite per person was recorded during a short period of the year. The bites were related to parental care and/or defense of spawning territory, which confirms previous studies and demystify the attacks by these legendary fish, as they are perceived by most people. Placement of fine mesh nets and removal of aquatic vegetation stopped the attacks.Ataques por piranhas vêm se tornando um problema comum em trechos represados de rios e córregos no estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. Em dois surtos ocorridos em dois municípios vizinhos no noroeste do estado, 74 banhistas foram mordidos. Uma mordida por pessoa foi registrada, em curto período do ano. As mordidas estão relacionadas a cuidado parental e/ou defesa do território de desova, o que reforça estudos anteriores e desmistifica os ataques por este peixe lendário, da maneira como são popularmente percebidos. A colocação de redes de malha fina e a remoção de vegetação aquática cessaram os ataques.

  9. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  10. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  11. An ergonomic approach to reorganize parking inspection agents' work productivity, health and safety in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R M A; Lancman, S; Trudel, L; Jardim, T A; Sznelwar, L I; Santos, M C; Freeman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Traffic Engineering Company of the City of São Paulo (Brazil) observed a decrease in productivity, and an increase in sick leave, accidents and psychological distress among their parking inspection agents. To document this situation, qualitative research was undertaken to obtain an in-depth comprehension of work activity. Workers, managers and health and safety professionals contributed to the documentation of the problem and to the proposal of possible solutions. Ergonomic work analysis focusing on real work activity, as well as interviews with individual or groups of stakeholders, were conducted. This research revealed that political-economic factors gradually contributed to: 1) an increasing work load; 2) growing fatigue throughout the day, increasing the workers' vulnerability to incidents and accidents and their tendency to react inappropriately to violence experienced on the street; and 3) excessive individual responsibility to manage dangerous situations. Recommendations to ameliorate the situation are proposed. These suggestions are discussed in terms of feasibility given the impact of macro social factors upon micro work activity, and the associated potential expansion of the ergonomist's role.

  12. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.

    1999-07-01

    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  13. BOTHROPS JARARACUSSU: A NEW RECORD FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Silara Fatima Batista

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops jararacussu is a terrestrial snake, predominantly nocturnal, and mainly found in forested areas. Our objective was to provide the first record of B.jararacussu for the municipality of São Paulo, in the highland of Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Núcleo Curucutu. The register ocurred through monthly samplings in the Núcleo Curucutu, during one year. The specimen was found in a transitional area of Atlantic upper montane forest and Pinus sp. reforestation. It represents a new altitude record (>800m in a well-preserved area, reiterating the importance of this park for the maintenance of biodiversity in this municipality and evinces the region potential to house rare species in São Paulo highland.

  14. Retrospective seroepidemiological analysis of patients with suspicion of paracoccidioidomycosis in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    CM Kamikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM in the Brazilian state of São Paulo was evaluated in a retrospective study using secondary data from serological analyses, carried out by double immunodiffusion assay of patients with PCM suspicion, from January 1999 to May 2010. Sixty percent of 10,176 patients, from 239 cities, were serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis. The cities that showed the most serological reactivity among patients were São João da Boa Vista (85%, Piracicaba (75%, Sorocaba (73%, Campinas (72% and São Paulo (62%. São Paulo state has an area of 248,209.4 km²; the climate is tropical and sub-tropical with annual temperatures between 18 and 24ºC, high rainfall (900 to 1800 mm/year, rainy summers and mild winters. It also features large areas composed of acidic soils, and is one of the greatest contributors to Brazilian agricultural production and, separately, the largest producer of orange juice and, the ninth greatest producer of soy and sugar cane and the fourth largest coffee producer. We suggest that the climatic characteristics associated with soil type and development of primary activities can contribute to the endemic potential of PCM in São Paulo state.

  15. Adição de frações por estimativa a partir do referencial de metade e de inteiro

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    Maria Soraia Silva Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou o papel desempenhado pelos referenciais de inteiro e de metade na resolução de adição de frações por estimativa. Crianças (8-9 anos de classe média alunas do ensino fundamental resolveram as mesmas adições de frações em diferentes situações: por estimativa, usando o referencial de metade (Tarefa 1, por estimativa, usando o referencial de inteiro (Tarefa 2 e utilizando o simbolismo matemático apenas (Tarefa 3. Observou-se que embora não resolvessem as adições por meio do simbolismo matemático, as crianças faziam estimativas apropriadas com base no referencial de inteiro e de metade, tendo o mesmo bom desempenho com ambos os referenciais. Concluiu-se que pontos de referência desempenham papel importante no raciocínio lógico-matemático.

  16. Rice yield estimation based on weather conditions and on technological level of production systems in Brazil Estimativa da produtividade de arroz baseada em condições meteorológicas e no nível tecnológico dos sistemas de produção no Brasil

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    José Eduardo Boffino de Almeida Monteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate an estimation system for rice yield in Brazil, based on simple agrometeorological models and on the technological level of production systems. This estimation system incorporates the conceptual basis proposed by Doorenbos & Kassam for potential and attainable yields with empirical adjusts for maximum yield and crop sensitivity to water deficit, considering five categories of rice yield. Rice yield was estimated from 2000/2001 to 2007/2008, and compared to IBGE yield data. Regression analyses between model estimates and data from IBGE surveys resulted in significant coefficients of determination, with less dispersion in the South than in the North and Northeast regions of the country. Index of model efficiency (E1' ranged from 0.01 in the lower yield classes to 0.45 in higher ones, and mean absolute error ranged from 58 to 250 kg ha‑1, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um sistema de estimativa de produtividade da cultura do arroz no Brasil, com base em modelos agrometeorológicos simples e no nível tecnológico dos sistemas produtivos. Este sistema de estimativa incorpora as bases conceituais propostas por Doorenbos & Kassam para produtividades potenciais e alcançáveis com ajustes empíricos para produtividade máxima e sensibilidade da cultura à deficiência hídrica, considerando-se cinco classes de produtividade de arroz. A produtividade de arroz foi estimada de 2000/2001 a 2007/2008 e comparada aos dados do IBGE. Análises de regressão entre as estimativas do modelo e dados do IBGE resultaram em coeficientes de determinação significativos, com menor dispersão na região Sul do que nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do país. O índice de eficiência do modelo (E1' variou de 0,01, nas classes de menor produtividade, a 0,45 nas classes de maior produtividade, e o erro médio absoluto variou de 58 a 250 kg ha‑1, respectivamente.

  17. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sharovsky R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate, and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001, with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6ºC. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05 for each 10 µg/m³ increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  19. Impact of climate changes on the Santos Harbor, São Paulo State (Brazil

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    Paolo Alfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santos Harbor Area (SHA in Sao Paulo Coastline (Brazil is the most important marine cargo transfer terminal in the Southern Hemisphere. A long term relative tidal level variability assessment shows a consistent response to relative sea level rise. A wave data base Wave Watch III was compared with a long term wave data-base generated by the ERA40-ECMWF (2003, both local validated. The current bed level of SHA Outer Channel is -15.00 m (Chart Datum or, in abbreviation, CD, maintained by dredging. According to the cargo throughput forecast, in 2025, the Access Channel will have to be deepened to level of -17.00 m. The feasibility of that choice is discussed from a technical, economical and conceptual navigation point of view in that context. A data set found from a scale model of the whole area of Santos Bay, Estuary and nearby beaches, showed the impact of maritime climate changes upon the coastal area. In the previous researches developed by the authors, it was demonstrated that the wave climate, the tides and tidal currents affect harbor and coastal structures maintenance, beaches stability, tidal inlet, sediment transport, saline intrusion and wetlands. Considering the increasing of the sea hazards and the high values of the infrastructures in that coastline, it is necessary to mitigate the risks. Hence, based on the results obtained by the authors, are highlighted guidelines strategies suggested for Access Channels dimensions, wharves free-board, jetties dimensions, dredging rates, rigid and flexible littoral defenses and land protection against flooding (including wetlands.

  20. Viral type characterization and clinical aspects of canine parvovirus in naturally infected dogs in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Kyssia Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in late 70’s new virus types as CPV-2a and CPV-2b have been emerged and becoming prevalent in natural canine population and more recently, a third subtype was identified , CPV-2c. The main purpose of this study was to detect and characterize canine parvovirus currently present in Central-West region of São Paulo state, in Brazil. Fecal samples were collected of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs, clinically suspected of having CPV infection brought to the Infectious Diseases Service, Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ-UNESP. All samples (n=30 were screening for canine parvovirus through hemagglutination test and those resulting as positive (n=20 were submitted to PCR and the products were subsequently sequenced for subtype characterization. Results were tested for association with age, hematological values, viral hemagglutination titers in the feces, vaccination status and survival. Leukopenia was found in all animals, death occurred in 30% of unvaccinated dogs and in 42% of vaccinated ones. In a total of 20 positive sequenced samples, 18 were classified as CPV-2b, one as CPV-2c, and one as CPV-2a, being CPV2a and CPV2c detected in unvaccinated puppies. Compared to the reference samples amino acid change at position 426 in those circling virus was identified. The study results demonstrate the predominance of CPV-2b and the presence of CPV-2a and CPV-2c in naturally infected, vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs in in São Paulo region.

  1. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  2. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  3. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  4. Leishmania mexicana in Didelphis marsupialis aurita in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. A. Yoshida

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi identificada pela primeira vez a presença de L. mexicana em Didelphis marsupialis aurita, no Estado de São Paulo — Município de Conchas, através de caracterização bioquímica.

  5. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  6. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  7. Periodontal conditions in a 7-19-year-old student population in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, 1995

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    Dini Ercilia Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study was to assess the periodontal conditions and treatment needs in 7-19-year-old Brazilian school children and adolescents enrolled in the urban public schools in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, in 1995, to provide baseline data for monitoring changes in their periodontal status. A sample of 1,956 school children and adolescents aged 7 to 19 years was examined by two examiners previously calibrated using the CPITN (Community Pe riodontal Index of Treatment Needs. The results showed that bleeding was the most frequently observed periodontal condition in all age groups, with a mean of 3.0 sextants affected at age 15. The presence of calculus increased with age. In the 15-19-year age group, calculus and shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm were observed in 39.8 per cent and 1.6 per cent of the adolescents, respectively. In order to achieve the WHO oral health goal of no more than one sextant scoring GPITN 1 (bleeding or 2 (presence of dental calculus at age 15, priority should be focused on primary prevention programs to benefit the periodontal health of the majority.

  8. Climate change and future scenarios for palisade grass production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Santana Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze future scenarios for palisade grass yield subjected to climate change for the state of São Paulo, Brazil. An empirical crop model was used to estimate yields, according to growing degree-days adjusted by one drought attenuation factor. Climate data from 1963 to 2009 of 23 meteorological stations were used for current climate conditions. Downscaled outputs of two general circulation models were used to project future climate for the 2013-2040 and 2043-2070 periods, considering two contrasting scenarios of temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (high and low. Annual dry matter yield should be from 14 to 42% higher than the current one, depending on the evaluated scenario. Yield variation between seasons (seasonality and years is expected to increase. The increase of dry matter accumulation will be higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, and this result is more evident for soils with low-water storage capacity. The results varied significantly between regions (60%. Despite their higher climate potential, warmer regions will probably have a lower increase in future forage production.

  9. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  10. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  11. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil))

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author).

  12. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-01-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author)

  13. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C&D waste recycled aggregates from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, S C; Ulsen, C; John, V M; Kahn, H; Cincotto, M A

    2009-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C&D samples taken from the São Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C&D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C&D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C&D aggregates (0.15-25.4mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C&D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C&D powders (<0.15 mm). The clay content of the powders was also high, potentially resulting from soil intermixed with the C&D waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO(2), the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  14. Influence of psychiatric morbidity and sociodemographic determinants on use of service in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen; Tófoli, Luis Fernando Farah; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2008-01-01

    Recent population-based studies in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries brought evidence of the growing burden of mental illness in this region. The objective of this study is to examine determinants of health service utilization by individuals with psychiatric disorders in a defined area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were derived from São Paulo Catchment Area Study (SP-ECA), a cross-sectional household prevalence survey, based on a representative adult sample (N=1,464) living in two defined boroughs. The psychiatric diagnosis was assessed through the CIDI 1.1 interview, yielding ICD-10 diagnoses. The past-month use of health services--for general medical (GM) care and mental health (MH) care sectors--was investigated in their relationship with sociodemographic features, insurance coverage, GM conditions, and psychiatric morbidity. Nearly one-third (32.2%) of the total sample used health services in the last month: 29.0% attended GM care and 7.8% used MH care. Logistic regression models showed that being female, older than 60 years, having private insurance coverage, and presence of psychiatric morbidity increased the level GM care seeking in the total sample. For those with 12-month psychiatric disorders, the determinants for GM sector use were female gender, age 45-59 years old, and private insurance coverage, whereas separated, divorced, or widowed women had the highest odds (OR 9.9; 95% CI: 2.7-36.5) for using MH service. Low-income people were less likely to seek MH services. The major contribution of this article is to underscore the impact of MH on health care systems, in a LAC country where service use information is scarce. The main finding is that inequalities in the access to MH care occurred, with low-income people having less likelihood of receiving treatment for their mental disorder. Access to health service in this catchment area reflected the great degree of deregulation and lack of integration. Additional efforts should

  15. Prevalência de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em cavalos criados no Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of equine arteritis virus specific antibodies in horses of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C.S.H. Lara

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a prova de soroneutralização em microplacas para detecção de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em 659 amostras de soro sangüíneo de animais criados no Estado de São Paulo. A prevalência de anticorpos na população estudada foi igual a 18,2%. A raça Mangalarga foi a que apresentou maior taxa de prevalência, 33,3%. Animais na faixa etária de 6 a 24 meses de idade apresentaram a maior taxa de prevalência, 30,4%, e as fêmeas apresentaram prevalência de 22, 9%, mais alta do que nos machos.With the purpose of studying the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in horses raised in São Paulo State, Brazil, by the standard microtiter serum neutralization test, 659 serum samples were investigated. The prevalence of antibodies in the horse population was 18.2%, which was significantly higher in Mangalarga horses (33.3% than in any other breed (Thoroughbred, Arab, Quarter Horse, mixed breeds and others. The distribuition of horses by age showed that horses between 6 to 24 months of age (30.4% had a higher prevalence (30.4% rate than others. The female horses prevalence rate of 22.9% was significantly higher than in male horses.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A M G; Nogueira, C A; Saiki, M; Milian, F M; Domingos, M

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source.

  17. [Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Clóvis Arlindo de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household) random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR) expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7) reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years), not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  18. Validação de métodos de estimativa da gordura corporal em portadores do HIV/Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Alex Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar métodos de estimativas da gordura corporal (somatória de espessura de dobras cutâneas, circunferência da cintura (CC e razão cintura-quadril (RCQ em portadores do HIV/Aids, tendo como padrão ouro a absortometria por dupla emissão de raios-X (Dexa e a tomografia computadorizada de abdômen (TCA. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 15 portadores do HIV/Aids tratados em uma unidade de saúde coligada a um hospital público universitário, São Paulo. Foram medidas a gordura subcutânea total (GST mediante a somatória da espessura de sete dobras (bíceps, tríceps, subescapular, axilar média, supra-ilíaca, abdominal e panturrilha medial, a gordura subcutânea central (GSC (somatória da espessura de quatro dobras e a gordura subcutânea de membros (GSM (somatória da espessura de três dobras. A GST, GSC e GSM foram comparadas com as medidas de gordura obtidas pela Dexa. A CC, a RCQ e a GSC foram comparadas com as medidas de gordura obtidas pela TCA. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r e foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: A gordura medida pela Dexa foi correlacionada com GST, a GSC e GSM, mesmo após o ajuste pela idade (r>0,80 para todos. A gordura total de abdômen medida pela TCA foi correlacionada com a CC, RCQ e a GSC após o ajuste pela idade (r>0,80 para todos. CONCLUSÕES: Os métodos de estimativa da gordura corporal devem ser escolhidos de acordo com o tipo de gordura a ser avaliada e podem ser utilizados em pesquisas e nos serviços de saúde como alternativa à Dexa e TCA para portadores do HIV/Aids.

  19. A sazonalidade do tromboembolismo venoso no clima subtropical de São Paulo Seasonal variation of venous thromboembolism in the subtropical climate of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kleinfelder

    2009-03-01

    is known about such interference in our latitude. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there are seasonal variations in venous thromboembolism in a hospital-based population in São Paulo, Brazil, which has subtropical climate. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted to Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo with the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed from January 1996 to October 2003. Cases were grouped in trimesters (first trimester = January, February and March; second trimester = April, May and June; third trimester = July, August and September; fourth trimester = October, November and December. They were also grouped as to warm and cold months, according to mean temperature (warm months = October through April; cold months = May through September. RESULTS: A total of 955 cases of venous thromboembolism were found during the study period. The ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis, showing no significant difference in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism considering the four trimesters. Separate analysis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism incidence showed no differences either. Comparing warm and cold months, there was an increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis during warm months (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism is not clearly related to climatic variations. The influence of climate and temperature on blood coagulability is poorly understood and needs to be further studied.

  20. Hydrogeological impacts evaluation like a subsidy for the hydroelectric reservoir installation in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Filho, Jose Luiz; Bottura, Joao Alberto; Borin Junior, Tarcisio; Correa, Wilson Aparecido Garcia

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogeological studies developed in the influence areas of the big reservoirs at the Sao Paulo State, Sao Paulo/Mato Grosso do Sul and Sao Paulo/Parana, dedicated to the pre-filling situation evaluation, facilitated the preventive, corrective or alleviative actions adoption of the possible alterations in the adjacent free aquifers and, consequently, in the land use and occupation, as well as the planning of the rational usage of non-occupied areas in the reservoir margin. It presents the origin, the history and the objectives of the studies as well as the foreseen and confirmed hydrogeological impacts in monitored reservoirs

  1. Oral cancer calibration and diagnosis among professionals from the public health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José Carlos; da Silva, Renato Pereira; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem responsible for 13% of deaths worldwide in 2008 and screening programs can be useful to detect individuals more vulnerable to the disease, improving its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oral cancer calibration (in lux and in vivo methodologies) and diagnosis processes performed by dental surgeons (DSs) of the public health system in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-three oral cancer photographs were examined during in lux calibration, while 560 individuals were examined during in vivo calibration. Oral conditions were coded as "0 - sound tissues", "1 - buccal lesions without malignant potential" and "2 - buccal lesions with malignant potential". The final sample for oral cancer screening was composed of 336 individuals, age-range 40 years or older. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement were 0.67 and 0.45 for in lux and in vivo respectively. The accuracy of both methodologies was over 80%. Oral cancer screening revealed 48 healthy individuals, 273 oral lesions coded as "1" and 12 oral lesions coded as "2". In spite of the low reproducibility, the validity of the visual examination in oral cancer screening was satisfactory, showing its importance as part of preventive oral cancer programs and public health system campaigns.

  2. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, using 210Pb as geochronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaris, T P P; Bonotto, D M

    2011-01-01

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess (210)Pb model was successfully used to assess (210)Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The (210)Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm(2)yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the (222)Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) (210)Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Epidemiological Importance of Bats in the Transmission of Rabies to Dogs and Cats in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, Between 2005 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, J G; de Souza, D N; Oliveira, R N; Carnieli, P; Batista, H B C R; Pereira, P M C; Achkar, S M; Macedo, C I

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, rabies control in dogs and cats was pioneered by the state of São Paulo with the adoption of the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for prophylaxis and control, which led to a reduction in rabies cases from 1994 onwards. As a result of these measures, the rabies virus (RABV) genetic lineage associated with dogs has not been found in the state since 1998, and all the cases in domestic animals reported since then have been caused by bat-associated lineages of RABV. In the light of this, this study sought to investigate rabies cases in dogs and cats in the state of São Paulo between 2005 and 2014 and identify the associated transmission cycles by characterizing the RABV lineages responsible for these cases. Nine samples from dogs (n = 5) and from cats (n = 4) were collected between 2005 and 2014. The tenth animal, a rabid cat, was analysed by a different laboratory. The N gene nucleotide sequences obtained were analysed with the neighbor-joining algorithm and Kimura 2-parameter model using the MEGA 6 program. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic lineages identified in all the samples were those circulating in Brazilian bats. The findings of this study demonstrate that bats play an important role in the transmission of rabies to domestic animals in São Paulo state and that emphasis should be placed on the implementation of public policies to support surveillance of chiropterans for rabies. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  5. Tendência secular do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo (1976-1998 Secular trends in birth weight in S. Paulo city, Brazil (1976-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Resgatar a tendência secular da distribuição do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo, SP, bem como examinar suas possíveis causas, com base em dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares sobre condições de saúde na infância realizados em 1984/85 e em 1995/96, complementados por informações procedentes de levantamento de prontuários de maternidades e por informações do Sistema Estadual de Declarações de Nascidos Vivos. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos domiciliares estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população infantil de São Paulo com idade inferior a cinco anos (n=1.016 em 1984/85; n=1.280 em 1995/96. O levantamento de prontuários estudou uma amostra probabilística dos partos ocorridos nas maternidades da cidade no ano de 1976 (n=5.734. As declarações de nascidos vivos referem-se às coortes de crianças nascidas na cidade entre 1993 e 1998 (cerca de 200 mil crianças por ano. O estudo da distribuição social do peso ao nascer levou em conta a renda familiar per capita e a escolaridade materna. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da tendência secular do peso ao nascer empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade, análises multivariadas de regressão e procedimentos análogos aos utilizados para calcular riscos atribuíveis populacionais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição do peso ao nascer na cidade de São Paulo (média de 3.160 g com 8,9% de pesos OBJECTIVE: Data from two household surveys on infant and child health status undertaken in the mid-80s and mid-90s, complemented with previous data collected from maternity hospitals records and more recent data provided by the state system on birth registries, allowed to characterize and analyse secular trends in birth weight in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The household surveys included random samples of children under 5 years old (n=1,016 children in 1984-85 and n=1,280 children in 1995-96. A random sample of births that

  6. FEARS AND THE REALITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SÃO PAULO CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Teruo Kawamoto Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is known worldwide as one of the countries with large numbers of people with entrepreneurial profile. São Paulo, for its population concentration, has the highest number of people with this profile. The objective of this study is to quantify the opinion of the population of 39 cities in the state of Sao Paulo regarding their main fears and difficulties when considering opening their own businesses or after starting it. In order to reach the objective, we prepared a questionnaire based on exploratory research and in articles on the subject. As a result, we observed that funding, bureaucracy, overcoming the competition and the lack of preparation in conducting a business are considered the main difficult factors.

  7. Effects of flooding of the River Paraná on the temporal activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), at the border state of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Almério de Castro; Paula,Marcia Bicudo de; Natal,Delsio; Gotlieb,Sabina Léa Davidson; Mucci,Luis Filipe

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Study of the temporal activity of malaria vectors during the implantation of a hydroelectric power station on the River Paraná, intended to generate electrical energy. The river separates the States of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Brazil. The objective was to verify whether alterations occurred in the wealth and diversity indices of Anopheles, following two successive floods, extended to the temporal activity and nycthemeral rhythm followed over a five year period. METHO...

  8. Residential segregation and public policies: São Paulo in the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Gama Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at assessing the evolution of residential segregation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1990's, which saw a significant increase of socioeconomic segregation. In addition to interpreting the phenomenon, the article proposes a discussion on the reasons the residential segregation should be considered a fundamental issue for the formulation of social urban policies.

  9. Multidimensional assessment of sustainability extractivism of mangrove oyster Crassostrea spp. in the estuary of Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, I C; Fagundes, L; Henriques, M B

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out with groups of extractivists of mangrove oysters in the estuary of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, between the years 1999 and 2007 with the objective to evaluate and compare trends in the sustainability of this activity, in a multidimensional and integrated way, in social, economic, ecological, technological and ethical dimensions, using the method RAPFISH. The different groups had distinct trends related to sustainability and the social, technological and ethical dimensions had more influence on trends in sustainability than the ecological and economic dimensions. The group with the best performance in the sustainability assessment was Mandira, due to advances promoted by local social organization. On the other hand, the Porto Cubatão group showed the worst performance, once this is very recent group in the extractivism of oysters. The RAPFISH proved to be a useful tool for data assessment.

  10. Multidimensional assessment of sustainability extractivism of mangrove oyster Crassostrea spp. in the estuary of Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Machado

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was carried out with groups of extractivists of mangrove oysters in the estuary of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, between the years 1999 and 2007 with the objective to evaluate and compare trends in the sustainability of this activity, in a multidimensional and integrated way, in social, economic, ecological, technological and ethical dimensions, using the method RAPFISH. The different groups had distinct trends related to sustainability and the social, technological and ethical dimensions had more influence on trends in sustainability than the ecological and economic dimensions. The group with the best performance in the sustainability assessment was Mandira, due to advances promoted by local social organization. On the other hand, the Porto Cubatão group showed the worst performance, once this is very recent group in the extractivism of oysters. The RAPFISH proved to be a useful tool for data assessment.

  11. Utilization of agricultural raw material as an energy source - a case study on the alcohol industry in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabel, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian National Alcohol Programme (Proalcool) can well be considered the world's largest technical effort to replace petroleum with fuels from plant biomass: 11.5 billion liters of alcohol for fuel and industrial use were produced in the harvest of 1987/88. About 3.7 million of the 13 million Brazilian cars run on straight hydrous alcohol, the rest on gasohol (gasoline blend with up to 22% anhydrous alcohol). The following survey is focused on Sao Paulo State, which is responsible for 64% of Brazil's alcohol production (7.33 billion liters). In this state alcohol from sugarcane is produced in the largest (average 370.000 1/day) and technically most effective production units, at lowest production costs. This paper attempts to estimate via simulation the future productivity and cost of fuel alcohol, and evaluates its market position compared to energy of fossil origin. (author)

  12. First records of Melilotus albus Medik. (Fabaceae, Faboideae) in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Ramos Ferreira, João Paulo; Adriano Funez, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Melilotus albus Medik. is a cosmopolite and invasive species, native to the Old World, which in Brazil had its occurrence hitherto recorded only in the states of São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. This study extends its distribution to Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, due to the recen...

  13. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  14. Estudo epidemiológico de difteria na região da Grande São Paulo, 1969 Epidemiological investigation of diphtheria in the area of the Great São Paulo, Brazil, 1969

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    Marcilia de Araújo Medrado Faria

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento epidemiológico de Difteria, utilizando-se uma amostra de 29 pacientes (GRUPO POSITIVO, a qual correspondeu a 13,5% de crianças internadas no Hospital de Isolamento Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, SP., entre fevereiro a outubro de 1969. Através de pareamente por idade e sexo foram selecionados, entre os vizinhos dos pacientes, 24 crianças (GRUPO CONTROLE. A maioria dos pacientes provinha de bairros ou municípios operários da Grande São Paulo, vivendo sob precárias condições educacionais de saneamento e higiene. Através da história pregressa de vacinação, observou-se que nos 2 grupos é elevado o número de crianças não vacinadas com as três doses iniciais da tríplice. Porém, no Grupo Positivo, êste fato é observado em 100% das crianças. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação ao teste de Schick realizado entre os irmãos dos indivíduos dos dois grupos. Entretanto, as freqüências de Schick negativo foram 61,5% e 75,5%, respectivamente, para os Grupos Controle e Positivo. Êstes dados indicam que os programas de vacinação não têm conseguido resultados satisfatórios na imunização das populações de baixo nível econômico-social.In the period between February to October 1969, an investigation on some characteristics of patients with diphtheria and their families in the area of the Great S. Paulo (Brazil, was accomplished. A group of 29 patients, corresponding to 13.5% of the total number of patients with the disease, admitted to the Hospital Emílio Ribas during the period, was compared with a matched control group of 24 neighbourhood's children. Most of the patients came from the fringe area of the Great S. Paulo and their families and residential quarters were characterized by precarious social, educational and hygienic conditions. The number of children with previous history of complete vaccination (three primary doses of toxoid was strikingly low in both groups. As expected, none

  15. Assessment in the primary care of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: incipient actions in sexual and reproductive health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mariana Arantes; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella; Andrade, Marta Campagnoni; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Castanheira, Elen Rose Lodeiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess performance in sexual and reproductive health of primary health care services of the Brazilian Unified Health System, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS An evaluative framework was built for sexual and reproductive health with the categorization of 99 indicators in three domains: sexual and reproductive health promotion (25), sexually transmitted infections/AIDS prevention and care (43), and reproductive health care (31). This framework was applied to assess the services responses to the questionnaire of Quality Evaluation of Primary Health Care in the Municipalities of São Paulo State (QualiAB), in 2010. Percentages were calculated for positive responses to indicators and performance in the sexual and reproductive health dimension, according to domains, and their contribution to the overall score in sexual and reproductive health (Friedman), relative participation (Dunn), and correlation (Spearman) was verified. RESULTS Overall, 2,735 services participated in the study. They were located in 586 municipalities (distributed throughout the 17 regional health departments of São Paulo), of which 70.6% had fewer than 100,000 inhabitants. The overall average performance of these services for sexual and reproductive health is 56.8%. The actions are characterized by: prenatal with adequate beginning and exams, better organization for immediate rather than for late postnatal care, and selective reproductive planning for some contraceptives; prevention based on specific protection, limitations in the prevention of congenital syphilis, in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and in the screening of cervical and breast cancer; specific educational activities, with a restricted vulnerability approach, focus on sexuality over reproduction. The domain of reproductive health has greater participation in the overall score, followed by prevention/care and promotion. The three domains are correlated

  16. Availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary health facilities of the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil: results from the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to describe the availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary care facilities in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, from the results of the first cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care (PMAQ). The PMAQ uses a national cross-sectional multicenter design, with data from 4,249 health facilities distributed among 645 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. Of these facilities, 467 (11%) had herbal medicines and/or medicinal plants. Among the 645 municipalities, 104 (16.1%) had at least one health facility that provided these drugs. We observed that the availability of herbal medicines is greater in larger cities with better social and economic conditions. Furthermore, we found that use of industrialized herbal medicines prevailed over that of vegetal drugs or compounded herbal medicines.

  17. [Tuberculosis among city jail inmates in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco; Cardoso, Janaina Corrêa

    2004-03-01

    To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4,293 inmates who were held in the four prisons that comprise Campinas' municipal prison system. Data were obtained from the tuberculosis database belonging to the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine of the School of Medical Sciences at the State University of Campinas. The incidence of tuberculosis peaked in 1994 (1,397.62 cases per 100,000) and was lowest in 1999 (559.04 cases per 100,000). Most cases of tuberculosis occurred in inmates in the 25 to 34 year age group (62.6%). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was the disease most commonly associated with tuberculosis (49.9%), which was most often pulmonary in type (91.9%), with positive sputum smears in 70.3% of the inmates tested. Most inmates had not received treatment before (75.4%). The treatment dropout rate reached 49%, and a cure was achieved in only 20.8% of the cases notified over the study period. The incidence of tuberculosis observed in this study was moderate when compared to incidence rates found in other studies of prison inmates, but this could be due to underreporting. The frequency of treatment failure noted was low, since patients who were treated under supervision showed good adherence and were cured in the majority of cases. However, the high treatment dropout rate seen in the study is alarming because it could facilitate the spread of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community at large. Controlling tuberculosis among prison inmates should be part of routine interventions aimed at eliminating this disease from the community and at preventing resistance to antituberculosis therapy.

  18. Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the…

  19. Epidemiologia do aborto inseguro em uma população em situação de pobreza Favela Inajar de Souza, São Paulo Epidemiology of unsafe abortion in a poverty stricken environment Favela Inajar de Souza, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carmen L. B. Fusco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se, neste trabalho, comparar os Resultados de Pesquisa recente, realizada em São Paulo, Brasil, país em que o aborto é ilegal em quase todas as circunstâncias, com dados referentes a Cuba, país onde o aborto é legal e seguro, dispondo de registros confiáveis. Essa pesquisa foi sediada em uma comunidade da Zona Norte da cidade de São Paulo, Favela Inajar de Souza: um estudo transversal que teve por objetivo estimar a freqüência de Abortos Inseguros, bem como determinar as características sociodemográficas e a morbidade associadas a tal ocorrência, em uma população em situação de pobreza. Foram entrevistadas todas as mulheres entre 15 e 54 anos residentes na comunidade (Censo. Na análise dos dados foram empregados o teste exato de Fisher e o teste qui-quadrado para as variáveis categóricas, e a análise de variância (ANOVA para as variáveis numéricas. Em toda a análise adotou-se um nível de significância de 5%, com p This article compares the results of a survey carried out recently in a poverty stricken environment in São Paulo, Brazil - a country where abortion is illegal in most circumstances- to data from Cuba - where abortion is safe and legal, and data registries are reliable. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a community in the north side of the city, called Favela Inajar de Souza, with the purpose of estimating the frequency of unsafe, clandestine abortions and identifying socio-demographic characteristics and morbidity related to abortion in a poor population. All women aged 15 to 54 years that lived in this community (Census were interviewed for this survey. The Chi-Square Test and the Fisher exact test were used for categorical variables, and analysis of variance was used for numeric variables. Throughout the analysis, the statistical significance level of 5% (p<0.05 was adopted. A high number of unsafe abortions and a high rate of post-abortion complications were detected in the studied

  20. Occurrence of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in drinking and source water in the São Paulo State region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campestrini, Iolana; Jardim, Wilson F

    2017-01-15

    The occurrence of illicit drugs in natural waters (surface, source and drinking water) is of interest due to the poor sanitation coverage and the high consumption of drugs of abuse in Brazil. In addition, little is known about the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and human health. This work investigates the occurrence of cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), in surface and drinking water collected in rivers from a populated geographic area in Brazil. Surface water samples were collected in 22 locations from 16 different rivers and one dam from São Paulo State, whereas drinking water samples were collected in 5 locations. Samples were collected during the dry and wet season. Among the 34 surface water samples analyzed, BE was detected above the LOD in 94%, while COC in 85%. BE concentrations ranged from 10ngL -1 to 1019ngL -1 and COC concentrations from 6ngL -1 to 62ngL -1 . In the drinking water samples analyzed, BE and COC were found in 100% of the samples analyzed. For BE, concentrations were found in the range from 10ngL -1 to 652ngL -1 , and COC was quantified in concentrations between 6 and 22ngL -1 . These concentrations are one of the highest found in urban surface waters and may pose some risk to aquatic species. However, no human health risk was identified using the Hazard Quotient. BE is proposed as a reliable indicator of sewage contamination in both source and drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  2. Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 2. Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 = Host-parasite relationship of fishes from fish farm in Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 2. Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

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    Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 é uma das espécies nativas mais difundidas em pisciculturas no Brasil. Este estudo foi realizado em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo, durante os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004. Oitenta e três espécimes (92,2% estavamparasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Oito espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Anacanthorus penilabiatus, A. spatulathus e Mymarothecium sp. 2 foram classificadas como centrais, e Mymarothecium sp. 1, secundária. As demais foram consideradas satélites. Foi possível evidenciar que, apesar de as espécies serem altamente prevalentes, poucas delas foram abundantes. Anacanthorus penilabiatus apresentou correlação negativa e significativa entre a abundância de parasitismo e o comprimento-padrão do hospedeiro, na propriedade do município de Tarumã, Estado de São Paulo. Mymarothecium sp. 2 apresentou correlação positiva significativa na piscicultura de Cândido Mota, Estado de São Paulo. Neste estudo, os resultados do fator de condição relativo demonstram que somente na propriedade de Palmital, Estado de São Paulo, ocorreu correlaçãosignificativa entre o Kn e a abundância de parasitismo para algumas espécies. Anacanthorus penilabiatus e A. spatulathus apresentaram-se correlacionadas positivamente com a relação hepatossomática naspisciculturas dos municípios de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, Estado de São Paulo. Em se tratando da relação esplenossomática, somente a espécie de ergasilídeo apresentou-se negativa e significativamente correlacionada em Cândido Mota, Estado de São Paulo.Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 is one of the most abundant native species in fish farmings in Brazil. This study was conducted in three fish farmings in São Paulo State, during February and December, 2004. Eighty-three specimens (92.2% were parasitized by at least one parasite species. Eight species of ectoparasites were registered

  3. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

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    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  4. Estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa em populações vacinadas pelo BCG

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    Arantes Gilberto Ribeiro

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A revacinação de escolares com BCG, capaz de restaurar a alergia remanescente de vacinação realizada nos primeiros meses de vida, porém incapaz de modificar a alergia devida à infecção pelo M. tuberculosis, possibilitaria a quantificação da parcela dessa população infectada pelo bacilo de Koch. Foi desenvolvida pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar a aplicabilidade desses pressupostos na estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa em áreas sob elevada cobertura com BCG. A população de estudo foi constituída por escolares com 6 a 9 anos de idade freqüentando escolas municipais da zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, durante o primeiro semestre letivo de 1988. De 11.455 vacinados, apenas 7.470 foram submetidos ao teste tuberculínico, revacinados em seguida e retestados dez semanas depois. Destes, 3.314 tinham sido vacinados no primeiro trimestre de vida com meia dose e os demais 4.156 receberam dose plena acima dessa idade (75% no primeiro ano de vida, 20% no segundo e 5% no terceiro. A contagem dos infectados, pelo confronto dos resultados pré e pós vacinais em tabelas de correlação, foi realizada segundo os critérios do método original e modificação introduzida pelos autores, separadamente para os vacinados no primeiro trimestre de vida e após essa idade. O risco de infecção foi, respectivamente, 0,35% e 0,37% com o critério original e 0,45% e 0,49% com o modificado. O referencial médio disponível para a área estudada, estimado por outros métodos, foi 0,55%. As diferenças entre critérios e idades e destes com o referencial não foram significantes (P > 0,05. Os resultados sugerem que o método é aplicável para a estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa na idade escolar, em vacinados com BCG no primeiro ano de vida, com dose plena de vacina.

  5. Estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa em populações vacinadas pelo BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A revacinação de escolares com BCG, capaz de restaurar a alergia remanescente de vacinação realizada nos primeiros meses de vida, porém incapaz de modificar a alergia devida à infecção pelo M. tuberculosis, possibilitaria a quantificação da parcela dessa população infectada pelo bacilo de Koch. Foi desenvolvida pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar a aplicabilidade desses pressupostos na estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa em áreas sob elevada cobertura com BCG. A população de estudo foi constituída por escolares com 6 a 9 anos de idade freqüentando escolas municipais da zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, durante o primeiro semestre letivo de 1988. De 11.455 vacinados, apenas 7.470 foram submetidos ao teste tuberculínico, revacinados em seguida e retestados dez semanas depois. Destes, 3.314 tinham sido vacinados no primeiro trimestre de vida com meia dose e os demais 4.156 receberam dose plena acima dessa idade (75% no primeiro ano de vida, 20% no segundo e 5% no terceiro. A contagem dos infectados, pelo confronto dos resultados pré e pós vacinais em tabelas de correlação, foi realizada segundo os critérios do método original e modificação introduzida pelos autores, separadamente para os vacinados no primeiro trimestre de vida e após essa idade. O risco de infecção foi, respectivamente, 0,35% e 0,37% com o critério original e 0,45% e 0,49% com o modificado. O referencial médio disponível para a área estudada, estimado por outros métodos, foi 0,55%. As diferenças entre critérios e idades e destes com o referencial não foram significantes (P > 0,05. Os resultados sugerem que o método é aplicável para a estimativa do risco de infecção tuberculosa na idade escolar, em vacinados com BCG no primeiro ano de vida, com dose plena de vacina.

  6. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  7. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  8. Birth weight distribution of Hospital Geral do Grajaú population compared to São Paulo city population

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    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the growth curves from a population from a large city suburban hospital with those of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods: At Hospital Geral do Grajaú, that serves the high pregnancy risk population lacking health facilities, of low education level and smaller number of prenatal visits and great morbidity, a growth curve was built for the newborns, as the Hospital is provided with updated equipment and personnel. The curve was built from the database available containing information on live births during the 2003 to 2007 period and totaling 9,952 newborns, as their weight at birth and gestational age were taken as parameters. The distribution curves of 3%, 10%, 50% and 90% of the Grajaú were compared to those of the city of São Paulo curve. Results: The curves did not significantly differ from those of the São Paulo curve percentiles, as shown by the mean deviation (Z score calculation, notwithstanding the higher rates for prematurity, low weight, teenager mothers and lack of prenatal visits among the Grajaú population as compared to those of São Paulo. Conclusions: The São Paulo city curve showed to be appropriate for the suburban population despite the existing differences.

  9. Catalogue of Dacetini and Solenopsidini ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Antunes Ulysséa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant (Formicidae types of the Myrmicinae tribes Dacetini (Acanthognathus and Strumigenys and Solenopsidini (Allomeurs, Carebarella, Megalomyrmex, Monomorium, Oxyepoecus, Solenopsis, Carebara and Tropidomyrmex housed in the Formicidae collection of the Laboratório de Hymenoptera, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo/MZSP, Brazil. In total, the collection includes 141 types of these tribes, 41 of the Dacetini (nine holotypes and paratypes, 15 holotypes, 13 paratypes and four syntypes and 100 of the Solenopsidini (28 holotypes and paratypes, eight holotypes, 29 paratypes, 27 syntypes, four lectotypes and paralectotypes, one lectotype and three paralectotypes, of which 37 and 89 are of still recognized species, respectively. We record label information, condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes and type status, as well as provide indexes of the listed taxa.

  10. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Smectite in mangrove soils of the State of São Paulo, Brazil Esmectitas em solos de mangue no Estado de São Paulo

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    Valdomiro Severino de Souza-Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Smectitic clay minerals are frequently identified in mangrove soils, but there is little information about their types and origins. Besides their importance in the agronomical and geotechnical areas, smectites play an important environmental role by adsorbing nutrients, organic pollutants and heavy metals. Smectites found in mangrove soils can be of marine or continental detrital origin, or of neoformation origin. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the types of smectites present in the State of São Paulo mangrove soils (Brazil, and to relate them to their possible origins. Soil samples were taken in five mangroves along the State of Sao Paulo State coast line. The mineral composition of the clay fraction was identified by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD applying the Greene-Kelly test and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Highlighting the peaks in the 3,560 cm-1 band and in the region near 798 and 820 cm-1, there was a predominance of nontronite in the soil at the Sítio Grande River, Pai Matos Island, Caranguejo Island and Itapanhaú River mangroves, and possibly a lower concentration of ferric montmorillonite in the Escuro River mangrove. Since the continental sediments in these environments are very poor in smectite, the origin of these minerals in the mangrove soils studied is related to sedimentation left by past marine transgressions, to neoformation processes, or yet to a combination of both origins.Minerais de argila esmectíticos são freqüentemente identificados em solos de manguezais, mas são escassas as informações sobre os tipos encontrados e suas origens. A despeito da importância para a agronomia e geotecnia, as esmectitas desempenham também importante papel no âmbito ambiental, atuando na adsorção de nutrientes, poluentes orgânicos e metais pesados. Esmectitas em solos de manguezais podem ser de origem detrítica, marinha ou continental, e também de neoformação. Assim, este estudo objetivou

  13. Encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in São Paulo state, Brazil: evaluation of identity (fatty acid profile and compliance of fatty acids and Vitamin E contents with nutrition labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hirashima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in São Paulo state, Brazil, were evaluated for their identity (fatty acids profile and compliance with nutrition labeling (fatty acids and Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol contents. Twenty one samples [flaxseed oil (6, evening primrose (5, safflower (8, borage (1, and black currant (1] purchased from local markets or collected by the health surveillance agency were analyzed. The fatty acids and vitamin E contents were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and liquid chromatography with UV detector, respectively. Nine samples were adulterated (5 samples of safflower oil, 3 of flaxseed oil, and one of evening primrose. Among them, 3 flaxseed and 2 safflower oil samples were probably adulterated by the addition of soybean oil. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was found in two safflower oils samples although the sale of oils with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is not permitted by the National Health Surveillance Agency in Brazil (ANVISA. Only two samples presented all values in compliance with nutrition labeling (one safflower oil sample and one borage oil sample. The results show that a continuous monitoring of encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in Brazil is necessary including a greater number of samples and sanitary surveillance.

  14. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Furcalita e outros minerais uraniferos secundarios de Perus, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, D

    1992-12-31

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3{sigma}(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} {sup 4n-}]{sub n} layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca{sup 2+} ions and H{sub 2} O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4}.4 H{sub 2} O must be changed to Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2}.7 H{sub 2} O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author).

  15. Triphora uniflora A. C. Ferreira, Baptista & Pansarin (Orchidaceae: Triphoreae: uma nova espécie e primeiro registro do gênero Triphora Nutt. para o estado de São Paulo, Brasil Triphora uniflora A.C. Ferreira, Baptista & Pansarin (Orchidaceae: Triphoreae: a new species and the first record of the genus Triphora Nutt. for São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Triphora uniflora A. C. Ferreira, Baptista & Pansarin uma nova espécie de Orchidaceae, é descrita e ilustrada. Além disso, o gênero Triphora é referido pela primeira vez para o estado de São Paulo. As relações da nova espécie com outros táxons do gênero, bem como a necessidade de conservação do habitat natural dessa espécie de Triphora, são discutidas.Triphora uniflora A. C. Ferreira, Baptista & Pansarin, a new species of Orchidaceae, is described and illustrated. Furthermore, this is the first report of the genus Triphora for São Paulo state, Brazil. The relationship of this new species to other taxa of the genus and the need to preserve the natural habitat of this Triphora species are discussed.

  16. Recomendação de adubação e calagem para coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. no Estado de São Paulo - 1ª. aproximação Fertilizer and lime recommendation for coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the state of São Paulo, Brazil - 1st version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a 1ª. aproximação da recomendação de adubação e calagem para coqueiro no Estado de São Paulo, visando à produção de água. O cultivo de coqueiro nesta região é recente, carecendo de recomendações técnicas. Esta recomendação foi elaborada a partir de resultados experimentais obtidos em campo e de informações disponíveis na literatura. A recomendação de adubação segue os padrões do Boletim Técnico 100 do Instituto Agronômico (SP. Nas tabelas apresentadas, as doses de fertilizantes são obtidas com base nos teores de P e K disponíveis no solo, na idade das plantas durante a formação do coqueiral (até 5 anos e, posteriormente (fase de produção, na produtividade esperada.The objective of this publication was to introduce the 1st version of fertilizer and lime recommendation for coconut cropped in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This recommendation was based on field results from an experiment and on literature review. The recommendation followed the guidelines of the Technical Bulletin 100, issued by Instituto Agronômico (SP, Brazil. Fertilizer rates are assessed based on soil available nutrients (P and K, plant age for young palms (up to 5 year and expected yield for adult palms (>5 year.

  17. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  18. Evaluating the quality of outbreak reports on health care-associated infections in São Paulo, Brazil, during 2000-2010 using the ORION statement findings and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Amanda Luiz Pires; de Assis, Denise Brandão; Madalosso, Geraldine; Padoveze, Maria Clara

    2014-04-01

    The standard of outbreak reports must be improved to a level where they are robust enough to properly influence preventive strategies. We aimed to verify compliance with mandatory outbreak notification, describing epidemiologic characteristics and management, and evaluating the quality of outbreak reports on health care-associated infections in São Paulo State, Brazil. A systematic search was carried out on PubMed, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Embase, Outbreak Database, the Annals of Brazilian Conferences on Healthcare-Associated Infection Prevention and Infectious Diseases, and reports from the São Paulo State Hospital Infection Division. The quality of reports was evaluated according to the Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection (ORION) statement guidelines. A total of 87 outbreak reports were identified; however, only 15 outbreaks (17.2%) were reported to the São Paulo State Hospital Infection Division. Bloodstream infection and neonatal intensive care units were mostly implicated (23% and 19.5%, respectively). Quality, evaluated according to ORION statement recommendations, was generally poor. The ORION categories of Background, Objectives, Participants, Setting, Infection-Related Outcomes, and Generality were properly described in 32.2%, 74.7%, 2.3%, 46%, 2.3%, and 12.6% of reports, respectively. Interventions and Culture-Typing were described with details in 51.9% and 55.2% of outbreak reports, respectively. Our findings pointed out the need for strategies to improve competence in outbreak reports, and the ORION statement guidelines may help in this matter. Efforts to promote confidence and consequent compliance with mandatory notification of outbreak reports are essential. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing HPV vaccine delivery by healthcare professionals at public health posts in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Downing, Daniella; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Baker, Misha L; Dias De Oliveira Chiang, Ellen; Villa, Luisa L; Eluf Neto, Jose; Evans, Dabney P; Bednarczyk, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between Brazilian healthcare providers' characteristics and their knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding the HPV vaccine. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at five public health posts in São Paulo between July 28 and August 8, 2014. Healthcare professionals directly involved in patient care were asked to complete a written survey. Factors associated with routine verification of HPV vaccination status were evaluated using Poisson regression. Among 200 participants included, 74 (38.5%) reported never and 70 (36.5%) reported always asking about HPV immunization status. Doctors were significantly less likely to report always asking than were community health agents (5/39 [12.8%] vs 32/60 [53.3%]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.91]). Knowledge about the correct dosing schedule was associated with always rather than never verifying vaccination status (aPR 2.46 [95% CI 1.06-5.70]). Knowledge and attitude played secondary roles in influencing HPV vaccine verification. Community health agents were crucial for vaccine promotion; continued education and support of this group is essential for the sustained success of HPV immunization efforts in Brazil. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus, an invasive species in the Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ivan Moura Lapera

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58”S, 49°8′49”W, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1% adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae and 2,347 (44.9% Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae, both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2, with a Simpson index (D equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687 and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117 indices. Berger-Parker’s index of dominance (p = 0.551 indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43 and weight (r = 0.51 of hosts.

  1. Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in cats seen at the University of São Paulo Veterinary Hospital, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequency of gastrointestinal infections in 502 cats seen at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 2005 and 2014, was measured. The samples were analyzed using methods of flotation and sedimentation. The results were compared with those from studies published previously using fecal samples from the same hospital at different times. Associations between the frequency of positivity for each parasite and age, breed, sex, diarrhea and use of anthelmintic were investigated (chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. A partitioned chi-square test was used to compare different periods. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were the most common parasites, followed by Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma spp. Cryptosporidium spp. presented higher frequency in young cats and Sarcocystis spp. with the presence of diarrhea (p < 0.05. Results from this study with previous periods showed that the frequencies of Cryptosporidium spp., Cystoisospora spp. and T. cati were lower (p < 0.05 than those observed in previous periods. The frequencies of Giardia spp. and Ancylostoma spp. were similar to the results found in the preceding period and lower than the values found for the other periods (p < 0.05. The reasons for these changes should be investigated.

  2. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S. A.; Wiendl, F. M.; Almeida Dias, E. R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-07-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as "sashimi", a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in São Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophysiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species-the silver mullet ( Mugil curema), the grey mullet ( M. platanus) and the "paratipema" ( Mugil sp.) - subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the "parati-pema", without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet.

  3. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the state of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas

    2010-01-01

    The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.

  4. Spatial distribution of trace elements in topsoils adjacent to main avenues of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Natalia C.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration and distribution of Ba, Cu, Mo, Pb, S, Zn and Zr in soils collected along two main avenues (Pinheiros River Highway and Tiete River Highway) with high traffic density in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented, and their possible sources are discussed. These elements are strongly considered as contaminants originated from vehicular emissions. The analytical technique employed was XRF. The data set was evaluated by a t test for independent samples (group: avenues) at a 0.05 significance level. According to t test, the average contents obtained from Pinheiros River Highways are significantly different than the Tiete River, except for Mo. Multivariate statistic approaches (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factorial Analysis - FA) were adopted for data treatment. FA identified two main factors which accounted for about 86% of the total variance. The behavior of Ba, Cu, Pb, S and Zn were explained by the Factor 1. This indicates that the elements may have similar sources, probably related to gas emissions escaping from the vehicle fuel system. Factor 2 included Mo and Zr, suggesting their origin in the sample soils may be associated with the deterioration process of some device in the vehicular engine system or may be associated with the chemical composition of the urban soil analyzed. (author)

  5. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  6. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. 232 Th and 228 Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. 232 Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg -1 with mean value of 57 ± 39 Bq kg -1 , for 42 samples. 228 Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 74 ± 23 Bq kg -1 , for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of 232 Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  7. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  8. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a

  9. Use of doxycycline for leptospirosis after high-risk exposure in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R. GONSALEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial pilot study, double-blinded, randomized, and controlled with a placebo to assess the effectiveness of oral doxycycline (200 mg, single dose in preventing leptospirosis after high exposure to potentially contamined water was performed in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Confirmed cases were defined as those with leptospira IgM antibody and symptoms; asymptomatic cases were those presenting with IgM antibodies but no symptoms; and suspected cases were individuals with symptoms but no IgM antibody. Forty subjects were given doxycycline and 42 were given placebo. In the drug-treated group there were 2 confirmed cases, 11 asymptomatic cases, and 6 suspected cases. In the placebo group there were 5 confirmed, 6 symptomatic, and 5 suspected cases. Even though we found a protective association of doxycycline for confirmed leptospirosis cases (RR = 2.3 and seroconversion only (RR = 2.0, the association was not statistically significant because of the small number of individuals enrolled in this pilot study. We observed that the 22% of the volunteers already had IgM antibodies to leptospirosis at the first sampling. Finally, the attack rate to confirmed, asymptomatic, and suspected cases of Leptospirosis was 8.5%, 22%, and 13%, respectively, in this population.Um ensaio clínico, duplo-cego, ao acaso, e controlado com placebo para aferir a eficácia da doxiciclina (200 mg, dose única em prevenir leptospirose após exposição de alto risco com água potencialmente contaminada foi realizado em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Casos confirmados foram definidos como aqueles que apresentavam anticorpos IgM anti-Leptospira e sintomas; casos assintomáticos eram aqueles que apresentavam somente anticorpo IgM, casos suspeitos apresentavam sintomas, porém sem anticorpo IgM. 40 indivíduos tomaram doxaciclina e 42 tomaram placebo. No grupo tratado houve 2 casos confirmados, 11 assintomáticos e 6 casos suspeitos. No grupo placebo houve 5 casos confirmados, 6

  10. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  11. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1% (95% confidence interval 4.7, 7.6%) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6% (6.2, 11.1%) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  12. Ecological parameters of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-05-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health challenge in Brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of VL and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. However, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. In Sao Paulo state, there are two populations of Lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and Cembrene 1; both have been associated with different patterns of VL transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal distribution and natural infection of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a highly VL endemic area of Sao Paulo state to obtain information that may contribute to the surveillance of this zoonosis and to the planning of preventive and control measures. The study was carried out in Panorama municipality, Sao Paulo State. Captures were made during 24 months in seven domiciles. The relation between sand fly abundance and climatic variables, temperature and humidity, was analyzed and natural infection by Leishmania spp. in sand fly females was investigated by nested PCR. A total of 4120 sand flies, with predominance of Lu. longipalpis (97.2%) were captured. The highest averages of sand flies/night/trap occurred in the rainy season (November-March) and a positive, significant correlation between sand fly abundance and the temperature and humidity 20 days before the capture days was found. Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in three out of 250 pools of females analyzed, giving an estimated minimum infection rate of 1.2%. The identification of the climatic association between the high abundance of the vector in this highly endemic VL focus constitutes a fundamental point for evaluating future vector and dog control measures and this information increases the data of VL foci in Sao Paulo state that could contribute to the public health authorities

  13. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  14. New species and new records of Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae from Brazil

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    Julianna F. Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonecta itatiaia sp. nov. is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Like other Notonecta species that occurs in Brazil, N. itatiaia has no remarkable diagnostic features than the shape of genital capsule. Along with the first description of a Notonecta from Brazil in eighty years, N. disturbata is newly recorded from the states of Pará, Piauí and São Paulo, and N. pulchra from Pará. A key to species of Notonecta (males occurring in Brazil is given.

  15. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg -1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg -1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  16. Environmental parameters and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine waters of São Vicente, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    N. G. G. S. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by water consists a serious public health problem and enterobacteria are the main group of microorganisms responsible for outbreaks in humans. Such pathogenic bacteria proliferate in water polluted by domestic and industrial sewage and reach the population through seawater contact. The aim of the present work was to study environmental parameters as well as to identify Enterobacteriaceae species and their antimicrobial susceptibility in water samples collected from the estuarine area of São Vicente city (São Paulo State, Brazil. Strains were identified by using traditional biochemical tests described in literature and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. Out of 26 samples, Escherichia coli was the most frequent species (40.1%, followed by Citrobacter, Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The most effective drugs against the tested microorganisms were gentamycin, netilmicin, ciprofloxacin and cefepime. Since these bacteria are commonly found in seashore contaminated by sewage effluents, it can be concluded that estuarine waters of São Vicente are polluted and potentially capable of causing diseases and spreading pathogenic bacteria to human communities.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  19. Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Maria Izildinha; Domingos, Marisa; Gomes, Heliana de A; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Assuncao, Joao V. de

    2007-01-01

    Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002-August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice a month in the morning, in order to estimate the frequency of mutations in stamen hairs. Results were compared to air pollution and climatic data measured next to the exposure site. KU-20 showed stamen-hair mutations greater than BNL 4430. Greatest mutation rates in KU-20 were observed in condition of high monthly mean of NO 2 and average peak concentrations of NO during the day, indicating that mutagenic effects originated from vehicular pollution. Clone KU-20 revealed to be more appropriate for biomonitoring purposes at the Park. - Clone KU-20 showed to be more appropriate than clone BNL 4430 to indicate vehicular pollution mutagenic risks in Trad-SHM assay

  20. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

  1. Comparação entre diferentes fontes de dados sobre homicídios no município de São Paulo Comparing distinct homicides database for Sao Paulo city, Brazil

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    Samuel Kilsztajn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo compara dados de homicídios de residentes no município de São Paulo entre 1996 e 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim, Fundação Seade e Ministério da Saúde; e de homicídios por distrito de residência da vítima no município de São Paulo em 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim e pela Fundação Seade. Foram considerados homicídios os óbitos por agressão; intervenção legal e eventos de intenção não determinada causados por disparo de arma de fogo e por contato com objeto cortante/penetrante ou contundente. A diferença entre os números da Fundação Seade e do Ministério da Saúde é desprezível, mas a diferença entre os números do Pro-aim e da Fundação Seade para homicídios de residentes ocorridos na capital em 2000 é expressiva para muitos distritos do município de São Paulo. Além disso, o Pro-aim não registra óbitos de residentes na capital ocorridos em outro município. As análises da taxa de homicídio por distrito do município de São Paulo que utilizam dados do Pro-aim podem levar a resultados muito diferentes das que utilizam dados da Fundação Seade.The article compares city (Pro-aim, state (Fundação Seade and federal (Ministério da Saúde data for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city between 1996 and 2000; and Pro-aim and Fundação Seade data for homicides per district in Sao Paulo municipality, in 2000. As homicides were considered deaths caused by assault, legal intervention and events of undetermined intent caused by firearm discharge and contact with sharp or blunt objects. The difference between Fundação Seade and Ministério da Saúde data is worthless. But the difference between Pro-aim and Fundação Seade numbers for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city in 2000 has statistical significance for a large number of districts. Furthermore, Pro-aim does not record deaths of residents in Sao Paulo city occurred in other cities. Analysis of homicide rates per district in Sao Paulo city that

  2. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  3. Crescimento físico em estatura de escolares de ascendência japonesa na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Physical growth in stature of school children of Japanese ancestry in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilberto Kac

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um inquérito transversal que visou caracterizar o crescimento físico em estatura de uma amostra de escolares de ascendência japonesa (três ou quatro avós nascidos no Japão e de alto status sócio-econômico residentes na cidade de São Paulo. A amostra inclui 124 indivíduos entre 7 e 10 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os resultados demonstram que as crianças de ascendência japonesa apresentam médias de estatura inferiores às medianas das curvas da referência NCHS ("National Center for Health Statistics", E.U.A.. As médias são similares às medianas de uma amostra de crianças japonesas e inferiores àquelas de maior renda da PNSN ("Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição", Brasil. Os achados não apóiam a hipótese de uniformidade do potencial de crescimento físico em estatura em crianças, lançando dúvidas acerca da utilização de uma única referência de crescimento na avaliação antropométrica do estado nutricional.This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey describing the growth in stature of a sample of school children of Japanese ancestry (three or four grandparents born in Japan and of high socio-economic status living in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprises 124 individuals 7-10 years of age, of both sexes. The results show that the children present mean values of stature below the median values of the NCHS curves ("National Center for Health Statistics", U.S.A.. The values are similar to the medians of a sample of Japanese children and below those of well-to-do Brazilian children of non-Japanese ancestry studied by the PNSN ("Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição", Brazil. The findings do not support the hypothesis of uniformity of growth potential in stature, casting doubts on the utilization of a single anthropometric reference in the assessment of nutritional status.

  4. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  5. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  6. Molecular characterization of van genes found in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil

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    H.H. Caiaffa Filho

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant enterococci strains (VRE is an important pathogen related with hospital infections in many countries, presenting limited or no therapeutic options for treating serious infections. VRE has presented some different genotypes been VanA and VanB considered to be the most important in hospital environments. In the present study the authors investigated the prevalence of van genes (A, B an C among clinical isolates of VRE in a five month period at a large tertiary hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results showed the presence of vanA, but not vanB or vanC in all 43 strains of E. faecalis and five E. faecium studied. The results bring an important issue, due to the possibility of resistance spread of vanA genes, to be monitored and solved by the hospital infection control team and the microbiology and molecular biology laboratories at tertiary Hospitals.

  7. [Laws and policies on illicit drugs in Brazil and the perspective of drug users' family members and acquaintances: a study in the City of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    Brazilian drugs legislation has evolved from a prohibitionist system to a less repressive one in terms of drug users. The objective of this study was to identify the perception of relatives and acquaintances of drug users living in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, about the country's laws and policies on drugs. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 100 drug users' relatives or acquaintances, selected at a public health service. Respondents' relationships with the drug user were as follows: 31% friend, 23% sibling, 15% child and 7% spouse. Most users (78%) were men, with an average age of 26 years. Results confirm that national laws and policies have a direct effect on individuals' attitude and behaviors. There is a lack of trust in the police and a general perception that, despite recent chances that favor user rehabilitation, the laws on drugs do not respect users' human rights.

  8. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Caio; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Vitti, Andre Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15 N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  9. The Monitoring Of Thunderstorm In Sao Paulo's Urban Areas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, R. B.; Pereira, A.; Beneti, C.; Jusevicius, M.; Kawano, M.; Bianchi, R.; Bellodi, M.

    2005-12-01

    A monitoring of thunderstorm in urban areas occurred in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo from November 2004 to March 2005. Eight thunderstorms were monitored by local electric field, video camera, Brazilian Lightning Location Network (RINDAT) and weather radar. The most of these thunderstorms were associated with the local convection and cold front. Some of these events presented floods in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) being associated with local sea breeze circulation and the heat island effect. The convectives cells exceeding 100km x 100 km of area, actives between 2 and 3 hours. The local electric field identified the electrification stage of thunderstorms, high transients of lightning and total lightning rate of above 10 flashes per minute. About 29.5 thousands of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were analyzed . From the total set of CG flashes analyzed, about 94 percent were negative strokes and presented average peak current of above 25kA, common for this region. Some lightning images were obtained by video camera and compared with transients of lightning and lightning detection network data. The most of these transients of lightning presented continuing current duration between 100ms and 200ms. A CG lightning occurred on 25th February was visually observed 3.5km from FEI campus, Sao Bernardo do Campo. This lightning presented negative polarity and estimed peak current of above 30kA. A spider was visually observed over FEI Campus at 17th March. No transients of lightning and recording by lightning location network were found.

  10. [The framing of transgenics in São Paulo newspapers: the potential contribution of information to political participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Danilo; Berbel, Danilo Brancalhão

    2010-06-01

    In 2007, Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) conducted an online public consultation to obtain input on its Proposed Technical Regulations for assessing the safety of transgenic food products. The article describes the context and results of a research study that identified the main ways in which the newspapers Folha de S.Paulo and O Estado de S.Paulo framed and addressed topics related to the subject matter of this consultation. Our goal was to evaluate the gamut of information available that could contribute to this form of political participation. The journalistic coverage in question was generally fragmented; 70% of articles offered incomplete views on the topics in question.

  11. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  12. Produtos de pesca e contaminantes químicos na água da Represa Billings, São Paulo (Brasil Fishing yield and chemical contamination of the water of the Billings Reservoir, S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Aristides Almeida Rocha

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise dos surfactantes determinados pelo método colorimétrico com azul de metileno, e dos metais pesados determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, como o cádmio, chumbo, cobre, cromo, mercúrio e zinco, foi caracterizada a poluição na Represa Billings, SP (Brasil, enfatizando a qualidade sanitária da água e a contaminação dos peixes. Com base nos dados coligidos, é mostrado o perigo potencial que representa o consumo do pescado proveniente da Billings, se bem que a pesca comercial esteja hoje praticamente restrita às cabeceiras dos braços dos rios Capivari e Pequeno, na junção próxima a Ribeirão Pires e nos braços dos rios Curucutu e Taquacetuba. Os dados da CEAGESP - Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo - indicam que, no ano de 1980, apenas 64 toneladas de peixe provieram de São Bernardo do Campo.Data on detergents and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, mercury and zinc are used in order to estimate pollution and sanitary quality of water as well as contamination of fish from Billings Reservoir, SP, Brazil. The results of this work are a warning with regard to the potential risk of human consumption of fish from that Reservoir, even though commercial fishing is now practically restricted to the riverheads of the affluents of the rivers Capivari and Pequeno near Ribeirão Pires and along the rivers Curucutu and Taquacetuba. Data from CEAGESP (Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo show that in 1980 only 64 tons of fish came from S. Bernardo do Campo.

  13. Largest case series of Latin American eyelid tumors over 13-Years from a single center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carolinne Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Malignant lesions of the eyelid are the most common eye cancers. Although rarely lethal, late diagnosis can lead to serious visual morbidity. Definitive diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is pathological. Indications and types of eyelid lesions in a single high-volume ophthalmic reference center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Methods: The surgical pathological reports of patients who underwent eye removal procedures between January 2000 and December 2012 were retrieved from the electronic database of the Ophthalmology Department and retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding the final anatomopathological diagnosis, sex, and age were analyzed via the χ2 test with Yates' correction. Results: Of the 1,113 eyelid tumors resected over the 13-year study period, 324 (29% lesions were malignant. The most prevalent lesions were basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas. The median ages of patients (females, n=165, 51%; males, n=159, 49% with a diagnosis of basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas were 65, 75, and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: This is the largest retrospective cohort analysis of eyelid tumors in a Latin American population. These findings are in agreement with those from large centers in other countries and regions.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Monteiro (Camila); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); De Azevedo Barros, M.B. (Marilisa Berti); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this

  15. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

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    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  16. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

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    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas.Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L. were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface, number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eight half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  17. Blood lead and cadmium levels in preschool children and associated risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Silva, Júlia Prestes da Rocha; Silva, Agnes Soares da; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2018-05-18

    In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and potential risk factors. The geometric mean for BLLs was 2.16 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.10-2.22 μg/dL), and the 97.5th percentile was 13.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 10.0-17.3 μg/dL). For cadmium exposure, the geometric mean for BCLs was 0.48 μg/L (95% CI: 0.47-0.50 μg/L), and the 95th percentile was 2.57 μg/L (95% CI: 2.26-2.75 μg/L). The DCCs' geographic region was associated with high BLLs and BCLs, indicating hot spots for lead and cadmium exposures. In addition, it was found that the higher the vehicles flow, the higher were the BLLs in children. Red lead in household gates was also an important risk factor for lead exposure. Comparing these results with the findings of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals by CDC-2013, it was found that in Brazilian preschool children the BLLs are almost three times higher (97.5th percentile) and the BCLs are almost twelve times higher (95th percentile) than those in U.S. children. This information is essential to formulate public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  19. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  20. Use of passive diffusion sampling method for defining NO2 concentrations gradient in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliefste Kees

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future e